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Sample records for oceanic organosulfur compounds

  1. Effect of processing and storage time on the contents of organosulfur compounds in pickled blanched garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Victor Manuel; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; de Castro, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2012-04-04

    The influence of processing, with and without fermentation, on the contents of organosulfur compounds, namely, γ-glutamyl peptides, S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs), and S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), in pickled blanched garlic was evaluated. For each processing type, the effect of the preservation method and storage time was also analyzed. Blanching in hot water (90 °C for 5 min) hardly affected the individual organosulfur compound content. The fermentation and packing steps negatively affected the levels of all compounds except for SAC. The content of this compound increased during storage at room temperature whereas γ-glutamyl peptides and ACSOs were degraded to various extents. The pasteurization treatment itself had no significant effect on the concentrations of organosulfur compounds. Use of the corresponding fermentation brine in the case of the fermented product in conjunction with refrigerated storage was found to be the best method to preserve the levels of organosulfur compounds in pickled garlic stored for up to one year.

  2. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mechanism of Corrosion by Naphthenic Acids and Organosulfur Compounds at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng

    Due to the law of supply and demand, the last decade has witnessed a skyrocketing in the price of light sweet crude oil. Therefore, refineries are increasingly interested in "opportunity crudes", characterized by their discounted price and relative ease of procurement. However, the attractive economics of opportunity crudes come with the disadvantage of high acid/organosulfur compound content, which could lead to corrosion and even failure of facilities in refineries. However, it is generally accepted that organosulfur compounds may form protective iron sulfide layers on the metal surface and decrease the corrosion rate. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the corrosive property of crudes at high temperatures, the mechanism of corrosion by acids (naphthenic acids) in the presence of organosulfur compounds, and methods to mitigate its corrosive effect. In 2004, an industrial project was initiated at the Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology to investigate the corrosion by naphthenic acids and organosulfur compounds. In this project, for each experiment there were two experimentation phases: pretreatment and challenge. In the first pretreatment phase, a stirred autoclave was filled with a real crude oil fraction or model oil of different acidity and organosulfur compound concentration. Then, the stirred autoclave was heated to high temperatures to examine the corrosivity of the oil to different materials (specimens made from CS and 5% Cr containing steel were used). During the pretreatment, corrosion product layers were formed on the metal surface. In the second challenge phase, the steel specimens pretreated in the first phase were inserted into a rotating cylinder autoclave, called High Velocity Rig (HVR). The HVR was fed with a high-temperature oil solution of naphthenic acids to attack the iron sulfide layers. Based on the difference of specimen weight loss between the two steps, the net corrosion rate could be calculated and the protectiveness

  4. Characterization of the apoptotic response of human leukemia cells to organosulfur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W Wei-Lynn; Langler, Richard F; Penn, Linda Z; Boutros, Paul C; Wasylishen, Amanda R; Guckert, Kristal D; O'Brien, Erin M; Griffiths, Rebecca; Martirosyan, Anna R; Bros, Christina; Jurisica, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Novel therapeutic agents that selectively induce tumor cell death are urgently needed in the clinical management of cancers. Such agents would constitute effective adjuvant approaches to traditional chemotherapy regimens. Organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as diallyl disulfide, have demonstrated anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. We have previously shown that synthesized relatives of dysoxysulfone, a natural OSC derived from the Fijian medicinal plant, Dysoxylum richi, possess tumor-specific antiproliferative effects and are thus promising lead candidates. Because our structure-activity analyses showed that regions flanking the disulfide bond mediated specificity, we synthesized 18 novel OSCs by structural modification of the most promising dysoxysulfone derivatives. These compounds were tested for anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity in both normal and leukemic cells. Six OSCs exhibited tumor-specific killing, having no effect on normal bone marrow, and are thus candidates for future toxicity studies. We then employed mRNA expression profiling to characterize the mechanisms by which different OSCs induce apoptosis. Using Gene Ontology analysis we show that each OSC altered a unique set of pathways, and that these differences could be partially rationalized from a transcription factor binding site analysis. For example, five compounds altered genes with a large enrichment of p53 binding sites in their promoter regions (p < 0.0001). Taken together, these data establish OSCs derivatized from dysoxysulfone as a novel group of compounds for development as anti-cancer agents

  5. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of compositional changes for organosulfur compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Park, So-Lim; Lee, Sanghee; Lee, So-Young; Ko, Sungho; Yoo, Miyoung

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of 11 organosulfur compounds and analysis of their compositional changes in garlic during fermentation using 3 different microbe strains. The calibration curves of all 11 analytes exhibited good linearity (R⩾0.995), and the mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were greater than 81.63% with relative standard deviations of less than 12.79%. Investigation of the compositional changes revealed that the γ-glutamyl peptides content in fermented blanched garlic reduced, whereas the content of the compounds in biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteines from γ-glutamyl peptides increased significantly. Our results also indicated that starter cultures can be used selectively in the production of fermented garlic to increase the amounts of the desired organosulfur compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Manganese-Loaded Activated Carbon for the Removal of Organosulfur Compounds from High-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghouti, M.A.; Al-Degs, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    The adsorptive capacity of activated carbon (AC) is significantly enhanced toward weakly interacting organosulfur compounds (OSC) from sulfur-rich diesel fuel. Sulfur compounds are selectively removed from diesel after surface modification by manganese dioxide (MnO2). A selective surface for OSC removal was created by loading MnO2 on the surface; π-complexation between the partially filled d-orbitals of Mn4+ and the S atom is the controlling mechanism for OSC removal. Principal component anal...

  7. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; Shammary, Sultanah Al; El-Sayed, Wael S; Obuekwe, Christian; El Nayal, Ashraf M; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Al-Humam, Abdulmohsen

    2015-09-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO 4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO 4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO 4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT), respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT) culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO 4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO 4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  8. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ismail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT, respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  9. Stereoselective synthesis of organosulfur compounds incorporating N-aromatic heterocyclic motifs and quaternary carbon centers via a sulfa-Michael triggered tandem reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyou; Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An; Liao, Weiwei

    2015-06-14

    A novel sulfa-Michael addition (SMA)-triggered tandem reaction was developed by combining a SMA reaction with a simultaneous rearomatization process utilizing a less reactive carbonyl group as an intramolecular electrophile partner, which provided a unique synthetic route to access various organosulfur compounds incorporating an N-aromatic heterocyclic motif and quaternary carbon centers.

  10. Evaluating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Capacity of Raw and Steamed Garlic as Well as Five Organosulfur Compounds

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    Su-Chen Ho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Garlic Organosulfur Compounds Reduce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here, we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects on the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development. PMID:28644404

  12. Garlic Organosulfur Compounds Reduce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2017-06-23

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here, we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects on the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development.

  13. Effects of garlic oil and two of its major organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, on intestinal damage in rats injected with endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.-H.; Jen, L.-N.; Su, H.-Y.; Lii, C.-K.; Sheen, L.-Y.; Liu, C.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Garlic and its active components are known to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Wistar rats received by gavage 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight garlic oil (GO), 0.5 mmol/kg body weight diallyl disulfide or diallyl trisulfide, or the vehicle (corn oil; 2 ml/kg body weight) every other day for 2 weeks before being injected with endotoxin (i.p., 5 mg/kg body weight). Control rats were administered with corn oil and were injected with sterile saline. Samples for the measurement of proinflammatory cytokines were collected 3 h after injection, and all other samples were collected 18 h after injection. The low dose of GO suppressed endotoxin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, ulceration, and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The high dose of GO significantly lowered the peripheral level of nitrate/nitrite and endotoxin-induced iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05) but worsened intestinal mucosal damage accompanied by elevated peripheral proinflammatory cytokines. Diallyl trisulfide but not diallyl disulfide showed similar toxic effect as that of high-dose GO. These results suggest the preventive effect and possible toxicity of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation and intestinal damage

  14. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgers, Walter A.; Lòpez, Jordi F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reiss, Christine; Maxwell, James R.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    1997-11-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron monosulfides, iron hydroxides) results in a depletion of reactive sulfur which is accompanied by a virtual absence of organo-sulfur compounds, both in low (LMW) and high molecular-weight (HMW) fractions. Small amounts of phytanyl and highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes in the extract demonstrate that these molecules exhibit a higher reactivity towards reduced sulfur species as compared to detrital iron. Euxinic sediments from Lake Cisó are characterised by an excess of reduced sulfur species which can rapidly trap reactive iron. High concentrations of H 2S results in the formation of organo-sulfur compounds which were encountered in both LMW and HMW fractions. The major part of the organic sulfur is bound to the carbohydrate portion of woody tissues, whose presence was revealed by a specific alkylthiophene distribution in the flash pyrolysate and by Li/EtNH 2 desulfurisation of the kerogen which resulted in the solubilisation of the sulfur-enriched hemicellulose fraction. Relatively high amounts of sulfurised C 25 HBI compounds in the sediment extract of Lake Cisó reflect the incorporation of sulfur into algal derived organic matter upon early diagenesis. The combined approach of the speciation of iron and sulfur species and the molecular analysis of sedimentary fractions demonstrates that abiotic sulfur binding to organic matter occurs at the earliest stages of diagenesis under specific depositional conditions (anoxic, stratified water column) in which an excess of reduced sulfur species relative to the amount of reactive iron is a controlling factor.

  15. Characterization of aromatic organosulfur model compounds relevant to fossil fuels by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with CS2 and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Jin, Chunfen; Riedeman, James S; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2016-04-15

    The chemistry of desulfurization involved in processing crude oil is greatly dependent on the forms of sulfur in the oil. Sulfur exists in different chemical bonding environments in fossil fuels, including those in thiophenes and benzothiophenes, thiols, sulfides, and disulfides. In this study, the fragmentation behavior of the molecular ions of 17 aromatic organosulfur compounds with various functionalities was systematically investigated by using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometric experiments were carried out using a linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. (+)APCI/CS2 was used to generate stable dominant molecular ions for all the compounds studied except for three sulfides that also showed abundant fragment ions. The LQIT coupled with an orbitrap mass spectrometer was used for elemental composition analysis, which facilitated the identification of the neutral molecules lost during fragmentation. The characteristic fragment ions generated in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments provide clues for the chemical bonding environment of sulfur atoms in the examined compounds. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the molecular ions can lose the sulfur atom in a variety of ways, including as S (32 Da), HS(•) (33 Da), H2 S (34 Da), CS (44 Da), (•) CHS (45 Da) and CH2 S (46 Da). These neutral fragments are not only indicative of the presence of sulfur, but also of the type of sulfur present in the compound. Generally, losses of HS(•) and H2 S were found to be associated with compounds containing saturated sulfur functionalities, while losses of S, CS and (•) CHS were more common for heteroaromatic sulfur compounds. High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry with APCI/CS2 ionization is a viable approach to determining the types of organosulfur compounds. It can potentially be applied to analysis of complex mixtures, which is beneficial to improving the

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound from garlic, by Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yu; Lo, Huei-Fen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lin, Min-Guan; Lin, Long-Liu; Chi, Meng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the practical application of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (BlGGT), we describe a straightforward enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (GSAC), a naturally occurring organosulfur compound found in garlic, based on a transpeptidation reaction involving glutamine as the γ-glutamyl donor and S-allyl-L-cysteine as the acceptor. With the help of thin layer chromatography technique and computer-assisted image analysis, we performed the quantitative determination of GSAC. The optimum conditions for a biocatalyzed synthesis of GSAC were 200 mM glutamine, 200 mM S-allyl-L-cysteine, 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), and BlGGT at a final concentration of 1.0 U/mL. After a 15-h incubation of the reaction mixture at 60 °C, the GSAC yield for the free and immobilized enzymes was 19.3% and 18.3%, respectively. The enzymatic synthesis of GSAC was repeated under optimal conditions at 1-mmol preparative level. The reaction products together with the commercially available GSAC were further subjected to an ESI-MS/MS analysis. A significant signal with m/z of 291.1 and the protonated fragments at m/z of 73.0, 130.1, 145.0, and 162.1 were observed in the positive ESI-MS/MS spectrum, which is consistent with those of the standard compound. These results confirm the successful synthesis of GSAC from glutamine and S-allyl-L-cysteine by BlGGT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of biofilm formation, quorum sensing and infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by natural products-inspired organosulfur compounds.

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    Nathaniel C Cady

    Full Text Available Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO (1 mM. Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control, and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed.

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-coding RNA/microRNA-modulatory dietary factors and natural products for improved cancer therapy and prevention: Alkaloids, organosulfur compounds, aliphatic carboxylic acids and water-soluble vitamins

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    Bernhard Biersack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding small RNA molecules, the microRNAs (miRNAs, contribute decisively to the epigenetic regulation processes in cancer cells. Problematic pathogenic properties of cancer cells and the response of cancers towards anticancer drugs are highly influenced by miRNAs. Both increased drug activity and formation of tumor resistance are regulated by miRNAs. Further to this, the survival and proliferation of cancer cells and the formation of metastases is based on the modulated expression of certain miRNAs. In particular, drug-resistant cancer stem-like cells (CSCs depend on the presence and absence of specific miRNAs. Fortunately, several small molecule natural compounds were discovered that target miRNAs involved in the modulation of tumor aggressiveness and drug resistance. This review gives an overview of the effects of a selection of naturally occurring small molecules (alkaloids, organosulfur compounds, aliphatic carboxylic acids and water-soluble vitamins on miRNAs that are closely tangled with cancer diseases. Keywords: MiRNA, Alkaloids, Organosulfur compounds, Aliphatic carboxylic acids, Water-soluble vitamins, Anticancer drugs

  20. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  1. Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds.

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    Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman

    2009-11-01

    A novel lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) was isolated and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The enzyme is a heterotetrameric glycoprotein comprised of two alpha-subunits (68.8 kD each), one gamma-subunit (22.5 kD), and one delta-subunit (11.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are glycosylated and connected by a disulfide bridge. The LFS has an isoelectric point of 5.2. It catalyzes the formation of a sulfine lachrymator, (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide, only in the presence of P. alliacea alliinase and its natural substrate, S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (petiveriin). Depending on its concentration relative to that of P. alliacea alliinase, the LFS sequesters, to varying degrees, the sulfenic acid intermediate formed by alliinase-mediated breakdown of petiveriin. At LFS:alliinase of 5:1, LFS sequesters all of the sulfenic acid formed by alliinase action on petiveriin, and converts it entirely to (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide. However, starting at LFS:alliinase of 5:2, the LFS is unable to sequester all of the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase, with the result that sulfenic acid that escapes the action of the LFS condenses with loss of water to form S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (petivericin). The results show that the LFS and alliinase function in tandem, with the alliinase furnishing the sulfenic acid substrate on which the LFS acts. The results also show that the LFS modulates the formation of biologically active thiosulfinates that are downstream of the alliinase in a manner dependent upon the relative concentrations of the LFS and the alliinase. These observations suggest that manipulation of LFS-to-alliinase ratios in plants displaying this system may provide a means by which to rationally modify organosulfur small molecule profiles to obtain desired flavor and/or odor signatures, or increase the presence of desirable biologically active small molecules.

  2. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Novel Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Petiveria alliacea and Its Influence on Alliinase-Mediated Formation of Biologically Active Organosulfur Compounds1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman

    2009-01-01

    A novel lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) was isolated and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The enzyme is a heterotetrameric glycoprotein comprised of two α-subunits (68.8 kD each), one γ-subunit (22.5 kD), and one δ-subunit (11.9 kD). The two α-subunits are glycosylated and connected by a disulfide bridge. The LFS has an isoelectric point of 5.2. It catalyzes the formation of a sulfine lachrymator, (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide, only in the presence of P. alliacea alliinase and its natural substrate, S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (petiveriin). Depending on its concentration relative to that of P. alliacea alliinase, the LFS sequesters, to varying degrees, the sulfenic acid intermediate formed by alliinase-mediated breakdown of petiveriin. At LFS:alliinase of 5:1, LFS sequesters all of the sulfenic acid formed by alliinase action on petiveriin, and converts it entirely to (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide. However, starting at LFS:alliinase of 5:2, the LFS is unable to sequester all of the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase, with the result that sulfenic acid that escapes the action of the LFS condenses with loss of water to form S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (petivericin). The results show that the LFS and alliinase function in tandem, with the alliinase furnishing the sulfenic acid substrate on which the LFS acts. The results also show that the LFS modulates the formation of biologically active thiosulfinates that are downstream of the alliinase in a manner dependent upon the relative concentrations of the LFS and the alliinase. These observations suggest that manipulation of LFS-to-alliinase ratios in plants displaying this system may provide a means by which to rationally modify organosulfur small molecule profiles to obtain desired flavor and/or odor signatures, or increase the presence of desirable biologically active small molecules. PMID:19692535

  4. Oceanic Emissions and Atmospheric Depositions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Beale, R.; Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect the tropospheric oxidative capacity due to their ubiquitous abundance and relatively high reactivity towards the hydroxyal radical. Over the ocean and away from terrestrial emission sources, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) make up a large fraction of VOCs as airmasses age and become more oxidized. In addition to being produced or destroyed in the marine atmosphere, OVOCs can also be emitted from or deposited to the surface ocean. Here we first present direct air-sea flux measurements of three of the most abundant OVOCs - methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde, by the eddy covariance technique from two cruises in the Atlantic: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The OVOC mixing ratios were quantified by a high resolution proton-reaction-transfer mass spectrometer with isotopically labeled standards and their air-sea (net) fluxes were derived from the eddy covariance technique. Net methanol flux was consistently from the atmosphere to the surface ocean, while acetone varied from supersaturation (emission) in the subtropics to undersaturation (deposition) in the higher latitudes of the North Atlantic. The net air-sea flux of acetaldehyde is near zero through out the Atlantic despite the apparent supersaturation of this compound in the surface ocean. Knowing the dissolved concentrations and in situ production rates of these compounds in seawater, we then estimate their bulk atmospheric depositions and oceanic emissions. Lastly, we summarize the state of knowledge on the air-sea transport of a number of organic gasses, and postulate the magnitude and environmental impact of total organic carbon transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  5. Product ion distributions for the reactions of NO+ with some physiologically significant volatile organosulfur and organoselenium compounds obtained using a selective reagent ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mochalski, P.; Unterkofler, K.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Amann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 15 (2014), s. 1683-1690 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TRACE GAS-ANALYSIS * ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS * EXHALED-BREATH Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.253, year: 2014

  6. Extraction and determination of organosulfur compounds in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    predominant odorants from bioindustry emissions [5]. ... The International Labor Organization of the United Nations reports that some ... are typically chlorinated solvents such as chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, ... one imposes rather stringent restrictions on the choice of the DLLME-SFO extraction ...

  7. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  8. Skipjack tuna as a bioindicator of contamination by perfluorinated compounds in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tao, Lin; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in the livers of 60 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters and the open ocean along the Pacific Rim, including the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Western North Pacific Ocean, during 1997-1999. At least one of the nine PFCs was found in every tuna sample analyzed. Overall, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were the predominant compounds found in livers of tuna at concentrations of ocean locations, concentrations of PFUnDA were greater than the concentrations of PFOS. The profiles and concentrations of PFCs in tuna livers suggest that the sources in East Asia are dominated by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates, especially PFUnDA. High concentrations of PFUnDA in tuna may indicate a shift in sources of PFCs in East Asia. The spatial distribution of PFOS in skipjack tuna reflected the concentrations previously reported in seawater samples from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, suggesting that tuna are good bioindicators of pollution by PFOS. Despite its predominance in ocean waters, PFOA was rarely found in tuna livers, indicative of the low bioaccumulation potential of this compound. Our study establishes baseline concentrations of PFCs in skipjack tuna from the oceans of the Asia-Pacific region, enabling future temporal trend studies of PFCs in oceans.

  9. Identification of organosulfurs and organonitrogens in the extracts of Pocahontas No. 3 Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing-Pei Cao; Zhi-Min Zong; Xiao-Yan Zhao; Chang-Cheng Liu; Guang-Feng Liu; Hong Zhang; Chul Wee Lee; Xian-Yong Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pocahontas No. 3 coal was extracted with CS{sub 2}, n-hexane, benzene, methanol, acetone and acetone/CS{sub 2} (1:1 vol/vol) mixed solvent sequentially. The resulting six extracts were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Hexathiane, octathiane, twenty-one organosulfurs (OSs) and twenty-one organonitrogens (ONs) were detected in the extracts. OSs detected in the extracts include ethylmethylsulfane, 1,2-dimethyldisulfane, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate, dimexano and its derivatives, dibenzothiophene, mono- and dimethyldibenzothiophenes, benzonaphthothiophene, mono- and dimethyl benzonaphthothiophenes, among which dimexano and dixanthogen were seldom reported in any sediments. Benzene is effective for extracting aromatic-ring-containing OSs, while OSs without aromatic ring tend to dissolve in methanol. Most of ONs detected in the extracts are acridinone, methylacridinones, carbazole, methylcarbazoles, benzocarbazoles, amines, phenanthridinone and piperidinone. Species and amounts of ONs detected in the extracts were increased along with the increasing of solvent polarity. N and O atoms often coexist in the same compounds. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  11. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  12. Observations of volatile organic compounds over the North Atlantic Ocean: relationships to dominant cyanobacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Rossell, R.; Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.; Cox, D.

    2017-12-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are abundant primary producers that can have a major influence on the oceanic biogeochemical cycles. In particular, the prominent cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and Trichodesmium can impact the air-sea flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including reactive compounds, such as isoprene, that control the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and climate-relevant compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide. These groups of cyanobacteria have been estimated to increase in abundance by up to 29% by the end of the century as a result of rising sea surface temperatures and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations. Given their current and predicted future abundance, understanding the role of different cyanobacterial populations on VOC emissions from the ocean is critical in understanding the future oxidative capacity of the remote atmosphere and climate feedback cycles. During the May 2017 Phosphorus, Hydrocarbons, and Transcriptomics cruise aboard the R/V Neil Armstrong, 160 whole air canister samples were collected along a transect through the North Atlantic from Woods Hole, MA to Bermuda and back with 24-hour stops at nine stations encompassing different nutrient regimes and cyanobacterial populations. At each station, a diurnal time series of samples was collected and higher frequency sampling was conducted during transits of the north wall. Canister samples were analyzed on a five-detector gas chromatography system for over 80 individual VOCs including biogenics, aromatics, chlorinated and brominated compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Trends in reactive and climate-relevant VOCs will be discussed as a function of the predominant cyanobacterial populations at each sample location. These data provide increased information on the spatial and diurnal variability of trace gases associated with these globally important photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

  13. Direct night-time ejection of particle-phase reduced biogenic sulfur compounds from the ocean to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Guazzotti, Sergio A; Coffee, Keith R; Jung, Jinyoung; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-04-21

    The influence of oceanic biological activity on sea spray aerosol composition, clouds, and climate remains poorly understood. The emission of organic material and gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean represents well-documented biogenic processes that influence particle chemistry in marine environments. However, the direct emission of particle-phase biogenic sulfur from the ocean remains largely unexplored. Here we present measurements of ocean-derived particles containing reduced sulfur, detected as elemental sulfur ions (e.g., (32)S(+), (64)S2(+)), in seven different marine environments using real-time, single particle mass spectrometry; these particles have not been detected outside of the marine environment. These reduced sulfur compounds were associated with primary marine particle types and wind speeds typically between 5 and 10 m/s suggesting that these particles themselves are a primary emission. In studies with measurements of seawater properties, chlorophyll-a and atmospheric DMS concentrations were typically elevated in these same locations suggesting a biogenic source for these sulfur-containing particles. Interestingly, these sulfur-containing particles only appeared at night, likely due to rapid photochemical destruction during the daytime, and comprised up to ∼67% of the aerosol number fraction, particularly in the supermicrometer size range. These sulfur-containing particles were detected along the California coast, across the Pacific Ocean, and in the southern Indian Ocean suggesting that these particles represent a globally significant biogenic contribution to the marine aerosol burden.

  14. Single- and multi-photon ionization studies of organosulfur species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yu -San [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Accurate ionization energies (IE`s) for molecular species are used for prediction of chemical reactivity and are of fundamental importance to chemists. The IE of a gaseous molecule can be determined routinely in a photoionization or a photoelectron experiment. IE determinations made in conventional photoionization and photoelectron studies have uncertainties in the range of 3--100 meV (25--250 cm-1). In the past decade, the most exciting development in the field of photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy has been the availability of high resolution, tunable ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser sources. The laser pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) scheme is currently the state-of-the-art photoelectron spectroscopic technique and is capable of providing photoelectron energy resolution close to the optical resolution. The author has focused attention on the photoionization processes of some sulfur-containing species. The studies of the photoionization and photodissociation on sulfur-containing compounds [such as CS2, CH3SH, CH3SSCH3, CH3CH2SCH2CH3, HSCH2CH2SH and C4H4S (thiophene) and sulfur-containing radicals, such as HS, CS, CH3S, CH3CH2S and CH3SS], have been the major subjects in the group because sulfur is an important species contributing to air pollution in the atmosphere. The modeling of the combustion and oxidation of sulfur compounds represents important steps for the control of both the production and the elimination of sulfur-containing pollutants. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of the thesis. Chapters 2 and 6 contain five papers published in, or accepted for publication in, academic periodicals. In Chapter 7, the progress of the construction in the laboratory of a new vacuum ultraviolet laser system equipped with a reflectron mass

  15. Enzymatic oxidation of volatile malodorous organosulfur compounds in a two-phase reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo reportamos la oxidación de una serie de compuestos organoazufrados volátiles (COV catalizada por la enzima cloroperoxidasa obtenida del hongo Caldariomyces fumago . Los COV se consideran contaminantes atmosféricos debido a su olor desagradable y a su bajo umbral de detección. El sulfuro de etilo, disulfuro de dimetilo, propanotiol, butanotiol y hexanotiol fueron transformados por la enzima en un medio de reacción acuoso a pH 6 y en presencia de peróxido de hidrógeno. El análisis de los productos demostró que los sulfuros fueron oxidados a sus respectivos sulfóxidos, mientras que los tioles fueron oxidados a sus correspondientes disulfuros. Los productos identificados tienen una presión de vapor significativamente menor que los compuestos originales, por lo que son mucho menos volátiles y por tanto no se consideran contaminantes atmosféricos. Se ensambló un reactor de dos fases de 70 mL de volumen con el fin de determinar la eficiencia del tratamiento enzimático. La fase líquida, compuesta por 85% de amortiguador y 15% de solvente orgánico, se puso en contacto con la fase gaseosa, compuesta por aire enriquecido con el sustrato. Usando disulfuro de metilo como sustrato modelo, encontramos únicamente reacción enzimática en este sistema; al controlar la concentración de enzima y de peróxido en la fase líquida se logró transferir el sustrato a la fase acuosa en donde 1 mol de enzima convirtió aproximadamente 12,400 moles de sustrato, resaltando el potencial de los tratamientos enzimáticos para las corrientes gaseosas con mal olor por COV.

  16. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FAC) Data, 1984-1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NSandT) Benthic Surveillance Fluorescent Aromatic Compounds (FAC) file reports the trace concentrations of Fluorescent Aromatic...

  17. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Nils G; Neubeck, Anna

    2009-10-22

    Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  18. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubeck Anna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  19. A Compound-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Record at the Onset of Ocean Anoxic Event 2, Kaiparowits Plateau, Southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todes, J.; Jones, M. M.; Sageman, B. B.; Osburn, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Rhythmic lithologic variations (limestone-shale couplets) interpreted to reflect Milankovitch cycles occur at the onset of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in deposits of the Western Interior Seaway. These couplets have been interpreted to reflect climate cycles: however, the physical mechanism(s) through which climate cycles were translated to the sedimentary record during peak greenhouse conditions remain unsettled. Although glacioeustasy has been considered, variance in surface ocean temperature, ocean circulation, or local hydrology may be more plausible options. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) of n-alkanes and other biomarkers may provide a means to evaluate such mechanisms. Since sedimentary alkanes are direct products of plants and membrane lipid diagenesis and are resistant to secondary hydrogen exchange during thermal maturation at low (chain length distributions suggest low thermal maturity and the possible preservation of primary δ2H values. Short and long chain ­n-alkanes are potentially sourced from planktonic biomass and terrestrial plants, respectively, enabling a comparison of climatic processes between marine and terrestrial settings. Biomarkers, including both steranes and hopanes, are also preserved and reflect putative source organisms and local paleoenvironmental conditions. Facies-specific δ2H analysis will allow for evaluation of changes in the dominant source of atmospheric moisture in the Western Interior during orbitally-forced climate cycles. Organic matter deposited during periods of northerly Boreal influence would have a depleted 2H-isotope composition relative to those deposited during periods of more southerly Tethys influence. In this model, these variations are reflected by lithology - limestone deposition would occur during warm, evaporative Tethys-dominated times, while cooler, wetter Boreal periods would promote shale deposition.

  20. The Global Regulator Spx Functions in the Control of Organosulfur Metabolism in Bacillus subtilis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soon-Yong; Reyes, Dindo; Leelakriangsak, Montira; Zuber, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Spx is a global transcriptional regulator of the oxidative stress response in Bacillus subtilis. Its target is RNA polymerase, where it contacts the α subunit C-terminal domain. Recently, evidence was presented that Spx participates in sulfate-dependent control of organosulfur utilization operons, including the ytmI, yxeI, ssu, and yrrT operons. The yrrT operon includes the genes that function in cysteine synthesis from S-adenosylmethionine through intermediates S-adenosylhomocysteine, ribosylhomocysteine, homocysteine, and cystathionine. These operons are also negatively controlled by CymR, the repressor of cysteine biosynthesis operons. All of the operons are repressed in media containing cysteine or sulfate but are derepressed in medium containing the alternative sulfur source, methionine. Spx was found to negatively control the expression of these operons in sulfate medium, in part, by stimulating the expression of the cymR gene. In addition, microarray analysis, monitoring of yrrT-lacZ fusion expression, and in vitro transcription studies indicate that Spx directly activates yrrT operon expression during growth in medium containing methionine as sole sulfur source. These experiments have uncovered additional roles for Spx in the control of gene expression during unperturbed, steady-state growth. PMID:16885442

  1. The enigmatic SAR202 cluster up close: shedding light on a globally distributed dark ocean lineage involved in sulfur cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrshad, Maliheh; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; López-García, Purificación; Ghai, Rohit

    2018-03-01

    The dark ocean microbiota represents the unknown majority in the global ocean waters. The SAR202 cluster belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi was the first microbial lineage discovered to specifically inhabit the aphotic realm, where they are abundant and globally distributed. The absence of SAR202 cultured representatives is a significant bottleneck towards understanding their metabolic capacities and role in the marine environment. In this work, we use a combination of metagenome-assembled genomes from deep-sea datasets and publicly available single-cell genomes to construct a genomic perspective of SAR202 phylogeny, metabolism and biogeography. Our results suggest that SAR202 cluster members are medium sized, free-living cells with a heterotrophic lifestyle, broadly divided into two distinct clades. We present the first evidence of vertical stratification of these microbes along the meso- and bathypelagic ocean layers. Remarkably, two distinct species of SAR202 cluster are highly abundant in nearly all deep bathypelagic metagenomic datasets available so far. SAR202 members metabolize multiple organosulfur compounds, many appear to be sulfite-oxidizers and are predicted to play a major role in sulfur turnover in the dark water column. This concomitantly suggests an unsuspected availability of these nutrient sources to allow for the high abundance of these microbes in the deep sea.

  2. Organocatalyzed α-Sulfenylation of carbonyl compounds using N-formly/Acyl Sulfenmides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hyeon Wan; Lee, Chan; Jang, Hye Young

    2017-01-01

    α-Sulfenylation of aldehydes and ketones using N-formyl and N-acyl sulfenamides, prepared by Cu-catalyzed aerobic coupling of amides and thiols, was achieved in the presence of cyclic secondary amine⋅HCl catalysts. To obtain various sulfur-functionalized carbonyl compounds, sulfenamides containing aromatic and aliphatic organosulfur were investigated. As carbonyl compounds, cyclic and acyclic ketones, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and aldehydes were investigated, affording the desired α-sulfenylation products in good yields

  3. Organocatalyzed α-Sulfenylation of carbonyl compounds using N-formly/Acyl Sulfenmides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyeon Wan; Lee, Chan; Jang, Hye Young [Dept. of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    α-Sulfenylation of aldehydes and ketones using N-formyl and N-acyl sulfenamides, prepared by Cu-catalyzed aerobic coupling of amides and thiols, was achieved in the presence of cyclic secondary amine⋅HCl catalysts. To obtain various sulfur-functionalized carbonyl compounds, sulfenamides containing aromatic and aliphatic organosulfur were investigated. As carbonyl compounds, cyclic and acyclic ketones, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and aldehydes were investigated, affording the desired α-sulfenylation products in good yields.

  4. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels, supplement to: Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan (2015): Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels. Nature Communications, 6, 8714

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  5. Organosulfate Formation through the Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Unsaturated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.; Passananti, M.; Kong, L.; Shang, J.; Perrier, S.; Jianmin, C.; Donaldson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric formation of organosulfur derivatives through reaction with SO2 is generally mediated by oxidants such as O3, OH; recently we have proposed a direct reaction between SO2 and unsaturated compounds as another possible pathway for organosulfate formation in the troposphere. For the first time it was shown recently that a heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and oleic acid (OA; an unsaturated fatty acid) takes place and leads efficiently to the formation of organosulfur products. Here, we demonstrate that this reaction proceeds on various unsaturated compounds, and may therefore have a general environmental impact. We used different experimental strategies i.e., a coated flow tube (CFT), an aerosol flow tube (AFT) and a DRIFT (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) cell. The reaction products were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (LC-HR-MS). We report indeed that SO2 reacts with large variety of C=C unsaturations and that even in the presence of ozone, SO2 reacts with OA leading to organosulfur products. A strong enhancement in product formation is observed under actinic illumination, increases the atmospheric significance of this chemical pathway. This is probably due to the chromophoric nature of the SO2 adduct with C=C bonds, and means that the contribution of this direct addition of SO2 could be in excess of 5%. The detection in atmospheric aerosols of organosulfur compounds with the same chemical formulae as the products identified here seems to confirm the importance of this reaction in the atmosphere.

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokwon; Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2006-03-08

    A total of 18 organosulfur compounds originating from Petiveria alliacea L. roots have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. These represent compounds occurring in fresh homogenates as well as those present in various macerates, extracts and other preparations made from Petiveria alliacea. Of the compounds assayed, the thiosulfinates, trisulfides and benzylsulfinic acid were observed to be the most active, with the benzyl-containing thiosulfinates exhibiting the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The effect of plant sample preparation conditions on the antimicrobial activity of the extract is discussed.

  7. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

  8. Crystal growth, morphology, thermal and spectral studies of an organosulfur nonlinear optical bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (BG5SS) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavamurthy, M.; Peramaiyan, G.; Babu, K. Syed Suresh; Mohan, R.

    2015-04-01

    Organosulfur nonlinear optical single crystals of orthorhombic bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (2CH6N3 +·C7H4O6S2-·H2O) with dimension 14 mm × 4 mm × 5 mm have been grown from methanol and water solvents in 1:1 ratio by the slow evaporation growth technique. The crystal structure and morphology of the crystals have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopic studies were carried out to identify the functional groups and vibrational modes present in the grown crystals. The UV-Vis spectrum was studied to analyze the linear optical properties of the grown crystals. The thermal gravimetric analysis was conducted on the grown crystals, and the result revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to 65 °C. The dielectric tensor components ɛ 11, ɛ 22 and ɛ 33 of BG5SS crystal were evaluated as a function of frequency at 40 °C. The surface laser damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Further, Vickers micro-hardness study was carried out to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown crystals for various loads.

  9. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Andrews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34–180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  10. Atmospheric distribution and seasonality of airborne polyfluorinated compounds. Spatial and temporal concentration variations from ship- and land-based measurements in Northern Germany, the Atlantic Ocean, and Polar Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin

    2010-07-01

    In order to assess the distribution of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) in ambient air on temporal as well as spatial scales, air samples were taken during several sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Permanent air monitoring stations close to Hamburg (Germany) as well as several research vessels operating in the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Baltic Sea were used as sampling platforms. Airborne PFC were sampled using glass fibre filters (particlebound PFC) and a sandwich polyurethane foam and the polymer resin XAD-2 (gaseous PFC). Samples were extracted by acetone: methyl-tert-butyl ether (1:1) or methanol and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Airborne PFC were detected in all of the collected air samples, even in Antarctica, with southern hemispheric concentrations being lower than those of the northern hemisphere which provides further evidence that this emerging group of contaminants is subject to atmospheric long-range transport from mainly northern hemispheric source regions towards remote areas. While the persistent perfluorinated acids (PFCA, PFSA) were only determined at concentrations below 1 pg m{sup -3} in the particulate phase, their neutral volatile precursors (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE)) occurred predominantly in the gas phase at concentrations that were usually two orders of magnitude higher and ranged from 4.5 pg m{sup -3} in the Southern Ocean to 335 pg m{sup -3} in source regions in ship-based samples and from 17 to 972 pg m{sup -3} in land-based samples. Furthermore, PFC in ambient air varied strongly over time as observed during a 14 months lasting sampling campaign close to Hamburg. Emissions from nearby local sources as well as long-range transport of PFC emitted from diffuse sources west and southwest of the sampling sites were considered as explanation for the observed pattern. (orig.)

  11. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  12. Compound-specific amino acid δ15N patterns in marine algae: Tracer potential for cyanobacterial vs. eukaryotic organic nitrogen sources in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew D.; Lehman, Jennifer; Kudela, Raphael

    2013-02-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (δ15N-AA) has unique potential to elucidate the complexities of food webs, track heterotrophic transformations, and understand diagenesis of organic nitrogen (ON). While δ15N-AA patterns of autotrophs have been shown to be generally similar, prior work has also suggested that differences may exist between cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. However, δ15N-AA patterns in differing oceanic algal groups have never been closely examined. The overarching goals of this study were first to establish a more quantitative understanding of algal δ15N-AA patterns, and second to examine whether δ15N-AA patterns have potential as a new tracer for distinguishing prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic N sources. We measured δ15N-AA from prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures and used a complementary set of statistical approaches (simple normalization, regression-derived fractionation factors, and multivariate analyses) to test for variations. A generally similar δ15N-AA pattern was confirmed for all algae, however significant AA-specific variation was also consistently identified between the two groups. The relative δ15N fractionation of Glx (glutamine + glutamic acid combined) vs. total proteinaceous N appeared substantially different, which we hypothesize could be related to differing enzymatic forms. In addition, the several other AA (most notably glycine and leucine) appeared to have strong biomarker potential. Finally, we observed that overall patterns of δ15N values in algae correspond well with the Trophic vs. Source-AA division now commonly used to describe variable AA δ15N changes with trophic transfer, suggesting a common mechanistic basis. Overall, these results show that autotrophic δ15N-AA patterns can differ between major algal evolutionary groupings for many AA. The statistically significant multivariate results represent a first approach for testing ideas about relative eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic

  13. Ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  14. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  15. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  16. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  18. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  19. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  20. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  1. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  2. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  3. Ocean Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  4. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  6. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  7. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  8. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  9. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  10. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  11. Ocean Acidification: a review of the current status of research and institutional developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Dedert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification is defined as the change in ocean chemistry driven by the oceanic uptake of chemical inputs to the atmosphere, including carbon, nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Ocean acidification is also referred to as ‘the other CO2 problem’ of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

  12. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  13. Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smetacek, V.; Klaas, C.; Strass, V.H.; Assmy, P.; Montresor, M.; Cisewski, B.; Savoye, N.; Webb, A.; d’Ovidio, F.; Arrieta, J.M.; Bathmann, U.; Bellerby, R.; Berg, G.M.; Croot, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Henjes, J.; Herndl, G.J.; Hoffmann, L.J.; Leach, H.; Losch, M.; Mills, M.M.; Neill, C.; Peeken, I.; Rottgers, R.; Sachs, O.; Sauter, E.; Schmidt, M.M.; Schwarz, J.; Terbruggen, A.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.

    Fertilization of the ocean by adding iron compounds has induced diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms accompanied by considerable carbon dioxide drawdown in the ocean surface layer. However, because the fate of bloom biomass could not be adequately...

  14. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  15. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  16. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  17. Ocean Prediction Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  18. Highly effective degradation of selected groups of organic compounds by cavitation based AOPs under basic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gągol, Michał; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-07-01

    Cavitation has become on the most often applied methods in a number of industrial technologies. In the case of oxidation of organic pollutants occurring in the aqueous medium, cavitation forms the basis of numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This paper presents the results of investigations on the efficiency of oxidation of the following groups of organic compounds: organosulfur, nitro derivatives of benzene, BTEX, and phenol and its derivatives in a basic model effluent using hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation combined with external oxidants, i.e., hydrogen peroxide, ozone and peroxone. The studies revealed that the combination of cavitation with additional oxidants allows 100% oxidation of the investigated model compounds. However, individual treatments differed with respect to the rate of degradation. Hydrodynamic cavitation aided by peroxone was found to be the most effective treatment (100% oxidation of all the investigated compounds in 60 min). When using hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation alone, the effectiveness of oxidation was diversified. Under these conditions, nitro derivatives of benzene and phenol and its derivatives were found to be resistant to oxidation. In addition, hydrodynamic cavitation was found to be more effective in degradation of model compounds than acoustic cavitation. The results of investigations presented in this paper compare favorably with the investigations on degradation of organic contaminants using AOPs under conditions of basic pH published thus far. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  20. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  1. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  2. Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction Simulation Experiments on the Formation and Distribution of Organic Sulfur Compounds in the Tuha Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Changtao; Li, Shuyuan [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Song, He [Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was conducted in autoclave on the system of crude oil and MgSO{sub 4} at different temperatures. Gas chromatography pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to detected the composition of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products. The results of the analysis indicate that with increased temperature, the contents of organic sulfur compounds with high molecular weight and thermal stability, such as benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes, gradually became dominated. In order to gain greater insight into the formation and distribution of organic sulphur compounds from TSR, positive ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used in detecting the detailed elemental composition and distribution of them. The mass spectra showed that the mass range of sulfur compounds was 200-550 Da. Four sulfur class species, S{sub 1}, N{sub 1}S{sub 1}, O{sub 1}S{sub 1} and O{sub 2}S{sub 1}, were assigned in the positive-ion spectrum. Among the identified sulfur compounds, the S{sub 1} class species was dominant. The most abundant S{sub 1} class species increase associated with the DBE value and carbon number increasing which also indicates the evolution of organic sulfur compounds in TSR is from the labile series to the stable one. In pure blank pyrolysis experiments with crude oil cracking without TSR, different composition and distribution of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products were seen from mass spectra in order to evaluate their pyrolysis behaviors without MgSO{sub 4}. FT-IR and XRD were used in analyzing the products of solid phases. Two distinct crystallographic phases MgO and MgSO{sub 4} are found to coexist in the products which demonstrated the transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds into organosulfur compounds exist in TSR.

  3. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  4. Modeling water clarity in oceans and coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In oceans and coastal waters, phytoplankton is the primary producer of organic compounds which form the base for the food chain. The concentration of phytoplankton is a major factor controlling water clarity and the depth to which light penetrates in the water column. The light i...

  5. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  6. Photodissociation and photoionization of organosulfur radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chia-Wei.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of S( 3 P 2,1,0 , 1 D 2 ) production from the 193 nm photodissociation of CH 3 SCH 3 , H 2 S and CH 3 SH have been studied using 2 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques. The 193 nm photodissociation cross sections for the formation of S from CH 3 S and HS initially prepared in the photodissociation of CH 3 SCH 3 and H 2 S are estimated to be 1 x 10 -18 and 1.1 x 10 -18 cm 2 , respectively. The dominant product from CH 3 S is S( 1 D), while that from SH is S( 3 P). Possible potential energy surfaces involved in the 193 nm photodissociation of CH 3 S(X) and SH(X) have been also examined. Threshold photoelectron (PE) spectra for SH and CH 3 S formed in the ultraviolet photodissociation of H 2 S and CH 3 SH, respectively, have been measured using the nonresonant two-photon pulsed field ionization (N2P-PFI) technique. The rotationally resolved N2P-PFI-PE spectrum obtained for SH indicates that photoionization dynamics favors the rotational angular momentum change ΔN 2 product 3,2 ) and CH 3 S(X 2 E 3/2 ) are determined to be 84,057.5 ± 3 cm -1 and 74,726 ± 8 cm -1 respectively. The spin-orbit splittings for SH(X 2 product 3/2,1/2 ) and CH 3 S(X 2 E 3/2,1/2 ) are found to be 377 ± 2 and 257 ± 5 cm -1 , respectively, in agreement with previous measurements. The C-S stretching frequency for CH 3 S + (X 3 A 2 ) is 733 ± 5 cm -1 . This study illustrates that the PFI-PE detection method can be a sensitive probe for the nascent internal energy distribution of photoproducts

  7. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  8. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  9. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  10. People and Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  11. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  12. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  13. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  14. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  15. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  16. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  17. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  18. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  19. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  20. Medicinal compounds of Marine origin | Pandey | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal compounds of Marine origin. ... Furthermore, the oceans are also the source of chemically inimitable natural products that are mainly ... The lifesaving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, ...

  1. Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Courtin, Regis

    1993-01-01

    The behavior and possible past evolution of fully coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan are investigated. It is found that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K cooler at 4 Gyr ago and will be about 5 K warmer 0.5 Gyr in the future. The change in solar luminosity and the conversion of oceanic CH4 to C2H6 drive the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere over time. Titan appears to have experienced a frozen epoch about 3 Gyr ago independent of whether an ocean is present or not. This finding may have important implications for understanding the inventory of Titan's volatile compounds.

  2. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  3. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  4. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  5. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  7. Estimation of uranium forms in oceanic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, O.T.; Novikov, P.D.; Nesterova, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    A critical consideration is given to the notions about uranium forms in ocean water. To estimate uranium forms a model is suggested which takes into account possjble formation of complexes of uranyl ions and ocean water anions Cl - , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , HCO 3 - , OH - , F - . The available published data are used to estimate necessary thermodynamic stability constants of the complexes, activity coefficients and concentration of componenets. The thermodynamic calculation shows that uranium hydroxocomplex compounds UO 2 (OH) 4 2- (99.17%) and UO 2 (OH) 3 - (083%) are the most probable uranium forms in ocear water of 34.3% salinity at 25 deg C and 1 atm pressure

  8. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Sulfur Compounds Contents and Antiobesity Properties of Allium hookeri Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hye Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying. The spiciness and saltiness taste were noticeably reduced, while sourness, sweetness, and umami taste were significantly increased in hot-air dried A. hookeri according to electronic tongue. Although the content of volatile sulfur components was present at lower level, the administration of hot-air dried A. hookeri extract (100 mg/kg p.o. apparently prevented the body weight gain and improved insulin resistance in C57BL/6J obese mice receiving high fat diet. Results suggested that the hot-air dried A. hookeri possessing better taste and odor might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  10. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  11. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  12. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  13. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  14. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  15. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  16. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  17. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  18. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  19. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  20. Electrochemical and Computational Studies on the Electrocatalytic Effect of Conducting Polymers toward the Redox Reactions of Thiadiazole-Based Thiolate Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.

    2010-04-08

    We have studied the electrocatalytic effects of polythiophene-based conducting polymers toward the redox reactions of the dilithium salt of the thiadiazole-based dithiol compound 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiodiazole (DMcT-2Li) via cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating-disk electrode voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We have found that the electrocatalytic activity of the conducting polymers is strongly influenced by the potential range over which the polymers are electrically conductive (i.e., window of conductivity), which was tuned by employing different electron-donating groups at the 3- or 3,4-positions of polythiophene (PTh). Both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT), whose windows of conductivity exhibited a good overlap with the formal potential for the dimerization process of DMcT-2Li; E0′ d (?0.54 V versus Ag/Ag+) exhibited electrocatalytic activity toward both the oxidation and reduction processes of DMcT-2Li. On the other hand, PTh, poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMTh), and poly(3,4- dimethoxythiophene) (PDMTh), whose windows of conductivity did not overlap with E0′d, did not exhibit electrocatalytic activity. The standard charge transfer rate constants for the dimerization process of DMcT-2Li at PEDOT, PProDOT, and PDMTh film-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were estimated to be 7.4 - 10?4, 3.2 - 10?4, and 6.9 - 10?5 cm/s while the rate constant was 6.3 - 10?5 cm/s at an unmodified GCE. Moreover, EIS studies for PEDOT, PProDOT, and PDMTh film-modified GCEs indicated the smallest charge transfer resistance for a PEDOT film and highest for a PDMTh film at E0′d, indicating that the higher the electrical conductivity of a film at E 0′d the higher the electrocatalytic activity toward the redox reactions of DMcT-2Li. These results clearly indicate that in order to accelerate the redox reactions of DMcT-2Li (and likely of other organosulfur compounds) the window of conductivity

  1. Electrochemical and Computational Studies on the Electrocatalytic Effect of Conducting Polymers toward the Redox Reactions of Thiadiazole-Based Thiolate Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.; Lowe, Michael A.; Kiya, Yasuyuki; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the electrocatalytic effects of polythiophene-based conducting polymers toward the redox reactions of the dilithium salt of the thiadiazole-based dithiol compound 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiodiazole (DMcT-2Li) via cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating-disk electrode voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We have found that the electrocatalytic activity of the conducting polymers is strongly influenced by the potential range over which the polymers are electrically conductive (i.e., window of conductivity), which was tuned by employing different electron-donating groups at the 3- or 3,4-positions of polythiophene (PTh). Both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT), whose windows of conductivity exhibited a good overlap with the formal potential for the dimerization process of DMcT-2Li; E0′ d (?0.54 V versus Ag/Ag+) exhibited electrocatalytic activity toward both the oxidation and reduction processes of DMcT-2Li. On the other hand, PTh, poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMTh), and poly(3,4- dimethoxythiophene) (PDMTh), whose windows of conductivity did not overlap with E0′d, did not exhibit electrocatalytic activity. The standard charge transfer rate constants for the dimerization process of DMcT-2Li at PEDOT, PProDOT, and PDMTh film-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were estimated to be 7.4 - 10?4, 3.2 - 10?4, and 6.9 - 10?5 cm/s while the rate constant was 6.3 - 10?5 cm/s at an unmodified GCE. Moreover, EIS studies for PEDOT, PProDOT, and PDMTh film-modified GCEs indicated the smallest charge transfer resistance for a PEDOT film and highest for a PDMTh film at E0′d, indicating that the higher the electrical conductivity of a film at E 0′d the higher the electrocatalytic activity toward the redox reactions of DMcT-2Li. These results clearly indicate that in order to accelerate the redox reactions of DMcT-2Li (and likely of other organosulfur compounds) the window of conductivity

  2. Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Scott C; Fabry, Victoria J; Feely, Richard A; Kleypas, Joan A

    2009-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily from human fossil fuel combustion, reduces ocean pH and causes wholesale shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry. The process of ocean acidification is well documented in field data, and the rate will accelerate over this century unless future CO2 emissions are curbed dramatically. Acidification alters seawater chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycles of many elements and compounds. One well-known effect is the lowering of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. Many calcifying species exhibit reduced calcification and growth rates in laboratory experiments under high-CO2 conditions. Ocean acidification also causes an increase in carbon fixation rates in some photosynthetic organisms (both calcifying and noncalcifying). The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research. Although ocean pH has varied in the geological past, paleo-events may be only imperfect analogs to current conditions.

  3. Biogeochemical Reactions Under Simulated Europa Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, X.; Connon, S. A.; Gleeson, D. F.; Kowalczyk, R. S.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2007-12-01

    Galileo data have demonstrated the probable presence of a liquid water ocean on Europa, and existence of salts and carbon dioxide in the satellite's surface ice (e.g., Carr et al., 1998; McCord et al., 1999, Pappalardo et al., 1999; Kivelson et al., 2000). Subsequently, the discovery of chemical signatures of extinct or extant life in Europa's ocean and on its surface became a distinct possibility. Moreover, understanding of Europa's potential habitability is now one of the major goals of the Europa Orbiter Flagship mission. It is likely, that in the early stages of Europa's ocean formation, moderately alkaline oceanic sulfate-carbonate species and a magnetite-silicate mantel could have participated in low-temperature biogeochemical sulfur, iron and carbon cycles facilitated by primitive organisms (Zolotov and Shock, 2004). If periodic supplies of fresh rock and sulfate-carbonate ions are available in Europa's ocean, then an exciting prospect exists that life may be present in Europa's ocean today. In our laboratory, we began the study of the plausible biogeochemical reactions under conditions appropriate to Europa's ocean using barophilic psychrophilic organisms that thrive under anaerobic conditions. In the near absence of abiotic synthetic pathways due to low Europa's temperatures, the biotic synthesis may present a viable opportunity for the formation of the organic and inorganic compounds under these extreme conditions. This work is independent of assumptions regarding hydrothermal vents at Europa's ocean floor or surface-derived oxidant sources. For our studies, we have fabricated a high-pressure (5,000 psi) reaction vessel that simulates aqueous conditions on Europa. We were also successful at reviving barophilic psychrophilic strains of Shewanella bacterium, which serve as test organisms in this investigation. Currently, facultative barophilic psychrophilic stains of Shewanella are grown in the presence of ferric food source; the strains exhibiting iron

  4. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  5. Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling through Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Marandino, C. A.; Patra, P. K.; Quack, B.; Schlundt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Halogen- and sulfur-containing trace gases, as well as other volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as isoprene) from biogeochemical marine sources are important constituents of the ocean and the atmosphere. These compounds exert wide-ranging influence on atmospheric chemical processes and climate interactions, as well as on human health in coastal regions. In their reactive form, they can affect the oxidizing capacity of the air and lead to the formation of new particles or the growth of existing ones. In this contribution, marine derived halogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compounds will be discussed. Their net flux into the atmosphere and their impact on atmospheric processes is analyzed based on observations and model simulations.

  6. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  7. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  8. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  9. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 222 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  10. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  11. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  12. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  13. IODE OceanTeacher

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M.; Pikula, L.; Reed, G.

    2002-01-01

    The OceanTeacher website and CD-ROM publication have proven to be powerful and flexible tools for marine data and information management training. There are two segments of OceanTeacher: marine data management and marine information management. The IODE trainers have created an encyclopedic Resource Kit covering all aspects of the subjects. Through continual updates, the Kit provides the latest versions of popular public-domain software, documentation for global and regional datasets, docu...

  14. Modeling of oceanic vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  15. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  16. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  17. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  18. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  19. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  20. REVIEW PAPER-MARINE MICROBIAL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani. P*, Hemalatha. K. P. J

    2016-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and...

  1. Deciphering ocean carbon in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mary Ann; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Stubbins, Aron; Fatland, Rob; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Buchan, Alison; Crump, Byron C; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Hess, Nancy J; Howe, Bill; Longnecker, Krista; Medeiros, Patricia M; Niggemann, Jutta; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Repeta, Daniel J; Waldbauer, Jacob R

    2016-03-22

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the oceans is one of the largest pools of reduced carbon on Earth, comparable in size to the atmospheric CO2 reservoir. A vast number of compounds are present in DOM, and they play important roles in all major element cycles, contribute to the storage of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, support marine ecosystems, and facilitate interactions between organisms. At the heart of the DOM cycle lie molecular-level relationships between the individual compounds in DOM and the members of the ocean microbiome that produce and consume them. In the past, these connections have eluded clear definition because of the sheer numerical complexity of both DOM molecules and microorganisms. Emerging tools in analytical chemistry, microbiology, and informatics are breaking down the barriers to a fuller appreciation of these connections. Here we highlight questions being addressed using recent methodological and technological developments in those fields and consider how these advances are transforming our understanding of some of the most important reactions of the marine carbon cycle.

  2. The recent availability of data from a new generation of ocean colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    ocean colour data across a diversity of marine systems will only be achieved if the .... stantial quantities of organic compounds in intermediate stages of ..... Memo. 29: 34 pp. BIDIGARE, R. 1994 — Measurement of algal chlorophylls and.

  3. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Góralski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  4. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  5. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  6. The ocean planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth.

  7. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  8. Salinibater Ruber as a Model for the Habitability of Europa's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M. C.; Ramírez, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The moon Europa has an ocean enriched with sulfate compounds. This work evaluates the adaptation strategies of Salinibacter ruber, a halophilic bacterium, when subjected to MgSO4 and NaSO4, two of the main salty components of Europás ocean.

  9. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of ade...

  10. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzá lez-Gaya, Belé n; Ferná ndez-Pinos, Marí a-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Mé janelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piñ a, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jimé nez, Begoñ a; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than

  11. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  12. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-03-19

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  13. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Mayol, Eva; Hansman, Roberta L.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  14. Advancing Ocean Monitoring Near Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Scott F.; Steinberg, Craig R.; Heron, Mal L.; Mantovanelli, Alessandra; Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Skirving, William J.; McAllister, Felicity; Rigby, Paul; Wisdom, Daniel; Bainbridge, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Corals, the foundation of tropical marine ecosystems, exist in a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae (algae). The corals obtain much of their energy by consuming compounds derived from photosynthesis by these microorganisms; the microorganisms, which reside in the coral tissue, in turn use waste products from the corals to sustain photosynthesis. This symbiosis is very sensitive to subtle changes in environment, such as increased ocean acidity, temperature, and light. When unduly stressed, the colorful algae are expelled from the corals, causing the corals to “bleach” and potentially die [e.g., van Oppen and Lough, 2009].

  15. An Ocean of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Doug

    2010-01-01

    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  16. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    roughly 28°S. The second is the Hawaiian Island Chain, extending to Midway Island at 28°N, 177°W and finally the Emperor Seamount chain running due...dimension array centered near Ascension. The climatology ocean (WOA09) showed very little seasonal dependence or change from the geodesic and this is

  17. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  18. Power from Ocean Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  19. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  20. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  1. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  2. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of oceanic DMSP and DMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Alon; Said-Ahmad, Ward; Shaked, Yeala; Kiene, Ronald P

    2013-11-12

    Oceanic emissions of volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS) represent the largest natural source of biogenic sulfur to the global atmosphere, where it mediates aerosol dynamics. To constrain the contribution of oceanic DMS to aerosols we established the sulfur isotope ratios ((34)S/(32)S ratio, δ(34)S) of DMS and its precursor, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), in a range of marine environments. In view of the low oceanic concentrations of DMS/P, we applied a unique method for the analysis of δ(34)S at the picomole level in individual compounds. Surface water DMSP collected from six different ocean provinces revealed a remarkable consistency in δ(34)S values ranging between +18.9 and +20.3‰. Sulfur isotope composition of DMS analyzed in freshly collected seawater was similar to δ(34)S of DMSP, showing that the in situ fractionation between these species is small (DMS to the atmosphere results in a relatively small fractionation (-0.5 ± 0.2‰) compared with the seawater DMS pool. Because δ(34)S values of oceanic DMS closely reflect that of DMSP, we conclude that the homogenous δ(34)S of DMSP at the ocean surface represents the δ(34)S of DMS emitted to the atmosphere, within +1‰. The δ(34)S of oceanic DMS flux to the atmosphere is thus relatively constant and distinct from anthropogenic sources of atmospheric sulfate, thereby enabling estimation of the DMS contribution to aerosols.

  3. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  4. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  5. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  6. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  7. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  8. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  9. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  11. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  12. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  13. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  14. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  15. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  16. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  17. Open ocean tide modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  18. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  19. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  20. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  1. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. the ecological dynamics and trajectories of bioactive compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOUNDS IN PLANTS OF THE GENUS - ANTHOCLIESTA FOUND. IN PARTS OF .... East Atlantic Ocean. .... formation of red precipitate indicate, the presence of alkaloid. ..... and fruit of plant species under varied geographical location ... perennial evergreen and deciduous species, biennial .... Washington DC. Ogata ...

  3. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  4. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  5. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  6. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  7. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  8. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates in open ocean waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Horii, Yuichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K.; Sinclair, E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, CA (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research; Gamo, Toshitaka [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Institute

    2004-09-15

    Environmentally stable perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have appeared as a new class of global pollutants within the last four years. These compounds in general, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in particular, can elicit toxic effects in wildlife and humans. PFCs have unique physicochemical properties due to the highly persistent C-F bond of the non-polar moiety and exhibit a wide variety of volatility/ water solubility depending on the nature of the substituted polar moiety. Environmental kinetics of PFCs is very complex because of the unique characteristics and their wide applications in various products. It is clear that PFCs pollution is a global problem involving several international organizations such as OECD. We have reported the initial survey of open ocean pollution by PFCs in 2003. Our studies have shown that part per quadrillion (ppq) level analysis of PFCs is necessary to obtain reliable information of open ocean pollution. We have developed reliable analytical and sampling method for ultra-trace level analysis of PFCs that is applicable to global survey of open ocean pollution. Analysis of PFCs in open ocean waters is challenging because of the need for ppq level analysis and no earlier studies have reported such a sensitive method. There were two approaches to enable trace level analysis of PFCs, namely, to decrease the blank and to solve co-elution problem. We have tested low blank solid phase extraction method and improvements in the analytical procedures and instrumentation, the blank/background levels of target perfluorinated acids were reduced significantly. Field blanks containing 800 mL of HPLC-grade water taken in a polypropylene bottle were transported to sampling locations. Two hundred microliter of sodium thiosulfate solution has been added to the field blanks. Although the concentrations of target fluorochemicals in field blanks were similar to those in procedural blanks in most cases, any sample sets that were found to have notable

  9. The influence of ocean going ships on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooy, M.; Mennen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we conclude that ocean going ships in the Netherlands contribute significantly to the emission of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter and nickel compounds into the air. In spite of this, increased levels of nitrogen dioxide concentrations have only been found in the direct vicinity of major waterways and harbours in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the emission of fine particulate matter by ocean ships could also have a negative effect on human health. Both nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter can have negative health effects on people suffering from respiratory symptoms. The above is concluded by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in an exploratory study into the effects of shipping on air quality. The VROM-Inspectorate was the commissioning body. The reason for this study was the absence of complete understanding of the influence of ocean going ships on air quality and environment. Ocean ships are one of the least regulated types of air pollution sources. Standards for desired substance levels have only been set for sulphur in the Fuel (Sulphur Content) Decree. In the Netherlands only a few studies on this subject have been conducted. A complete picture on the influence of ocean going ships on air quality and environment is lacking. In order to gain more insight into the exact influence of ocean going vessels on the environment, a specific measuring campaign or thorough analysis of measured data is recommended [nl

  10. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  11. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  12. Exploring Marine Cyanobacteria for Lead Compounds of Pharmaceutical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Uzair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ocean, which is called the “mother of origin of life,” is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes used as food by humans. They are excellent source of vitamins and proteins vital for life. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, arthritis, and so forth, while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, and so forth. They produce a large variety of bioactive compounds, including substances with anticancer and antiviral activity, UV protectants, specific inhibitors of enzymes, and potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many cyanobacteria produce compounds with potent biological activities. This paper aims to showcase the structural diversity of marine cyanobacterial secondary metabolites with a comprehensive coverage of alkaloids and other applications of cyanobacteria.

  13. Monitoring of ocean storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    It has been proposed that atmospheric CO2 accumulation could be slowed by capture of CO2 from point sources and subsequent storage of that CO2 in the ocean. If applied, such sequestration efforts would need to be monitored for compliance, effectiveness, and unintended consequences. Aboveground inspection and monitoring of facilities and practices, combined with ocean observations, could assure compliance with ocean sequestration guidelines and regulations. Ocean observations could be made using a variety of sensors mounted on moorings or underwater gliders. Long-term effectiveness and leakage to the atmosphere must be estimated from models, since on large spatial scales it will be impossible to observationally distinguish carbon stored by a project from variable concentrations of background carbon. Furthermore, the ocean naturally would absorb roughly 80% of fossil fuel CO2 released to the atmosphere within a millennium. This means that most of the CO2 sequestered in the ocean that leaks out to the atmosphere will be reabsorbed by the ocean. However, there is no observational way to distinguish remaining carbon from reabsorbed carbon. The science of monitoring unintended consequences in the deep ocean interior is at a primitive state. Little is understood about ecosystems of the deep ocean interior; and even less is understood about how those ecosystems would respond to added CO2. High priority research objectives should be (1) to improve our understanding of the natural ecosystems of the deep ocean, and (2) to improve our understanding of the response of these ecosystems to increased oceanic CO2 concentrations and decreased ocean pH.

  14. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  15. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  16. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  17. Ocean bottom seismometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  18. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  19. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  20. Nutrient Loading Fosters Seagrass Productivity Under Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaglioli, Chiara; Lauritano, Chiara; Buia, Maria Cristina; Balestri, Elena; Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Pardi, Giuseppina; Tamburello, Laura; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bulleri, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The effects of climate change are likely to be dependent on local settings. Nonetheless, the compounded effects of global and regional stressors remain poorly understood. Here, we used CO2 vents to assess how the effects of ocean acidification on the seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, and the associated epiphytic community can be modified by enhanced nutrient loading. P. oceanica at ambient and low pH sites was exposed to three nutrient levels for 16 months. The response of P. oceanica to experime...

  1. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  2. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-01-01

    A biogeochemical connection between the atmosphere and the ocean is demonstrated whereby a marine source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds is identified. Compounds of this type are involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, which remains one of the most poorly understood components of Earth’s climate system due in part to the diverse sources of its volatile organic compound precursors. This is especially the case for marine environments, where there are more oxygenated vol...

  3. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  4. Riding the ocean waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yemm, Richard

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that important developments over the past five years mean that there will be a range of competing pre-commercial wave-energy systems by 2002. The generation costs should be on a par with biomass schemes and offshore wind systems. The environmental advantages of wave energy are extolled. Ocean Power Delivery (OPD) have produced a set of criteria to be satisfied for a successful wave power scheme and these are listed. OPD is responsible for the snake-like Pelamis device which is a semi-submerged articulated series of cylindrical sections connected through hinged joints. How the wave-induced movement of the hinges is used to generate electricity is explained. The system is easily installed and can be completely removed at the end of its life

  5. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  6. Bringing an Ocean to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mark W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school program in which two sixth-grade science classes researched, created, and put together an ocean museum targeted at kindergarten through eighth graders who are geographically distanced from the ocean. Details the process for investigating topical areas, organizing teams of students, researching, writing, creating displays, and…

  7. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  8. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  9. The Role of Refractory Dissolved Organic Matter in Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda

    The ocean assimilates a large amount of atmospheric CO2 and is potentially a buffer for climate change. A fraction of the assimilated CO2 is incorporated into algal biomass and further converted into refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM). Carbon bound in refractory DOM has the potential...... studies the prokaryotic production and degradation of oceanic refractory DOM and discusses the reasons for the persistent nature of this large DOM fraction. The first two papers investigate the microbial carbon pump, i.e. prokaryotic transfor-mation of organic carbon into refractory DOM. The results show...... DOM compounds in the ocean are rare—possibly too rare to sustain viable uptake and assimilation. Hence, the dilute concentration of individual compounds is a possible explanation for the apparent refractory nature of most DOM in the ocean. Understanding the mechanisms that control the quality...

  10. Economics of ocean ranching: experiences, outlook and theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ragnar Arnason

    2001-01-01

    "The author distinguishes between ocean fish farming and ocean ranching. The distinguishing characteristic of ocean ranching is that the released species are unassisted once released into the ocean...

  11. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  12. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  13. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  14. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  15. Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Nightingale, Philip D.; Beale, Rachael; Liss, Peter S.; Blomquist, Byron; Fairall, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface ocean, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air–sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north–south transect of the Atlantic. The flux of methanol was consistently from the atmosphere to the ocean. Constrained by the aerodynamic limit and measured rate of air–sea sensible heat exchange, methanol transfer resembles a one-way depositional process, which suggests dissolved methanol concentrations near the water surface that are lower than what were measured at ∼5 m depth, for reasons currently unknown. We estimate the global oceanic uptake of methanol and examine the lifetimes of this compound in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean with respect to gas exchange. We also constrain the molecular diffusional resistance above the ocean surface—an important term for improving air–sea gas exchange models. PMID:24277830

  16. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lønborg, Christian

    2016-06-07

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  17. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lø nborg, Christian; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Bates, Nicholas R.; á lvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  18. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  19. Ocean Uses: Oregon and Washington (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  20. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  1. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  2. NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GODAS dataset is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial...

  3. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  4. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  5. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  6. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  7. Picocyanobacteria and deep-ocean fluorescent dissolved organic matter share similar optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Timko, Stephen; Ianiri, Hope; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fang, Xiaoting; Zeng, Qinglu; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in Synechococcus DOM, which may originate from degradation products of the fluorescent phycobilin pigments. Given the importance of picocyanobacteria in the global carbon cycle, our results indicate that picocyanobacteria are likely to be important sources of marine autochthonous FDOM, which may accumulate in the deep ocean.

  8. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama; Yeh, Xiyang; Brantner, Gerald; Soe, Brian; Kim, Boyeon; Ganguly, Shameek; Stuart, Hannah; Wang, Shiquan; Cutkosky, Mark; Edsinger, Aaron; Mullins, Phillip; Barham, Mitchell; Voolstra, Christian R.; Salama, Khaled N.; L'Hour, Michel; Creuze, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  9. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-11-11

    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  10. 12. Oceans and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paden, M.; Seligman, D.; Weber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The trends of the past 20 years show increasing coastal pollution, accelerated destruction of coastal marine habitats, and, in many areas, a declining catch of marine fish species that have been affected by overfishing and pollution. Stopping land-based pollution, especially pollutants from runoff, requires entering a new political arena, contesting powerful interests in agriculture and industry, and dealing with a nearly worldwide economic framework that allows land-based pollutant sources to dispose of their wastes in waterways at no direct cost. The paper discusses these topics under the following headings: pollution trends (nutrient pollution, human health problems, toxic chemical pollution); coastal habitat destruction (coral reef bleaching, threats to the ocean's surface); fisheries trends; aquaculture; a regional approach to preventing pollution [trends in marine pollution control, upstream activities that pollute coastal waters (logging, agriculture, dam construction and irrigation, cities and industry, air pollution)], vulnerability of coastal waters to pollution, coordinating pollution control (linking the land and the water), case studies of watershed/coastal management (Phuket Province, Thailand; the Chesapeake Bay; the Mediterranean)

  11. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  12. Chaotic advection in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel' , Konstantin V; Prants, Sergei V [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-30

    The problem of chaotic advection of passive scalars in the ocean and its topological, dynamical, and fractal properties are considered from the standpoint of the theory of dynamical systems. Analytic and numerical results on Lagrangian transport and mixing in kinematic and dynamic chaotic advection models are described for meandering jet currents, topographical eddies in a barotropic ocean, and a two-layer baroclinic ocean. Laboratory experiments on hydrodynamic flows in rotating tanks as an imitation of geophysical chaotic advection are described. Perspectives of a dynamical system approach in physical oceanography are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  14. Oceanic ferromanganese deposits: Future resources and past-ocean recorders

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Nair, R.R.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.

    decades following the Mero's publication witnessed global "Nodule Rush". The technological leaders of those years like US, Germany, Japan, France, New-Zealand, and USSR have conducted major scientific expeditions to the Central Pacific to map...-Mn-(Cu+Ni+Co) in ferromanganese deposits from the Central Indian Ocean (Source: Jauhari, 1987). OCEANIC FERROMANGANESE DEPOSITS 45 DISTRIBUTION The nodules occur invariably in almost all the deep-sea basins witnessing low sedimentation rates. But abundant ore grade deposits...

  15. Operational Ocean Modelling with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008 A417 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten dr. L.A. te Raa...area of theory and implementation of numerical schemes and parameterizations, ocean models have grown from experimental tools to full-blown ocean...sound propagation through mesoscale features using 3-D coupled mode theory , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA. 1992. [9] Robinson

  16. Oceanic Precondition and Evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; Hase, H.; Mizuno, K.

    2008-12-01

    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the interannual climate variability in the Indian Ocean, associated with the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern (western) equatorial region developing during boreal summer/autumn seasons. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been deploying TRITON buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean since October 2001. Details of subsurface ocean conditions associated with IOD events were observed by the mooring buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In the 2006 IOD event, large-scale sea surface signals in the tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD started in August 2006, and the anomalous conditions continued until December 2006. Data from the mooring buoys, however, captured the first appearance of the negative temperature anomaly at the thermocline depth with strong westward current anomalies in May 2006, about three months earlier than the development of the surface signatures. Similar appearance of negative temperature anomalies in the subsurface were also observed in 2007 and 2008, while the amplitude, the timing, and the relation to the surface layer were different among the events. The implications of the subsurface conditions for the occurrences of these IOD events are discussed.

  17. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  18. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  19. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  20. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  1. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  2. ONR Ocean Wave Dynamics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    In anticipation of the start (in Fiscal Year 1988) of a new Office of Naval Research (ONR) Accelerated Research Initiative (ARI) on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics, a workshop was held August 5-7, 1986, at Woods Hole, Mass., to discuss new ideas and directions of research. This new ARI on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics is a 5-year effort that is organized by the ONR Physical Oceanography Program in cooperation with the ONR Fluid Mechanics Program and the Physical Oceanography Branch at the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA). The central theme is improvement of our understanding of the basic physics and dynamics of surface wave phenomena, with emphasis on the following areas: precise air-sea coupling mechanisms,dynamics of nonlinear wave-wave interaction under realistic environmental conditions,wave breaking and dissipation of energy,interaction between surface waves and upper ocean boundary layer dynamics, andsurface statistical and boundary layer coherent structures.

  3. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  4. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  5. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  6. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  7. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  8. Laboratory Models of Ocean Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, John

    1997-01-01

    ...). The subsequent studies were then split into two separate experiments involving convection in the two types of configurations which are likely to produce the very coldest water in the oceans, one...

  9. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  10. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Bhatnagar; Se-Kwon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and...

  11. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  12. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  14. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  15. The Onium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  16. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  17. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  18. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain

  19. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  20. Hyperon compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-11-01

    The formation of various hypernuclei from K - absorption at rest is discussed from the viewpoints of compound decay of highly excited hypernuclei in contrast to the direct reaction mechanism. Recent (stopped K - , π) experiments at KEK as well as old data of emulsion and bubble chamber experiments are discussed. Some future direction of hypernuclear spectroscopy is suggested. (author)

  1. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  2. Chemical compounds in teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viana da Silva Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinone compounds are largely generated at extractive fraction of the woods in a complex and variable biological system. The literature has indications for many segments from food industry to pharmaceutical industry. Within the field of industrial use of wood, they are less desirable since they are treated only as incidental substances in production strings of pulp, paper, charcoal, and sawmill. In spite of its small amount, compared to other chemical compounds called essential, these substances have received special attention from researchers revealing a diverse range of offerings to market products textiles, pharmaceuticals, colorants, and other polymers, for which are being tested and employed. Quinones are found in fungi, lichens, and mostly in higher plants. Tectona grandis, usually called teak, is able to biosynthesize anthraquinones, which is a quinone compound, byproduct of secondary metabolism. This species provides wood that is much prized in the furniture sector and can also be exploited for metabolites to supply the market in quinone compounds and commercial development of new technologies, adding value to the plantations of this species within our country.

  3. Smithsonian Ocean Portal | Find Your Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor life. These two are in the middle of a courtship. VIEW ARCHIVE Ocean Optimism Success Stories in Ocean

  4. Signature of Europa's Ocean Density on Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J. C.; Rambaux, N.

    2015-12-01

    Observations by the Galileo mission at Europa and Cassini-Huygens mission at Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, and Titan have found deep oceans at these objects with evidence for the presence of salts. Salt compounds are the products of aqueous alteration of the rock phase under hydrothermal conditions and have been predicted theoretically for these objects per analogy with carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Evidence for salt enrichment comes from magnetometer measurements (Galilean satellites), direct detection in the case of Enceladus, and inversion of the gravity data obtained at Titan. While there is direct detection for the presence of chlorides in icy grains ejected from Enceladus, the chemistry of the oceans detected so far, or even their densities, remain mostly unconstrained. However the increased ocean density impacts the interpretation of the tidal Love number k2and this may introduce confusion in the inference of the icy shell thickness from that parameter. We will present estimates of k2for a range of assumptions on Europa's hydrospheric structure that build on geophysical observations obtained by the Galileo mission combined with new models of Europa's interior. These models keep track of the compositions of the hydrated core and oceanic composition in a self-consistent manner. We will also estimate the electrical conductivity corresponding to the modeled oceanic composition. Finally we will explore how combining electromagnetic, topographic, and gravity data can decouple the signatures of the shell thickness and ocean composition on these geophysical observations. Acknowledgement: This work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  5. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, solar radiation and microbial activity on oceanic dimethylated sulfur cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Galí Tàpias, Martí

    2012-01-01

    The production and subsequent emission of volatile compounds is one of the numerous ways by which microbial plankton participate in the cycling of elements and influence the Earth's climate. Dimethylsulfide (DMS), produced by enzymatic decomposition of the algal intracellular compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), is the more abundant organic volatile in the upper ocean. Its global emission amounts ca. 28 Tg S per year, and represents the main biogenic source of sulfur to the troposphere...

  6. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  7. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  8. Ocean eddies and climate predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P; Perlin, Natalie; Siqueira, Leo

    2017-12-01

    A suite of coupled climate model simulations and experiments are used to examine how resolved mesoscale ocean features affect aspects of climate variability, air-sea interactions, and predictability. In combination with control simulations, experiments with the interactive ensemble coupling strategy are used to further amplify the role of the oceanic mesoscale field and the associated air-sea feedbacks and predictability. The basic intent of the interactive ensemble coupling strategy is to reduce the atmospheric noise at the air-sea interface, allowing an assessment of how noise affects the variability, and in this case, it is also used to diagnose predictability from the perspective of signal-to-noise ratios. The climate variability is assessed from the perspective of sea surface temperature (SST) variance ratios, and it is shown that, unsurprisingly, mesoscale variability significantly increases SST variance. Perhaps surprising is the fact that the presence of mesoscale ocean features even further enhances the SST variance in the interactive ensemble simulation beyond what would be expected from simple linear arguments. Changes in the air-sea coupling between simulations are assessed using pointwise convective rainfall-SST and convective rainfall-SST tendency correlations and again emphasize how the oceanic mesoscale alters the local association between convective rainfall and SST. Understanding the possible relationships between the SST-forced signal and the weather noise is critically important in climate predictability. We use the interactive ensemble simulations to diagnose this relationship, and we find that the presence of mesoscale ocean features significantly enhances this link particularly in ocean eddy rich regions. Finally, we use signal-to-noise ratios to show that the ocean mesoscale activity increases model estimated predictability in terms of convective precipitation and atmospheric upper tropospheric circulation.

  9. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  10. How healthy is the human-ocean system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickels, Wilfried; Quaas, Martin F; Visbeck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Halpern et al (2012 An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean Nature 488 11397) propose a detailed measure of the state of the human-ocean system against ten societal goals. They devote less attention to the normative foundation of the index, which is crucial for assessing the overall health of the human-ocean system, notably when it comes to aggregation of potentially conflicting goals. Social choice theory provides several possible functional forms for assessing the compound change in various goals. The one chosen by Halpern et al, the arithmetical mean, is not only a specific but also an extreme case. It implicitly allows for unlimited substitution. A one-unit reduction in one goal can be fully offset by a one-unit increase in another with the same weighting factor. For that reason, the current index satisfies an extremely weak sustainability concept. We show that the results in Halpern et al are not robust when one adopts a strong sustainability concept. The overall health score of the ocean decreases, the ranking of the various coastal states changes substantially, and the assessment of sustainable development needs to be partially reversed. (letter)

  11. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer

    2015-05-22

    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  13. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  14. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  15. Tripolar Mesoionic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Shuki, Araki; Jiro, Mizuya; Naomitsu, Aoyama; Yasuo, Butsugan

    1995-01-01

    Tripolar mesoionic compounds have been synthesized by the reaction of (1,3-diphenyltetrazol-5-ylio)cyclopentadienide (or -indenide) with the dicationic ether salts derived from mesoionic olates and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride. The structures of the newly prepared mesoionic systems are discussed on the basis of spectroscopic analysis; it is shown that the tripolar [tetrazolium-cyclopentadienide (or indenide)-tetrazolium] canonical structure contributes significantly to the ground state ...

  16. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  17. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  19. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  20. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  1. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  2. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  3. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  5. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  6. Evidence for major input of riverine organic matter into the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Balch, William M.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The changes in the structure of XAD-8 isolated dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples along a river (Penobscot River) to estuary (Penobscot Bay) to ocean (across the Gulf of Maine) transect and from the Pacific Ocean were investigated using selective and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with elemental and carbon isotope analysis. The results provide important insights into the nature of relatively stable structures in the river-to-ocean continuum and the enigma of the fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine system. First, lignin and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs), which are indistinguishable from mass spectrometry, were clearly differentiated with NMR spectroscopy. NMR unambiguously showed that CRAMs persisted along the river-to-ocean transect and in the Pacific Ocean, while lignin residues dramatically decreased in abundance from the river to the coastal ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The results challenge a previous conclusion that lignin-derived compounds are refractory and can accumulate in the coastal ocean. The loss of terrestrial plant-derived aromatic compounds such as lignin and tannin residues throughout the sequence of riverine, coastal, and open ocean DOM extracts could also partially explain the decreasing organic carbon recovery by XAD-8 isolation and the change in carbon stable isotope composition from riverine DOM (δ13C −27.6‰) to ocean DOM (δ13C −23.0‰) extracts. The observation, from advanced NMR, of similar CRAM molecules in XAD-8 isolated DOM samples from the Penobscot River to the Penobscot Bay and from the ocean refutes a previous conclusion that XAD-isolated DOM samples from seawater and river are distinctly different. The alicyclic structural features of CRAMs and their presence as the major structural units in DOM extracts from the Penobscot River to Gulf of Maine transect, together with the deduced old 14C age of CRAMs in the ocean, imply that terrestrial CRAMs may persist on

  7. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  8. Ship track for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  9. Ship Track for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  10. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...

  11. Oceanic forcing of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L

    2015-01-01

    Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

  12. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  13. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  14. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  15. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  16. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  17. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  18. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Oceanic anthropogenic CO 2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Oarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Oarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO 2 -related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean warming feedback was found to dominate the climate change responses in the surface ocean. Although surface pH is projected to decrease relatively uniformly by about 0.3 by the year 2100, we find pH to be insensitive to climate change feedbacks, whereas Oarag is buffered by ∼15%. Ocean carbonate chemistry creates a situation whereby the direct pH changes due to ocean warming are almost cancelled by the pH changes associated with dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations changes via a reduction in CO 2 solubility from ocean warming. We show that the small climate change feedback on future surface ocean pH is independent to the amount of ocean warming. Our analysis therefore implies that future projections of surface ocean acidification only need to consider future atmospheric CO 2 levels, not climate change induced modifications in the ocean

  19. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  20. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  1. GOCE Data for Ocean Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija

    and order. The method makes use of all available GOCE gradient data in addition to the global models and aims at improving the determination of Earth’s gravitational field in regional areas. Subsequently, the calculated equipotential surface, known as the geoid, is used together with measurements of sea...... surface height in a calculation of the Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT). This reflects the geostrophic ocean currents and leads to a better understanding of ocean mass and heat transfer. In regional geoid recovery from GOCE gradients, two methods are used, one of them being Least-Squares Collocation (LSC...

  2. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  3. Ocean Futures Under Ocean Acidification, Marine Protection, and Changing Fishing Pressures Explored Using a Worldwide Suite of Ecosystem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsen

    2018-03-01

    industrial sectors' objectives (e.g., simultaneous spatial management of energy, shipping, and fishing while at the same time grappling with compounded impacts of global climate change (e.g., ocean acidification and warming.

  4. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Ωarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO2-related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean ...

  5. The deep ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  6. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  7. Toxicology of alkylmercury compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant and potent neurotoxin whose abundance in the food chain mandates additional studies on the consequences and mechanisms of its toxicity to the central nervous system. Formulation of our new hypotheses was predicated on our appreciation for (a) the remarkable affinity of mercurials for the anionic form of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, and (b) the essential role of thiols in protein biochemistry. The present chapter addresses pathways to human exposure of various mercury compounds, highlighting their neurotoxicity and potential involvement in neurotoxic injury and neurodegenerative changes, both in the developing and senescent brain. Mechanisms that trigger these effects are discussed in detail.

  8. Compound composite odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kailasam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. Frequently, it may interfere with the eruption of the teeth. This is a case report of a compound composite odontoma in a 10-year-old girl, which results in failure of eruption of the permanent upper right central incisor while the contralateral tooth had erupted. A calcified mass was seen in the radiograph and was provisionally diagnosed as odontoma following which the odontoma was enucleated. Routine follow-up was done for more than a year and no recurrence was seen. This case report indicates that early diagnosis and management ensures better prognosis.

  9. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    . This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  10. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  11. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  12. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  13. Long range transport of hydrocarbons in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinturier, L.; Leureillard, J.; Arnold, M.; Tisnerat, N.; Pichon, J.J.; Gireaudau, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first results for hydrocarbon analyses of deep surface sediments collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples were taken along a north-south transect ranging from 43 deg. S to 55 deg. S in the southwestern Crozet Basin. In order to identify these compounds and elucidate their origins, various techniques were used: gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Tandetron: mass spectrometer coupled with a Tandem accelerator allowing the measure of 14 C/ 12 C ratio)

  14. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  15. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  16. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  17. Meteorite impact in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelitz, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the present study, the dynamic of hypervelocity impacts and crater formation in water are examined with allowance for the unique properties of water. More precisely, the transient crater calculated is permitted to relax and act as a source of oceanic surface waves.

  18. The Health of the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Edward D.

    International scientific literature is used to review relevant data concerning pollution of the world's oceans. Chapters 1, 8 and 9 address themselves to the problems of international control of marine pollution. Chapter 1 introduces the importance of the time factor, revealing information on how long it takes a pollutant to reach an undesirable…

  19. Artificial radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-10-01

    The report highlights the areas of major contributions that the nuclear era has made to the understanding of oceanography and the marine sciences, and in particular the application to the public health problems that arise through anthropogenic exploitation of the oceans for the disposal of radioactive materials

  20. Origin of the ``Ocean Bible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, W. H.

    2002-12-01

    ``The Oceans" is such a landmark for Sverdrup and the Scripps Institution that one ought to take a look at how it came about. The book came very close to NOT being written. Sverdrup was about to decline an invitation by Prentice Hall when his secretary persuaded him to accept. The contract called for 500-600 pages, it ended up with 1087 pages. Royalty was 10% (\\$0.27 to each author for the copy I purchased in 1943). Sverdrup had estimated a market of 550 copies. By the end of 1965 23,766 copies of the American edition alone had been sold. The book was completed in the early war years under very trying conditions for Sverdrup personally. When it did appear in print, a year after Pearl Harbor, the distribution was restricted to the continental United States because ``...it would be of great aid to the enemy should it fall into his hands." The book carries the mark of Sverdrup's lifelong emphasis on the synthesis of observations: ``we have preferred definite statements to mere enumeration of uncorrelated observations and conflicting interpretations." The result was a coherent presentation of ocean science, a remarkable achievement considering how badly the ocean was undersampled. I will describe my experience as a willing listener while Sverdrup was contemplating of how to organize Chapter XV: The Water Masses and Currents of the Oceans.

  1. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  2. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  3. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  4. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  5. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  6. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  7. Organometallic compounds in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, P. J

    2003-01-01

    ... of Organometallic Species in the Environment 20 1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds in Biological Systems 1.11 G eneral Comments on the Toxicities of Organometallic Compounds 22 1.12 General Considerations on Environmental R eactivity of Organometallic Compounds 24 1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals and M etalloids 25 1.13.1 Introduction 25 1...

  8. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  9. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  10. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  11. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  12. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  13. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  14. Climate Ocean Modeling on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change. However, modeling the ocean circulation at various spatial and temporal scales is a very challenging computational task.

  15. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  16. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  17. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  18. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  19. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  20. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  1. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    Marine and coastal information is necessary for sound decision making about sustainable utilisation of our oceanic and coastal resources. Due to inadequate data management tools, lack of information technology benefits in the minds of the ocean...

  2. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank

    2005-01-01

    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  3. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  4. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  5. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  6. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution. While considerable...

  7. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  8. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NCEI Accession 0114815)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  9. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  10. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  11. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  12. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  13. The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.

  14. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ocean includes the Geoid (a fixed gravity equipotential surface ) as well as the MDT, which is not known accurately enough relative to the centimeter...scales, including processes that control the surface mixed layer, the formation of ocean eddies, meandering ocean J.A. Cummings (E3) nography Division...variables. Examples of this in the ocean are integral quantities, such as acous^B travel time and altimeter measures of sea surface height, and direct

  15. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  16. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  17. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  18. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  19. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  20. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  3. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  4. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  6. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  7. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  8. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Orr, J.C.; Riebesell, U.; Tyrrell, T.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean

  9. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  10. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  11. The Ocean State Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ocean State Power is an independent partnership in the form of utility companies and private developers who have joined forces to build a gas-fired, combined cycle generating plant in Burrillville, Rhode Island. The initial capacity of the plant is expected to be approximately 250 MW, with a provision to double the size. Unit I will be on-line 2989/2990 with unit II shortly thereafter. The OSP equity group includes TransCanada PipeLines, Easter Utilities Associates, New England Electric System, Newport Electric and J. Makowski Associates. The author describes the project's major features and turns to a brief status report on the contracts and licenses. Ocean State Power came about because of; the rapid growth in demand for capacity in new England; the availability of a long-term supply of natural gas from Canada which has recently revised export policies and the inherent efficiency and reliability of combined cycle power generation

  12. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  13. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, Şafak

    2018-01-01

    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  14. The Phenomenom of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2017-12-01

    The earth is 70% and is protected by its atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of several layers. The sunlight penetrates through the atmosphere and warms the earth surface. The earth's surface then in turn emits invisible infrared radiation back. As this radiation moves back up each layer absorbs some of it. Each layer then sends some of this energy back to earth again. When the layer becomes so thin the energy then escapes back into space. When we are adding more carbon dioxide to these layers we are causing the layers to absorb more of the energy and the radiation. This in turn causes the layers to become warmer since fewer radiation moves up through the layers and this energy bounces back to earth increasing the temperatures. The entire planet is taking on more of this energy and hence the temperatures are rising. The ocean plays a big rule in this change. It has prevented some of the CO2 from entering the earth's atmosphere. Oceans absorb about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 causing the phenomenon of ocean acidification and this comes at a huge cost to our marine environments. The CO2 is absorbed on the surface and then transferred into the deeper waters. Which causes it to be stuck for centuries before making its way back into the atmosphere. As the CO2 dissolves in seawater it causes the PH to lower. With a lowered PH water becomes more acidic. The Hydrogen ions decrease and become less active. With this process carbonic acid is formed. The ocean now is more acidic then it has ever been in the past 650,000 years. The increase in acidic levels has caused our marine life to adjust. Acidosis caused by the increase of carbonic acid in the body fluids means a lower pH in the blood. This changes is just the start to many health issues for these organism's.

  15. Life in the oceanic realms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Keywords Phytoplankton,zooplankton,pri- mary and secondary producers, zooxanthellae. Chandralata Raghukumar is an emeritus scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. After obtaining a PhD in plant pathology, she worked for 5 years on fungal... marine animals and plants were collected during such voyages by the researchers onboardthe vesselsandsystematicallydescribed. The HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board sailed around different oceans for nearly 4 years and this was the beginning...

  16. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  17. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  18. Ocean Literacy After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  19. Atmospheric Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, P.; Edson, J.; Cifuentes, A.; McGillis, W. R.; Zappa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Long-range transport of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) is a global concern. Remote regions such as the Southern Ocean are greatly under-sampled though critical components in understanding POPs cycling. Over 20 high-volume air samples were collected in the Southern Ocean aboard the RV Brown during the GASEX III experiment between Mar 05 to April 9 2008. The relatively stationary platform (51S,38W) enabled the collection of a unique atmospheric time series at this open ocean station. Air sampling was also conducted across transects from Punto Arenas, Chile and to Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were collected using glass sleeves packed with poly-urethane foam plugs and C-18 resin in order to collect target organic pollutants (per-fluorinated compounds, currently and historically used pesticides) in this under-sampled region. Here we present POPs concentrations and trends over the sampled period and compare variations with air parcel back trajectories to establish potential origins of their long-range transport.

  20. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdelrhman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of adequate light intensity is a major factor in the health of algae and phytoplankton. There is a strong negative coupling between light intensity and phytoplankton concentration (e.g., through self-shading by the cells, which reduces available light and in return affects the growth rate of the cells. Proper modeling of this coupling is essential to understand primary productivity in the oceans. This paper provides the methodology to model light intensity in the water column, which can be included in relevant water quality models. The methodology implements relationships from bio-optical models, which use phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl-a concentration as a surrogate for light attenuation, including absorption and scattering by other attenuators. The presented mathematical methodology estimates the reduction in light intensity due to absorption by pure seawater, chl-a pigment, non-algae particles (NAPs and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, as well as backscattering by pure seawater, phytoplankton particles and NAPs. The methods presented facilitate the prediction of the effects of various environmental and management scenarios (e.g., global warming, altered precipitation patterns, greenhouse gases on the wellbeing of phytoplankton communities in the oceans as temperature-driven chl-a changes take place.

  1. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  2. Practical global oceanic state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Carl; Heimbach, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    The problem of oceanographic state estimation, by means of an ocean general circulation model (GCM) and a multitude of observations, is described and contrasted with the meteorological process of data assimilation. In practice, all such methods reduce, on the computer, to forms of least-squares. The global oceanographic problem is at the present time focussed primarily on smoothing, rather than forecasting, and the data types are unlike meteorological ones. As formulated in the consortium Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), an automatic differentiation tool is used to calculate the so-called adjoint code of the GCM, and the method of Lagrange multipliers used to render the problem one of unconstrained least-squares minimization. Major problems today lie less with the numerical algorithms (least-squares problems can be solved by many means) than with the issues of data and model error. Results of ongoing calculations covering the period of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and including among other data, satellite altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason-1, ERS- 1/2, ENVISAT, and GFO, a global array of profiling floats from the Argo program, and satellite gravity data from the GRACE mission, suggest that the solutions are now useful for scientific purposes. Both methodology and applications are developing in a number of different directions.

  3. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  4. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  5. Geochemical investigations of sea water and manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncal, R.Z.

    1976-01-01

    Surface water, deep water, and pore water samples from the central Pacific Ocean were investigated for their Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu contents. The data were interpreted with the aid of thermodynamic calculations in order to gain new knowledge on the heavy water compounds possibly contained in the water. The relationships between the elements Co, Ni, and Cu and the Mn and Fe phases were determined with the aid of chemical and mineralogical investigations of typical Mu and Fe hydroxides and manganese nodules from the same region of the Pacific Ocean. (orig.) [de

  6. Tracing Carbon Cycling in the Atmosphere and Oceans During the Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2, 94Ma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S. A. M.; Boudinot, F. G.; Dildar, N.; Sepúlveda, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a high-resolution record of compound-specific stable carbon isotope data from short-chain—aquatic algae—and long-chain n-alkanes—terrestrial plants—preserved in sedimentary sequences from the Smokey Hollow #1 (SH1) core in the Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument in southern Utah. The study area covered by SH1 core was situated at the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway during the Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event (OAE2, 94Ma.), and was characterized by high sedimentation rates and enhanced preservation of both marine and terrestrial organic matter. Short- and long-chain n-alkanes were isolated and purified from branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons using an optimized urea adduction protocol, and δ13Cn-alkane was measured using a Thermo MAT253 GC-C-IR-MS. We use the δ13Cn-alkane from aquatic and terrestrial sources to better understand carbon cycle interactions in the oceanic and atmospheric carbon pools across this event. Our results indicate that the δ13C of terrestrial plants experienced a faster and more pronounced positive carbon isotope excursion compared to marine sources. We will discuss how these results can inform models of carbon cycle interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere during greenhouse climates, and how they can be used to trace possible sources of CO2.

  7. TSTA compound cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Patrick, R.E.; Call, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is intended to demonstrate realistic fuel supply and cleanup scenarios for future fusion reactors. The vacuum pumps must be capable of handling large quantities of reactor exhaust gases consisting largely of mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Cryocondensing pumps will not pump helium at 4.2 K; while cryosorption pumps using molecular sieves or charcoal have good helium pumping speed, the adsorbent clogs with condensed hydrogen while pumping mixtures of both. A solution to this problem is a compound design whereby the first stage condenses the hydrogen and the second, or sorption, stage pumps the helium. The TSTA pump designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses argon gas to cryotrap the helium in the helium-hydrogen mixture. The argon is sprayed directly onto the 4.2 K surface at a rate proportional to the helium flow rate, permitting continuous pumping of the helium-hydrogen mixtures in a single-stage pump. However, the possibility of differential desorption as a first stage in the TSTA gas separation cycle required the inclusion of a first-stage hydrogen isotope condenser. The design, performance, and operating characteristics are discussed

  8. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  9. Affixation and compounding in Hakka

    OpenAIRE

    Ungsitipoonporn, Siriopen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present the internal structures of words in the Hakka language. Similar to other languages, affixation and compounding are outstanding in Hakka. In general, prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes which do not occur independently, but in Hakka they sometimes appear as independent forms. Apart from single words, identifying compound words is of particular interest. Compound nouns can be made up of two or three words (characters) which ...

  10. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  11. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  12. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  13. Modeling Compound Flood Hazards in Coastal Embayments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, H.; Schubert, J. E.; AghaKouchak, A.; Luke, A.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal cities around the world are built on lowland topography adjacent to coastal embayments and river estuaries, where multiple factors threaten increasing flood hazards (e.g. sea level rise and river flooding). Quantitative risk assessment is required for administration of flood insurance programs and the design of cost-effective flood risk reduction measures. This demands a characterization of extreme water levels such as 100 and 500 year return period events. Furthermore, hydrodynamic flood models are routinely used to characterize localized flood level intensities (i.e., local depth and velocity) based on boundary forcing sampled from extreme value distributions. For example, extreme flood discharges in the U.S. are estimated from measured flood peaks using the Log-Pearson Type III distribution. However, configuring hydrodynamic models for coastal embayments is challenging because of compound extreme flood events: events caused by a combination of extreme sea levels, extreme river discharges, and possibly other factors such as extreme waves and precipitation causing pluvial flooding in urban developments. Here, we present an approach for flood risk assessment that coordinates multivariate extreme analysis with hydrodynamic modeling of coastal embayments. First, we evaluate the significance of correlation structure between terrestrial freshwater inflow and oceanic variables; second, this correlation structure is described using copula functions in unit joint probability domain; and third, we choose a series of compound design scenarios for hydrodynamic modeling based on their occurrence likelihood. The design scenarios include the most likely compound event (with the highest joint probability density), preferred marginal scenario and reproduced time series of ensembles based on Monte Carlo sampling of bivariate hazard domain. The comparison between resulting extreme water dynamics under the compound hazard scenarios explained above provides an insight to the

  14. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    the volcano Agua de Pau. //i ( ,.which nas eruted 5 tir-es in tile past 4.600 / ye,.rs, the last in 1563. Xumerous not springs S/ o3220 an’ soradic...complex. In a study layered structure and physical properties to of ophiolite complexes in southern Chile , de Wit ce those of oceanic crust...Spooner et al, 1977) and and Govett, 1973). A large lens, for example that S. Chile (Stern et al, 1976). Zeolite to amphib- at Skouriotissa, had a

  15. Oceanic emissions of sulfur: Application of new techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodwalis, Clara Mary

    Sulfur gases and aerosols are important in the atmosphere because they play major roles in acid rain, arctic haze, air pollution, and climate. Globally, man-made and natural sulfur emissions are comparable in magnitude. The major natural source is dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the oceans, where it originates from the degradation of dimethysulfonioproprionate (DMSP), a compound produced by marine phytoplankton. Global budgets of natural sulfur emissions are uncertain because of (1) the uncertainty in the traditional method used to estimate DMS sea-to-air flux, and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of DMS sea-to-air flux. We have worked to lessen the uncertainty on both fronts. The commonly used method for estimating DMS sea-to-air flux is certain to a factor of two, at best. We used a novel instrumental technique to measure, for the first time, sulfur gas concentration fluctuations in the marine boundary layer. The measured concentration fluctuations were then used with two established micrometeorological techniques to estimate sea-to-air flux of sulfur. Both methods appear to be more accurate than the commonly used one. The analytical instrument we used in our studies shows potential as a direct flux measurement device. High primary productivity in high-latitude oceans suggests a potentially large DMS source from northern oceans. To begin to investigate this hypothesis, we have measured DMS in the air over northern oceans around Alaska. For integrating and extrapolating field measurements over larger areas and longer time periods, we have developed a model of DMS ocean mixing, biological production, and sea-to-air flux of DMS. The model's main utility is in gaining intuition on which parameters are most important to DMS sea-to-air flux. This information, along with a direct flux measurement capability, are crucial steps toward the long-term goal of remotely sensing DMS flux. A remote sensing approach will mitigate the problems of spatial and temporal

  16. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    OpenAIRE

    P. Q. Fu; K. Kawamura; J. Chen; B. Charrière; R. Sempéré

    2013-01-01

    Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3), accounting ...

  17. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  19. Deep Ocean Contribution to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Sun, W.; Tang, H.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The ocean temperature and salinity change in the upper 2000m can be detected by Argo floats, so we can know the steric height change of the ocean. But the ocean layers above 2000m represent only 50% of the total ocean volume. Although the temperature and salinity change are small compared to the upper ocean, the deep ocean contribution to sea level might be significant because of its large volume. There has been some research on the deep ocean rely on the very sparse situ observation and are limited to decadal and longer-term rates of change. The available observational data in the deep ocean are too spares to determine the temporal variability, and the long-term changes may have a bias. We will use the Argo date and combine the situ data and topographic data to estimate the temperature and salinity of the sea water below 2000m, so we can obtain a monthly data. We will analyze the seasonal and annual change of the steric height change due to the deep ocean between 2005 and 2016. And we will evaluate the result combination the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems. The deep ocean contribution can be inferred indirectly as the difference between the altimetry minus GRACE and Argo-based steric sea level.

  20. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhen; Xie Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang Jianhui; Zhang Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009–2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25–45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. - Highlights: ► PFOA is released from the Arctic snow and ice and might be transport southwards to the Atlantic. ► Decline temporal trends of PFASs are present in the Northern Hemisphere in the Atlantic. ► PFOS has elevate concentration in comparison to PFOA in the Southern Ocean. - Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported for the Arctic, Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, which improves understanding the fate of PFASs in the global oceans.

  1. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  2. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  3. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  4. Compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Hamel, B. C.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Timmermans, J.; Pals, G.; Cobben, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We report two families in which the probands have compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome (MFS). The proband of family I has the R2726W FBN1 mutation associated with isolated skeletal features on one allele and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation on the other allele. The phenotype of the compound-heterozygous

  5. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Radiolysis of other organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of radiolysis of organic halogen, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen (including amines, amides, nitriles et al.) compounds in liquid phase are discussed. Intermediate and stable finish products of radiolysis of the given compounds, properties and radiochemical yields of these products are considered

  7. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  8. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...

  9. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  10. The deep ocean under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-13

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. The study of the ocean from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novogrudskii, B V; Skliarov, V E; Fedorov, K N; Shifrin, K S

    1978-01-01

    The application of earth satellites and manned spacecraft to the study of the world's oceans is reviewed. Attention is given to the atmospheric transfer function in the visible, near-IR, middle-IR and microwave regions and the use of satellites in ocean data acquisition and transmission systems. The measurement of sea level and the topography of the ocean surface by means of orbital radar altimeters is discussed, together with IR and microwave measurements of ocean surface temperature and the study of surface roughness, surface evidence of internal waves, oil pollution and ice fields. Consideration is also given to the determination of ocean chlorophyll content and color distribution, coastal region characteristics, ocean salinity and other biological parameters from space.

  12. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  13. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  14. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection...... zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading.The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS...

  15. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  16. Geobiological Responses to Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    During 240Ma of evolution, scleractinian corals survived major changes in ocean chemistry, yet recent concerns with rapid acidification after ca. 40Ma of almost constant oceanic pH have tended to distract attention from natural pH variation in coastal waters, where most corals and reefs occur. Unaltered skeletal environmental proxies reflect conditions experienced by individual organisms, with any variation on micro- habitat and micro-time scales appropriate for that individual's ecology, behavior and physiology, but proxy interpretation usually extrapolates to larger spatial (habitat, region to global) and temporal (seasonal, annual, interannual) scales. Therefore, predicting consequences of acidification for both corals and reefs requires greater understanding of: 1. Many potential indirect consequences of pH change that may affect calcification and/or carbonate accretion: e.g. an individual's developmental rates, growth, final size, general physiology and reproductive success; its population's distribution and abundance, symbionts, food availability, predators and pathogens; and its community and ecosystem services. 2. Potentially diverse responses to declining pH, ranging from non-evolutionary, rapid physiological changes (acclimation) or long term (seasonal to interannual) plasticity (acclimatization) of individuals, through genetic adaptation in local populations, and up to directional changes in species" characteristics and/or radiations/extinctions. 3. The evolutionary and environmental history of an organism's lineage, its ecological (own lifetime) exposure to environmental variation, and "pre-adaptation" via other factors acting on correlated characters.

  17. Climate change impact on future ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Elevated atmospheric C02 levels and associated uptake by the ocean is changing its carbon chemistry, leading to an acidification. The implications of future ocean acidification on the marine ecosystem are unclear but seemingly detrimental particularly to those organisms and phytoplankton that secrete calcium carbonate (like corals). Here we present new results from the Australian CSIRO General Circulation Model that predicts the changing nature of oceanic carbon chemistry in response to future climate change feedbacks (circulation, temperature and biological). We will discuss the implications of future ocean acidification and the potential implications on Australia's marine ecosystems

  18. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. The atmosphere and ocean: A physical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, N.

    1986-01-01

    The book's contents are: The Earth within the solar system. Composition and physical properties of the ocean and atmosphere. Radiation, temperature and stability. Water in the atmosphere. Global budgets of heat, water and salt. Observations of winds and currents. The influence of the Earth's rotation on fluid motion. Waves and tides. Energy transfer in the ocean-atmosphere system. Climate variability and predictability. The atmosphere and ocean are two different environmental systems, yet both are interdependent, interacting and exchanging energy, heat and matter. This book attempts to bring the study of the atmosphere and ocean together. It is a descriptive account of physical properties, exploring their common bases, similarities, interactions and fundamental differences

  20. Ocean images in music compositions and folksongs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    In general, ocean study usually ranges from physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine biology, marine geology, and other related fields. In addition to pure scientific fields, ocean phenomenon influence not only human mood but also the shaping of local cultures. In this paper, we present some ocean images and concepts appeared in music compositions and folksongs to show the mixing, influence and interaction between them. This may give a novel way not for science teachers but also music teachers to deliver the knowledge of ocean science in classes.

  1. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H

    2004-03-04

    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  2. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  3. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John

    2017-02-01

    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  4. 77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... charge for Federal agencies to implement the National Ocean Policy, the National Ocean Council developed... dollars a year to the national economy, and are essential to public health and national security. Next...

  5. Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Sirisha, P.; Sandhya, K.G.; Srinivas, K.; SanilKumar, V.; Sabique, L.; Nherakkol, A.; KrishnaPrasad, B.; RakhiKumari; Jeyakumar, C.; Kaviyazhahu, K.; RameshKumar, M.; Harikumar, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, S.

    The reliability of the operational Ocean State Forecast system at the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) during tropical cyclones that affect the coastline of India is described in this article. The performance...

  6. Puget Sound ocean acidification model outputs - Modeling the impacts of ocean acidification on ecosystems and populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWFSC OA team will model the effects of ocean acidification on regional marine species and ecosystems using food web models, life-cycle models, and bioenvelope...

  7. Ship Sensor Observations for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the...

  8. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  9. Continuous flow IRMS application to CH4, MNHCS, and N2O in the atmosphere and the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Toyoda, S.

    2001-01-01

    The application of CF-IRMS to measurement of methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCS), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is outlined and preliminary information on isotopic variations in the atmosphere and oceans is presented. Labelling of these compounds is expected to provide a robust method for tracing sources, sinks and controlling processes in the environment. (author)

  10. Radiation processing of organics and biological materials exposed to ocean world surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the habitability of ocean worlds, such as Europa and Enceladus, motivates a search for endogenous carbon compounds that could be indicative of a habitable, or even inhabited, subsurface liquid water environment. We have examined the role of destruction and synthesis of organic compounds via 10 keV electron bombardment of ices generated under temperature and pressure conditions comparable to Europa and Enceladus. Short-chain organics and ammonia, in combination with water, were exposed to Mrad to Grad doses and observed to evolve to a `lost' carbon fraction (CO and CO2) and a `retained' carbon fraction (consisting of a highly refractory `ocean world tholin' populated by highly radiation resistant carbonyl, aldehyde, and nitrile components). The retained fraction is of key importance as this likely represents the observable fraction for future spacecraft investigations. We also irradiated microbial spores (B. pumilis) to approximately 2 Grad and have found persistence of biomolecule fractions derived from proteins and nucleic acids.

  11. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Nisumaa Anne-Marin; Pesant Stephane; Bellerby Richard G J; Delille Bruno; Middelburg Jack J; Orr James C; Riebesell Ulf; Tyrrell Toby; Wolf-Gladrow Dieter A; Gattuso Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additional...

  12. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  13. One kind of atmosphere-ocean three layer model for calculating the velocity of ocean current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Z; Xi, P

    1979-10-01

    A three-layer atmosphere-ocean model is given in this paper to calcuate the velocity of ocean current, particularly the function of the vertical coordinate, taking into consideratiln (1) the atmospheric effect on the generation of ocean current, (2) a calculated coefficient of the eddy viscosity instead of an assumed one, and (3) the sea which actually varies in depth.

  14. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    .... SUMMARY: The EPA is designating the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G- DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged... administration of ocean disposal permits; (2) development and maintenance of a site monitoring program; (3... include: (1) Regulating quantities and types of material to be disposed, including the time, rates, and...

  15. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  16. Sediment grain sizes, Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs), and others collected from RV Donald W Pritchard in Hempstead Bay, New York from 2013-02-11 to 2014-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0166078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements of sewage-derived compounds (qacs, which include personal care products) in grab samples of sediments of Hempstead Bay, NY, approximately 100 days to 20...

  17. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Guang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ye, Feiyan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Jing, E-mail: cejingxiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: cezhli@scut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Haihui [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was developed for selective adsorption of DBTs under UV irradiation. • Remarkable adsorption uptake and selectivity were achieved for deep desulfurization. • Introduction of TiO{sub 2} into SiO{sub 2} enhanced its adsorption for DBTO{sub 2}. • Adsorption mechanism using TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV irradiation was elucidated. - Abstract: This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV-irradiation. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO{sub 2}/0.7SiO{sub 2} adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO{sub 2} served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO{sub 2} acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO{sub 2} as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO{sub 2}/0.7SiO{sub 2} adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions.

  18. A review of ocean chlorophyll algorithms and primary production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Zhou, Song; Lv, Nan

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly introduces the five ocean chlorophyll concentration inversion algorithm and 3 main models for computing ocean primary production based on ocean chlorophyll concentration. Through the comparison of five ocean chlorophyll inversion algorithm, sums up the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithm,and briefly analyzes the trend of ocean primary production model.

  19. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  20. Industrial uses of boron compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, H [Eurotungstene; Thevenot, F

    1978-06-01

    A review includes a section on the use in the chemical industry of some transition-metal borides as heterogeneous catalysts in the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of organic compounds and in fuel cells.

  1. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...... perceptions of what is acceptable urban life to the growing cohort of young African households. In addition, there is a need to explore innovative forms of tenure in order to secure the majority of Kumasi's population access to land for housing.......The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  2. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  3. Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At the Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds there were sessions on facilitated transport, analytical applications, organic synthesis and reactions, phase transfer catalysis, and metal complexation. Abstracts of the individual presentations are included

  4. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  5. Compound cueing in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  6. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  7. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  9. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  10. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers

  11. Radiation curable hydantoin diacrylate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, R.; DiPrima, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The diacrylate compounds are liquid at room temperature, easily processable as adhesives, casting and laminating resins and when cured possess excellent resistance to water. These compositions are easily cured exposure to ionizing radiations

  12. Reconstruction of past changes in ocean salinity - a compound specific stable hydrogen isotope approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, S.

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the general warming related to increasing anthropogenic CO2 emission andits implications for the global climate system are currently under heavy debate. In particular theextrapolation of long term climatic trends relies on complex climate models for the interactionbetween the

  13. Reconstruction of past changes in ocean salinity - a compound specific stable hydrogen isotope approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, S.

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the general warming related to increasing anthropogenic CO2 emission and its implications for the global climate system are currently under heavy debate. In particular the extrapolation of long term climatic trends relies on complex climate models for the interaction between the

  14. The OceanLink Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Krisnadhi, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve the dissemination of scientific research. Creating semantic integration requires input from both domain and cyberinfrastructure scientists. OceanLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is demonstrating semantic technologies through the integration of geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Meeting project objectives involves applying semantic technologies to support data representation, discovery, sharing and integration. Our semantic cyberinfrastructure components include ontology design patterns, Linked Data collections, semantic provenance, and associated services to enhance data and knowledge discovery, interoperation, and integration. We discuss how these components are integrated, the continued automated and semi-automated creation of semantic metadata, and techniques we have developed to integrate ontologies, link resources, and preserve provenance and attribution.

  15. Handbook of ocean wave energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kofoed, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners in the wave energy sector.

  16. Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Allison R.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2018-01-01

    Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained. We propose that specific physiological mechanisms have a strong impact on plankton and community stoichiometry in nutrient-rich environments, whereas biogeochemical interactions are important for the stoichiometry of the oligotrophic gyres. Finally, we outline key areas with missing information that is needed to advance understanding of the present and future ecological stoichiometry of ocean plankton.

  17. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as applied adjustments.

  18. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  19. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, H.O.

    1985-04-01

    A 1:40 scale model of a sea bed repository has been tested in a laboratory flume 1.5 m wide x 0.8 m deep. The nature of the very thick turbulent boundary layer developed at the bed in deep ocean flows has been reviewed from all available literature. Flow of this kind has been reproduced in the laboratory flume so that it correctly envelops the model repository. The repository is placed in the flume on a bed of coal grains to study the scour effect of the boundary layer flow as it passes around the repository. Results are presented for scour around a repository with the centre-line aligned with the direction of flow. (author)

  20. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  1. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.; Thomas, Ludivine; Shaw, Martin L.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan D.; Leung, Susanna; Cumming, Mathew; McManus, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential

  2. Pore-water sulfate concentration profiles of sediment cores from Krishna-Godavari and Goa basins, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, B.R.; Khadge, N.H.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Kocherla, M.; Joao, H.M.

    , which is an energy requiring process, sulfur is incorporated into the cells as organo-sulfur compounds (Dinur et al., 1980; Madigan et al., 2000 and Canfield, 2001), whereas dissimilatory sulfate reduction (Canfield, 2001 and Madigan et al., 2000...

  3. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  4. A New Paradigm for New Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.; Doré, A. G.; Franke, D.; Geoffroy, L.; Gernigon, L.; Hole, M.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Julian, B. R.; Kusznir, N.; Martinez, F.; Natland, J. H.; Peace, A.; Petersen, K. D.; Schiffer, C.; Stephenson, R.; Stoker, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The original simple theory of plate tectonics had to be refined to accommodate second-order geological features such as back-arc basins and continental deformation zones. We propose an additional refinement that is required by complexities that form and persist in new oceans when inhomogeneous continental lithosphere/tectosphere disintegrates. Such complexities include continual plate-boundary reorganizations and migrations, distributed continental material in the ocean, propagating and dying ridges, and sagging, flexing and tilting in the oceans and at continent-ocean boundary zones. Reorganizations of stress and motion persist, resulting in variable orientations over short distances, tectonic reactivations, complex plate boundary configurations including multiple triple junctions, and the formation and abandonment of oceanic microplates. Resulting local compressions and extensions are manifest as bathymetric anomalies, vertical motions, and distributed volcanism at various times and places as the new ocean grows. Examples of regions that exhibit some or all of these features include the North Atlantic, the Rio Grande Rise/Walvis Ridge region of the South Atlantic, and the Seychelles-Mauritius region in the Indian Ocean. We suggest that these complexities arise as a result of the formation of new spreading plate boundaries by rifts propagating through continental lithosphere/tectosphere that is anisotropic as a result of inherited structure/composition and/or a sub-lithospheric mantle destabilized by lithospheric-controlled processes. Such scenarios result in complicated disintegration of continents and local persistent dynamic instability in the new ocean.

  5. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  6. Lagrangian ocean analysis : Fundamentals and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, Erik; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Heemink, A.W.; Griffies, Stepehn M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Authors, More

    2018-01-01

    Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several

  7. Ocean FEST: Families Exploring Science Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Barbara C.; Wiener, Carlie; Kimura, Arthur; Kimura, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This project engages elementary school students, parents, teachers, and administrators in ocean-themed family science nights based on a proven model. Our key goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians,…

  8. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source for...

  9. Ocean transport and the facilitation of trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.W.; Lee, C.Y.; Meng, Q.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe transactions in international trade transaction, and we zoom in on the ocean transport part of that transaction. We use transaction cost economics as our theoretical framework. We highlighted a number of ocean transport related processes that generate uncertainty and

  10. The Indian Ocean as a Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgadoo, J. V.; Biastoch, A.; Boning, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    The Indian Ocean is a conduit for the upper ocean flow of the global thermohaline circulation. It receives water from the Pacific Ocean through the Indonesian throughflow and the Tasman leakage, and exports water into the Atlantic by means of Agulhas leakage. A small contribution from the northern Indian Ocean is also detectable within Agulhas leakage. Changes on different timescales in the various components of the Pacific inflows and the Atlantic outflow have been reported. Little is known on the role of the Indian Ocean circulation in communicating changes from the Pacific into the Atlantic, let alone any eventual alterations in response to climate change. The precise routes and timescales of Indonesian throughflow, Tasman leakage, Red Sea and Persian Gulf Waters towards the Atlantic are examined in a Lagrangian framework within a high-resolution global ocean model. In this presentation, the following questions are addressed: How are Pacific waters modified in the Indian Ocean before reaching the Agulhas system? On what timescale is water that enters the Indian Ocean from the Pacific flushed out? How important are detours in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea?

  11. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  12. Role of remote sensing in ocean management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_114.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_114.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Kinas ambitioner i det Indiske Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Morten Hetmar

    2014-01-01

    The article examines China's strategic and maritime interests and behaviour in the Indian Ocean and the Sino-Indian rivalry in Asia, as both countries vie for political and economic influnce in the countries dotting the Indian Ocean littoral from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca....

  14. Lagrangian ocean analysis : Fundamentals and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cheng, Yu; Cotter, Colin J.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Döös, Kristofer; Drake, Henri F.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Gary, Stefan F.; Heemink, Arnold W.; Kjellsson, Joakim; Koszalka, Inga Monika; Lange, Michael; Lique, Camille; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marsh, Robert; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela; McAdam, Ronan; Nencioli, Francesco; Paris, Claire B.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Polton, Jeff A.; Rühs, Siren; Shah, Syed H.A.M.; Thomas, Matthew D.; Wang, Jinbo; Wolfram, Phillip J.; Zanna, Laure; Zika, Jan D.

    2018-01-01

    Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades,

  15. 78 FR 33961 - National Oceans Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... and energy to helping sustain our climate and our security, the oceans play a critical role in nearly... generations to come. Rising to meet that test means addressing threats like overfishing, pollution, and... solutions to the challenges we face. By making smart choices in ocean management, we can give our businesses...

  16. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  17. Indian Ocean experiments with a coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainer, I. [Sao Paulo, Univ. (Brazil). Dept. of Oceanography

    1997-03-01

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the equatorial Indian Ocean response to the seasonally varying monsoon winds. Special attention is given to the oceanic response to the spatial distribution and changes in direction of the zonal winds. The Indian Ocean is surrounded by an Asian land mass to the North and an African land mass to the West. The model extends latitudinally between 41 N and 41 S. The asymmetric atmospheric model is driven by a mass source/sink term that is proportional to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the oceans and the heat balance over the land. The ocean is modeled using the Anderson and McCreary reduced-gravity transport model that includes a prognostic equation for the SST. The coupled system is driven by the annual cycle as manifested by zonally symmetric and asymmetric land and ocean heating. They explored the different nature of the equatorial ocean response to various patterns of zonal wind stress forcing in order to isolate the impact of the remote response on the Somali current. The major conclusions are : i) the equatorial response is fundamentally different for easterlies and westerlies, ii) the impact of the remote forcing on the Somali current is a function of the annual cycle, iii) the size of the basin sets the phase of the interference of the remote forcing on the Somali current relative to the local forcing.

  18. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  19. OW NASA SeaWIFS Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)...

  20. Oceans Melting Greenland: Early Results from NASA's Ocean-Ice Mission in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenty, Ian; Willis, Josh K.; Khazendar, Ala

    2016-01-01

    the continental shelf, and about the extent to which the ocean interacts with glaciers. Early results from NASA's five-year Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission, based on extensive hydrographic and bathymetric surveys, suggest that many glaciers terminate in deep water and are hence vulnerable to increased...... melting due to ocean-ice interaction. OMG will track ocean conditions and ice loss at glaciers around Greenland through the year 2020, providing critical information about ocean-driven Greenland ice mass loss in a warming climate....

  1. Swell Propagation over Indian Ocean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra A. Bhowmick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Swells are the ocean surface gravity waves that have propagated out of their generating fetch to the distant coasts without significant attenuation. Therefore they contain a clear signature of the nature and intensity of wind at the generation location. This makes them a precursor to various atmospheric phenomena like distant storms, tropical cyclones, or even large scale sea breeze like monsoon. Since they are not affected by wind once they propagate out of their generating region, they cannot be described by regional wave models forced by local winds. However, their prediction is important, in particular, for ship routing and off shore structure designing. In the present work, the propagation of swell waves from the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean to the central and northern Indian Ocean has been studied. For this purpose a spectral ocean Wave Model (WAM has been used to simulate significant wave height for 13 years from 1993–2005 using NCEP blended winds at a horizontal spatial resolution of 1° × 1°. It has been observed that Indian Ocean, with average wave height of approximately 2–3 m during July, is mostly dominated by swell waves generated predominantly under the extreme windy conditions prevailing over the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean. In fact the swell waves reaching the Indian Ocean in early or mid May carry unique signatures of monsoon arriving over the Indian Subcontinent. Pre-monsoon month of April contains low swell waves ranging from 0.5–1 m. The amplitudes subsequently increase to approximately 1.5–2 meters around 7–15 days prior to the arrival of monsoon over the Indian Subcontinent. This embedded signature may be utilized as one of the important oceanographic precursor to the monsoon onset over the Indian Ocean.

  2. Dynamics of a Snowball Earth ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi; Losch, Martin; Macdonald, Francis A; Schrag, Daniel P; Tziperman, Eli

    2013-03-07

    Geological evidence suggests that marine ice extended to the Equator at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (about 750 to 635 million years ago), inspiring the Snowball Earth hypothesis that the Earth was globally ice-covered. In a possible Snowball Earth climate, ocean circulation and mixing processes would have set the melting and freezing rates that determine ice thickness, would have influenced the survival of photosynthetic life, and may provide important constraints for the interpretation of geochemical and sedimentological observations. Here we show that in a Snowball Earth, the ocean would have been well mixed and characterized by a dynamic circulation, with vigorous equatorial meridional overturning circulation, zonal equatorial jets, a well developed eddy field, strong coastal upwelling and convective mixing. This is in contrast to the sluggish ocean often expected in a Snowball Earth scenario owing to the insulation of the ocean from atmospheric forcing by the thick ice cover. As a result of vigorous convective mixing, the ocean temperature, salinity and density were either uniform in the vertical direction or weakly stratified in a few locations. Our results are based on a model that couples ice flow and ocean circulation, and is driven by a weak geothermal heat flux under a global ice cover about a kilometre thick. Compared with the modern ocean, the Snowball Earth ocean had far larger vertical mixing rates, and comparable horizontal mixing by ocean eddies. The strong circulation and coastal upwelling resulted in melting rates near continents as much as ten times larger than previously estimated. Although we cannot resolve the debate over the existence of global ice cover, we discuss the implications for the nutrient supply of photosynthetic activity and for banded iron formations. Our insights and constraints on ocean dynamics may help resolve the Snowball Earth controversy when combined with future geochemical and geological observations.

  3. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  4. Proceedings of international workshop on utilization of nuclear power in oceans (N'ocean 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, A.; Nariyama, N.; Sawada, K.

    2000-03-01

    Human beings and the ocean have maintained close relations for a long time. The ocean produced the life at very old time and human beings have been benefited by ocean, particularly in Japan that is surrounded by the ocean. In the utilization of nuclear power in ocean, Japan has been very active from the beginning of the development of nuclear power. The nuclear powered ship MUTSU has been developed and completed the experimental voyage. Besides the nuclear powered ship, we are using the ocean for the transportation of radioactive materials. This International Workshop aimed at offering further information about nuclear utilization in oceans such as icebreakers, deep-sea submarines, high speed carriers, floating plant, desalination and heating plants, radioactive materials transport ships, and so on. The discussions on the economical, environmental and scientific effects are included. The 36 of the present papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sala, M. Montserrat; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  6. Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Sobek, Anna; Salvadó, Joan A; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-07-18

    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑ 6 DDT (0.10-66 pg L -1 ) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  7. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1-2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  8. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2016-01-20

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  9. Out of Thin Air: Microbial Utilization of Atmospheric Gaseous Organics in the Surface Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jesús M; Duarte, Carlos M; Sala, M Montserrat; Dachs, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC) is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 and 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidizing marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  10. Out of thin air: Microbial utilization of atmospheric gaseous organics in the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus M Arrieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile and semi-volatile gas-phase organic carbon (GOC is a largely neglected component of the global carbon cycle, with poorly resolved pools and fluxes of natural and anthropogenic GOC in the biosphere. Substantial amounts of atmospheric GOC are exchanged with the surface ocean, and subsequent utilization of specific GOC compounds by surface ocean microbial communities has been demonstrated. Yet, the final fate of the bulk of the atmospheric GOC entering the surface ocean is unknown. Our data show experimental evidence of efficient use of atmospheric GOC by marine prokaryotes at different locations in the NE Subtropical Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We estimate that between 2 to 27% of the prokaryotic carbon demand was supported by GOC with a major fraction of GOC inputs being consumed within the mixed layer. The role of the atmosphere as a key vector of organic carbon subsidising marine microbial metabolism is a novel link yet to be incorporated into the microbial ecology of the surface ocean as well as into the global carbon budget.

  11. Atmospheric transport of continentally derived organic material to the central Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagosian, R B; Peltzer, E T

    1986-01-01

    The organic geochemistry component of the Sea-Air Exchange Program was designed to determine the terrestrial and marine sources and to search for atmospheric transformation processes of oceanic aerosols from the major wind regimes of the Pacific Ocean. At Enewetak Atoll the distributions of the individual lipid compounds in aerosols require that there be a significant vascular plant source, almost certainly from Eurasia. Lipids associated with wind-eroded soil dust can reasonably account for all of the lipid classes detected in terms of expected concentrations and distributions and of the correlations with Al and /sup 210/Pb. The temporal variability observed for the C/sub 20/ aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acid salts and wax esters in aerosols observed at Enewetak is most likely due to the seasonality of dust storm activity in China and the seasonal changes in the large-scale wind fields over the Pacific. Atmospheric transformations and annual fluxes to the ocean of the lipid class compounds described above have been determined by using rainfall, aerosol and gas phase lipid concentration data. These data and previously reported aerosol data were used to estimate air-sea fluxes on an annual basis at Enewetak. Rain was determined to be the major mechanism. An empirical /sup 210/Pb-rain volume relation was developed, extended to organic compounds and used to provide more realistic annual flux estimates. Analysis of the scavenging ratios shows that the very low vapor pressure compounds expected to be in microcrystalline particles have rainout-washout behavior very similar to that found at Enewetak for clays. However, the lighter compounds show very high washout factor values that can be rationalized on the basis of their volatility.

  12. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, T-C Francis; Applebaum, Scott L; Manahan, Donal T

    2015-04-14

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors.

  13. Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) (NCEI Accession 0093183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) is a collection of quality controlled ocean current measurements such as observed current direction and speed obtained from...

  14. Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (NODC Accession 0044630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean is a description of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean on the basis of a greater body of hydrochemical...

  15. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Dominant and Aggregates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  16. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  17. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  18. OceanSITES RAMA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OceanSITES daily in-situ data. OceanSITES Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)...

  19. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; Mueller, James L.

    2000-01-01

    The document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. This document supersedes the earlier version (Mueller and Austin 1995) published as Volume 25 in the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. This document marks a significant departure from, and improvement on, theformat and content of Mueller and Austin (1995). The authorship of the protocols has been greatly broadened to include experts specializing in some key areas. New chapters have been added to provide detailed and comprehensive protocols for stability monitoring of radiometers using portable sources, abovewater measurements of remote-sensing reflectance, spectral absorption measurements for discrete water samples, HPLC pigment analysis and fluorometric pigment analysis. Protocols were included in Mueller and Austin (1995) for each of these areas, but the new treatment makes significant advances in each topic area. There are also new chapters prescribing protocols for calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors, sun photometer and sky radiance measurements and analysis, and data archival. These topic areas were barely mentioned in Mueller and Austin (1995).

  20. SAR11 Bacteria: The Most Abundant Plankton in the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2017-01-03

    SAR11 is a group of small, carbon-oxidizing bacteria that reach a global estimated population size of 2.4×10 28 cells-approximately 25% of all plankton. They are found throughout the oceans but reach their largest numbers in stratified, oligotrophic gyres, which are an expanding habitat in the warming oceans. SAR11 likely had a Precambrian origin and, over geological time, evolved into the niche of harvesting labile, low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM). SAR11 cells are minimal in size and complexity, a phenomenon known as streamlining that is thought to benefit them by lowering the material costs of replication and maximizing transport functions that are essential to competition at ultralow nutrient concentrations. One of the surprises in SAR11 metabolism is their ability to both oxidize and produce a variety of volatile organic compounds that can diffuse into the atmosphere. SAR11 cells divide slowly and lack many forms of regulation commonly used by bacterial cells to adjust to changing environmental conditions. As a result of genome reduction, they require an unusual range of nutrients, which leads to complex biochemical interactions with other plankton. The study of SAR11 is providing insight into the biogeochemistry of labile DOM and is affecting microbiology beyond marine science by providing a model for understanding the evolution and function of streamlined cells.