WorldWideScience

Sample records for observational systems interestingly

  1. Tuberculoid leprosy masquerading as systemic lupus erythematosus: an interesting observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Kumavat, Shrikant; Pawar, Manoj; Desai, Dipti

    2017-09-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious multisystem disease that may present with protean manifestations. It mimics many systemic and dermatological disorders. Here we report a case in which an elderly female presented with malar rash, intermittent fever, and arthralgia. Her diagnosis was significantly delayed due to a close clinical resemblance to systemic lupus erythematosus. It is important to be aware of such manifestations of leprosy and improve awareness of it in clinicians to avoid misdiagnosis and delay in treatment.

  2. Transit timing observations from Kepler. VI. Potentially interesting candidate systems from fourier-based statistical tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, J.H.; Ford, E.B.; Rowe, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify...... several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies....

  3. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VI. POTENTIALLY INTERESTING CANDIDATE SYSTEMS FROM FOURIER-BASED STATISTICAL TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Seader, Shawn; Twicken, Joseph D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Holman, Matthew J.; Welsh, William F.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Ciardi, David R.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Prša, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.

  4. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  5. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  6. Longline Observer Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  7. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy In India : Some Interesting Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Sanjeev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Material and Method: Study was conducted in 132 cases of JME. They were selected after screening 1210 patients presenting with syndrome of generalized seizures in age group 10-36 years. Diagnosis was established clinically by standard criterias and confirmed by EEG. Duration of study was 9 years. Results : We observed JME is under diagnosed since majority (27% were referred as uncontrolled seizures. Other patients were referred as Lenox Gestaut syndrome (19%, progressive myoclonic epilepsy (7.5% or subacute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (3.7%. There were 25 (15.5% fresh cases of JME who reported directly. We observed few atypical features in our study. They were in the form of (a wide range in age of onset (b gross delay in diagnosis (90%-lack of clinical suspicion and non-use of activation procedures in EEG appear to be important reasons for this delay (c negative family history (90% (d mild cognitive impairment (14% and (e good clinical response to other drugs viz; clobazam, phenytoin (PHT and carbamazepine (CBZ besides sodium valproate (VPA or clonazepam (CLO. However phenobarbitone (PB was ineffective. Sequential EEG became normal in 63% patients controlled on VPA while it was persistently abnormal in all patients who were well controlled on other drugs. Conclusion : Clinical spectrum of JME appears to be different in India. We suggest that it should be strongly suspected in juvenile patients of generalized epilepsy not responding to treatment.

  8. Electric restructuring: Observations about what is in the public interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding restructuring of the U.S. electric utility industry are presented in the paper. A brief assessment is made of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission orders requiring open access transmission services and open access same-time information systems. Three subtopics are pursued in some detail: competition between renewables and conservation, the role of government, and the impact of government on the market for renewables. It is concluded that renewable programs can be incorporated into competitive markets through regulatory agencies.

  9. Stimulating Interest in Natural Sciences and Training Observation Skills: The UAP Observations Reporting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailleris, P.

    2012-04-01

    For a number of reasons the general public and many young people are fascinated by the ideas of UFOs and extra-terrestrial life. As mysteries motivate to gain interest and knowledge, an opportunity exists, throughout these topics, to stimulate the people's interests to natural sciences and technology. A major problem however exists, concerning the fact that the general public generally associates any strange aerial sighting to something exotic, unknown, and to the possibility of extraterrestrial visitations. Rumours, irrational thinking and conspiracy theories prevail around these topics. Launched under the framework of the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, the Unidentified Aerospace Phenomena (UAP) Observations Reporting Scheme seeks to tackle this situation through approaching the topic from a professional and rational perspective, providing an opportunity to teach the public how to think more critically, demystifying UFO events, and ultimately attempting to stimulate the interest in natural sciences and technological disciplines. This is tentatively attempted through the following resources: Firstly, the project's website (1) provides an extensive resource for inquiry-based learning regarding the various natural or man-made phenomena that often give rise to false UAP sightings. It serves as a general forum for educating the public about human, atmospheric and astrophysical phenomena that could be observed in the sky. Secondly, the basic educational information provided on the web site allows potential UAP witnesses to critically evaluate the potential cause of their sightings. Visual descriptions, photos, video clips, tools, and links to relevant websites are provided for each category of phenomena, in order to assist the observer in his self-analysis. Amateur astronomers and societies who receive questions about UFOs can redirect queries to the website. Thirdly, the website provides novice observers viewing tips (e.g. elevation, azimuth, angular size) about

  10. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  11. Reproduction of Economic Interests as a Nonlinear Dynamical System

    OpenAIRE

    Smiesova Viktoria L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to define the system characteristics of reproduction of economic interests of actors, substantiate the possibility of its evolutionary and revolutionary development and the nonlinearity of its development in dynamics. The article justifies the main characteristics of the system of reproduction of economic interests. It is proved that in this system stability and variability are complementarily combined as integrated mechanisms of its development in statics and dynami...

  12. A zero-sum monetary system, interest rates, and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    To the knowledge of the author, this is the first time it has been shown that interest rates that are extremely high by modern standards (100% and higher) are necessary within a zero-sum monetary system, and not just driven by greed. Extreme interest rates that appeared in various places and times reinforce the idea that hard money may have contributed to high rates of interest. Here a model is presented that examines the interest rate required to succeed as an investor in a zero-sum fixed qu...

  13. Far infrared extinction coefficients of minerals of interest for astronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared extinction coefficients of mineral grains of interest for astronomical observations have been measured. The measured mineral species are: amorphous carbon, high temperature magnesium silicates, hydrous silicates, iron oxides, and amorphous silicates. (author)

  14. Online evaluation of point-of-interest recommendation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean-Hall, A.; Clarke, C.L.A.; Kamps, J.; Kiseleva, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we describe a system to evaluate multiple point- of-interest recommendation systems. In this system each recommendation service will be exposed online and crowd-sourced assessors will interact with merged results from multiple services, which are responding to suggestion requests live,

  15. Multiple Interests of Users in Collaborative Tagging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yeung, Ching-Man; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    Performance of recommender systems depends on whether the user profiles contain accurate information about the interests of the users, and this in turn relies on whether enough information about their interests can be collected. Collaborative tagging systems allow users to use their own words to describe their favourite resources, resulting in some user-generated categorisation schemes commonly known as folksonomies. Folksonomies thus contain rich information about the interests of the users, which can be used to support various recommender systems. Our analysis of the folksonomy in Delicious reveals that the interests of a single user can be very diverse. Traditional methods for representing interests of users are usually not able to reflect such diversity. We propose a method to construct user profiles of multiple interests from folksonomies based on a network clustering technique. Our evaluation shows that the proposed method is able to generate user profiles which reflect the diversity of user interests and can be used as a basis of providing more focused recommendation to the users.

  16. Reproduction of Economic Interests as a Nonlinear Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiesova Viktoria L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the system characteristics of reproduction of economic interests of actors, substantiate the possibility of its evolutionary and revolutionary development and the nonlinearity of its development in dynamics. The article justifies the main characteristics of the system of reproduction of economic interests. It is proved that in this system stability and variability are complementarily combined as integrated mechanisms of its development in statics and dynamics, assurance of its self-organization and self-restoration, quantitative and qualitative transformation. In its static state, there prevail characteristics of steadiness and leaning towards stability and constancy. In the dynamic state, the main characteristic is variability of the system of reproduction of economic interests, which determines / reacts to the processes of transformation and development of its constituent subsystems, potential opportunities, preferences and economic behavior of actors (changes in the endogenous environment, institutions and establishments, constraints and stabilizers (changes in the exogenous environment. The model of dynamic development of the system for reproduction of economic interests is proposed, the phases of its evolutionary and revolutionary development are substantiated.

  17. Interest of the therapeutic education in patients with type 2 diabetes observing the fast of Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henda Jamoussi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results justify the interest of patient education centered on the month of Ramadan in all type 2 diabetic patients observing the fast of the holy month. This education should be continued during Ramadan in order to fulfill this religious rite safely.

  18. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  19. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  20. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclot, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author) [fr

  1. Managing Environmental Interests: Decision Patterns within the Italian Legal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracchia, F.

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the main patterns established by the Italian legal system with respect to the decisions regarding environmental issues. After outlining the most important theories related to the problem of the juridical definition of the environment, as well as the constitutional context, which assigns the environmental protection to the competence of the State, the analysis singles out five different models. The first one is the result of the application of the environmental principles established by the European sources and enforced by the Italian Law; in this regard, in particular, the precautionary principle interferes with the usual way through which the Public Entities take their final decisions. The second pattern embodies the idea according to which the environment is a prominent value, capable of prevailing over other values and interests. The third one, starting from the same assertion (the environmental interest must win), adds that it must only be assessed by technical bodies with a specific competence. The fourth model is based upon the premise that the environmental proceedings cannot be simplified, so that some legal tools such as 'Conferenza di Servizi', silence and so on, cannot be applied in this field. The last pattern considers the possibility for Bodies different from the State (such as the Regions) to regulate the environmental issues, thus introducing stricter levels of protection of the environment. The article underlines that the size of this competence strictly depends on the notion of protection of the environment that is used (in any case, the Constitutional Court, since the fundamental decision n. 407 of 26 July 2002, considering the environment as a sort of transversal matter, has ruled that important room for regional legislative power does exist). Very often there is a sort of subsidiarity, since in the first place the technical bodies have the competence to take care of the environmental interest, while the bureaucracy or the

  2. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  3. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  4. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  5. An Analysis of How Enterprise Information Systems Challenge Vested Interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; QuintelaVarajao, JE; CruzCunha, MM; Putnik, GD; Trigo, A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that demonstrates the influence of ERP implementation on the power and interests of actors in a manufacturing environment. An empirical in-depth longitudinal case study examines how a medium-sized company in the graphics industry

  6. Exchange rate behavior with negative interest rates: Some early negative observations

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Allaudeen S.; Rose, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines exchange rate behavior during the recent period with negative nominal interest rates. We use a daily panel of data on 61 currencies from January 2010 through May 2016, during which five economies - Denmark, the European Economic and Monetary Union, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland - experienced negative nominal interest rates. We examine both effective exchange rates and bilateral rates; the latter typically measured against the Swiss franc since Switzerland has had the long...

  7. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  8. End-user interest in geotechnical data management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In conducting geotechnical site investigations, large volumes of subsurface information and associated test data : are generated. The current practice relies on paper-based filing systems that are often difficult and cumbersome : to access by users. ...

  9. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  10. The Impact of Financial Conflict of Interest on Surgical Research: An Observational Study of Published Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Viso, Cristina P; Olavarria, Oscar A; Bernardi, Karla; Holihan, Julie L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan; Liang, Mike K; Adams, Sasha D

    2018-02-09

    Substantial discrepancies exist between industry-reported and self-reported conflicts of interest (COI). Although authors with relevant, self-reported financial COI are more likely to write studies favorable to industry sponsors, it is unknown whether undisclosed COI have the same effect. We hypothesized that surgeons who fail to disclose COI are more likely to publish findings that are favorable to industry than surgeons with no COI. PubMed was searched for articles in multiple surgical specialties. Financial COI reported by surgeons and industry were compared. COI were considered to be relevant if they were associated with the product(s) mentioned by an article. Primary outcome was favorability, which was defined as an impression favorable to the product(s) discussed by an article and was determined by 3 independent, blinded clinicians for each article. Primary analysis compared incomplete self-disclosure to no COI. Ordered logistic multivariable regression modeling was used to assess factors associated with favorability. Overall, 337 articles were reviewed. There was a high rate of discordance in the reporting of COI (70.3%). When surgeons failed to disclose COI, their conclusions were significantly more likely to favor industry than surgeons without COI (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p relevance, disclosure, or monetary amount) were significantly associated with favorability. Any financial COI (disclosed or undisclosed, relevant or not relevant) significantly influence whether studies report findings favorable to industry. More attention must be paid to improving research design, maximizing transparency in medical research, and insisting that surgeons disclose all COI, regardless of perceived relevance.

  11. Peri-ictal signal changes in seven patients with status epilepticus: interesting MRI observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Manoj K; Sinha, Sanjib [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Ravishankar, Shivshankar; Shivshankar, Jai Jai [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore (India)

    2009-03-15

    Transient peri-ictal changes on imaging had been described following status epilepticus (SE), but its cause is not very well understood. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in SE patients in order to elucidate such changes including peri-ictal signal. This prospective study involved 34 patients (M/F 23:11, mean age 25.8 {+-} 17.2 years) who experienced SE. MRI was performed during or within 96 h of cessation of seizures. Twenty-five patients had generalized convulsive status epilectus (GCSE; ten secondary GCSE and 15 primary GCSE). Seven patients had epilepsia partialis continua and two patients non-convulsive SE. Eight patients had a history of seizures and three patients previous SE. The mean duration of SE prior to MRI was 89.2 {+-} 105.3 h (range 2-360 h). MRI provided diagnosis in 17 patients, and in 13 patients, no structural cause was identified. Peri-ictal focal signal changes with restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps were present in seven (20.6%) patients with SE (generalized convulsive, three; partial, three; non-convulsive, one). The changes were observed when MRI was performed during SE in 3/10 (30%) patients, or within 24 h in 1/7 (14.3%), 48 h in 1/5 (20%), 72 h in 1/6 (16.7%), or 96 h in 1/6 (16.7%) patients after cessation of seizures. Repeat MRI revealed disappearance of signal changes in two patients. Peri-ictal MR changes with restricted diffusion appear to be an effect rather than the cause of SE. (orig.)

  12. Peri-ictal signal changes in seven patients with status epilepticus: interesting MRI observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Manoj K.; Sinha, Sanjib; Ravishankar, Shivshankar; Shivshankar, Jai Jai

    2009-01-01

    Transient peri-ictal changes on imaging had been described following status epilepticus (SE), but its cause is not very well understood. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in SE patients in order to elucidate such changes including peri-ictal signal. This prospective study involved 34 patients (M/F 23:11, mean age 25.8 ± 17.2 years) who experienced SE. MRI was performed during or within 96 h of cessation of seizures. Twenty-five patients had generalized convulsive status epilectus (GCSE; ten secondary GCSE and 15 primary GCSE). Seven patients had epilepsia partialis continua and two patients non-convulsive SE. Eight patients had a history of seizures and three patients previous SE. The mean duration of SE prior to MRI was 89.2 ± 105.3 h (range 2-360 h). MRI provided diagnosis in 17 patients, and in 13 patients, no structural cause was identified. Peri-ictal focal signal changes with restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps were present in seven (20.6%) patients with SE (generalized convulsive, three; partial, three; non-convulsive, one). The changes were observed when MRI was performed during SE in 3/10 (30%) patients, or within 24 h in 1/7 (14.3%), 48 h in 1/5 (20%), 72 h in 1/6 (16.7%), or 96 h in 1/6 (16.7%) patients after cessation of seizures. Repeat MRI revealed disappearance of signal changes in two patients. Peri-ictal MR changes with restricted diffusion appear to be an effect rather than the cause of SE. (orig.)

  13. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  14. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barre, de la Suzanne; Maher, Patrick; Dawson, Jackie; Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin; Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing

  15. Statistical imitation system using relational interest points and Gaussian mixture models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassens, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes an imitation system that uses relational interest points (RIPs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to characterize a behaviour. The system's structure is inspired by the Robot Programming by Demonstration (RDP) paradigm...

  16. Sensorless magnetically levitated system with reduced observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, T [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Henneberger, G [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Ress, C [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper describes the use of a reduced observer for a hybrid excited magnetic levitation system. The latter is part of a contactless and energy saving driven conveyance system. Thereby one has to select the working point of the system in such a way, that the force due to the weight of the vehicle including its load will be compensated only by the permanent magnets. The linearized model is observable even if only the current in the coils is measured. Therefore it seems reasonable to evaluate the other variables of the state vector by an observer. Thus the sensors for the airgap can be omitted. Using an observer has another advantage as well. It will tune the airgap automatically to the value which is necessary in order to operate the system in the most energy saving way. The whole design was simulated. (orig.)

  17. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  18. Improvement of seismic observation systems in JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Kozo; Suto, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' in order to perform the seismic observation in and around the building block and ground, SMAC type seismographs had continuously been used for about 38 years. However, this equipment aged, and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on Mach 11, 2011 increased the importance of seismic data of the reactor facilities from the viewpoint of earthquake-proof safety. For these reasons, Joyo updated the system to the seismic observation system reflecting the latest technology/information, while keeping consistency with the observation data of the former seismographs (SMAC type seismograph). This updating improved various problems on the former observation seismographs. In addition, the installation of now observation points in the locations that are important in seismic safety evaluation expanded the data, and further improved the reliability of the seismic observation and evaluation on 'Joyo'. (A.O.)

  19. Evaluating the Interests of Different Stakeholders in Beijing Wastewater Reuse Systems for Sustainable Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether water systems can be operated successfully and sustainably is influenced by the attitudes and willingness of stakeholders involved in the management of such systems. This study quantitatively evaluates the interests of different stakeholders in wastewater reuse systems in Beijing. Such interests comprise economic, environmental, and social effects induced by the wastewater reuse systems. The study considers four main stakeholders in Beijing, namely the Municipal Administration Committee (MAC, Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (MEPB, plant managers, and users. Cost benefit analysis is conducted to determine the aforementioned interests separately from the perspectives of the various stakeholders. The results reveal that not all stakeholders’ interests in the wastewater reuse systems in Beijing are satisfied. From the perspectives of both the MAC and MEPB, the evaluation results indicate that both decentralized and centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible. However, from the viewpoints of plant managers and users, the results reveal that only the centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible, whereas the decentralized systems are not. The failure to satisfy the interests of plant managers and users may be a major reason for the interrupted operation of the decentralized systems in Beijing. The study demonstrates that successful and sustainable development of a new water project necessitates satisfying the interests of all stakeholders.

  20. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  1. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  2. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  3. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  4. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...] Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY... participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management..., audit-based compliance assistance program known as the Biotechnology Quality Management System Program...

  5. Observation of SASE in LEBRA FEL system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. E-mail: tanaka@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, I.; Hayakawa, Y.; Yokoyama, K

    2004-08-01

    A large enhancement of spontaneous undulator radiation has been observed during FEL lasing experiments at LEBRA. The enhancement has been observed only with the detector for the infrared fundamental radiation. The detector output signal showed spikes during the electron beam pulse, yet no apparent enhancement was observed with a CCD camera monitoring the visible harmonic radiations. An enhancement factor greater than 10 has been obtained with a 2.4 m long undulator with a completely detuned FEL optical cavity length and depends strongly on the parameters of the linac RF system. This implies that the SASE operation is possible even with a conventional electron beam by achieving suitable bunch compression.

  6. [Surveillance system on drug abuse: Interest of the French national OPPIDUM program of French addictovigilance network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Pochard, Liselotte; Boucherie, Quentin; Giocanti, Adeline; Chevallier, Cécile; Daveluy, Amélie; Gibaja, Valérie; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Eiden, Céline; Authier, Nicolas; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Guerlais, Marylène; Jouanjus, Émilie; Lepelley, Marion; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pain, Stéphanie; Richard, Nathalie; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-09-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs. Among them, 77% received an opiate maintenance treatment: 68% methadone (half of them consumed capsule form) and 27% buprenorphine (39% consumed generic form). Brand-name buprenorphine is more often injected than generic buprenorphine (10% vs. 2%) and among methadone consumers 7% of methadone capsule consumers have illegally obtained methadone (vs. 9% for syrup form). The proportion of medications among psychoactive drugs injected is important (42%), with morphine representing 21% of the total psychoactive drugs injected and buprenorphine, 16%. OPPIDUM highlighted emergent behaviors of abuse with some analgesic opioids (like tramadol, oxycodone or fentanyl), pregabalin, or quetiapine. OPPIDUM highlighted variations of drugs use regarding geographic approaches or by drug dependence care centers (like in harm reduction centers). OPPIDUM clearly demonstrated that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible, these data have an interest at regional, national and international levels. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. TRICLOBS portable triband color lowlight observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and first test results of the TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) system The TRICLOBS is an all-day all-weather surveillance and navigation tool. Its sensor suite consists of two digital image intensifiers (Photonis ICU's) and an uncooled longwave infrared

  8. Increasing Interest of Mass Communication Media and the General Public in the Distribution of Tweets About Mental Disorders: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mon, Miguel Angel; Asunsolo Del Barco, Angel; Lahera, Guillermo; Quintero, Javier; Ferre, Francisco; Pereira-Sanchez, Victor; Ortuño, Felipe; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-05-28

    The contents of traditional communication media and new internet social media reflect the interests of society. However, certain barriers and a lack of attention towards mental disorders have been previously observed. The objective of this study is to measure the relevance of influential American mainstream media outlets for the distribution of psychiatric information and the interest generated in these topics among their Twitter followers. We investigated tweets generated about mental health conditions and diseases among 15 mainstream general communication media outlets in the United States of America between January 2007 and December 2016. Our study strategy focused on identifying several psychiatric terms of primary interest. The number of retweets generated from the selected tweets was also investigated. As a control, we examined tweets generated about the main causes of death in the United States of America, the main chronic neurological degenerative diseases, and HIV. In total, 13,119 tweets about mental health disorders sent by the American mainstream media outlets were analyzed. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution but preferential accumulation for a select number of conditions. Suicide and gender dysphoria accounted for half of the number of tweets sent. Variability in the number of tweets related to each control disease was also found (5998). The number of tweets sent regarding each different psychiatric or organic disease analyzed was significantly correlated with the number of retweets generated by followers (1,030,974 and 424,813 responses to mental health disorders and organic diseases, respectively). However, the probability of a tweet being retweeted differed significantly among the conditions and diseases analyzed. Furthermore, the retweeted to tweet ratio was significantly higher for psychiatric diseases than for the control diseases (odds ratio 1.11, CI 1.07-1.14; Pmedia outlets and the general public demonstrate a preferential

  9. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  10. Establish and Evaluate Ada Runtime Features of Interest for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-15

    Runtime Features of Interest for Real - Time Systems -,-. CLEARED POR :)E,4 pUEL tCATLON SEP 2 0 19E19 ,CETM ORP t ’R RE LOO O Nt-U~HM- ANDQ SECURITY...ESTABLISH AND EVALUATE py ADA RUNTIME FEATURES OF INTEREST FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS CONTRACT NUMBER: MDA 903-87-D-0056 IITRI PROJECT NUMBER: T06168 PREPARED...2 2.0 SELECTION PROCESS OVERVIEW .................................... 3 2.1 REAL - TIME SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION ........................... 4 2.2

  11. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  12. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  13. Ability to burn plutonium and minor actinides. Interest of accelerator driven system compared to critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Mouney, H.

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the French Act of December 1991, EDF is presently assessing the interest of Acceleration Driven System (ADS) for the Transmutation of the Plutonium and Minor Actinides (MA) produced by its park of nuclear reactors. The studies presented here assess the efficiency of ADS and critical reactors to incinerate Pu and MA (Minor Actinides) and the potential interest of ADS for that purpose. (author)

  14. The adversarial system and the best interests of the child in divorce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this contribution it is argued that the adversarial system of litigation does not serve the best interests of children upon divorce. After a brief analysis of the system it is concluded that other less aggressive means of litigation should be considered underupon divorce. Collaborative Law is suggested as a means to bear in ...

  15. Context-based object-of-interest detection for a generic traffic surveillance analysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; Javanbakhti, S.; Zinger, S.; Wijnhoven, R.G.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new traffic surveillance video analysis system, focusing on building a framework with robust and generic techniques, based on both scene understanding and moving object-of-interest detection. Since traffic surveillance is widely applied, we want to design a single system that can be

  16. Differences in Males and Females in When and Why They Become Interested in Information Systems Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo

    2016-01-01

    Determining when and why students become interested in careers in information systems is a critical step in filling the pipeline of majors to become information systems workers. Although students who have chosen a particular major may find it difficult to indicate or even understand all of the reasons for their choice, it is possible to tease out…

  17. Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands: Effects of interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Standalone diesel systems have been widely used on Malaysian islands due to the isolated locations of the islands. Nevertheless, the high diesel prices and the high cost of transporting diesel to islands cause the use of standalone diesel systems to be uneconomical. This study analyzes the feasibility of implementing PV (photovoltaic) systems as alternatives to standalone diesel systems by considering the effects of annual real interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes, using the HOMER (hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources) software. The results indicate that, at the ordinary diesel price of $ 0.61/L, low interest rates (0–3%) are desirable for the implementation of hybrid PV/diesel with battery systems over standalone diesel systems, regardless of the load sizes. Although different load sizes may affect the decisions on the implementation of PV systems at higher interest rates (6–9%), these effects become less pronounced as the price of diesel increases to $ 1.22/L or higher. Also, under high diesel prices, the choice of optimal system configurations obtained for small load sizes should be applicable for larger load sizes, albeit with different component ratings. Although the current study is intended for Malaysian islands, the findings can be generalized for other places with similar solar radiation levels. - Highlights: • Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands have been analyzed using HOMER. • Interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes affect optimal system configurations. • Effects of interest rates and load sizes reduce with increasing diesel prices. • Photovoltaic systems' implementation is feasible at high diesel prices. • The findings can be generalized for places with similar solar radiation levels

  18. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  19. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  20. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  1. An Observation-based Assessment of Instrument Requirements for a Future Precipitation Process Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.; Smalley, M.; Kulie, M.; Hahn, W.

    2017-12-01

    Global models exhibit substantial biases in the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial scales of precipitation systems. Much of this uncertainty stems from an inadequate representation of the processes by which water is cycled between the surface and atmosphere and, in particular, those that govern the formation and maintenance of cloud systems and their propensity to form the precipitation. Progress toward improving precipitation process models requires observing systems capable of quantifying the coupling between the ice content, vertical mass fluxes, and precipitation yield of precipitating cloud systems. Spaceborne multi-frequency, Doppler radar offers a unique opportunity to address this need but the effectiveness of such a mission is heavily dependent on its ability to actually observe the processes of interest in the widest possible range of systems. Planning for a next generation precipitation process observing system should, therefore, start with a fundamental evaluation of the trade-offs between sensitivity, resolution, sampling, cost, and the overall potential scientific yield of the mission. Here we provide an initial assessment of the scientific and economic trade-space by evaluating hypothetical spaceborne multi-frequency radars using a combination of current real-world and model-derived synthetic observations. Specifically, we alter the field of view, vertical resolution, and sensitivity of a hypothetical Ka- and W-band radar system and propagate those changes through precipitation detection and intensity retrievals. The results suggest that sampling biases introduced by reducing sensitivity disproportionately affect the light rainfall and frozen precipitation regimes that are critical for warm cloud feedbacks and ice sheet mass balance, respectively. Coarser spatial resolution observations introduce regime-dependent biases in both precipitation occurrence and intensity that depend on cloud regime, with even the sign of the bias varying within a

  2. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.

  3. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... affected by the use of product configu-ration systems e.g. increased sales, decrease in the number of SKU's, improved ability to introduce new products, and cost reductions.......This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... processes, on-time delivery of the specifica-tions, and resource consumption for making specifications, quality of specifications, optimization of products and services, and other observations. The purpose of the study is partly to identify specific impacts observed from implementing product configuration...

  4. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  5. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  6. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  7. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  8. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  9. Towards Systems Thinking in Ethical Management to the Environment: A Solution for Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Putri Larasati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stakeholders refer to different interests that are vulnerable to create conflict of interest. The condition requires an effective management to satisfy stakeholders without ignoring ethical practices to the environment. It demands systems thinking which makes companies realise that their activities influence stakeholders whilst stakeholders’ actions have impact on companies. However, several companies preclude the systems thinking which gives consequence to unsolved conflict and even creates worse problems. Gunns Limited Company Australia (Gunns is one of example ofthese companies.Gunnsactivities in the Tasmania forest generated public criticisms because Gunns was considered as a firm that deterioratedthe environment, humans’health and communities’ job. Different stakeholders’ views on this case might lead to environmental safety or environmental destructions. With this background, this essay attempts to analyzethe application of systems thinking (under stakeholder theory in the process of ethical management to the environment in order to solve the conflict of interests. Hopefully, this paper will significantly contribute to overcome similar issues in Indonesia and also contributes to further researches related to systems thinking as a solution for conflict of interest.

  10. Concordance of Interests in Dynamic Models of Social Partnership in the System of Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Larissa V.; Ougolnitsky, Guennady A.; Usov, Anatoly B.; Vaskov, Maksim A.; Kirik, Vladimir A.; Astoyanz, Margarita S.; Angel, Olga Y.

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic game theoretic model of concordance of interests in the process of social partnership in the system of continuing professional education is proposed. Non-cooperative, cooperative, and hierarchical setups are examined. Analytical solution for a linear state version of the model is provided. Nash equilibrium algorithms (for non-cooperative…

  11. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  12. Interest Aware Location-Based Recommender System Using Geo-Tagged Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma AlBanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in location acquisition and mobile technologies led to the addition of the location dimension to Social Networks (SNs and to the emergence of a newer class called Location-Based Social Networks (LBSNs. While LBSNs are richer in their model and functions than SNs, they fail so far to attract as many users as SNs. On the other hand, SNs have large amounts of geo-tagged media that are under-utilized. In this paper, we propose an Interest-Aware Location-Based Recommender system (IALBR, which combines the advantages of both LBSNs and SNs, in order to provide interest-aware location-based recommendations. This recommender system is proposed as an extension to LBSNs. It is novel in: (1 utilizing the geo-content in both LBSNs and SNs; (2 ranking the recommendations based on a novel scoring method that maps to the user interests. It also works for passive users who are not active content contributors to the LBSN. This feature is critical to increase the number of LBSN users. Moreover, it helps with reducing the cold start problem, which is a common problem facing the new users of recommender systems who get random unsatisfying recommendations. This is due to the lack of user interest awareness, which is reliant on user history in most of the recommenders. We evaluated our system with a large-scale real dataset collected from foursquare with respect to precision, recall and the f-measure. We also compared the results with a ground truth system using metrics like the normalized discounted cumulative gain and the mean absolute error. The results confirm that the proposed IALBR generates more efficient recommendations than baselines in terms of interest awareness.

  13. Observed ices in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  14. Interoperable Access to Near Real Time Ocean Observations with the Observing System Monitoring Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R.; Smith, B.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), a project funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Observations Division (COD), exists to join the discrete 'networks' of In Situ ocean observing platforms -- ships, surface floats, profiling floats, tide gauges, etc. - into a single, integrated system. The OSMC is addressing this goal through capabilities in three areas focusing on the needs of specific user groups: 1) it provides real time monitoring of the integrated observing system assets to assist management in optimizing the cost-effectiveness of the system for the assessment of climate variables; 2) it makes the stream of real time data coming from the observing system available to scientific end users into an easy-to-use form; and 3) in the future, it will unify the delayed-mode data from platform-focused data assembly centers into a standards- based distributed system that is readily accessible to interested users from the science and education communities. In this presentation, we will be focusing on the efforts of the OSMC to provide interoperable access to the near real time data stream that is available via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). This is a very rich data source, and includes data from nearly all of the oceanographic platforms that are actively observing. We will discuss how the data is being served out using a number of widely used 'web services' (including OPeNDAP and SOS) and downloadable file formats (KML, csv, xls, netCDF), so that it can be accessed in web browsers and popular desktop analysis tools. We will also be discussing our use of the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP), available from NOAA/NMFS, which has allowed us to achieve our goals of serving the near real time data. From an interoperability perspective, it's important to note that access to the this stream of data is not just for humans, but also for machine-to-machine requests. We'll also delve into how we

  15. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  16. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  17. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  18. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  19. Conference on Earth Observation and Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    The NATO Science Committee and its subsidiary Programme Panels provide support for Advanced Research Institutes (ARI) in various fields. The idea is to bring together scientists of a chosen field with the hope that they will achieve a consensus on research direc­ tions for the future, and make recommendations for the benefit of a wider scientific community. Attendance is therefore limited to those whose experience and expertise make the conclusions significant and acceptable to the wider community. Participants are selected on the basis of substantial track records in research or in the synthesis of research results to serve mankind. The proposal for a one-week ARIon Earth Observation and In­ formation Systems was initiated by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science (SPPOSS). In approving the ARI, the senior NATO Science Committee identified the subject as one of universal impor­ tance, requiring a broad perspective on the development of opera­ tional systems based on successful experimental s...

  20. Observation of the Earth system from space

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  1. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  2. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  3. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  4. Legal and organisational innovation in the Italian pharmacy system: commercial vs public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santuari, Alceste

    2017-10-01

    Pharmacy services are undoubtedly an important part of primary care. Pharmacists are entrepreneurs and simultaneously they are entrusted with a public mission in the health care sector. Pharmacies then reflect a contrast between a commercial/economic objective and public interest, which is to be identified with citizens' universal right to health care services. This is the reason why in Italy, as in many other EU countries, pharmacies supply their services according to a prior authorisation granted by public authorities. In common with many EU countries, this authorisation is secured according to a demographic criterion. It is only by means of these licensed pharmacies that citizens can buy drugs under medical prescription. Accordingly, the health system is to be driven by public interest, which has yet to prove how competing interests may be regulated in serving health needs. In the light of EU law, the article advocates for an innovative legal and organisational tool whereby to organise the Italian pharmacy system in order to combine economic consideration and public benefit.

  5. NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis (NOSIA): development and support to the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, R. C.; Cantrell, L. E., Jr.; Helms, D.; LaJoie, M.; Pratt, A. S.; Ries, V.; Taylor, J.; Yuen-Murphy, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a deep relationship between NOSIA-II and the Federal Earth Observation Assessment (EOA) efforts (EOA 2012 and 2016) chartered under the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. NOSIA-1, which was conducted with a limited scope internal to NOAA in 2010, developed the methodology and toolset that was adopted for EOA 2012, and NOAA staffed the team that conducted the data collection, modeling, and analysis effort for EOA 2012. EOA 2012 was the first-ever integrated analysis of the relative impact of 379 observing systems and data sources contributing to the key objectives identified for 13 Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) including Weather, Climate, Disasters, Oceans and Coastal Resources, and Water Resources. This effort culminated in the first National Plan for Civil Earth Observations. NOAA conducted NOSIA-II starting in 2012 to extend the NOSIA methodology across all of NOAA's Mission Service Areas, covering a representative sample (over 1000) of NOAA's products and services. The detailed information from NOSIA-II is being integrated into EOA 2016 to underpin a broad array of Key Products, Services, and (science) Objectives (KPSO) identified by the inter-agency SBA teams. EOA 2016 is expected to provide substantially greater insight into the cross-agency impacts of observing systems contributing to a wide array of KPSOs, and by extension, to societal benefits flowing from these public-facing products. NOSIA-II is being adopted by NOAA as a corporate decision-analysis and support capability to inform leadership decisions on its integrated observing systems portfolio. Application examples include assessing the agency-wide impacts of planned decommissioning of ships and aircraft in NOAA's fleet, and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative space-based architectures in the post-GOES-R and JPSS era

  6. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  7. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Due to the high cost of having a PMU at each node, some of the studies performed in ..... through the process of expanding, which makes the observational topologies, ...... FACTS controllers”, International Journal of Engineering, Science and ...

  8. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres and satellite surfaces are observed with the three element array at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Caltech's submillimeter telescope on Mauna Kea and at the 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. Researchers are primarily interested in spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan and the continuum structure of Saturn Rings, Galilean satellites, Neptune and Uranus. During the last year researchers completed a supersynthesis of the Saturn system at 2.8 mm with spatial resolution of 3 arc sec. They just completed a 4-confuguration synthesis of Venus in the CO absorption line. They hope to recover the wind patterns in the altitude range from 60 to 100 km where winds have never been measured. Two important questions are being investigated: (1) how high in the Venus atmosphere do 4-day winds extend, and (2) can we produce experiment proof (or disproof) of the subsolar-to-anti-solar flow (Dickenson winds) predicted by general circulation models

  9. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  10. Is blinking of the eyes affected in extrapyramidal disorders? An interesting observation in a patient with Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Lalla, Rakesh; Patil, Tushar B

    2012-11-27

    Blinking of eye is a routine human activity which seldom attracts any attention of clinicians in health and disease. There is experimental evidence that blink rate is affected in extrapyramidal disorders affecting the balance of these neurotransmitters. However, no observations regarding blink rate in Wilson disease (WD) have been reported previously. We report a patient of WD with an increased spontaneous blink rate. A 24-year-old lady presented complaining of tremulousness of both upper limbs and head for 2 years, dysphagia and difficulty in speaking for 1.5 years and abnormal behaviour for last 1 year. We observed that her blink rate at rest was 32/min. Serum ceruloplasmin level was low (0.08 g/l). The patient was started on therapy with D-penicillamine, zinc sulphate, levodopa-carbidopa and trihexiphenidyl. At 1-month follow-up, patient's tremors were markedly decreased and blink rate at rest was decreased to 12/min.

  11. Pacific Islands Region Observer Program System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system integrates the longline debriefing steps and procedures for Hawaii and American Samoa into one tool to standardize and streamline the debriefing process....

  12. Managing A Lake/Aquifer System-Science, Policy, and the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Isabel is a small (312 ha) natural lake located in central North Dakota in the glaciated Missouri Coteau. The average lake depth is about 1.8 m with a maximum depth of about 3.6 to 4.6 m. The lake overlies the Central Dakota aquifer complex which is comprised of three sand and gravel aquifer units that are either directly or indirectly (through leakage) hydraulically connected to the lake. The aquifer is a major water source for center pivot irrigation. During the 2001-2008 drought, lower lake levels reduced lake recreation, including leaving many boat docks unusable. Lake homeowners attribute lake level decline to irrigation pumping and believe that irrigation should be curtailed. There is no water right associated with Lake Isabel because there are no constructed works associated with the lake. Therefore, under North Dakota statute the lake cannot be protected as a prior (senior) appropriator. The lake does have standing under the public interest as defined by North Dakota statute. Evaluation of the public interest involves the integration of both science and policy. Is it in the best interest of the people of the state to prohibit ground water withdrawals for irrigation to protect the lake? This is a policy decision, not a scientific decision. The basis of the policy decision should include an economic analysis of the irrigated crops, fish, wildlife, recreation, and lake property. In addition, priority of use and lake level history should be considered. The issue can likely be resolved without scientific controversy arising from hydrologic system uncertainty. If the decision is to protect the lake at some level, the issue becomes “scientized” and the following questions need to be answered: 1) Does irrigation pumping effect changes in lake levels? 2) Is our level of scientific understanding sufficient to determine what volume of irrigation pumping will cause what amount of lake level change? 3) Given aquifer lag time response to changes in pumping and

  13. Experiences in management of production systems of social interest: The case of Corpoc and Furmos foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Camacho Montoya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theories of human development from human capabilities have, as theoretical references, the competencies of affiliation, achievement and power, as well as the analysis of business management. This article aims to compare experiences of productive systems of social interest from an analysis of the particular cases of the Furmos and Corpoc companies. The starting point was a previous project conducted in Corpoc; information was gathered through interviews and work sessions, and the institutions were characterized. It was found that the Corpoc management model is flat associative with a single leader and the Furmos model is a strategic associative partnership management model. Their members depend on the leader with their motivations and achievements, and their projects do not have a management model. Therefore, the lack of a suitable formulation of management models prevents the continuity and success of social production projects in the two institutions.

  14. Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    D.Elleuch; T.Damak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown tha...

  15. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-10 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Close, L. M.; Scuderi, L. J.; Morris, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present here observations of the transit of WASP-10b on 2009 October 14 UT taken from the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow. Conditions were photometric and accuracies of 2.0 mmag rms were obtained throughout the transit. We have found that the ratio of the planet to host star radii is in agreement with the measurements of Christian et al. instead of the refinements of Johnson et al., suggesting that WASP-10b is indeed inflated beyond what is expected from theoretical modeling. We find no evidence for large (>20 s) transit timing variations in WASP-10b's orbit from the ephemeris of Christian et al. and Johnson et al.

  16. RCAS: an RNA centric annotation system for transcriptome-wide regions of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Bora; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Wurmus, Ricardo; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Ohler, Uwe; Akalin, Altuna

    2017-06-02

    In the field of RNA, the technologies for studying the transcriptome have created a tremendous potential for deciphering the puzzles of the RNA biology. Along with the excitement, the unprecedented volume of RNA related omics data is creating great challenges in bioinformatics analyses. Here, we present the RNA Centric Annotation System (RCAS), an R package, which is designed to ease the process of creating gene-centric annotations and analysis for the genomic regions of interest obtained from various RNA-based omics technologies. The design of RCAS is modular, which enables flexible usage and convenient integration with other bioinformatics workflows. RCAS is an R/Bioconductor package but we also created graphical user interfaces including a Galaxy wrapper and a stand-alone web service. The application of RCAS on published datasets shows that RCAS is not only able to reproduce published findings but also helps generate novel knowledge and hypotheses. The meta-gene profiles, gene-centric annotation, motif analysis and gene-set analysis provided by RCAS provide contextual knowledge which is necessary for understanding the functional aspects of different biological events that involve RNAs. In addition, the array of different interfaces and deployment options adds the convenience of use for different levels of users. RCAS is available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/RCAS.html and http://rcas.mdc-berlin.de. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. SU-F-J-183: Interior Region-Of-Interest Tomography by Using Inverse Geometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Shin, D; Cho, M; Noh, Y; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) composed of multiple source and small size detector has several merits such as reduction of scatter effect and large volumetric imaging within one rotation without cone-beam artifact, compared to conventional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). By using this multi-source characteristics, we intend to present a selective and multiple interior region-of-interest (ROI) imaging method by using a designed source on-off sequence of IGCT. Methods: All of the IGCT sources are operated one by one sequentially, and each projection in the shape of narrow cone-beam covers its own partial volume of full field of view (FOV) determined from system geometry. Thus, through controlling multi source operation, limited irradiation within ROI is possible and selective radon space data for ROI imaging can be acquired without additional X-ray filtration. With this feature, we designed a source on-off sequence for multi ROI-IGCT imaging, and projections of ROI-IGCT were generated by using the on-off sequence. Multi ROI-IGCT images were reconstructed by using filtered back-projection algorithm. All these imaging process of our study has been performed by utilizing digital phantom and patient CT data. ROI-IGCT images of the phantom were compared to CBCT image and the phantom data for the image quality evaluation. Results: Image quality of ROI-IGCT was comparable to that of CBCT. However, the distal axial-plane from the FOV center, large cone-angle region, ROI-IGCT showed uniform image quality without significant cone-beam artifact contrary to CBCT. Conclusion: ROI-IGCT showed comparable image quality and has the capability to provide multi ROI image within a rotation. Projection of ROI-IGCT is performed by selective irradiation, hence unnecessary imaging dose to non-interest region can be reduced. In this regard, it seems to be useful for diagnostic or image guidance purpose in radiotherapy such as low dose target localization and

  18. SU-F-J-183: Interior Region-Of-Interest Tomography by Using Inverse Geometry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Shin, D; Cho, M; Noh, Y; Suh, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) composed of multiple source and small size detector has several merits such as reduction of scatter effect and large volumetric imaging within one rotation without cone-beam artifact, compared to conventional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). By using this multi-source characteristics, we intend to present a selective and multiple interior region-of-interest (ROI) imaging method by using a designed source on-off sequence of IGCT. Methods: All of the IGCT sources are operated one by one sequentially, and each projection in the shape of narrow cone-beam covers its own partial volume of full field of view (FOV) determined from system geometry. Thus, through controlling multi source operation, limited irradiation within ROI is possible and selective radon space data for ROI imaging can be acquired without additional X-ray filtration. With this feature, we designed a source on-off sequence for multi ROI-IGCT imaging, and projections of ROI-IGCT were generated by using the on-off sequence. Multi ROI-IGCT images were reconstructed by using filtered back-projection algorithm. All these imaging process of our study has been performed by utilizing digital phantom and patient CT data. ROI-IGCT images of the phantom were compared to CBCT image and the phantom data for the image quality evaluation. Results: Image quality of ROI-IGCT was comparable to that of CBCT. However, the distal axial-plane from the FOV center, large cone-angle region, ROI-IGCT showed uniform image quality without significant cone-beam artifact contrary to CBCT. Conclusion: ROI-IGCT showed comparable image quality and has the capability to provide multi ROI image within a rotation. Projection of ROI-IGCT is performed by selective irradiation, hence unnecessary imaging dose to non-interest region can be reduced. In this regard, it seems to be useful for diagnostic or image guidance purpose in radiotherapy such as low dose target localization and

  19. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinying; Zhang Xizhen; Zhang Hongbo; Kong Deqing; Qu Huipeng

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  20. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  1. An exponential observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Rossler chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a state observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be arbitrarily pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  2. A simple observer of the generalized Chen chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Chen chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Chen chaotic system is proposed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Furthermore, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main result.

  3. A simple observer design of the generalized Lorenz chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  4. Study of the interaction of multiply charged ions and complex systems of biological interest: effects of the molecular environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes the experimental study of the interaction between slow multiply charged ions (tens of keV) and molecular systems of biological interest (amino acids and nucleobases). It is the aim to identify and to better understand the effect of a molecular environment on different collision induced phenomena. To do so, the time of flight spectra of cationic products emerging from collisions with isolated molecules as well as clusters are compared. It is shown that the molecular environment protects the molecule as it allows to distribute the transferred energies and charges over the whole system (global decrease of the fragmentation and quenching of some fragmentation channels). Furthermore, in the case of adenine clusters, the molecular environment weakens some intramolecular bonds. Moreover, products of chemical reactions are observed concerning proton transfer processes in hydrated cluster of adenine and the formation of peptides bonds between beta-alanine molecules in a cluster. The latter finding is studied as a function of the cluster size and type of the projectile. Some criteria for peptide bond formation, such as flexibility and geometry of the molecule, are investigated for different amino acids. (author)

  5. Distributed Fuzzy and Stochastic Observers for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendek, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Many problems in decision making, control, and monitoring require that all variables of interest, usually states and parameters of the system, are known at all times. However, in practical situations, not all variables are measurable or they are not measured due to technical or economical reasons.

  6. Nonlinear observer based phase synchronization of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Juan; Wang Xingyuan

    2007-01-01

    This Letter analyzes the phase synchronization problem of autonomous chaotic systems. Based on the nonlinear state observer algorithm and the pole placement technique, a phase synchronization scheme is designed. The phase synchronization of a new chaotic system is achieved by using this observer controller. Numerical simulations further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed phase synchronization scheme

  7. Market-Based Coordination and Auditing Mechanisms for Self-Interested Multi-Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, MyungJoo

    2009-01-01

    We propose market-based coordinated task allocation mechanisms, which allocate complex tasks that require synchronized and collaborated services of multiple robot agents to robot agents, and an auditing mechanism, which ensures proper behaviors of robot agents by verifying inter-agent activities, for self-interested, fully-distributed, and…

  8. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  9. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  10. Role of the oxytocin system in amygdala subregions in the regulation of social interest in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-08-25

    We previously found that oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) binding density in the medial amygdala (MeA) correlated positively with social interest (i.e., the motivation to investigate a conspecific) in male rats, while OTR binding density in the central amygdala (CeA) correlated negatively with social interest in female rats. Here, we determined the causal involvement of OTR in the MeA and CeA in the sex-specific regulation of social interest in adult rats by injecting an OTR antagonist (5ng/0.5μl/side) or OT (100pg/0.5μl/side) before the social interest test (4-min same-sex juvenile exposure). OTR blockade in the CeA decreased social interest in males but not females, while all other treatments had no behavioral effect. To further explore the sex-specific involvement of the OT system in the CeA in social interest, we used in vivo microdialysis to determine possible sex differences in endogenous OT release in the CeA during social interest. Interestingly, males and females showed similar levels of extracellular OT release at baseline and during social interest, suggesting that factors other than local OT release mediate the sex-specific role of CeA-OTR in social interest. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between CeA-OT release and social investigation time in females. This was further reflected by reduced CeA-OT release during social interest in females that expressed low compared to high social interest. We discuss the possibility that this reduction in OT release may be a consequence, rather than a cause, of exposure to a social stimulus. Overall, our findings show for the first time that extracellular OT release in the CeA is similar between males and females and that OTR in the CeA plays a causal role in the regulation of social interest toward juvenile conspecifics in males. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Observation of Concomitant Congenital Heart Disease and Anomaly of the Urinary System in Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Limarenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the clinical observation of multiple malformations in a child: combination of congenital heart disease with an anomaly of the urinary system on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia syndrome of maximum severity. This case report is of interest to pediatricians. Children with defects of the heart and urinary system often have other malformations, so in these patients it is important to conduct a full multisystem examination.

  12. Observing System Simulation Experiments for Fun and Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.

    2015-01-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments can be powerful tools for evaluating and exploring both the behavior of data assimilation systems and the potential impacts of future observing systems. With great power comes great responsibility - given a pure modeling framework, how can we be sure our results are meaningful? The challenges and pitfalls of OSSE calibration and validation will be addressed, as well as issues of incestuousness, selection of appropriate metrics, and experiment design. The use of idealized observational networks to investigate theoretical ideas in a fully complex modeling framework will also be discussed

  13. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.

    With the rise in automation the increase in fault detectionand isolation & reconfiguration is inevitable. Interest in fault detection and isolation (FDI) for nonlinear systems has grown significantly in recent years. The design of FDI is motivated by the need for knowledge about occurring faults...... in fault-tolerant control systems (FTC systems). The idea of FTC systems is to detect, isolate, and handle faults in such a way that the systems can still perform in a required manner. One prefers reduced performance after occurrence of a fault to the shut down of (sub-) systems. Hence, the idea of fault......-output decoupling is described. It is a new idea based on the solution of the input-output decoupling problem. The idea is to include FDI considerations already during the control design....

  14. Designing the Climate Observing System of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Elizabeth C.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Abbott, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Atlas, Robert; Brasseur, Guy; Bruhwiler, Lori; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Butler, James H.; Clack, Christopher T. M.; Cooke, Roger; Cucurull, Lidia; Davis, Sean M.; English, Jason M.; Fahey, David W.; Fine, Steven S.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Liang, Shunlin; Loeb, Norman G.; Rignot, Eric; Soden, Brian; Stanitski, Diane; Stephens, Graeme; Tapley, Byron D.; Thompson, Anne M.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2018-01-01

    Climate observations are needed to address a large range of important societal issues including sea level rise, droughts, floods, extreme heat events, food security, and freshwater availability in the coming decades. Past, targeted investments in specific climate questions have resulted in tremendous improvements in issues important to human health, security, and infrastructure. However, the current climate observing system was not planned in a comprehensive, focused manner required to adequately address the full range of climate needs. A potential approach to planning the observing system of the future is presented in this article. First, this article proposes that priority be given to the most critical needs as identified within the World Climate Research Program as Grand Challenges. These currently include seven important topics: melting ice and global consequences; clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity; carbon feedbacks in the climate system; understanding and predicting weather and climate extremes; water for the food baskets of the world; regional sea-level change and coastal impacts; and near-term climate prediction. For each Grand Challenge, observations are needed for long-term monitoring, process studies and forecasting capabilities. Second, objective evaluations of proposed observing systems, including satellites, ground-based and in situ observations as well as potentially new, unidentified observational approaches, can quantify the ability to address these climate priorities. And third, investments in effective climate observations will be economically important as they will offer a magnified return on investment that justifies a far greater development of observations to serve society's needs.

  15. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  16. Chaotic Secure Communication Systems with an Adaptive State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Der Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new digital communication scheme based on using a unified chaotic system and an adaptive state observer. The proposed communication system basically consists of five important elements: signal modulation, chaotic encryption, adaptive state observer, chaotic decryption, and signal demodulation. A sequence of digital signals will be delivered from the transmitter to the receiver through a public channel. It is rather reasonable that if the number of signals delivered on the public channel is fewer, then the security of such communication system is more guaranteed. Therefore, in order to achieve this purpose, a state observer will be designed and its function is to estimate full system states only by using the system output signals. In this way, the signals delivered on the public channel can be reduced mostly. According to these estimated state signals, the original digital sequences are then retrieved completely. Finally, experiment results are provided to verify the applicability of the proposed communication system.

  17. Analyzing inter-organizational systems from a power and interest perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; de Vries, J.

    2005-01-01

    Inter-organizational systems (IOS) are Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based systems that enable organizations to share information and to electronically conduct business across organizational boundaries. Especially since the increasing availability of the Internet, there have been

  18. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  19. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  20. Point Reward System: A Method of Assessment That Accommodates a Diversity of Student Abilities and Interests and Enhances Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derado, Josip; Garner, Mary L.; Tran, Thu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Students' abilities and interests vary dramatically in the college mathematics classroom. How do we teach all of these students effectively? In this paper, we present the Point Reward System (PRS), a new method of assessment that addresses this problem. We designed the PRS with three main goals in mind: to increase the retention rates; to keep all…

  1. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  2. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... prediction, offshore energy, power generation, and commercial fishing. Our findings suggest that annual benefits to users from the deployment of ocean observing systems are likely to run in the multiple...

  3. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  4. Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape

  5. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  6. Operator symbols in the description of observable-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    For the observable-state system of finite degree of freedom N topological properties of the kernels and symbols belonging to the considered operators are investigated. For the operators of the observable algebra of rho + (delta) kernels and symbols are distributions and for density matrices p they are smooth functions

  7. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency shows keen interest. Innovative warning system for nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, S.; Van der Meer, K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to prevent nuclear proliferation, nuclear fuels and other strategic materials have to be responsibly managed. Non-proliferation aims to counteract the uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear materials worldwide. SCK-CEN is developing an innovative nuclear warning system based on political and economic indicators. Such a system should allow the early detection of the development of a nuclear weapons programme.

  9. Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Interacting Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolesov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of fault diagnosis in dynamic systems based on a fuzzy approach is proposed. The new method possesses two basic specific features which distinguish it from the other known fuzzy methods based on the application of fuzzy logic and a bank of state observers. First, this method uses a bank of interacting observers instead of traditional independent observers. The second specific feature of the proposed method is the assumption that there is no strict boundary between the serviceable and disabled technical states of the system, which makes it possible to specify a decision making rule for fault diagnosis.

  10. Automatic detection system for multiple region of interest registration to account for posture changes in head and neck radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, A.; van Beek, S.; Zijp, L. J.; Rasch, C.; van Herk, M.; Sonke, J.-J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite immobilization of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients, considerable posture changes occur over the course of radiotherapy (RT). To account for the posture changes, we previously implemented a multiple regions of interest (mROIs) registration system tailored to the H and N region for image-guided RT correction strategies. This paper is focused on the automatic segmentation of the ROIs in the H and N region. We developed a fast and robust automatic detection system suitable for an online image-guided application and quantified its performance. The system was developed to segment nine high contrast structures from the planning CT including cervical vertebrae, mandible, hyoid, manubrium of sternum, larynx and occipital bone. It generates nine 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs and informs the user in case of ambiguities. Two observers evaluated the robustness of the segmentation on 188 H and N cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to a sub-group of 50 patients to compare the registration results using only the automatically generated ROIs and those manually set by two independent experts. Finally the time performance and workload were evaluated. Automatic detection of individual anatomical ROIs had a success rate of 97%/53% with/without user notifications respectively. Following the notifications, for 38% of the patients one or more structures were manually adjusted. The processing time was on average 5 s. The limits of agreement between the local registrations of manually and automatically set ROIs was comprised between ±1.4 mm, except for the manubrium of sternum (-1.71 mm and 1.67 mm), and were similar to the limits agreement between the two experts. The workload to place the nine ROIs was reduced from 141 s (±20 s) by the manual procedure to 59 s (±17 s) using the automatic method. An efficient detection system to segment multiple ROIs was developed for Cone-Beam CT image-guided applications in the H and N region and is clinically implemented in

  11. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  12. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  13. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  14. Accelerating assimilation development for new observing systems using EFSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Guo-Yuan; Hotta, Daisuke; Kalnay, Eugenia; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Chen, Tse-Chun

    2018-03-01

    To successfully assimilate data from a new observing system, it is necessary to develop appropriate data selection strategies, assimilating only the generally useful data. This development work is usually done by trial and error using observing system experiments (OSEs), which are very time and resource consuming. This study proposes a new, efficient methodology to accelerate the development using ensemble forecast sensitivity to observations (EFSO). First, non-cycled assimilation of the new observation data is conducted to compute EFSO diagnostics for each observation within a large sample. Second, the average EFSO conditionally sampled in terms of various factors is computed. Third, potential data selection criteria are designed based on the non-cycled EFSO statistics, and tested in cycled OSEs to verify the actual assimilation impact. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated with the assimilation of satellite precipitation data. It is shown that the EFSO-based method can efficiently suggest data selection criteria that significantly improve the assimilation results.

  15. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    dioxide). The amount of warm water is deduced and its origin is observationally constrained. With both isotopologues observed, the HDO/H2O ratio is deduced. This ratio is then compared to other sources, e.g., comets and the Earth’s ocean, to gain understanding of the origin of the water in our own solar...... system. The emission line fluxes are modeled with radiative transfer tools and compared to other results of water abundances in the same source. The observed water emission, both H18(2 O and HDO is compact for all observed sources and traces the emission on R 150 AU scales or less. In one source...

  16. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  17. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  18. Multi-Planetary Systems: Observations and Models of Dynamical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    More than 600 multi-planet systems are known. The vast majority of these systems have been discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft, but dozens were found using the Doppler technique, the first multi-exoplanet system was identified through pulsar timing, and the most massive system has been found using imaging. More than one-third of the 4000+ planet candidates found by NASA's Kepler spacecraft are associated with target stars that have more than one planet candidate, and the large number of such Kepler "multis" tells us that flat multiplanet systems like our Solar System are common. Virtually all of Kepler candidate multis are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a physically motivated mass-radius relationship. Statistical studies performed on these candidate systems reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness. The characteristics of several of the most interesting confirmed multi-exoplanet systems will also be discussed.HR 8799's four massive planets orbit tens of AU from their host star and travel on nearly circular orbits. PSR B1257+12 has three much smaller planets orbiting close to a neutron star. Both represent extremes and show that planet formation is a robust process that produces a diversity of outcomes. Although both exomoons and Trojan (triangle Lagrange point) planets have been searched for, neither has yet been found.

  19. Construction of a patient observation system using KINECTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaura, Kazunori; Kumazaki, Yu; Kato, Shingo; Fukushima, Chika; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in the positional accuracy of irradiation is expected by capturing patient motion (intra-fractional error) during irradiation. The present study reports the construction of a patient observation system using Microsoft® KINECT TM . By tracking movement, we made it possible to add a depth component to the acquired position coordinates and to display three-axis (X, Y, and Z) movement. Moreover, the developed system can be displayed in a graph which is constructed from the coordinate position at each time interval. Using the developed system, an observer can easily visualize patient movement. When the body phantom was moved a known distance in the X, Y, and Z directions, good coincidence was shown with each axis. We built a patient observation system which captures a patient's motion using KINECT TM .

  20. Internal-time observable of classical relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri

    2006-01-01

    The relativistic framework with its symmetries offers a natural definition for the internal time of classical (non-quantum) physical systems as a Lorentz-invariant observable. The internal-time observable, measuring the system's aging or internal evolution, is identified with the proper time of the system derived from its centre-of-mass (CM) coordinate. For its definition as an observable it is required that the system be symmetric not only under Lorentz-Poincare transformations but also under uniform scaling, with the associated existence of a dilatation function D, and yet that D be a varying-not conserved-quantity. Two alternative definitions are discussed, and it is found that in order to maintain simultaneity of the CM time with the events that define it, it is necessary to split the dilatation function into a CM part and an internal part

  1. The diversity of planetary system architectures: contrasting theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Y.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2011-10-01

    In order to explain the observed diversity of planetary system architectures and relate this primordial diversity to the initial properties of the discs where they were born, we develop a semi-analytical model for computing planetary system formation. The model is based on the core instability model for the gas accretion of the embryos and the oligarchic growth regime for the accretion of the solid cores. Two regimes of planetary migration are also included. With this model, we consider different initial conditions based on recent results of protoplanetary disc observations to generate a variety of planetary systems. These systems are analysed statistically, exploring the importance of several factors that define the planetary system birth environment. We explore the relevance of the mass and size of the disc, metallicity, mass of the central star and time-scale of gaseous disc dissipation in defining the architecture of the planetary system. We also test different values of some key parameters of our model to find out which factors best reproduce the diverse sample of observed planetary systems. We assume different migration rates and initial disc profiles, in the context of a surface density profile motivated by similarity solutions. According to this, and based on recent protoplanetary disc observational data, we predict which systems are the most common in the solar neighbourhood. We intend to unveil whether our Solar system is a rarity or whether more planetary systems like our own are expected to be found in the near future. We also analyse which is the more favourable environment for the formation of habitable planets. Our results show that planetary systems with only terrestrial planets are the most common, being the only planetary systems formed when considering low-metallicity discs, which also represent the best environment for the development of rocky, potentially habitable planets. We also found that planetary systems like our own are not rare in the

  2. Application of fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Determining Field of Interest in Information System Study STTH Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Syahputra, Edy; Agustina Dalimunthe, Yulia; Irvan

    2017-12-01

    Many students are confused in choosing their own field of specialization, ultimately choosing areas of specialization that are incompatible with a variety of reasons such as just following a friend or because of the area of interest of many choices without knowing whether they have Competencies in the chosen field of interest. This research aims to apply Clustering method with Fuzzy C-means algorithm to classify students in the chosen interest field. The Fuzzy C-Means algorithm is one of the easiest and often used algorithms in data grouping techniques because it makes efficient estimates and does not require many parameters. Several studies have led to the conclusion that the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm can be used to group data based on certain attributes. In this research will be used Fuzzy C-Means algorithm to classify student data based on the value of core subjects in the selection of specialization field. This study also tested the accuracy of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm in the determination of interest area. The study was conducted on the STT-Harapan Medan Information System Study program, and the object of research is the value of all students of STT-Harapan Medan Information System Study Program 2012. From this research, it is expected to get the specialization field, according to the students' ability based on the prerequisite principal value.

  3. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite

  4. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  5. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  6. Novel classification system of rib fractures observed in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Pinto, Deborrah C; Greeley, Christopher; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Bista, Bibek

    2013-03-01

    Rib fractures are considered highly suspicious for nonaccidental injury in the pediatric clinical literature; however, a rib fracture classification system has not been developed. As an aid and impetus for rib fracture research, we developed a concise schema for classifying rib fracture types and fracture location that is applicable to infants. The system defined four fracture types (sternal end, buckle, transverse, and oblique) and four regions of the rib (posterior, posterolateral, anterolateral, and anterior). It was applied to all rib fractures observed during 85 consecutive infant autopsies. Rib fractures were found in 24 (28%) of the cases. A total of 158 rib fractures were identified. The proposed schema was adequate to classify 153 (97%) of the observed fractures. The results indicate that the classification system is sufficiently robust to classify rib fractures typically observed in infants and should be used by researchers investigating infant rib fractures. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. An interesting case of systemic lupus erythematosus in a patient with Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Jefferson da Rocha; Figueiredo, Marília Andrade; Espindula, Aline; Gallottini, Marina; Ortega, Karem López

    2018-03-01

    Moebius' syndrome (MS) is characterized by a nonprogressive facial palsy associated with impairment in eye abduction, which can be uni- or bilateral. Some authors raise the possibility that patients with MS may suffer from social stigmatism due to their facial dysmorphism and that constant teasing and bullying perpetrated by people in the same social circle are adjuvants in the development of low self-esteem, behavioral problems, and even psychiatric disorders. Psychological stress, anxiety, and depression are factors contributing to both development and impairment of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this work is to report the case of a patient with MS who developed SLE. In the present case report, we have emphasized the importance of both clinical dental examination and surgeon-dentist in the early diagnosis of systemic diseases by considering that these conditions can affect both syndromic and normoreactive patients. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Fusion cross section measurements of astrophysical interest for light heavy ions systems within the STELLA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruet Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The experimental setup composed of an ultra high vacuum reaction chamber, a set of 3 silicon strip detectors, up to 36 LaBr3(Ce scintillators from the UK FATIMA collaboration, and a fast rotating target system will be described. The 12C+12C fusion reaction has been studied from Elab = 11 to 5.6 MeV using STELLA at the Andromède facility in Orsay, France. Preliminary commissioning results are presented in this article.

  9. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  10. Water resource monitoring systems and the role of satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial water resource monitoring systems (SWRMS can provide valuable information in support of water management, but current operational systems are few and provide only a subset of the information required. Necessary innovations include the explicit description of water redistribution and water use from river and groundwater systems, achieving greater spatial detail (particularly in key features such as irrigated areas and wetlands, and improving accuracy as assessed against hydrometric observations, as well as assimilating those observations. The Australian water resources assessment (AWRA system aims to achieve this by coupling landscape models with models describing surface water and groundwater dynamics and water use. A review of operational and research applications demonstrates that satellite observations can improve accuracy and spatial detail in hydrological model estimation. All operational systems use dynamic forcing, land cover classifications and a priori parameterisation of vegetation dynamics that are partially or wholly derived from remote sensing. Satellite observations are used to varying degrees in model evaluation and data assimilation. The utility of satellite observations through data assimilation can vary as a function of dominant hydrological processes. Opportunities for improvement are identified, including the development of more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution precipitation products, and the use of a greater range of remote sensing products in a priori model parameter estimation, model evaluation and data assimilation. Operational challenges include the continuity of research satellite missions and data services, and the need to find computationally-efficient data assimilation techniques. The successful use of observations critically depends on the availability of detailed information on observational error and understanding of the relationship between remotely-sensed and model variables, as

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-2 SYSTEM BY THE APOSTLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rose, Amy E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of {approx}2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced {chi}{sup 2} values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 s and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g., continuous observations from space-based platforms). However, even in systems observed with the Kepler spacecraft, there is a noted lack of transiting companions and TTVs in hot-Jupiter systems. This result is more meaningful, and indicates that hot-Jupiter systems, while they are easily observable from the ground, do not appear to be currently configured in a manner favorable to the detection of TTVs. The future of ground-based TTV studies may reside in resolving secular trends, and/or implementation at extreme quality observing sites to minimize atmospheric red noise.

  12. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  13. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  14. Interesting new two-way communication system between power supplier and customer; Spennende toveisteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2002-07-01

    The Norwegian company Wireless Reading Systems (WRS) have developed a special solution for two-way communication, with relatively low costs of both investment and operation. This two-way technology is based on radio communication and so is wireless. What is unique lies in the small chip that is easily mounted on the electric meter. It reads the numbers on the electric meter optically and transmits the data to a server. The reader is a semiconductor in a very compact form and includes two processors, internal memory and a camera, with the optics directly on the electronics. The chip also includes a small radio. The device is called the Recaps Terminal. It has a serial input and can be connected directly to some kWh-meters. The Recaps can also be used to count pulses, it can be used as alarm monitor, to control relays etc. The data coming from the terminals at the customers are transmitted as radio signals to a so-called Cecaps base station. This is a concentrator that covers 500-2000 Recaps units in a geographic area. This concentrator communicates with C31 data centre by way of WLAN, LAN, GSM or other means. The supervising unit in the system is the C31 data centre, which is a central data system for receiving readings and controlling the radio network.

  15. Mirror neuron system and observational learning: behavioral and neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments were performed to study observational learning using behavioral, perceptual, and neurophysiological data. Experiment 1 investigated whether observing an execution model, during physical practice of a transitive task that only presented one execution strategy, led to performance improvements compared with physical practice alone. Experiment 2 investigated whether performing an observational learning protocol improves subjects' action perception. In experiment 3 we evaluated whether the type of practice performed determined the activation of the Mirror Neuron System during action observation. Results showed that, compared with physical practice, observing an execution model during a task that only showed one execution strategy does not provide behavioral benefits. However, an observational learning protocol allows subjects to predict more precisely the outcome of the learned task. Finally, intersperse observation of an execution model with physical practice results in changes of primary motor cortex activity during the observation of the motor pattern previously practiced, whereas modulations in the connectivity between primary and non primary motor areas (PMv-M1; PPC-M1) were not affected by the practice protocol performed by the observer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Observation-Driven Configuration of Complex Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Aled

    2010-06-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of software systems makes them hard to comprehend, predict and tune due to emergent properties and non-deterministic behaviour. Complexity arises from the size of software systems and the wide variety of possible operating environments: the increasing choice of platforms and communication policies leads to ever more complex performance characteristics. In addition, software systems exhibit different behaviour under different workloads. Many software systems are designed to be configurable so that policies can be chosen to meet the needs of various stakeholders. For complex software systems it can be difficult to accurately predict the effects of a change and to know which configuration is most appropriate. This thesis demonstrates that it is useful to run automated experiments that measure a selection of system configurations. Experiments can find configurations that meet the stakeholders' needs, find interesting behavioural characteristics, and help produce predictive models of the system's behaviour. The design and use of ACT (Automated Configuration Tool) for running such experiments is described, in combination a number of search strategies for deciding on the configurations to measure. Design Of Experiments (DOE) is discussed, with emphasis on Taguchi Methods. These statistical methods have been used extensively in manufacturing, but have not previously been used for configuring software systems. The novel contribution here is an industrial case study, applying the combination of ACT and Taguchi Methods to DC-Directory, a product from Data Connection Ltd (DCL). The case study investigated the applicability of Taguchi Methods for configuring complex software systems. Taguchi Methods were found to be useful for modelling and configuring DC- Directory, making them a valuable addition to the techniques available to system administrators and developers.

  17. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured

  18. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: byang@eso.org [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  19. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  20. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Relationship of COP System Interest Inventory Scales to Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) Scales in a College Sample: Construct Validity of Scales Based on Progressed Occupational Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Construct validity data found some support for the California Occupational Preference System constructs when its results were evaluated on a sample of 213 female undergraduates relative to the Vocational Preference Inventory results. (PN)

  2. Measurements of the phase behavior of ternary systems of interest to the GAS process: III. The system CO2 + toluene plus naphthalene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, B.; Kordikowski, A.; Wilmes, B; Peters, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Systems consisting of a supercritical gas, an organic solvent and an organic solute are of interest for the gas-antisolvent (GAS) process. In this work the phase behavior of the ternary system carbon dioxide + toluene + naphthalene was studied in a Cailletet apparatus over the temperature range

  3. On the complete system of observables in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper contains a series of remarks about the concept of Complete System of Observables (CSO) in quantum mechanics and a discussion of two definitions of CSO, one given by Jauch [Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 711 (1960)] and the other by Prugovecki [Can. J. Phys. 47, 1083 (1968)].

  4. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  5. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  6. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerhayes, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  7. Characterization of the hydrogen bond in molecular systems of biological interest by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavillon, F.

    2004-10-01

    This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the scattering spectra of neutrons on molecular liquids. This method is based on the adjustment of the molecular form factor concerning great momentum transfer. The subtraction of the intra-molecular contributions gives access to information on inter-molecular interactions such as the hydrogen bond. 3 systems with increasing levels of difficulty have been studied: the ammonia molecule, the N-methyl-formamide (NMF) and the N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). The value we get for the N-D intermolecular distance of the liquid ammonia molecule is 1.7 angstrom, this value is different from the value generally admitted (2.3 angstrom) but we have validated it by studying the isotopic substitution N 14 /N 15 . The adjustment to the NMF is obtained with a good accuracy but the characterization of the hydrogen bound is more delicate to infer. A preliminary study of the NMA molecule shows that this method can give relevant results on complex molecules

  8. Emerging Methods and Systems for Observing Life in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Simmons, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for observations of life in the sea at time and space scales consistent with those made for physical and chemical parameters. International programs such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Marine Biodiversity Observation Networks (MBON) are making the case for expanded biological observations and working diligently to prioritize essential variables. Here we review past, present and emerging systems and methods for observing life in the sea from the perspective of maintaining continuous observations over long time periods. Methods that rely on ships with instrumentation and over-the-side sample collections will need to be supplemented and eventually replaced with those based from autonomous platforms. Ship-based optical and acoustic instruments are being reduced in size and power for deployment on moorings and autonomous vehicles. In parallel a new generation of low power, improved resolution sensors are being developed. Animal bio-logging is evolving with new, smaller and more sophisticated tags being developed. New genomic methods, capable of assessing multiple trophic levels from a single water sample, are emerging. Autonomous devices for genomic sample collection are being miniaturized and adapted to autonomous vehicles. The required processing schemes and methods for these emerging data collections are being developed in parallel with the instrumentation. An evolving challenge will be the integration of information from these disparate methods given that each provides their own unique view of life in the sea.

  9. A tethered balloon system for observation of atmospheric temperature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Kakuta, Michio

    1979-05-01

    In environmental assessment of near-shore nuclear plants, information is often required on the development of internal boundary layer (IBL) and associated fumigation condition. Single tower data is not sufficient to clarify the site-dependent IBL structure that affects the atmospheric diffusion in shoreline-stack-site boundary complex. A tethered balloon system has been developed, which comprises a fixed point kitoon and a car-borne small balloon. The system enables us to measure the detailed time-space distribution of temperature without much man-power. The system and example of field observations with it are described. (author)

  10. The RITMARE Ocean Observing System for the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A.

    2016-02-01

    Among its objectives, the Italian RITMARE Flagship Programme has the aim to produce a prototype of the RITMARE Ocean observing system explicitelly designed to provide a powerful infrastructure to the Italian marine science community, to help implement national and Europen environmental regulations and to contribute to the future European Ocean Observing System. The projects takes advantage of the existing platforms (fixed-point moorings, HF and X-band radars, gliders, satellite products), that constitute the basic components of the system. The structure of the RITMARE Ocean observing system is composed by a permanent component (mooring network, satellite images, HF radars) and relocatable component (gliders, drifters, relocatable infrastructures). The increasing number of available relocatable/expandable platforms allow a much larger flexibility in term of allocation of observations but requires an sampling strategy the can be modified according the scientific and socio-economic priorities. As an example, RITMARE focus is set on an experiment on the South Adriatic Pit convective area and its dynamic interactions with the adjacent Bari Canyon cascading site. (Central Mediterranean Sea). Additional effort is paid to support innovation for sensors (e.g. ship-borne LIDAR, stereo-optic directional wave detection, X-band radar innovative products), operational employment of gliders (e.g. Wave Glider) and new class of operational models. The integration can be obtained at different level: the is expected to be achieved at ICT level by defining standard interfaces (NedCDF, SOS) and catalogs in order to facilitate the discovery, viewing and downloading services of data and products. The implementation of a distributed platform-oriented RT repositories adopt a number of THREDDS web servers that act as endpoints for the RITMARE portal. The final aim is to decouple the platforms from the observations, moving from a set of observation to a suite of Essential Ocean Variables by

  11. User Driven Data Mining, Visualization and Decision Making for NOAA Observing System and Data Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) observing system enterprise represents a $2.4B annual investment. Earth observations from these systems are foundational to NOAA's mission to describe, understand, and predict the Earth's environment. NOAA's decision makers are charged with managing this complex portfolio of observing systems to serve the national interest effectively and efficiently. The Technology Planning & Integration for Observation (TPIO) Office currently maintains an observing system portfolio for NOAA's validated user observation requirements, observing capabilities, and resulting data products and services. TPIO performs data analytics to provide NOAA leadership business case recommendations for making sound budgetary decisions. Over the last year, TPIO has moved from massive spreadsheets to intuitive dashboards that enable Federal agencies as well as the general public the ability to explore user observation requirements and environmental observing systems that monitor and predict changes in the environment. This change has led to an organizational data management shift to analytics and visualizations by allowing analysts more time to focus on understanding the data, discovering insights, and effectively communicating the information to decision makers. Moving forward, the next step is to facilitate a cultural change toward self-serve data sharing across NOAA, other Federal agencies, and the public using intuitive data visualizations that answer relevant business questions for users of NOAA's Observing System Enterprise. Users and producers of environmental data will become aware of the need for enhancing communication to simplify information exchange to achieve multipurpose goals across a variety of disciplines. NOAA cannot achieve its goal of producing environmental intelligence without data that can be shared by multiple user communities. This presentation will describe where we are on this journey and will provide examples of

  12. Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)

  13. California Energy Commission Public Interest EnergyResearch/Energy System Integration -- Transmission-Planning Research&Development Scoping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard; Widergren, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)scoping project is to identify options for public-interest research and development (R&D) to improve transmission-planning tools, techniques, and methods. The information presented was gathered through a review of current California utility, California Independent System Operator (ISO), and related western states electricity transmission-planning activities and emerging needs. This report presents the project teams findings organized under six topic areas and identifies 17 distinct R&D activities to improve transmission-planning in California and the West. The findings in this report are intended for use, along with other materials, by PIER staff, to facilitate discussions with stakeholders that will ultimately lead to development of a portfolio of transmission-planning R&D activities for the PIER program.

  14. Using some results about the Lie evolution of differential operators to obtain the Fokker-Planck equation for non-Hamiltonian dynamical systems of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Finding the generalized Fokker-Planck Equation (FPE) for the reduced probability density function of a subpart of a given complex system is a classical issue of statistical mechanics. Zwanzig projection perturbation approach to this issue leads to the trouble of resumming a series of commutators of differential operators that we show to correspond to solving the Lie evolution of first order differential operators along the unperturbed Liouvillian of the dynamical system of interest. In this paper, we develop in a systematic way the procedure to formally solve this problem. In particular, here we show which the basic assumptions are, concerning the dynamical system of interest, necessary for the Lie evolution to be a group on the space of first order differential operators, and we obtain the coefficients of the so-evolved operators. It is thus demonstrated that if the Liouvillian of the system of interest is not a first order differential operator, in general, the FPE structure breaks down and the master equation contains all the power of the partial derivatives, up to infinity. Therefore, this work shed some light on the trouble of the ubiquitous emergence of both thermodynamics from microscopic systems and regular regression laws at macroscopic scales. However these results are very general and can be applied also in other contexts that are non-Hamiltonian as, for example, geophysical fluid dynamics, where important events, like El Niño, can be considered as large time scale phenomena emerging from the observation of few ocean degrees of freedom of a more complex system, including the interaction with the atmosphere.

  15. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  16. Enhancement of observability and protection of smart power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Abdul Hasib

    It is important for a modern power grid to be smarter in order to provide reliable and sustainable supply of electricity. Traditional way of receiving data from the wired system is a very old and outdated technology. For a quicker and better response from the electric system, it is important to look at wireless systems as a feasible option. In order to enhance the observability and protection it is important to integrate wireless technology with the modern power system. In this thesis, wireless network based architecture for wide area monitoring and an alternate method for performing current measurement for protection of generators and motors, has been adopted. There are basically two part of this project. First part deals with the wide area monitoring of the power system and the second part focuses more on application of wireless technology from the protection point of view. A number of wireless method have been adopted in both the part, these includes Zigbee, analog transmission (Both AM and FM) and digital transmission. The main aim of our project was to propose a cost effective wide area monitoring and protection method which will enhance the observability and stability of power grid. A new concept of wireless integration in the power protection system has been implemented in this thesis work.

  17. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  18. Observability of linear control systems on Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, V.; Hacibekiroglu, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we study the observability problem for a linear control system Σ on a Lie group G. The drift vector field of Σ is an infinitesimal automorphism of G and the control vectors are elements in the Lie algebra of G. We establish algebraic conditions to characterize locally and globally observability for Σ. As in the linear case on R n , these conditions are independent of the control vector. We give an algorithm on the co-tangent bundle of G to calculate the equivalence class of the neutral element. (author). 6 refs

  19. Infrared observations and mass loss of the binary system V861 Sco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Maraschi, L.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    V 861 Sco (HD 152667) is a well known single line binary. The proposed association with a variable X-ray source has triggered renewed interest in the system. Here the authors report on a series of photometric observations in the infrared (from 1.25 to 4.8 μ) taken at various orbital phases which improve and extend previous measurements by Tanzi et al. The results give evidence of a phase modulated infrared excess which can be interpreted in terms of a non isotropic mass flow in the system or, alternately, of a contribution from a colder secondary component. (Auth.)

  20. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Recent Activities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the basis on which future advances in geosciences can be built. By considering the Earth system as a whole (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere), monitoring Earth system components and their interactions by geodetic techniques and studying them from the geodetic point of view, the geodetic community provides the global geosciences community with a powerful tool consisting mainly of high-quality services, standards and references, and theoretical and observational innovations. The mission of GGOS is: (a) to provide the observations needed to monitor, map and understand changes in the Earth's shape, rotation and mass distribution; (b) to provide the global frame of reference that is the fundamental backbone for measuring and consistently interpreting key global change processes and for many other scientific and societal applications; and (c) to benefit science and society by providing the foundation upon which advances in Earth and planetary system science and applications are built. The goals of GGOS are: (1) to be the primary source for all global geodetic information and expertise serving society and Earth system science; (2) to actively promote, sustain, improve, and evolve the integrated global geodetic infrastructure needed to meet Earth science and societal requirements; (3) to coordinate with the international geodetic services that are the main source of key parameters and products needed to realize a stable global frame of reference and to observe and study changes in the dynamic Earth system; (4) to communicate and advocate the benefits of GGOS to user communities, policy makers, funding organizations, and society. In order to accomplish its mission and goals, GGOS depends on the IAG Services, Commissions, and Inter-Commission Committees. The Services provide the infrastructure and products on which all contributions

  1. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  2. LBT observations of the HR8799 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Arcidiacono, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Masciadri, E.

    2013-09-01

    We present here observations of the HR8799 planetary system performed in H and Ks band exploiting the AO system at the Large Binocular Telescope and the PISCES camera. Thanks to the excellent performence of the instrument we were able to detect for the first time the inner known planet of the system (HR8799) in the H band. Precise photometric and astrometric measures have been taken for all the four planets. Further, exploiting ours and previous astrometric results, we were able to put some limits on the planetary orbits of the four planets. The analysis of the dinamical stability of the system seems to show lower planetary masses than the ones adopted until now.

  3. OBSERVING LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS OF INFINITE-DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, William; Rivas, Mauricio A; West, James

    2015-12-01

    Can Lyapunov exponents of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems be observed by projecting the dynamics into ℝ N using a 'typical' nonlinear projection map? We answer this question affirmatively by developing embedding theorems for compact invariant sets associated with C 1 maps on Hilbert spaces. Examples of such discrete-time dynamical systems include time- T maps and Poincaré return maps generated by the solution semigroups of evolution partial differential equations. We make every effort to place hypotheses on the projected dynamics rather than on the underlying infinite-dimensional dynamical system. In so doing, we adopt an empirical approach and formulate checkable conditions under which a Lyapunov exponent computed from experimental data will be a Lyapunov exponent of the infinite-dimensional dynamical system under study (provided the nonlinear projection map producing the data is typical in the sense of prevalence).

  4. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  5. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  6. Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution of sparsely observed turbulent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicki, M.; Majda, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time capture of the relevant features of the unresolved turbulent dynamics of complex natural systems from sparse noisy observations and imperfect models is a notoriously difficult problem. The resulting lack of observational resolution and statistical accuracy in estimating the important turbulent processes, which intermittently send significant energy to the large-scale fluctuations, hinders efficient parameterization and real-time prediction using discretized PDE models. This issue is particularly subtle and important when dealing with turbulent geophysical systems with an vast range of interacting spatio-temporal scales and rough energy spectra near the mesh scale of numerical models. Here, we introduce and study a suite of general Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution (DSS) algorithms and show that, by appropriately filtering sparse regular observations with the help of cheap stochastic exactly solvable models, one can derive stochastically ‘superresolved’ velocity fields and gain insight into the important characteristics of the unresolved dynamics, including the detection of the so-called black swans. The DSS algorithms operate in Fourier domain and exploit the fact that the coarse observation network aliases high-wavenumber information into the resolved waveband. It is shown that these cheap algorithms are robust and have significant skill on a test bed of turbulent solutions from realistic nonlinear turbulent spatially extended systems in the presence of a significant model error. In particular, the DSS algorithms are capable of successfully capturing time-localized extreme events in the unresolved modes, and they provide good and robust skill for recovery of the unresolved processes in terms of pattern correlation. Moreover, we show that DSS improves the skill for recovering the primary modes associated with the sparse observation mesh which is equally important in applications. The skill of the various DSS algorithms depends on the energy spectrum

  7. Observation on scintigram of bone tumors by color data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kyuman

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of RI on bone scintigram was converted with a color data system to a color pattern of 12 colors. The color patterns of bone tumors were analysed in comparison them with those in contralateral part of body. The author observed on color patterns of bone scintigrams in 70 cases of bone tumors, of which 28 cases were malignant, 32 benign and 10 giant cell tumors. Differences of color pattern were found relatively low in tumors of the pelvis, whereas they were high in tumors of the limbs and shoulder. In malignant tumors, differences of the color patterns were marked and wide in range. Applying the color data system to bone scintigram, bone tumors could be objectively observed and the method was very helpful for diagnosis of bone tumors. (author)

  8. Linear system identification via backward-time observer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to identify a state-space model of a linear system using a backward-time approach. The procedure consists of three basic steps. First, the Markov parameters of a backward-time observer are computed from experimental input-output data. Second, the backward-time observer Markov parameters are decomposed to obtain the backward-time system Markov parameters (backward-time pulse response samples) from which a backward-time state-space model is realized using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Third, the obtained backward-time state space model is converted to the usual forward-time representation. Stochastic properties of this approach will be discussed. Experimental results are given to illustrate when and to what extent this concept works.

  9. CORONAGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS OF FOMALHAUT AT SOLAR SYSTEM SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Meshkat, Tiffany; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Girard, Julien H.; Kasper, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We report on a search for low mass companions within 10 AU of the star Fomalhaut, using narrowband observations at 4.05 μm obtained with the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on the VLT/NaCo. Our observations place a model-dependent upper mass limit of 12-20 M jup from 4 to 10 AU, covering the semimajor axis search space between interferometric imaging measurements and other direct imaging non-detections. These observations rule out models where the large semimajor axis for the putative candidate companion Fomalhaut b is explained by dynamical scattering from a more massive companion in the inner stellar system, where such giant planets are thought to form.

  10. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  11. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  12. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  13. NIRCam Coronagraphic Observations of Disks and Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Ygouf, Marie; Gaspar, Andras; NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    The NIRCam coronagraph offers a dramatic increase in sensitivity at wavelengths of 3-5 um where young planets are brightest. While large ground-based telescopes with Extreme Adaptive Optics have an advantage in inner working angle, NIRCam's sensitivity will allow high precision photometry for known planets and searches for planets with masses below that of Saturn. For debris disk science NIRCam observations will address the scattering properties of dust, look for evidence of ices and tholins, and search for planets which affect the structure of the disk itself.The NIRCam team's GTO program includes medium-band filter observations of known young planets having 1-5 Jupiter masses. A collaborative program with the MIRI team will provide coronagraphic observations at longer wavelengths. The combined dataset will yield the exoplanet’s total luminosity and effective temperature, an estimate of the initial entropy of the newly-formed planet, and the retrieval of atmospheric properties.The program will also make deep searches for lower mass planets toward known planetary systems, nearby young M stars and debris disk systems. Achievable mass limits range from ~1 Jupiter mass beyond 20 AU for the brightest A stars to perhaps a Uranus mass within 10 AU for the closest M stars.We will discuss details of the coronagraphic program for both the exoplanet and debris disk cases with an emphasis on using APT to optimize the observations of target and reference stars.

  14. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  15. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  16. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  17. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. II. Refined statistical framework and descriptions of systems of special interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Rowe, Jason F.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Borucki, William J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Kolbl, Rea; Agol, Eric; Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Star, Kimberly M.; Steffen, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the statistical analysis performed by Lissauer et al. in 2012, which demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) represents true transiting planets, and we develop therefrom a procedure to validate large numbers of planet candidates in multis as bona fide exoplanets. We show that this statistical framework correctly estimates the abundance of false positives already identified around Kepler targets with multiple sets of transit-like signatures based on their abundance around targets with single sets of transit-like signatures. We estimate the number of multis that represent split systems of one or more planets orbiting each component of a binary star system. We use the high reliability rate for multis to validate more than one dozen particularly interesting multi-planet systems herein. Hundreds of additional multi-planet systems are validated in a companion paper by Rowe et al. We note that few very short period (P < 1.6 days) planets orbit within multiple transiting planet systems and discuss possible reasons for their absence. There also appears to be a shortage of planets with periods exceeding a few months in multis.

  18. Development of intelligent surveillance system (ISS) in region of interest (ROI) using Kalman filter and camshift on Raspberry Pi 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghun; Hong, Kicheon

    2017-06-01

    Due to the improvement of the picture quality of closed-circuit television (CCTV), the demand for CCTV has increased rapidly and its market size has also increased. The current system structure of CCTV transfers compressed images without analysis received from CCTV to a control center. The compressed images are suitable for the evidence required for a criminal arrest, but they cannot prevent crime in real time, which has been considered a limitation. Thus, the present paper proposes a system implementation that can prevent crimes by applying a situation awareness system at the back end of the CCTV cameras for image acquisition to prevent crimes efficiently. In the system implemented in the present paper, the region of interest (ROI) is set virtually within the image data when a barrier, such as fence, cannot be installed in actual sites and unauthorized intruders are tracked constantly through data analysis and recognized in the ROI via the developed algorithm. Additionally, a searchlight or alarm sound is activated to prevent crime in real time and the urgent information is transferred to the control center. The system was implemented in the Raspberry Pi 2 board to be run in real time. The experiment results showed that the recognition success rate was 85% or higher and the track accuracy was 90% or higher. By utilizing the system, crime prevention can be achieved by implementing a social safety network.

  19. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. II. Refined statistical framework and descriptions of systems of special interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Rowe, Jason F.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Borucki, William J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Kolbl, Rea [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Star, Kimberly M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steffen, Jason H., E-mail: Jack.Lissauer@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy/CIERA, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We extend the statistical analysis performed by Lissauer et al. in 2012, which demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) represents true transiting planets, and we develop therefrom a procedure to validate large numbers of planet candidates in multis as bona fide exoplanets. We show that this statistical framework correctly estimates the abundance of false positives already identified around Kepler targets with multiple sets of transit-like signatures based on their abundance around targets with single sets of transit-like signatures. We estimate the number of multis that represent split systems of one or more planets orbiting each component of a binary star system. We use the high reliability rate for multis to validate more than one dozen particularly interesting multi-planet systems herein. Hundreds of additional multi-planet systems are validated in a companion paper by Rowe et al. We note that few very short period (P < 1.6 days) planets orbit within multiple transiting planet systems and discuss possible reasons for their absence. There also appears to be a shortage of planets with periods exceeding a few months in multis.

  20. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  1. New Directions in the NOAO Observing Proposal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, David; Bell, Dave

    For the past eight years NOAO has been refining its on-line observing proposal system. Virtually all related processes are now handled electronically. Members of the astronomical community can submit proposals through email, web form, or via the Gemini Phase I Tool. NOAO staff can use the system to do administrative tasks, scheduling, and compilation of various statistics. In addition, all information relevant to the TAC process is made available on-line, including the proposals themselves (in HTML, PDF and PostScript) and technical comments. Grades and TAC comments are entered and edited through web forms, and can be sorted and filtered according to specified criteria. Current developments include a move away from proprietary solutions, toward open standards such as SQL (in the form of the MySQL relational database system), Perl, PHP and XML.

  2. Initial Assessment of Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKague, D. S.; Ruf, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYNSS) mission provides high temporal resolution observations of cyclones from a constellation of eight low-Earth orbiting satellites. Using the relatively new technique of Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R), all-weather observations are possible, penetrating even deep convection within hurricane eye walls. The compact nature of the GNSS-R receivers permits the use of small satellites, which in turn enables the launch of a constellation of satellites from a single launch vehicle. Launched in December of 2016, the eight CYGNSS satellites provide 25 km resolution observations of mean square slope (surface roughness) and surface winds with a 2.8 hour median revisit time from 38 S to 38 N degrees latitude. In addition to the calibration and validation of CYGNSS sea state observations, the CYGNSS science team is assessing the ability of the mission to provide estimates of cyclone size, intensity, and integrated kinetic energy. With its all-weather ability and high temporal resolution, the CYGNSS mission will add significantly to our ability to monitor cyclone genesis and intensification and will significantly reduce uncertainties in our ability to estimate cyclone intensity, a key variable in predicting its destructive potential. Members of the CYGNSS Science Team are also assessing the assimilation of CYGNSS data into hurricane forecast models to determine the impact of the data on forecast skill, using the data to study extra-tropical cyclones, and looking at connections between tropical cyclones and global scale weather, including the global hydrologic cycle. This presentation will focus on the assessment of early on-orbit observations of cyclones with respect to these various applications.

  3. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, E.

    2005-12-01

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd 2 Al 3 the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  4. Fires and Smoke Observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument: Products, Validation, and Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Ichoku, C.; Giglio, L.; Korontzi, S.; Chu, D. A.; Hao, W. M.; Justice, C. O.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS sensor, launched on NASA's Terra satellite at the end of 1999, was designed with 36 spectral channels for a wide array of land, ocean, and atmospheric investigations. MODIS has a unique ability to observe fires, smoke, and burn scars globally. Its main fire detection channels saturate at high brightness temperatures: 500 K at 4 microns and 400 K at 11 microns, which can only be attained in rare circumstances at the I kin fire detection spatial resolution. Thus, unlike other polar orbiting satellite sensors with similar thermal and spatial resolutions, but much lower saturation temperatures (e.g. AVHRR and ATSR), MODIS can distinguish between low intensity ground surface fires and high intensity crown forest fires. Smoke column concentration over land is for the first time being derived from the MOMS solar channels, extending from 0.41 microns to 2.1 microns. The smoke product has been provisionally validated both globally and regionally over southern Africa and central and south America. Burn scars are observed from MODIS even in the presence of smoke, using the 1.2 to 2.1 micron channels. MODIS burned area information is used to estimate pyrogenic emissions. A wide range of these fire and related products and validation are demonstrated for the wild fires that occurred in northwestern United States in the summer of 2000. The MODIS rapid response system and direct broadcast capability is being developed to enable users to obtain and generate data in near real time. It is expected that health and land management organizations will use these systems for monitoring the occurrence of fires and the dispersion of smoke within two to six hours after data acquisition.

  5. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  6. GAP: yet another image processing system for solar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C. U.

    GAP is a versatile, interactive image processing system for analyzing solar observations, in particular extended time sequences, and for preparing publication quality figures. It consists of an interpreter that is based on a language with a control flow similar to PASCAL and C. The interpreter may be accessed from a command line editor and from user-supplied functions, procedures, and command scripts. GAP is easily expandable via external FORTRAN programs that are linked to the GAP interface routines. The current version of GAP runs on VAX, DECstation, Sun, and Apollo computers. Versions for MS-DOS and OS/2 are in preparation.

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  8. In-situ observation system for dual ion irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Shigemi; Hojou, Kiichi; Otsu, Hitoshi; Sasaki, T.A.; Izui, Kazuhiko; Tukamoto, Tetsuo; Hata, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ observation and analysis system during dual ion beam irradiation in an electron microscope. This system consists of an analytical electron microscope of JEM-4000FX type equipped with a parallel EELS and an EDS attachments and linked with two sets of ion accelerators of 40 kV. Hydrogen and helium dual-ion beam irradiation experiments were performed for SiC crystals. The result of dual-ion beam irradiation was compared with those of helium and hydrogen single ion irradiations. It is clearly seen that the dual-ion irradiation has the effect of suppressing bubble formation and growth in comparison with the case of single helium ion irradiation. (author)

  9. Upper wind observing systems used for meteorological operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nash

    Full Text Available Methods of upper wind measurements used in operational meteorology have been reviewed to provide guidance to those developing wind profiler radar systems. The main limitations of the various methods of tracking weather balloons are identified using results from the WMO radiosonde comparisons and additional tests in the United Kingdom. Costs associated with operational balloon measurements are reviewed. The sampling and quality of operational aircraft wind observations are illustrated with examples from the ASDAR system. Measurement errors in horizontal winds are quantified wherever possible. When tracking equipment is functioning correctly, random errors in southerly and westerly wind component measurements from aircraft and weather balloons are usually in the range 0.5-2 m s-1.

  10. Polarimetry of Solar System Objects: Observations vs. Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of planetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy, provides insight into the scattering properties of the planetary media. Specifically, linear and circular polarimetric signatures of the object arise from different physical processes and their study proves essential to the characterization of the object. Linear polarization of reflected light by various solar system objects provides insight into the scattering characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and hazes? and surficial properties of atmosphereless bodies. Many optically active materials are anisotropic and so their scattering properties differ with the object's principal axes (such as dichroic or birefringent materials) and are crystalline in structure instead of amorphous, (eg., the presence of olivines and silicates in cometary dust and circumstellar disks? Titan, etc.). Ices (water and other species) are abundant in the system indicated in their near - infrared spectra. Gas giants form outside the frost line (where ices condense), and their satellites and ring systems exhibit signature of water ice? clathrates, nonices (Si, C, Fe) in their NIR spectra and spectral dependence of linear polarization. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. Circular polarization, on the other hand, is indicative of magnetic fields and biologically active molecules, necessary for habitability. These applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numericalretrieval methods. With recent discoveries and

  11. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  12. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  13. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  14. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  15. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...... search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  16. Researching the value system of interest groups as the starting point for directing urbanisation of the countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Golobič

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning rehabilitation of transitory, rural space, where processes of restructuring agriculture intertwine with urban processes, key definitions concern places where restructuring agriculture and changes in land use are causing degradation and places where further urbanisation or re-naturation are the better option. In these definitions it is necessary to follow opinions and goals of users that are nevertheless difficult to obtain in a mode that can be directly integrated in standardised rational procedures of physical planning. The presented procedure facilitates the procurement of such knowledge and its transparent integration in local development plans. Thus we can identify interest groups, their viewpoints, and potential conflicts in initial value systems and check their conflicting or harmonising starting points in space.

  17. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  18. The Relationship Between Individual Characteristics and Interest in Using a Mobile Phone App for HIV Self-Management: Observational Cohort Study of People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Robert James; Frimpong, Jemima A; Fehlberg, Elizabeth A; Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Weaver, Michael T; Cook, Christa; Modave, Francois; Rathore, Mobeen H; Morano, Jamie P; Ibanez, Gladys; Cook, Robert L

    2017-07-27

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major health issue in the United States, and an estimated 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. As part of Healthy People 2020, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion has targeted the persistent demographic and geographic disparities in HIV prevalence and management. Preliminary evidence suggests that mobile health technology (smartphone apps) may be a promising way to support HIV self-management among vulnerable populations of people living with HIV (PLWH) who lack access to appropriate health care services. This study examines the association between individual characteristics of PLWH and level of interest in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management. This study was conducted using cross-sectional survey data collected in the Florida Cohort Study between 2014 and 2016 (N=766). Associations between individual characteristics of PLWH and level of interest in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management were examined using bivariate analysis and logistic regression. Overall, 85.5% (655/766) of respondents were interested in using a free mobile phone app that supports HIV self-management. Participants expressed the highest interest in app functions that facilitate communication with health care providers (568/740, 76.8%) or help to identify relevant health care services (556/745 74.6%). Age (OR 0.959, 95% CI 0.936-0.982), education (OR 1.281, 95% CI 1.027-1.598) and disability or inability to work (OR 0.296, 95% CI 0.145-0.606) were all significantly associated with being interested in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management. This study indicates that a majority of PLWH are interested in using a free mobile phone app to self-manage their condition. The findings can inform the development of mobile phone apps that support effective HIV self-management. ©Robert James Lucero, Jemima A Frimpong, Elizabeth A Fehlberg, Ragnhildur I Bjarnadottir

  19. Mobile Disdrometer Observations of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems During PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding microphysical processes in nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is an important objective of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) experiment, which occurred from 1 June - 15 July 2015 in the central Great Plains region of the United States. Observations of MCSs were collected using a large array of mobile and fixed instrumentation, including ground-based radars, soundings, PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs), and aircraft. In addition to these observations, three mobile Parsivel disdrometers were deployed to obtain drop-size distribution (DSD) measurements to further explore microphysical processes in convective and stratiform regions of nocturnal MCSs. Disdrometers were deployed within close range of a multiple frequency network of mobile and fixed dual-polarization radars (5 - 30 km range), and near mobile sounding units and PISAs. Using mobile disdrometer and multiple-wavelength, dual-polarization radar data, microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions of MCSs are investigated. The analysis will also examine coordinated Range-Height Indicator (RHI) scans over the disdrometers to elucidate vertical DSD structure. Analysis of dense observations obtained during PECAN in combination with mobile disdrometer DSD measurements contributes to a greater understanding of the structural characteristics and evolution of nocturnal MCSs.

  20. Field Operations For The "Intelligent River" Observation System: A Basin-wide Water Quality Observation System In The Savannah River Basin And Platform Supporting Related Diverse Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A.; Koons, M.; O'Brien-Gayes, P.; Moorer, R.; Hallstrom, J.; Post, C.; Gayes, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Intelligent River (IR) initiative is an NSF sponsored study developing new data management technology for a range of basin-scale applications. The technology developed by Florida Atlantic and Clemson University established a network of real-time reporting water quality sondes; from the mountains to the estuary of the Savannah River basin. Coastal Carolina University led the field operations campaign. Ancillary studies, student projects and initiatives benefitted from the associated instrumentation, infrastructure and operational support of the IR program. This provided a vehicle for students to participate in fieldwork across the watershed and pursue individual interests. Student projects included: 1) a Multibeam sonar survey investigating channel morphology in the area of an IR sensor station and 2) field tests of developing techniques for acquiring and assimilating flood velocity data into model systems associated with a separate NSF Rapid award. The multibeam survey within the lower Savannah basin exhibited a range of complexity in bathymetry, bedforms and bottom habitat in the vicinity of one of the water quality stations. The complex morphology and bottom habitat reflect complex flow patterns, localized areas of depositional and erosive tendencies providing a valuable context for considering point-source water quality time series. Micro- Lagrangian drifters developed by ISENSE at Florida Atlantic University, a sled mounted ADCP, and particle tracking from imagery collected by a photogrammetric drone were tested and used to develop methodology for establishing velocity, direction and discharge levels to validate, initialize and assimilate data into advance models systems during future flood events. The prospect of expanding wide scale observing systems can serve as a platform to integrate small and large-scale cooperative studies across disciplines as well as basic and applied research interests. Such initiatives provide opportunities for embedded education

  1. Can the UK's birth registration system better serve the interests of those born following collaborative assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Blyth, Eric D; Feast, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Current birth registration systems fail to serve adequately the interests of those born as a result of gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy. In the UK, changes to the birth registration system have been piecemeal, reactive and situation-specific and no information is recorded about gamete donors. Birth registration has thereby become a statement of legal parentage and citizenship only, without debate as to whether it should serve any wider functions. This sits uneasily with the increasingly accepted human right to know one's genetic and gestational as well as legal parents, and the duty of the State to facilitate that right. This commentary sets out one possible model for reform to better ensure that those affected become aware of, and/or have access to, knowledge about their origins and that such information is stored and released effectively without compromising individual privacy. Among other features, our proposal links the birth registration system and the information stored in the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority's Register of Information, although further work than we have been able to undertake here is necessary to ensure a better fit where cross-border treatment services or informal arrangements have been involved. The time for debate and reform is well overdue.

  2. Can the UK’s birth registration system better serve the interests of those born following collaborative assisted reproduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A Crawshaw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current birth registration systems fail to serve adequately the interests of those born as a result of gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy. In the UK, changes to the birth registration system have been piecemeal, reactive and situation-specific and no information is recorded about gamete donors. Birth registration has thereby become a statement of legal parentage and citizenship only, without debate as to whether it should serve any wider functions. This sits uneasily with the increasingly accepted human right to know one’s genetic and gestational as well as legal parents, and the duty of the State to facilitate that right. This commentary sets out one possible model for reform to better ensure that those affected become aware of, and/or have access to, knowledge about their origins and that such information is stored and released effectively without compromising individual privacy. Among other features, our proposal links the birth registration system and the information stored in the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority’s Register of Information, although further work than we have been able to undertake here is necessary to ensure a better fit where cross-border treatment services or informal arrangements have been involved. The time for debate and reform is well overdue.

  3. Some physical magnitudes of interest for nuclear reactions and their dependence on the projectile-target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Pacheco, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The design and analysis of experiences with heavy ions requires the knwoledge of several characteristic parameters of the collision and their dependence on the reactant system. In the case of an electrostatic accelerator as the TANDAR, the bombarding energy (function of the projectile) is a direct consequence of the evolution of the charged state distribution for the projectile at the exit of the last stripper, as a function of the atomic number. The complexity resulting from this dependence originated the confection of a series of diagrams. The diagrams correpond to the different physical magnitudes of interest in the analysis of nuclear reactions as a function of the projectile-target combination for terminal tensions similar to those expected to reach at the TANDAR. In each case, the curves are refered to the following physical magnitudes: Ecm/Bc Kinetic energy in the center of the mass system and Coulomb barrier for the projectile-target system, Lgr = angular momentum corresponding to the grazing collisions. Diagrams of the average projectile energy per nucleon for the different values of the terminal tensions with one or two solid strippers are included. The use of the diagrams in some practical applications is illustrated through four examples. The diagrams may be extended, if necesary, to other physical magnitudes, at different accelerator's operating conditions. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  5. NARROW-K-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE GJ 1214 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: colonk@hawaii.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (<0.7 μm) and in the K band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 μm) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7 × 10{sup –3} (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158 ± 0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenario where GJ 1214b has an H-rich envelope with heavy elements that are sequestered below a cloud/haze layer, we compare K-band observations with models of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption in an atmosphere for a range of temperatures. While we find no evidence for deviation from a flat spectrum (slope s = 0.0016 ± 0.0038), an H{sub 2}-dominated upper atmosphere (<60 mbar) cannot be excluded. More precise observations at <0.7 μm and in the K band, as well as a uniform analysis of all published data, would be useful for establishing more robust limits on atmosphere models for GJ 1214b.

  6. 12 CFR 615.5182 - Interest rate risk management by associations and other Farm Credit System institutions other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by associations... OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Risk Assessment and Management § 615.5182 Interest rate risk management by... shall comply with the requirements of §§ 615.5180 and 615.5181. The interest rate risk management...

  7. Interstellar Explorer Observations of the Solar System's Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Brandt, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Planetesimal belts and debris disks full of dust are known as the "signposts of planet formation" in exosystems. The overall brightness of a disk provides information on the amount of sourcing planetesimal material, while asymmetries in the shape of the disk can be used to search for perturbing planets. The solar system is known to house two such belts, the Asteroid belt and the Kuiper Belt; and at least one debris cloud, the Zodiacal Cloud, sourced by planetisimal collisions and Kuiper Belt comet evaporative sublimation. However these are poorly understood in toto because we live inside of them. E.g., while we know of the two planetesimal belt systems, it is not clear how much, if any, dust is produced from the Kuiper belt since the near-Sun comet contributions dominate near-Earth space. Understanding how much dust is produced in the Kuiper belt would give us a much better idea of the total number of bodies in the belt, especially the smallest ones, and their dynamical collisional state. Even for the close in Zodiacal cloud, questions remain concerning its overall shape and orientation with respect to the ecliptic and invariable planes of the solar system - they aren't explainable from the perturbations caused by the known planets alone. In this paper we explore the possibilities of using an Interstellar Explorer telescope placed at 200 AU from the sun to observe the brightness, shape, and extent of the solar system's debris disk(s). We should be able to measure the entire extent of the inner, near-earth zodiacal cloud; whether it connects smoothly into an outer cloud, or if there is a second outer cloud sourced by the Kuiper belt and isolated by the outer planets, as predicted by Stark & Kuchner (2009, 2010) and Poppe et al. (2012, 2016; Figure 1). VISNIR imagery will inform about the dust cloud's density, while MIR cameras will provide thermal imaging photometry related to the cloud's dust particle size and composition. Observing at high phase angle by looking

  8. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Rahmani, Amirreza

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation-flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are proposed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms rely on a local information exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. Distributed space systems rely on a signal transmission network among multiple spacecraft for their operation. Control and coordination among multiple spacecraft in a formation is facilitated via a network of relative sensing and interspacecraft communications. Guidance, navigation, and control rely on the sensing network. This network becomes more complex the more spacecraft are added, or as mission requirements become more complex. The observability of a formation state was observed by a set of local observations from a particular node in the formation. Formation observability can be parameterized in terms of the matrices appearing in the formation dynamics and observation matrices. An agreement protocol was used as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. An agreement protocol is essentially an unforced dynamic system whose trajectory is governed by the interconnection geometry and initial condition of each node, with a goal of reaching a common value of interest. The observability of the interconnected system depends on the geometry of the network, as well as the position of the observer relative to the topology. For the first time, critical GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control estimation) subsystems are synthesized by bringing the contribution of the spacecraft information-exchange network to the forefront of algorithmic analysis and design. The result is a

  9. Experimenting with a Visible Copper-Aluminum Displacement Reaction in Agar Gel and Observing Copper Crystal Growth Patterns to Engage Student Interest and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Wang, Xiaogang; Yang, Yangyiwei; Shi, Xiang; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The reaction process of copper-aluminum displacement in agar gel was observed at the microscopic level with a stereomicroscope; pine-like branches of copper crystals growing from aluminum surface into gel at a constant rate were observed. Students were asked to make hypotheses on the pattern formation and design new research approaches to prove…

  10. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  11. The effect of interest rate derivative transactions on debt savings for not-for-profit health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Prakash; Johnson, Tricia; O'Neil, Patricia; Poindexter, Victoria; Rooney, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of interest rate derivative instruments in US for-profit companies has grown exponentially since the early 1980s. International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (ISDA), reported that the amount of outstanding standard swaps grew by 25 percent during the first six months of 2003. The growth rate of all interest rate derivatives, which includes single-currency interest rate swaps, cross-currency interest rate swaps, and interest rate options, grew by 24 percent during the same period. The total outstanding amount of interest rate derivatives now totals $123.9 trillion compared to $99.9 trillion at the end of 2002 (Dodd, 2003). This explosion in usage is a testament to the efficacy and flexibility of the instruments and the increased appreciation by financial managers of the importance of financial risk management in a volatile interest rate environment.

  12. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect (EITE) resulting from the repeated self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field is experimentally demonstrated in a three-level atomic configuration. The probe beam is launched into an optically induced lattice (established by the interference of two coupling fields) inside a rubidium vapor cell and is diffracted by the electromagnetically induced grating that was formed. The diffraction pattern repeats itself at the planes of integer multiple Talbot lengths. In addition, a fractional EITE is also investigated. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions. This investigation may potentially pave the way for studying the nonlinear and quantum dynamical features that have been predicted for established periodic optical systems.

  13. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  14. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  15. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  16. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  17. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  18. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  19. Are systemizing and autistic traits related to talent and interest in mathematics and engineering? Testing some of the central claims of the empathizing-systemizing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Handley, Simon J; Chiesi, Francesca; Galli, Silvia

    2012-11-01

    In two experiments, we tested some of the central claims of the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Experiment 1 showed that the systemizing quotient (SQ) was unrelated to performance on a mathematics test, although it was correlated with statistics-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and anxiety. In Experiment 2, systemizing skills, and gender differences in these skills, were more strongly related to spatial thinking styles than to SQ. In fact, when we partialled the effect of spatial thinking styles, SQ was no longer related to systemizing skills. Additionally, there was no relationship between the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the SQ, or skills and interest in mathematics and mechanical reasoning. We discuss the implications of our findings for the E-S theory, and for understanding the autistic cognitive profile. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal (www.gmos.eu. The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  1. Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1986-10-01

    An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3 H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3 H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3 He and 3 H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3 He. In the discussion of the 3 H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3 H(γ,n)d and 3 He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs

  2. Effect Of Perception Use Of Information Technology Safety And Perception Of Interest Trust Online Trading System Using Internet Banking Study Empris In Bri Bank Branch Office Tangerang 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endraria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine and analyze the influence of the perception of the use of information technology to transact online interests perceptions of comfort against the interest of transacting online trust in transacting online interest the perception of the use of information technology the perception of comfort and confidence simultaneously affect the interest of transacting online using internet system banking Empris Studies at Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014. With usability Theoretical where research results can be used to enrich the study of accounting keprilakuan in particular and science in general accounting uses for which the Bank can enrich the concept or theory in its contribution to the development of science so useful as a reference for those who need both from within Bank and outside the institution itself and able to provide input to what extent the perception of the use of information technology the perception of comfort and confidence can give a positive contribution to the interests transact online using internet banking system Study Empris at Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014 and usability for the Government where the results of this study are expected to be used as a correction and input the extent to which the perception of the use of information technology the perception of comfort and confidence can give a positive contribution to the interests transact online using internet banking system Study Empris at Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014 especially in the City Tangerang. The hypothesis proposed in this study in which there is significant influence use of information technology to transact interest perceptions of comfort on the interest on the interest of trust online transacting online transactions simultaneous perception of the use of information technology the perception of comfort and confidence in the interests transact online using Internet Banking System Study Empris Bank BRI

  3. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  4. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  5. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  6. Areas of interest of potential users for naturalistic observation studies. PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe PROLOGUE, Deliverable D1.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Craen, S. de Nes, N. van & Eenink, R.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of the interests of potential users is crucial for setting up a useful and broadly supported large-scale naturalistic driving (ND) study. This report describes the results of a survey amongst 72 road transport professionals in Europe from different organisation types that aimed at

  7. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  8. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  9. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  10. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  11. The relation between publication rate and financial conflict of interest among physician authors of high-impact oncology publications: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Victoria; Edmiston, Jonathan B; Prasad, Vinay

    2018-01-30

    Despite the abundant research on financial conflict of interest regarding provider behaviour and the interpretation and results of research, little is known about the relation between these conflicts in academia and the trajectory of one's academic career. We performed a study to examine whether the presence of financial ties to drug makers among academics is associated with research productivity. We hand-searched 3 high-impact general medical journals ( New England Journal of Medicine , JAMA and The Lancet ) and 3 high-impact oncology journals that publish original science ( The Lancet Oncology , Journal of Clinical Oncology and Journal of the National Cancer Institute ) to identify physicians based in the United States who were first or last authors on original papers on hematologic or oncologic topics that appeared in 2015. We ascertained their publication history from Scopus and their personal and research payments from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Open Payments Web site (2013-2015). The strength of association between general (personal) financial payments from 2013 to 2015 and publications from 2013 to 2016 was determined by multivariate regression. Our sample consisted of 435 physicians who had authored a median of 140 publications, earning a median h-index of 36 and a median of 5639 citations. The median total of general payments from 2013 to 2015 was US$3282 (range $0-$3.4 million), and the median amount of research payments was US$3500 (range $0-$23 million). General payments were associated with contemporary publications, with an increase of 1.99 papers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.9) per $10 000 in payments. This association persisted in multivariate analysis after adjustment for prior publications, seniority and research payments (0.84 papers [95% CI 0.15 to 1.5] per $10 000 in payments). The findings suggest that there is a positive association between personal payments from drug makers and publications, and that this

  12. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  13. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  14. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  15. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  16. Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Weck, Olivier de

    2015-12-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  17. Operative planning of functional sessions for multisatellite observation and communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnopykh, Valeriy V.; Malyshev, Veniamin V.

    2012-04-01

    An important control aspect of modern satellite observation and communication systems is the control of the functional processes. Functional sessions proceed under conditions of restricted technical ability, large amounts or information to be processed by the on-board equipment, practice inequality of the received information, intentions of system management and operators, interests of customers and other factors. A large number of spacecrafts (SC) in orbital constellation is one of the most important factors affecting the functional process also. Besides that some modern projects of satellite systems are multifunctional that is mixed operations of observation and communication. Therefore the functioning of SC on-board equipment must be accurately co-ordinate. That is why the problem of operative planning the functioning of these systems, while directly affecting the efficiency of the system, is very complex and actual at present. A methodical approach and software package for operative planning of functional processes for satellite observation and communication systems, including multifunctional projects, are considered in the paper. The base scheme of this approach consists of four main stages: stage 1—modeling of SC orbital kinematics and dynamics; stage 2—modeling of system functional processes with all kind of restrictions and criterion function values; stage 3—solving an optimization tasks by numerical applicable algorithms and constructing the optimal (or accuracy) plans; stage 4—repeated plan optimization (different variants) and analyzing. Such scheme is the result of authors practical research which have been realized during last 15 years by the operative planning as for any kinds of single SC as for satellite systems with different structure of orbital constellation. The research helps to unify the procedure of operative planning, to formulate basic principles and approaches for its solving, to develop special software package. The main aspects

  18. The Action Observation System when Observing Hand Actions in Autism and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Jennifer J; Hatt, Naomi V; Colombi, Costanza; Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J; Rivera, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be in part due to difficulty perceiving and recognizing the actions of others. Evidence from imitation studies, which involves both observation and execution of an action, suggests differences, in individuals with ASD, between the ability to imitate goal-directed actions involving objects (transitive actions) and the ability to imitate actions that do not involve objects (intransitive actions). In the present study, we examined whether there were differences in how ASD adolescents encoded transitive and intransitive actions compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents, by having participants view videos of a hand reaching across a screen toward an object or to where an object would be while functional magnetic resonance images were collected. Analyses focused on areas within the action observation network (AON), which is activated during the observation of actions performed by others. We hypothesized that the AON would differentiate transitive from intransitive actions only in the ASD group. However, results revealed that object presence modulated activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus of the TD group, a differentiation that was not seen in the ASD group. Furthermore, there were no significant group differences between the TD and ASD groups in any of the conditions. This suggests that there is not a global deficit of the AON in individuals with ASD while observing transitive and intransitive actions. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  20. An Optimal Design for Placements of Tsunami Observing Systems Around the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, I. E.; Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.

    2017-12-01

    design is a tsunami-based approach, some of the existing observing systems are equipped with additional devices to measure other parameter of interests, i.e., for monitoring seismic activities.

  1. Conducting Classroom Observations : Stallings 'Classroom Snapshot' Observation System for an Electronic Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The “Stallings Classroom Snapshot” instrument, technically called the “Stanford Research Institute Classroom Observation System”, was developed by Professor Jane Stallings for research on the efficiency and quality of basic education teachers in the United States in the 1970s. (Stallings, 1977; Stallings and Mohlman, 1988). The Stallings instrument generates robust quantitative data on the interaction of teachers and students in the classroom, with a high degree of inter-rater rel...

  2. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  3. Chaos in Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems and K2s Observations of the Atmospheres of Uranus Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2016-01-01

    More than one-third of the 4700 planet candidates found by NASA's Kepler spacecraft during its prime mission are associated with target stars that have more than one planet candidate, and such "multis" account for the vast majority of candidates that have been verified as true planets. The large number of multis tells us that flat multiplanet systems like our Solar System are common. Virtually all of the candidate planetary systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a physically motivated mass-radius relationship, but some of the systems lie in chaotic regions close to instability. The characteristics of some of the most interesting confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will be discussed. The Kepler spacecraft's 'second life' in theK2 mission has allowed it to obtain long time-series observations of Solar System targets, including the giant planets Uranus & Neptune. These observations show variability caused by the chaotic weather patterns on Uranus & Neptune.

  4. Clinical effectiveness of hymenoptera venom immunotherapy: a prospective observational multicenter study of the European academy of allergology and clinical immunology interest group on insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Seitz, Michael J; Aberer, Werner; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Severino, Maurizio; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Treudler, Regina; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2013-01-01

    Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT) may be associated with a variety of risk factors. Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC) and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n = 154) or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n = 203). Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids) right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. 22 patients (6.2%) developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3) of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy.

  5. Clinical effectiveness of hymenoptera venom immunotherapy: a prospective observational multicenter study of the European academy of allergology and clinical immunology interest group on insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Ruëff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT may be associated with a variety of risk factors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. METHODS: In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n = 154 or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n = 203. Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. RESULTS: 22 patients (6.2% developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3 of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. INTERPRETATION: It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy.

  6. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  7. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-19

    Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.

  8. Partial Linearization of Mechanical Systems with Application to Observer Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarras, Ioannis; Venkatraman, Aneesh; Ortega, Romeo; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    We consider general mechanical systems and establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a suitable change in the generalized momentum coordinates such that the new dynamics become linear in the transformed momenta. The class of systems which can be (partially) linearized by

  9. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered...

  10. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2017-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  11. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  12. Controllers with Minimal Observation Power (Application to Timed Systems)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; Cassez, Franck; David, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of controller synthesis under imper- fect information in a setting where there is a set of available observable predicates equipped with a cost function. The problem that we address is the computation of a subset of predicates sufficient for control and whose cost is minimal...

  13. Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Aggson, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Hanson, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the observations of a number of quasi-dc electric field events associated with large-scale atmospheric weather formations. The observations were made by the electric field experiment onboard the San Marco D satellite, operational in an equatorial orbit from May to December 1988. Several theoretical studies suggest that electric fields generated by thunderstorms are present at high altitudes in the ionosphere. In spite of such favorable predictions, weather-related events are not often observed since they are relatively weak. We shall report here on a set of likely E field candidates for atmospheric-ionospheric causality, these being observed over the Indonesian Basin, northern South America, and the west coast of Africa; all known sites of atmospheric activity. As we shall demonstrate, individual events often be traced to specific active weather features. For example, a number of events were associated with spacecraft passages near Hurricane Joan in mid-October 1988. As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active regions of atmospheric weather.

  14. Parts of the Whole: Observing the State of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This column draws on the approach of statistician J. Edwards Deming to analyze sources and consequences of variation in an education system. Educational systems are not immune from the effects of poor statistical control, which makes it difficult for teachers to teach effectively and for managers such as principals to improve on school performance. It is also argued that the need for statistical control in these areas is in tension, if not outright conflict, with our goals for educating students.

  15. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  16. Campaign of AAVSO Monitoring of the CH Cyg Symbiotic System in Support of Chandra and HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, M.

    2013-06-01

    (Abstract only) CH Cyg is one of the most interesting interacting binaries in which a compact object, a white dwarf or a neutron star, accretes from the wind of an evolved giant or supergiant. CH Cyg is a member of the symbiotic systems group, and at about 250pc it is one of the closest systems. Symbiotic systems are accreting binaries, which are likely progenitors of a fraction of Pre-Planetary and Planetary Nebulae, and of a fraction of SN type Ia (the cosmic distance scale indicators). We carried out Chandra and HST observations of CH Cyg in March 2012 as part of a follow-up investigation of the central region of CH Cyg and its precessing jet, including the multi-structures that were discovered in 2008. I will describe here the campaign of multi-wavelength observations, including photometry and spectroscopy, that were carried out by AAVSO members in support of the space-based observations.

  17. New generation lidar systems for eye safe full time observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional lidar over the last thirty years has typically been a big pulse low repetition rate system. Pulse energies are in the 0.1 to 1.0 J range and repetition rates from 0.1 to 10 Hz. While such systems have proven to be good research tools, they have a number of limitations that prevent them from moving beyond lidar research to operational, application oriented instruments. These problems include a lack of eye safety, very low efficiency, poor reliability, lack of ruggedness and high development and operating costs. Recent advances in solid state laser, detectors and data systems have enabled the development of a new generation of lidar technology that meets the need for routine, application oriented instruments. In this paper the new approaches to operational lidar systems will be discussed. Micro pulse lidar (MPL) systems are currently in use, and their technology is highlighted. The basis and current development of continuous wave (CW) lidar and potential of other technical approaches is presented.

  18. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  19. Observation and control system of the thermohydraulic assays laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santome, D.; Hualde, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Thermohydraulic Assays Laboratory (L.E.T.) is an installation whose purpose will be the components testing and the CAREM-25 reactor thermohydraulic processes operation dynamics. This plant is located at Pilcaniyeu, province of Rio Negro. Part of the tests which will be carried out consist in the use of different control strategies. The control of the systems by digital processors (control by software) has been decided to proceed with a maximum flexibility and capacity to make changes in the algorithms. This work describes the design and implementation of a digital control system to command the three circuits of the installation. (Author) [es

  20. ℋ- adaptive observer design and parameter identification for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima; Voos, Holger; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Darouach, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive observer design with parameter identification for a nonlinear system with external perturbations and unknown parameters is proposed. The states of the nonlinear system are estimated by a nonlinear observer and the unknown

  1. Observer-Based Fault Estimation and Accomodation for Dynamic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ke; Shi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing security and reliability demand of actual industrial process control systems, the study on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of dynamic systems has received considerable attention. Fault accommodation (FA) is one of effective methods that can be used to enhance system stability and reliability, so it has been widely and in-depth investigated and become a hot topic in recent years. Fault detection is used to monitor whether a fault occurs, which is the first step in FA. On the basis of fault detection, fault estimation (FE) is utilized to determine online the magnitude of the fault, which is a very important step because the additional controller is designed using the fault estimate. Compared with fault detection, the design difficulties of FE would increase a lot, so research on FE and accommodation is very challenging. Although there have been advancements reported on FE and accommodation for dynamic systems, the common methods at the present stage have design difficulties, whi...

  2. Relaxation dynamics of local observables in integrable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nardis, J.; Piroli, L.; Caux, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    We show, using the quench action approach (Caux and Essler 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), that the whole post-quench time evolution of an integrable system in the thermodynamic limit can be computed with a minimal set of data which are encoded in what we denote the generalized single-particle

  3. Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzoni, C.; Desidera, S.; Marzari, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Kral, Q.; Pawellek, N.; Olofsson, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A. M.; Vigan, A.; Sissa, E.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudino, J. L.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Brandner, W.; Bruno, P.; Buenzli, E.; Cantalloube, F.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Cudel, M.; Daemgen, S.; De Caprio, V.; Delorme, P.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Ginski, C.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Janson, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Henning, T.; Incorvaia, S.; Kasper, M.; Kopytova, T.; LeCoroller, H.; Lessio, L.; Ligi, R.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Rouan, D.; Samland, M.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Schmidt, T.; Scuderi, S.; Sezestre, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.

    2018-03-01

    circular or eccentric orbit. We then consider multi-planetary systems: two and three equal-mass planets on circular orbits and two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits in a packed configuration. As a final step, we compare each couple of values (Mp, ap), derived from the dynamical analysis of single and multiple planetary models, with the detection limits obtained with SPHERE. Results: For one single planet on a circular orbit we obtain conclusive results that allow us to exclude such a hypothesis since in most cases this configuration requires massive planets which should have been detected by our observations. Unsatisfactory is also the case of one single planet on an eccentric orbit for which we obtained high masses and/or eccentricities which are still at odds with observations. Introducing multi planetary architectures is encouraging because for the case of three packed equal-mass planets on circular orbits we obtain quite low masses for the perturbing planets which would remain undetected by our SPHERE observations. The case of two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits is also of interest since it suggests the possible presence of planets with masses lower than the detection limits and with moderate eccentricity. Our results show that the apparent lack of planets in gaps between double belts could be explained by the presence of a system of two or more planets possibly of low mass and on eccentric orbits whose sizes are below the present detection limits. Based on observations collected at Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) Program ID: 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 097.C-0865, and 198.C-0209.

  4. Recent Variability Observations of Solar System Giant Planets: Fresh Context for Understanding Exoplanet and Brown Dwarf Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years a number of high cadence photometric observations of solar system giant planets have been acquired by various platforms. Such observations are of interest as they provide points of comparison to the already expansive set of brown dwarf variability observations and the small, but growing, set of exoplanet variability observations. By measuring how rapidly the integrated light from solar system giant planets can evolve, variability observations of substellar objects that are unlikely to ever be resolved can be placed in a fuller context. Examples of brown dwarf variability observations include extensive work from the ground (e.g., Radigen et al. 2014), Spitzer (e.g., Metchev et al. 2015), Kepler (Gizis et al. 2015), and HST (Yang et al. 2015).Variability has been measured on the planetary mass companion to the brown dwarf 2MASS 1207b (Zhou et al. 2016) and further searches are planned in thermal emission for the known directly imaged planets with ground based telescopes (Apai et al. 2016) and in reflected light with future space based telescopes. Recent solar system variability observations include Kepler monitoring of Neptune (Simon et al. 2016) and Uranus, Spitzer observations of Neptune (Stauffer et al. 2016), and Cassini observations of Jupiter (West et al. in prep). The Cassini observations are of particular interest as they measured the variability of Jupiter at a phase angle of approximately 60 deg, comparable to the viewing geometry expected for space based direct imaging of cool extrasolar Jupiters in reflected light. These solar system analog observations capture many of the characteristics seen in brown dwarf variability, including large amplitudes and rapid light curve evolution on timescales as short as a few rotation periods. Simon et al. (2016) attribute such variations at Neptune to a combination of large scale, stable cloud structures along with smaller, more rapidly varying, cloud patches. The observed brown dwarf and

  5. Observation of Subdiffusion in a Disordered Interacting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucioni, E.; Deissler, B.; Tanzi, L.; Roati, G.; Zaccanti, M.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Modugno, M.; Larcher, M.; Dalfovo, F.

    2011-01-01

    We study the transport dynamics of matter-waves in the presence of disorder and nonlinearity. An atomic Bose-Einstein condensate that is localized in a quasiperiodic lattice in the absence of atom-atom interaction shows instead a slow expansion with a subdiffusive behavior when a controlled repulsive interaction is added. The measured features of the subdiffusion are compared to numerical simulations and a heuristic model. The observations confirm the nature of subdiffusion as interaction-assisted hopping between localized states and highlight a role of the spatial correlation of the disorder.

  6. Taming Big Data Variety in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Walter, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Although the volume of the remote sensing data managed by the Earth Observing System Data and Information System is formidable, an oft-overlooked challenge is the variety of data. The diversity in satellite instruments, science disciplines and user communities drives cost as much or more as the data volume. Several strategies are used to tame this variety: data allocation to distinct centers of expertise; a common metadata repository for discovery, data format standards and conventions; and services that further abstract the variations in data.

  7. Mycobacteria of clinical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is based upon a symposium on mycobacteria of clinical interest. Due to the multidisciplinary participation of, among others, microbiologists, clinicians, immunologists and epidemiologists, a very wide and thorough presentation of the present state of clinical research in this field is ensured. Topics of particular interest included in this volume were the new antimicrobial agents active against mycobacteria; new therapeutic possibilities; a system of rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis; mycobacteriosis in AIDS; progress in immunopathology of tuberculosis and leprosy; progress in bacteriology and vaccination in leprosy; progress in immunological diagnosis and new epidemiological biovars of M. tuberculosis. (Auth.)

  8. Testing of Haar-Like Feature in Region of Interest Detection for Automated Target Recognition (ATR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Dr. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a ROI (Region of Interest) detector using Haar-like feature similar to the face detection in Intel's OpenCV library, implement it in Matlab code, and test the performance of the new ROI detector against the existing ROI detector that uses Optimal Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height filter (OTMACH). The ROI detector included 3 parts: 1, Automated Haar-like feature selection in finding a small set of the most relevant Haar-like features for detecting ROIs that contained a target. 2, Having the small set of Haar-like features from the last step, a neural network needed to be trained to recognize ROIs with targets by taking the Haar-like features as inputs. 3, using the trained neural network from the last step, a filtering method needed to be developed to process the neural network responses into a small set of regions of interests. This needed to be coded in Matlab. All the 3 parts needed to be coded in Matlab. The parameters in the detector needed to be trained by machine learning and tested with specific datasets. Since OpenCV library and Haar-like feature were not available in Matlab, the Haar-like feature calculation needed to be implemented in Matlab. The codes for Adaptive Boosting and max/min filters in Matlab could to be found from the Internet but needed to be integrated to serve the purpose of this project. The performance of the new detector was tested by comparing the accuracy and the speed of the new detector against the existing OTMACH detector. The speed was referred as the average speed to find the regions of interests in an image. The accuracy was measured by the number of false positives (false alarms) at the same detection rate between the two detectors.

  9. Open Source Dataturbine (OSDT) Android Sensorpod in Environmental Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, T. R.; Shin, P.; Tilak, S.; Trinh, T.; Smith, J.; Kram, S.

    2014-12-01

    The OSDT Android SensorPod is a custom-designed mobile computing platform for assembling wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring applications. Funded by an award from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the OSDT SensorPod represents a significant technological advance in the application of mobile and cloud computing technologies to near-real-time applications in environmental science, natural resources management, and disaster response and recovery. It provides a modular architecture based on open standards and open-source software that allows system developers to align their projects with industry best practices and technology trends, while avoiding commercial vendor lock-in to expensive proprietary software and hardware systems. The integration of mobile and cloud-computing infrastructure represents a disruptive technology in the field of environmental science, since basic assumptions about technology requirements are now open to revision, e.g., the roles of special purpose data loggers and dedicated site infrastructure. The OSDT Android SensorPod was designed with these considerations in mind, and the resulting system exhibits the following characteristics - it is flexible, efficient and robust. The system was developed and tested in the three science applications: 1) a fresh water limnology deployment in Wisconsin, 2) a near coastal marine science deployment at the UCSD Scripps Pier, and 3) a terrestrial ecological deployment in the mountains of Taiwan. As part of a public education and outreach effort, a Facebook page with daily ocean pH measurements from the UCSD Scripps pier was developed. Wireless sensor networks and the virtualization of data and network services is the future of environmental science infrastructure. The OSDT Android SensorPod was designed and developed to harness these new technology developments for environmental monitoring applications.

  10. Ezilla Cloud Service with Cassandra Database for Sensor Observation System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yang Cheng; Yi-Lun Pan; Chang-Hsing Wu; His-En Yu; Hui-Shan Chen; Weicheng Huang

    2012-01-01

    The main mission of Ezilla is to provide a friendly interface to access the virtual machine and quickly deploy the high performance computing environment. Ezilla has been developed by Pervasive Computing Team at National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC). Ezilla integrates the Cloud middleware, virtualization technology, and Web-based Operating System (WebOS) to form a virtual computer in distributed computing environment. In order to upgrade the dataset and sp...

  11. Automated anaesthesia record systems, observations on future trends of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, W

    1995-02-01

    The introduction of electronic anaesthesia documentation systems was attempted as early as in 1979, although their efficient application has become reality only in the past few years. Today, documentation technology is offered by most of the monitor manufacturers and new systems are being developed by various working groups. The advantages of the electronic protocol are apparent: Continuous high quality documentation, comparability of data due to the availability of a anaesthesia data bank, reduction of the workload of the anaesthesia staff and availability of new additional information. Disadvantages of the electronic protocol have also been discussed. Typically, by going through the process of entering data on the course of the anaesthetic procedure on the protocol sheet, the information is mentally absorbed and evaluated by the anaesthetist. This mental processing of information may, however, be missing when the data are recorded fully automatically--without active involvement on the part of the anaesthetist. It seems that electronic anaesthesia protocols will be required in the near future. The advantages of accurate documentation and quality control in the presence of careful planning will outweight cost considerations. However, at this time, almost none of the commercially available systems have matured to a point where their purchase can be recommended without reservation. There is still a lack of standards for the subsequent exchange of data and a solution to a number of ergonomic problems still remains to be found.

  12. Using the 2A Protein Coexpression System: Multicistronic 2A Vectors Expressing Gene(s) of Interest and Reporter Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Garry A; Ryan, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    To date, a huge range of different proteins-many with cotranslational and posttranslational subcellular localization signals-have been coexpressed together with various reporter proteins in vitro and in vivo using 2A peptides. The pros and cons of 2A co-expression technology are considered below, followed by a simple example of a "how to" protocol to concatenate multiple genes of interest, together with a reporter gene, into a single gene linked via 2As for easy identification or selection of transduced cells.

  13. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, Rob; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The GEOS DAS will be used to provide background fields of meteorological quantities to EOS satellite instrument teams for use in their data algorithms as well as providing assimilated data sets for climate studies on decadal time scales. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now embarking on an effort to convert the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). The GEOS DAS consists of two main components, an atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) and a Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The GCM operates on data that are stored on a regular grid while PSAS works with observational data that are scattered irregularly throughout the atmosphere. As a result, the two components have different data decompositions. The GCM is decomposed horizontally as a checkerboard with all vertical levels of each box existing on the same processing element(PE). The dynamical core of the GCM can also operate on a rotated grid, which requires communication-intensive grid transformations during GCM integration. PSAS groups observations on PEs in a more irregular and dynamic fashion.

  14. Establishment and Discontinuance Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    supplement the probable cause(s).* Referring back to Figure 20, it is observed that all weat-her cause citations combined from 1975 through 1979 accounted...direction 70 p-rcynt of all arrivals. For the other 30 percent of all arrivals, it i7 r;s-;Lind that the Unicorn is not operating and that no other... vc P. 1W4 ui W Z L C 0e 14 ..t w 0 .- Z) LWWE W>-C" z .. JIL OC I.- -- =Z)- z " -- A tl 0 L- W < uo- z = - e a * w Z0)WI.>Z . - N m =) m " =r P- a3

  15. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  16. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  17. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  18. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ?) of influent (HTE) and secondary pond. The arrows indicate the beginning of the noled algal concentration declines. 190 Water SA Vol. 3 No. 4 October 1977 intermittent presence of some factor which suppresses algal growth and/or removes algal cells from... the system at a very rapid rate. Another possibility is that an algal growth suppres sor is almost continuously present and only when the suppres sing factor is intermittently ahsent, do the algal concentrations exhihit a peak. Based on the results...

  19. DISENTANGLING THE ENTANGLED: OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF THE TRIPLE NON-COEVAL PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM VLA1623

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, Nadia M.; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Commonplace at every evolutionary stage, multiple protostellar systems (MPSs) are thought to be formed through fragmentation, but it is unclear when and how. The youngest MPSs, which have not yet undergone much evolution, provide important constraints to this question. It is then of interest to disentangle early stage MPSs. In this Letter we present the results of our work on VLA1623 using our observations and archival data from the Submillimeter Array. Our continuum and line observations trace VLA1623's components, outflow, and envelope, revealing unexpected characteristics. We construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) for each component using the results of our work and data from literature, as well as derive physical parameters from continuum and perform a simple kinematical analysis of the circumstellar material. Our results show VLA1623 to be a triple non-coeval system composed of VLA1623A, B, and W, with each source driving its own outflow and unevenly distributed circumstellar material. From the SED, physical parameters, and IR emission we conclude that VLA1623A and W are Class 0 and Class I protostars, respectively, and together drive the bulk of the observed outflow. Furthermore, we find two surprising results, first the presence of a rotating disk-like structure about VLA1623A with indications of pure Keplerian rotation, which, if real, would make it one of the first evidence of Keplerian disk structures around Class 0 protostars. Second, we find VLA1623B to be a bona fide extremely young protostellar object between the starless core and Class 0 stages.

  20. The impact of the ocean observing system on estimates of the California current circulation spanning three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Jacox, Michael G.; Crawford, William J.; Laughlin, Bruce; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Data assimilation is now used routinely in oceanography on both regional and global scales for computing ocean circulation estimates and for making ocean forecasts. Regional ocean observing systems are also expanding rapidly, and observations from a wide array of different platforms and sensor types are now available. Evaluation of the impact of the observing system on ocean circulation estimates (and forecasts) is therefore of considerable interest to the oceanographic community. In this paper, we quantify the impact of different observing platforms on estimates of the California Current System (CCS) spanning a three decade period (1980-2010). Specifically, we focus attention on several dynamically related aspects of the circulation (coastal upwelling, the transport of the California Current and the California Undercurrent, thermocline depth and eddy kinetic energy) which in many ways describe defining characteristics of the CCS. The circulation estimates were computed using a 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, and our analyses also focus on the impact of the different elements of the control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing, and open boundary conditions) on the circulation. While the influence of each component of the control vector varies between different metrics of the circulation, the impact of each observing system across metrics is very robust. In addition, the mean amplitude of the circulation increments (i.e. the difference between the analysis and background) remains relatively stable throughout the three decade period despite the addition of new observing platforms whose impact is redistributed according to the relative uncertainty of observations from each platform. We also consider the impact of each observing platform on CCS circulation variability associated with low-frequency climate variability. The low-frequency nature of the dominant climate modes in this region allows us to track through time the

  1. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  2. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  3. High-resolution Observations of Flares in an Arch Filament System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingna; Liu, Rui; Li, Shangwei; Cao, Wenda; Ahn, Kwangsu; Ji, Haisheng

    2018-03-01

    We study five sequential solar flares (SOL2015-08-07) occurring in Active Region 12396 observed with the Goode Solar Telescope (GST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, complemented by Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and SDO observations. The main flaring region is an arch filament system (AFS) consisting of multiple bundles of dark filament threads enclosed by semicircular flare ribbons. We study the magnetic configuration and evolution of the active region by constructing coronal magnetic field models based on SDO/HMI magnetograms using two independent methods, i.e., the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation and the flux rope insertion method. The models consist of multiple flux ropes with mixed signs of helicity, i.e., positive (negative) in the northern (southern) region, which is consistent with the GST observations of multiple filament bundles. The footprints of quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) derived from the extrapolated NLFFF compare favorably with the observed flare ribbons. An interesting double-ribbon fine structure located at the east border of the AFS is consistent with the fine structure of the QSL’s footprint. Moreover, magnetic field lines traced along the semicircular footprint of a dome-like QSL surrounding the AFS are connected to the regions of significant helicity and Poynting flux injection. The maps of magnetic twist show that positive twist became dominant as time progressed, which is consistent with the injection of positive helicity before the flares. We hence conclude that these circular shaped flares are caused by 3D magnetic reconnection at the QSLs associated with the AFS possessing mixed signs of helicity.

  4. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  5. Observing the stars. Love in the age of systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Ansgar Jakobsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of scholars have demonstrated how the cultural industry involves people in a participatory culture in which users actively construct personal identities. However, the link between a public of mass-mediated entertainment and the private sphere of intimacy and personal identity is a paradox. A consistent theory to clarify that paradox is lacking in the cultural studies literature. I suggest that social systems theory in the Luhmannian tradition may explain in economical terms why the continuous performance and intensification of the paradox of mass-mediated intimacy is a major trait of contemporary culture. Nevertheless, the article does not address normative issues. It is neither an apology for the culture industry, nor a condemnation. The aim is simply to bring one of the most powerful tools of analysis in social theory today to bear on an aspect of modern society which is as important as it is baffling.

  6. Mutual event observations of solar system objects by SRC on Mars Express. Analysis and release of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziese, R.; Willner, K.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Both Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, have been observed during several imaging campaigns by the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) on the Mars Express probe. Several tens of images are obtained during mutual event observations - when the Martian moons are both observed or together with another solar system body. These observations provide new opportunities to determine the bodies' positions in their orbits. Aims: A method was sought to automate the observation of the positions of the imaged bodies. Within one image sequence a similarly accurate localization of the objects in all images should be possible. Methods: Shape models of Phobos and Deimos are applied to simulate the appearance of the bodies in the images. Matching the illuminated simulation against the observation provides a reliable determination of the bodies' location within the image. To enhance the matching confidence several corrections need to be applied to the simulation to closely reconstruct the observation. Results: A list of 884 relative positions between the different objects is provided through the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A15

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus observations of travel burden: A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith M; Ortiz, Kasim; Flournoy-Floyd, Minnjuan; Bruner, Larisa; Kamen, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Explorations of travel impediments among patients suffering from rheumatic diseases have been very limited. Research has consistently indicated a shortage of rheumatologists, resulting in patients potentially having to travel long distances for care. The purpose of our study was to explore how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients experience travel issues differentially by race and socio-economic status. We conducted semi-structured interviews and a brief demographic survey with 10 patients diagnosed with SLE. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using NVivo Analysis Software to facilitate the reporting of recurrent themes and supporting quotations, and an initial codebook was independently developed by two researchers on the study team and then verified together. Patients described three major areas of concern with respect to travel burden in accessing their rheumatologists: reliance on caregivers; meeting financial priorities; and pain and physical limitations. Our data suggest general traveling challenges interfering with medical appointment compliance for several participants and the importance of socio-economic issues when considering travel issues. This study highlights an important area with implications for adherence to medical appointments and participation in research among patients with SLE. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Rebuilding Afghanistan’s Higher Educational System: Observations from Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAELH. ROMANOWSKI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the crucial issues and challenges facing Afghanistan’s universities as they begin the demanding task of rebuilding and restructuring their university system after two decades of war and civil unrest. The setting for this qualitative study is a four-day professional development conference for Afghan university presidents and academic deans sponsored and funded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Afghanistan Ministry of Higher Education. Cooperative Studies (an NGO, not-for-profit educational organization located in Kansas City provided a team of academics to Kabul, Afghanistan, to offer professional development workshops. Using the Grounded Theory Methodology as a theoretical framework for this research, data was derived from interactive sessions, questionnaires, informal dialogue, small group sessions and question and answer sessions; the perspectives of the 39 Afghan academic leaders are presented as they describe the problems facing university administrators in their country today. Findings identify these challenges and center on 1 the lack of autonomy; 2 the need for qualified faculty; 3 concerns regarding students’ access and preparation; and 4 concerns about funding and budget issues. Based on these findings, policy suggestions and recommendations are provided.

  9. Observation of CP violation in the B(0) meson system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Y G; Kral, J F; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Zisman, M S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; Branson, J G; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Bloom, P; Dima, M O; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Pallavicini, M; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Lacker, H M; Laplace, S; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Potter, R J; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Forti, A C; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Weatherall, J H; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de La Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Leruste, P; Lory, J; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Elmer, P; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel De Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, C; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Berger, J P; Bloom, E; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Dorser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Gowdy, S J; Grosso, P; Himel, T; Hryn'ova, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langennegger, U; Leith, D W; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Quinn, H; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J T; Serbo, V V; Snyder, S R; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Weidemann, A W; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; DiGirolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricci, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; De Silva, A; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Di Lodovico, F; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M; Neal, H

    2001-08-27

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. This result uses an additional sample of Upsilon(4S) decays collected in 2001, bringing the data available to 32 x 10(6) BB macro pairs. We select events in which one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a final state containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the standard model is proportional to sin2 beta, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result sin2 beta = 0.59+/-0.14(stat)+/-0.05(syst) establishes CP violation in the B(0) meson system. We also determine absolute value of lambda = 0.93+/-0.09(stat)+/-0.03(syst), consistent with no direct CP violation.

  10. Assimilating Remote Sensing Observations of Leaf Area Index and Soil Moisture for Wheat Yield Estimates: An Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Crow, Wade T.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Moran, Mary S.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2012-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments were used to investigate ensemble Bayesian state updating data assimilation of observations of leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture (theta) for the purpose of improving single-season wheat yield estimates with the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CropSim-Ceres model. Assimilation was conducted in an energy-limited environment and a water-limited environment. Modeling uncertainty was prescribed to weather inputs, soil parameters and initial conditions, and cultivar parameters and through perturbations to model state transition equations. The ensemble Kalman filter and the sequential importance resampling filter were tested for the ability to attenuate effects of these types of uncertainty on yield estimates. LAI and theta observations were synthesized according to characteristics of existing remote sensing data, and effects of observation error were tested. Results indicate that the potential for assimilation to improve end-of-season yield estimates is low. Limitations are due to a lack of root zone soil moisture information, error in LAI observations, and a lack of correlation between leaf and grain growth.

  11. Asteroids in the Inner Solar System - Observable Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnik, S. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents synthetic observations of long-lived, co-orbiting asteroids of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars. Our sample is constructed by taking the limiting semimajor axes, differential longitudes and inclinations for long-lived stability provided by simulations. The intervals are randomly populated with values to create initial conditions. These orbits are re-simulated to check that they are stable and then re-sampled every 2.5 years for 1 million years. The Mercurian sample contains only horseshoe orbits, the Martian sample only tadpoles. For both Venus and the Earth, the greatest concentration of objects on the sky occurs close to the classical Lagrange points at heliocentric ecliptic longitudes of 60o and 300o. The distributions are broad especially if horseshoes are present in the sample. The full-width half maximum (FWHM) in heliocentric longitude for Venus is 325o and for the Earth is 328o. The mean and most common velocity of these co-orbiting satellites coincides with the mean motion of the parent planet, but again the spread is wide with a FWHM for Venus of 27.8" hr-1 and for the Earth of 21.0" hr-1. For Mars, the greatest concentration on the sky occurs at heliocentric ecliptic latitudes of +/- 12o. The peak of the velocity distribution occurs at 65" hr-1, significantly less than the Martian mean motion, while its FWHM is 32.3" hr-1. The case of Mercury is the hardest of all, as the greatest concentrations occur at heliocentric longitudes of 16.0o and 348.5o and so are different from the classical values. The fluctuating eccentricity of Mercury means that these objects can have velocities exceeding 1000" hr-1, although the most common velocity is 459" hr-1, which is much less than the Mercurian mean motion. A variety of search strategies are discussed, including wide-field CCD imaging, space satellites such as The Global Astrometry Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA), ground-based surveys like The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as

  12. Asteroids in the inner Solar system - II. Observable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. W.; Tabachnik, S. A.

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents synthetic observations of long-lived coorbiting asteroids of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars. Our sample is constructed by taking the limiting semimajor axes, differential longitudes and inclinations for long-lived stability provided by simulations. The intervals are randomly populated with values to create initial conditions. These orbits are re-simulated to check that they are stable and then re-sampled every 2.5yr for 1Myr. The Mercurian sample only contains horseshoe orbits, whereas the Martian sample only contains tadpoles. For both Venus and the Earth, the greatest concentration of objects on the sky occurs close to the classical Lagrange points at heliocentric ecliptic longitudes of 60° and 300°. The distributions are broad especially if horseshoes are present in the sample. The FWHM in heliocentric longitude for Venus is 325° and for the Earth is 328°. The mean and most common velocity of these coorbiting satellites coincides with the mean motion of the parent planet, but again the spread is wide with an FWHM of 27.8 and 21.0arcsech-1 for Venus and the Earth, respectively. For Mars, the greatest concentration on the sky occurs at heliocentric ecliptic latitudes of +/-12°. The peak of the velocity distribution occurs at 65arcsech-1, significantly less than the Martian mean motion, while its FWHM is 32.3arcsech-1. The case of Mercury is the hardest of all, as the greatest concentrations occur at heliocentric longitudes of 16.0° and 348.5° and so are different from the classical values. The fluctuating eccentricity of Mercury means that these objects can have velocities exceeding 1000arcsech-1 although the most common velocity is 459arcsech-1, which is much less than the Mercurian mean motion. A variety of search strategies are discussed, including wide-field CCD imaging, space satellites such as the Global Astrometry Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA), ground-based surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as

  13. Observation of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation under open systems, and its steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Quantum objects are susceptible to noise from their surrounding environments, interaction with which inevitably gives rise to quantum decoherence or dissipation effects. In this work, we examine how different types of local noise under an open system affect entropic uncertainty relations for two incompatible measurements. Explicitly, we observe the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the presence of quantum memory under two canonical categories of noisy environments: unital (phase flip) and nonunital (amplitude damping). Our study shows that the measurement uncertainty exhibits a non-monotonic dynamical behavior—that is, the amount of the uncertainty will first inflate, and subsequently decrease, with the growth of decoherence strengths in the two channels. In contrast, the uncertainty decreases monotonically with the growth of the purity of the initial state shared in prior. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty in noisy environments, we put forward a remarkably effective strategy to steer the magnitude of uncertainty by means of a local non-unitary operation (i.e. weak measurement) on the qubit of interest. It turns out that this non-unitary operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty, upon tuning the operation strength. Our investigations might thereby offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of entropic uncertainty in open systems.

  14. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  15. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  16. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  17. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  18. A data delivery system for IMOS, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Roberts, K.; Ward, B. J.

    2010-09-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS, www.imos.org.au), an AUD 150 m 7-year project (2007-2013), is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which, among many applications, collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities which effectively observe and measure the 4-dimensional ocean variability, and the physical and biological response of coastal and shelf seas around Australia. Through a national science rationale IMOS is organized as five regional nodes (Western Australia - WAIMOS, South Australian - SAIMOS, Tasmania - TASIMOS, New SouthWales - NSWIMOS and Queensland - QIMOS) surrounded by an oceanic node (Blue Water and Climate). Operationally IMOS is organized as 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Automated Time Series Observations, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) delivering data. IMOS data is freely available to the public. The data, a combination of near real-time and delayed mode, are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). eMII utilises the Australian Academic Research Network (AARNET) to support a distributed database on OPeNDAP/THREDDS servers hosted by regional computing centres. IMOS instruments are described through the OGC Specification SensorML and where-ever possible data is in CF compliant netCDF format. Metadata, conforming to standard ISO 19115, is automatically harvested from the netCDF files and the metadata records catalogued in the

  19. An Improved Ocean Observing System for Coastal Louisiana: WAVCIS (WAVE-CURRENT-SURGE Information System )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Stone, G. W.; Gibson, W. J.; Braud, D.

    2005-05-01

    WAVCIS is a regional ocean observing and forecasting system. It was designed to measure, process, forecast, and distribute oceanographic and meteorological information. WAVCIS was developed and is maintained by the Coastal Studies Institute at Louisiana State University. The in-situ observing stations are distributed along the central Louisiana and Mississippi coast. The forecast region covers the entire Gulf of Mexico with emphasis on offshore Louisiana. By using state-of-the-art instrumentation, WAVCIS measures directional waves, currents, temperature, water level, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, Meteorological parameters include wind speed and direction, air pressure and temperature visibility and humidity. Through satellite communication links, the measured data are transmitted to the WAVCIS laboratory. After processing, they are available to the public via the internet on a near real-time basis. WAVCIS also includes a forecasting capability. Waves, tides, currents, and winds are forecast daily for up to 80 hours in advance. There are a number of numerical wave and surge models that can be used for forecasts. WAM and SWAN are used for operational purposes to forecast sea state. Tides at each station are predicted based on the harmonic constants calculated from past in-situ observations at respective sites. Interpolated winds from the ETA model are used as input forcing for waves. Both in-situ and forecast information are available online to the users through WWW. Interactive GIS web mapping is implemented on the WAVCIS webpage to visualize the model output and in-situ observational data. WAVCIS data can be queried, retrieved, downloaded, and analyzed through the web page. Near real-time numerical model skill assessment can also be performed by using the data from in-situ observing stations.

  20. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  1. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  2. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  3. Defining Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as a contribution to Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs): A Core Task of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to Accelerate Integration of Biological Observations in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Sousa Pinto, I.; Costello, M. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Appeltans, W.; Fischer, A. S.; Canonico, G.; Klein, E.; Obura, D.; Montes, E.; Miloslavich, P.; Howard, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a networking effort under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). The objective of the MBON is to link existing groups engaged in ocean observation and help define practical indices to deploy in an operational manner to track changes in the number of marine species, the abundance and biomass of marine organisms, the diverse interactions between organisms and the environment, and the variability and change of specific habitats of interest. MBON serves as the biodiversity arm of Blue Planet, the initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) for the benefit of society. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 1991 to organize international ocean observing efforts. The mission of the GOOS is to support monitoring to improve the management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources, and to enable scientific research. GOOS is engaged in a continuing, rigorous process of identifying Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs). MBON is working with GOOS and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, also under the IOC) to define Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as those Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that have explicit taxonomic records associated with them. For practical purposes, EBVs are a subset of the EOVs. The focus is to promote the integration of biological EOVs including EBVs into the existing and planned national and international ocean observing systems. The definition avoids a proliferation of 'essential' variables across multiple organizations. MBON will continue to advance practical and wide use of EBVs and related EOV. This is an effective way to contribute to several UN assessments (e.g., from IPBES, IPCC, and the World Ocean Assessment under the UN Regular Process), UN Sustainable Development Goals, and to address targets and goals defined under

  4. National Interests and Common Ground in the US Immigration Debate: How to Legalize the US Immigration System and Permanently Reduce Its Undocumented Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional wisdom holds that the only point of consensus in the fractious US immigration debate is that the system is broken. Yet, the US public has consistently expressed a desire for a legal and orderly immigration system that serves compelling national interests. This paper describes how to create such a system. It focuses on the cornerstone of immigration reform,[1] the legal immigration system,[2] and addresses the widespread belief that broad reform will incentivize illegal migration and ultimately lead to another large undocumented population. The paper begins with an analysis of presidential signing statements on seminal immigration legislation over nearly a century. These statements reveal broad consensus on the interests and values that the United States seeks to advance through its immigration and refugee policies. They constitute additional common ground in the immigration debate. To serve these interests, immigration and refugee considerations must be “mainstreamed” into other policy processes. In addition, its policies will be more successful if they are seen to benefit or, at least, not to discriminate against migrant-sending states.   Not surprisingly, the US immigration system does not reflect the vast, mostly unanticipated changes in the nation and the world since Congress last meaningfully reformed this system (27 years ago and last overhauled the law (52 years ago. The paper does not detail the well-documented ways that US immigration laws fall short of serving the nation’s economic, family, humanitarian, and rule of law objectives. Nor does it propose specific changes in categories and levels of admission. Rather, it describes how a legal immigration system might be broadly structured to deliver on its promises. In particular, it makes the case that Congress should create a flexible system that serves compelling national interests, allows for real time adjustments in admission based on evidence and independent

  5. Interesting star V 627 Cas (=AS 501) is a young object, a Mira variable or a binary symbiotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotilov, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of spectral and photometric observations of the variable star V 627 Cas carried out in optical and infrared range are presented. The combination of all available data shows the following parameters of the star: spectral class corresponds on the average to M4 bearing some features of high-luminocity. In the emission spectrum the most prominent are hydrogen lines. The star shows strong UV and IR excesses, variable linear polarization in the optical range, with the star are also connected maser lines OH and H 2 O. The brightness of V 627 Cas in the photographic region has decreased for at least 50 years on the average by ∼ 0 m .04 per year

  6. Digging Back In Time: Integrating Historical Data Into an Operational Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern technologies allow reporting and display of data near real-time from in situ instrumentation live on the internet. This has given users fast access to critical information for scientific applications, marine safety, planning, and numerous other activities. Equally as valuable is having access to historical data sets. However, it is challenging to identify sources and access of historical data of interest as it exists in many different locations, depending on the funding source and provider. Also, time-varying formats can make it difficult to data-mine and display historical data. There is also the issue of data quality, and having a systematic means of assessing credibility of historical data sets. The Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) data management system demonstrates the successful ingestion of historical data, both old and new (as recent as yesterday) and has integrated numerous historical data streams into user friendly data portals, available for data upload and display on the AOOS Website. An example is the inclusion of non-real-time (e.g. day old) AIS (Automatic Identification System) ship tracking data, important for scientists working in marine mammal migration regions. Other examples include historical sea ice data, and various data streams from previous research projects (e.g. moored time series, HF Radar surface currents, weather, shipboard CTD). Most program or project websites only offer access to data specific to their agency or project alone, but do not have the capacity to provide access to the plethora of other data that might be available for the region and be useful for integration, comparison and synthesis. AOOS offers end users access to a one stop-shop for data in the area they want to research, helping them identify other sources of information and access. Demonstrations of data portals using historical data illustrate these benefits.

  7. Speciation in the aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate system of biomedical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Getty, Kendra; Andersson, Ingegärd; Pettersson, Lage

    2004-09-21

    The speciation in the quaternary aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate (Cit3-) and H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/L-(+)-lactate (Lac-) systems has been determined at 25 degrees C in the physiological medium of 0.150 M Na(Cl). A combination of 51V NMR integral intensities and chemical shift (Bruker AMX500) as well as potentiometric data (glass electrode) have been collected and evaluated with the computer program LAKE, which is able to treat multimethod data simultaneously. The pKa-values for citric acid have been determined as 2.94, 4.34 and 5.61. Altogether six vanadate-citrate species have been found in the ternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3- system in the pH region 2-10, only two of which are mononuclear. Reduction of vanadium(V) becomes more pronounced at pH acidic solutions limited the final model to pH > 4. In the quaternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/Lac- system, two mixed-ligand species have been determined, with the compositions V2CitLac2- and V2CitLac3- (pKa = 5.0). To our knowledge, this is the first time such complexes have been reported for vanadium(V). 51V NMR chemical shifts, compositions and formation constants are given, and equilibrium conditions are illustrated in distribution diagrams as well as the fit of the model to the experimental data. When suitable, structural proposals are given, based on 13C NMR measurements and available literature data of related compounds.

  8. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Caron-Carles, Marylise

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  9. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volná, M; Látal, F; Kubínek, R; Richterek, L

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems. (paper)

  10. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  11. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  12. THE ADVERSARIAL SYSTEM AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD IN DIVORCE LITIGATION: SOME THOUGHTS REGARDING COLLABORATIVE LAW AS A MEANS TO RESOLVE PARENTAL DISPUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution it is argued that the adversarial system of litigation does not serve the best interests of children upon divorce. After a brief analysis of the system it is concluded that other less aggressive means of litigation should be considered under upon divorce. Collaborative Law is suggested as a means to bear in mind. The fact that current practice of lawyer negotiations in respect of divorce is not too far removed from Collaborative Law may lead to practitioners readily accepting the concept.

  13. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety.

  14. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  15. Observing Participating Observation—A Re-description Based on Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bering Keiding

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are re-constructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003119

  16. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  17. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  18. Neural-network-observer-based optimal control for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Huang, Yuzhu; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an observer-based optimal control scheme is developed for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm. First, a neural-network (NN) observer is designed to estimate system states. Then, based on the observed states, a neuro-controller is constructed via ADP method to obtain the optimal control. In this design, two NN structures are used: a three-layer NN is used to construct the observer which can be applied to systems with higher degrees of nonlinearity and without a priori knowledge of system dynamics, and a critic NN is employed to approximate the value function. The optimal control law is computed using the critic NN and the observer NN. Uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. The actor, critic, and observer structures are all implemented in real-time, continuously and simultaneously. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. A Matter of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In these days of financial turmoil, there is greater interest in depositing one's money in the bank--at least one might hope for greater interest. Banks and various trusts pay compound interest at regular intervals: this means that interest is paid not only on the original sum deposited, but also on previous interest payments. This article…

  20. Ocean Response to Tropical Storms as Observed by a Moored Ocean Observing System in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, F.; Jaramillo, S.; Fan, S.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the support activities for a deepwater development in the Gulf of Mexico, a moored ocean observing system (OOS) was deployed in a water depth of approximately 2500m, 300km south of the Louisiana Coast. From June 2007 to May 2009, the system comprised seven single point Aanderaa Recording Current Meters (RCM), deployed at 450m, 700m, 1,100m, 1,500m, 2,000m, 2,400m and 2,490m below surface, and an RDI 75kHz Longranger Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), deployed between 249 and 373m below surface in upward-looking mode. Since May 2009, the OOS was upgraded to a Wavescan Buoy based moored system including meteorological sensors for: atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction; directional waves sensor; a Doppler Current Sensor (DCS) at 1.5 m depth for surface currents; and two downward-looking ADCP's covering the upper 1,000m of the water column. This OOS has been operating without interruptions from 2007 to the present and has registered data associated with nine tropical storms, including the direct passage of Hurricane Ike, in September of 2008, and loop current events with speeds of up to 4 knots. It has provided one of the most comprehensive set of velocity observations in the Gulf of Mexico, especially, the near surface currents, during pre-storm conditions, response, and ocean relaxation following hurricanes/tropical storms. Based on these observations the upper ocean responses to the energy input from tropical storms are characterized in terms of the associated mixing processes and momentum balances.

  1. Two applications of the thermogram of the alcohol/water binary system with compositions of cryobiological interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lindong; Li, Weizhong; Zuo, Jianguo

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative analyses of the bound water content in the alcohol aqueous solution and its osmotic behavior should be cryobiologically significant. This paper has presented two applications of the thermogram of the alcohol/water system recorded by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Both applications are: (1) generating the quantitative relationship between the bound water content and the solution composition; (2) calculating the osmotic virial coefficients for alcohols. Five alcohols including methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and glycerol are investigated. In the present study, partial binary phase diagrams of these five alcohol solutions are determined in the first place. The bound water contents in these solutions are quantitatively evaluated by three criteria afterwards. In the end, the osmotic virial coefficients for these alcohols are calculated according to the osmotic virial equation. It is turned out that the bound water fraction out of the total water content increases with a rising molality. The ability of the solute to restrict water molecules can be weakened when the solution becomes more concentrated. The results also indicate that propylene glycol should be the strongest "water-blocker" while methanol the weakest one. These findings can deepen our understanding of the cryoprotective properties of the alcohols from the perspectives of their roles in binding free water and promoting the osmotic efflux of cell water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear Observer Design of the Generalized Rössler Hyperchaotic Systems via DIL Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Jeu Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Rössler hyperchaotic systems are presented, and the state observation problem of such systems is investigated. Based on the differential inequality with Lyapunov methodology (DIL methodology, a nonlinear observer design for the generalized Rössler hyperchaotic systems is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Meanwhile, the guaranteed exponential decay rate can be accurately estimated. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed approach.

  3. MRI assessment of knee osteoarthritis: Knee Osteoarthritis Scoring System (KOSS) - inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility of a compartment-based scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Ceulemans, Ruth Y.T.; Kroon, Herman M.; Bloem, Johan L.; Riyazi, Naghmeh; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Carter, Wayne O.; Woodworth, Thasia G.

    2005-01-01

    To develop a scoring system for quantifying osteoarthritic changes of the knee as identified by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and to determine its inter- and intra-observer reproducibility, in order to monitor medical therapy in research studies. Two independent observers evaluated 25 consecutive MR examinations of the knee in patients with previously defined clinical symptoms and radiological signs of osteoarthritis. We acquired on a 1.5 T system: coronal and sagittal proton density- and T2-weighted dual spin echo (SE) images, sagittal three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient echo (GE) images with fat suppression, and axial dual turbo SE images with fat suppression. Images were scored for the presence of cartilaginous lesions, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, bone marrow edema, and for meniscal abnormalities. Presence and size of effusion, synovitis and Baker's cyst were recorded. All parameters were ranked on a previously defined, semiquantitative scale, reflecting increasing severity of findings. Kappa, weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to determine inter- and intra-observer variability. Inter-observer reproducibility was good (ICC value 0.77). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility for individual parameters was good to very good (inter-observer ICC value 0.63-0.91; intra-observer ICC value 0.76-0.96). The presented comprehensive MR scoring system for osteoarthritic changes of the knee has a good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility. Thus the score form with its definitions can be used for standardized assessment of osteoarthritic changes to monitor medical therapy in research studies. (orig.)

  4. Global Positioning System: Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Positioning System : Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force The satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) provides positioning , navigation...infrastructure, and transportation safety. The Department of Defense (DOD)—specifically, the Air Force—develops and operates the GPS system , which...programs, including the most recent detailed assessment of the next generation operational control system (OCX)

  5. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Space Geodesy Networks for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Michael; Pavlis, Erricos; Ma, Chopo; Altamini, Zuheir; Noll, Carey; Stowers, David

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based networks of co-located space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS. and DORIS) are the basis for the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference frame (ITRF), which is our metric of reference for measurements of global change, The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established a task to develop a strategy to design, integrate and maintain the fundamental geodetic network and supporting infrastructure in a sustainable way to satisfy the long-term requirements for the reference frame. The GGOS goal is an origin definition at 1 mm or better and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. These goals are based on scientific requirements to address sea level rise with confidence, but other applications are not far behind. Recent studies including one by the US National Research Council has strongly stated the need and the urgency for the fundamental space geodesy network. Simulations are underway to examining accuracies for origin, scale and orientation of the resulting ITRF based on various network designs and system performance to determine the optimal global network to achieve this goal. To date these simulations indicate that 24 - 32 co-located stations are adequate to define the reference frame and a more dense GNSS and DORIS network will be required to distribute the reference frame to users anywhere on Earth. Stations in the new global network will require geologically stable sites with good weather, established infrastructure, and local support and personnel. GGOS wil seek groups that are interested in participation. GGOS intends to issues a Call for Participation of groups that would like to contribute in the network implementation and operation. Some examples of integrated stations currently in operation or under development will be presented. We will examine necessary conditions and challenges in

  6. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  7. The international earth observing system: a cultural debate about earth sciences from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the International Earth Observing System, i.e. the combined earth observation programmes of space agencies worldwide and of the relevance of advanced space-borne sensor systems to the study and understanding of interactions between land surface and atmosphere. The

  8. Optimal State Estimation for Discrete-Time Markov Jump Systems with Missing Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the optimal linear estimation for a class of direct-time Markov jump systems with missing observations. An observer-based approach of fault detection and isolation (FDI is investigated as a detection mechanic of fault case. For systems with known information, a conditional prediction of observations is applied and fault observations are replaced and isolated; then, an FDI linear minimum mean square error estimation (LMMSE can be developed by comprehensive utilizing of the correct information offered by systems. A recursive equation of filtering based on the geometric arguments can be obtained. Meanwhile, a stability of the state estimator will be guaranteed under appropriate assumption.

  9. A Semi-Automatic, Remote-Controlled Video Observation System for Transient Luminous Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    In support for global ELF/VLF observations, HF measurements in France, and conjugate photometry/VLF observations in South Africa, we developed and operated a semi-automatic, remotely controlled video system for the observation of middle-atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). Installed...

  10. Performance and Evaluation of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki; Errico, R. M.; Carvalho, D.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) has spent more than a decade developing and implementing a global Observing System Simulation Experiment framework for use in evaluting both new observation types as well as the behavior of data assimilation systems. The NASA/GMAO OSSE has constantly evolved to relect changes in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimiation system, the Global Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5), and the real world observational network. Software and observational datasets for the GMAO OSSE are publicly available, along with a technical report. Substantial modifications have recently been made to the NASA/GMAO OSSE framework, including the character of synthetic observation errors, new instrument types, and more sophisticated atmospheric wind vectors. These improvements will be described, along with the overall performance of the current OSSE. Lessons learned from investigations into correlated errors and model error will be discussed.

  11. Analyzing the capability of a radio telescope in a bistatic space debris observation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhe; Zhao You; Gao Peng-Qi

    2013-01-01

    A bistatic space debris observation system using a radio telescope as the receiving part is introduced. The detection capability of the system at different working frequencies is analyzed based on real instruments. The detection range of targets with a fixed radar cross section and the detection ability of small space debris at a fixed range are discussed. The simulations of this particular observation system at different transmitting powers are also implemented and the detection capability is discussed. The simulated results approximately match the actual experiments. The analysis in this paper provides a theoretical basis for developing a space debris observation system that can be built in China

  12. The relative importance of mass and wind data in the FGGE observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Jusem, J. C.; Pfaendtner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of mass and wind data in numerical weather prediction is examined. The applicability of the mass and wind data on the skill of numerical weather prediction is evaluated by real data assimilation experiments using the the NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres analysis/forecast system of Baker (1983) and Kalnay et al. (1983). It is observed that the wind observations are important for small scales and in the tropics and that the wind observations are more accurate than mass observations.

  13. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  14. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  15. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  16. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior mediastinum: inter-observer reproducibility of five different methods of region-of-interest positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Parlatano, Daniela; Gned, Dario; Veltri, Andrea [San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano, Torino (Italy); Giraudo, Maria Teresa [University of Torino, Department of Mathematics ' ' Giuseppe Peano' ' , Torino (Italy); Giardino, Roberto; Ardissone, Francesco [San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano, Torino (Italy); Ferrero, Bruno [San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano, Torino (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate inter-reader reproducibility of five different region-of-interest (ROI) protocols for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in the anterior mediastinum. In eighty-one subjects, on ADC mapping, two readers measured the ADC using five methods of ROI positioning that encompassed the entire tissue (whole tissue volume [WTV], three slices observer-defined [TSOD], single-slice [SS]) or the more restricted areas (one small round ROI [OSR], multiple small round ROI [MSR]). Inter-observer variability was assessed with interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland-Altman analysis. Nonparametric tests were performed to compare the ADC between ROI methods. The measurement time was recorded and compared between ROI methods. All methods showed excellent inter-reader agreement with best and worst reproducibility in WTV and OSR, respectively (ICC, 0.937/0.874; CoV, 7.3 %/16.8 %; limits of agreement, ±0.44/±0.77 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). ADC values of OSR and MSR were significantly lower compared to the other methods in both readers (p < 0.001). The SS and OSR methods required less measurement time (14 ± 2 s) compared to the others (p < 0.0001), while the WTV method required the longest measurement time (90 ± 56 and 77 ± 49 s for each reader) (p < 0.0001). All methods demonstrate excellent inter-observer reproducibility with the best agreement in WTV, although it requires the longest measurement time. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of Two Types of Observations (SATWND and GPSRO) for the Operational Global 4DVAR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, H.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a data assimilation system is significantly dependent on the quality and quantity of observations assimilated. In these years, more and more satellite observations have been applied in many operational assimilation systems. In this paper, the assessment of satellite-derived winds (SATWND) and GPS radio occultation (GPSRO) bending angles has been performed using a range of diagnostics. The main positive impacts are made when satellite-derived cloud data (GOES cloud data and MODIS cloud data) is assimilated, but benefit is hardly obtained from GPSRO data in the Operational Global 4DVAR System. In a full system configuration, the assimilation of satellite-derived observations is globally beneficial on the analysis, and the benefit can be well propagated into the forecast. The assimilation of the GPSRO observations has a slightly positive impact in the Tropics, but is neutral in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere. To assess the synergies of satellite-derived observations with other types of observation, experiments assimilating satellite-derived data and AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations were run. The results show that the analysis increments structure is not modified when AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations are also assimilated. This suggests that the impact of satellite-derived observations is not limited by the large impact of satellite radiance observations.

  19. Adaptive fuzzy observer based synchronization design and secure communications of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Euntai; Park, Mignon

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a synchronization design scheme based on an alternative indirect adaptive fuzzy observer and its application to secure communication of chaotic systems. It is assumed that their states are unmeasurable and their parameters are unknown. Chaotic systems and the structure of the fuzzy observer are represented by the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. Using Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive law is derived to estimate the unknown parameters and the stability of the proposed system is guaranteed. Through this process, the asymptotic synchronization of chaotic systems is achieved. The proposed observer is applied to secure communications of chaotic systems and some numerical simulation results show the validity of theoretical derivations and the performance of the proposed observer

  20. 2D turbulence structure observed by a fast framing camera system in linear magnetized device PANTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdachi, Satoshi; Inagaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Goto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale structure, such as the zonal flow and the streamer plays important role in the drift-wave turbulence. The interaction of the mesoscale structure and the turbulence is not only interesting phenomena but also a key to understand the turbulence driven transport in the magnetically confined plasmas. In the cylindrical magnetized device, PANTA, the interaction of the streamer and the drift wave has been found by the bi-spectrum analysis of the turbulence. In order to study the mesoscale physics directly, the 2D turbulence is studied by a fast-framing visible camera system view from a window located at the end plate of the device. The parameters of the plasma is the following; Te∼3eV, n ∼ 1x10 19 m -3 , Ti∼0.3eV, B=900G, Neutral pressure P n =0.8 mTorr, a∼ 6cm, L=4m, Helicon source (7MHz, 3kW). Fluctuating component of the visible image is decomposed by the Fourier-Bessel expansion method. Several rotating mode is observed simultaneously. From the images, m = 1 (f∼0.7 kHz) and m = 2, 3 (f∼-3.4 kHz) components which rotate in the opposite direction can be easily distinguished. Though the modes rotate constantly in most time, there appear periods where the radially complicated node structure is formed (for example, m=3 component, t = 142.5∼6 in the figure) and coherent mode structures are disturbed. Then, a new rotating period is started again with different phase of the initial rotation until the next event happens. The typical time interval of the event is 0.5 to 1.0 times of the one rotation of the slow m = 1 mode. The wave-wave interaction might be interrupted occasionally. Detailed analysis of the turbulence using imaging technique will be discussed. (author)

  1. ℋ∞ Adaptive observer for nonlinear fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima

    2016-06-23

    In this paper, an adaptive observer is proposed for the joint estimation of states and parameters of a fractional nonlinear system with external perturbations. The convergence of the proposed observer is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) by using an indirect Lyapunov method.The proposed ℋ∞ adaptive observer is also robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. The performance of the observer is illustrated through some examples including the chaotic Lorenz and Lü\\'s systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Robust fractional-order proportional-integral observer for synchronization of chaotic fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    N U+02BC Doye, Ibrahima

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, we propose a robust fractional-order proportional-integral U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer for the synchronization of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic systems. The convergence of the observer is proved, and sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities U+0028 LMIs U+0029 approach by using an indirect Lyapunov method. The proposed U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer is robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. It is also compared to the fractional-order proportional U+0028 FOP U+0029 observer and its performance is illustrated through simulations done on the fractional-order chaotic Lorenz system.

  3. Robust fractional-order proportional-integral observer for synchronization of chaotic fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    N U+02BC Doye, Ibrahima; Salama, Khaled N.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust fractional-order proportional-integral U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer for the synchronization of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic systems. The convergence of the observer is proved, and sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities U+0028 LMIs U+0029 approach by using an indirect Lyapunov method. The proposed U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer is robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. It is also compared to the fractional-order proportional U+0028 FOP U+0029 observer and its performance is illustrated through simulations done on the fractional-order chaotic Lorenz system.

  4. ℋ- adaptive observer design and parameter identification for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an adaptive observer design with parameter identification for a nonlinear system with external perturbations and unknown parameters is proposed. The states of the nonlinear system are estimated by a nonlinear observer and the unknown parameters are also adapted to their values. Sufficient conditions for the stability of the adaptive observer error dynamics are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results for chaotic Lorenz systems with unknown parameters in the presence of external perturbations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. Observation of Fano-Type Interference in a Coupled Cavity-Atom System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yong; Tan Zheng; Wang Jin; Zhan Ming-Sheng; Zhu Yi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of the Fano-type interference in a coupled cavity-atom system by confining the laser-cooled "8"5Rb atoms in an optical cavity. The asymmetric Fano profile is obtained through quantum interference in a three-level atomic system coherently coupled to a single mode cavity field. The observed Fano profile can be explained by the interference between the intra-cavity dark state and the polariton state of the coupled cavity-atom system. The possible applications of our observations include all-optical switching, optical sensing and narrow band optical filters. (paper)

  6. Operating a wide-area remote observing system for the W. M. Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Kibrick, Robert I.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Lyke, James E.

    2008-07-01

    For over a decade, the W. M. Keck Observatory's two 10-meter telescopes have been operated remotely from its Waimea headquarters. Over the last 6 years, WMKO remote observing has expanded to allow teams at dedicated sites in California to observe either in collaboration with colleagues in Waimea or entirely from the U.S. mainland. Once an experimental effort, the Observatory's mainland observing capability is now fully operational, supported on all science instruments (except the interferometer) and regularly used by astronomers at eight mainland sites. Establishing a convenient and secure observing capability from those sites required careful planning to ensure that they are properly equipped and configured. It also entailed a significant investment in hardware and software, including both custom scripts to simplify launching the instrument interface at remote sites and automated routers employing ISDN backup lines to ensure continuation of observing during Internet outages. Observers often wait until shortly before their runs to request use of the mainland facilities. Scheduling these requests and ensuring proper system operation prior to observing requires close coordination between personnel at WMKO and the mainland sites. An established protocol for approving requests and carrying out pre-run checkout has proven useful in ensuring success. The Observatory anticipates enhancing and expanding its remote observing system. Future plans include deploying dedicated summit computers for running VNC server software, implementing a web-based tracking system for mainland-based observing requests, expanding the system to additional mainland sites, and converting to full-time VNC operation for all instruments.

  7. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  8. Observer based on sliding mode variable structure for synchronization of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xunhe; Shan Xiuming; Ren Yong

    2003-01-01

    In the paper an approach, based on the state observer of sliding mode variable structure, is used for synchronizing chaotic systems. It does not require either the computation of the Lyapunov exponents, or the initial conditions belonging to the same basin of attraction as the existed approaches based on the state observer for synchronizing chaotic systems. The approach is more robust against noise and parameter mismatch than the existed approaches based on the state observer for synchronizing chaotic systems, because the former uses variable structure control, which is strong robust with respect to noise and parameter mismatch in the error dynamics, the later uses an appropriate choice of the feedback gain. Two well-known chaotic systems, a chaotic Roessler system and a hyperchaotic Roessler system are considered as illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the used approach by numerical simulations

  9. Reviews and syntheses: Systematic Earth observations for use in terrestrial carbon cycle data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Marko; Buchwitz, Michael; Dorigo, Wouter; Guanter, Luis; Quegan, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    The global carbon cycle is an important component of the Earth system and it interacts with the hydrology, energy and nutrient cycles as well as ecosystem dynamics. A better understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for improved projections of climate change including corresponding changes in water and food resources and for the verification of measures to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. An improved understanding of the carbon cycle can be achieved by data assimilation systems, which integrate observations relevant to the carbon cycle into coupled carbon, water, energy and nutrient models. Hence, the ingredients for such systems are a carbon cycle model, an algorithm for the assimilation and systematic and well error-characterised observations relevant to the carbon cycle. Relevant observations for assimilation include various in situ measurements in the atmosphere (e.g. concentrations of CO2 and other gases) and on land (e.g. fluxes of carbon water and energy, carbon stocks) as well as remote sensing observations (e.g. atmospheric composition, vegetation and surface properties).We briefly review the different existing data assimilation techniques and contrast them to model benchmarking and evaluation efforts (which also rely on observations). A common requirement for all assimilation techniques is a full description of the observational data properties. Uncertainty estimates of the observations are as important as the observations themselves because they similarly determine the outcome of such assimilation systems. Hence, this article reviews the requirements of data assimilation systems on observations and provides a non-exhaustive overview of current observations and their uncertainties for use in terrestrial carbon cycle data assimilation. We report on progress since the review of model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observations by Raupach et al.(2005), emphasising the rapid advance in relevant space-based observations.

  10. High Fidelity Airborne Imaging System for Remote Observation of Space Launch/Reentry Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The utility of airborne remote observation of hypersonic reentry vehicles was demonstrated by the NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM)...

  11. Observation and integrated Earth-system science: A roadmap for 2016-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Adrian; Fellous, Jean-Louis; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Trenberth, Kevin; Asrar, Ghassem; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Burrows, John P.; Ciais, Philippe; Drinkwater, Mark; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gobron, Nadine; Guilyardi, Eric; Halpern, David; Heimann, Martin; Johannessen, Johnny; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Penner, Joyce; Scholes, Robert; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-05-01

    This report is the response to a request by the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of interacting components of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. All types of observation are considered, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. Observations that are organised on a systematic basis and observations that are made for process understanding and model development, or other research or demonstration purposes, are covered. Specific accounts are given for many of the variables of the Earth system. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. The evolution towards applying Earth-system models for environmental monitoring and prediction as well as for climate simulation and projection is outlined. General aspects of the improvement of models, whether through refining the

  12. A Review of Observations Made on Select Parameters of the Camel Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene H. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the camel’s long historical interaction with man there is only a limited number of studies available pertaining to the immunobiology of this species. This is unfortunate as the camel has evolved into an animal capable of not only surviving under extreme environmental conditions but also into one that is relatively resistant to a great number of infectious diseases. Accordingly, it is of interest to understand the various components operative in the camel immune system, as a potential basis of manipulating the immune response of other domesticated animals to respond to disease-causing agents in a similarly effective fashion. Recent research endeavors on the complement and phagocytic system, as well as the unique antibody types found in camelids that have seen an explosion of interest in recent times have been reviewed and their potential use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools highlighted.

  13. Graphical User Interface for an Observing Control System for the UK Infrared Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Bridger, A.; Wright, G. S.; Adamson, A. J.; Currie, M. J.; Economou, F.

    A Graphical user interface for the observing control system of UK Infrared Telescope has been developed as a part of the ORAC (Observatory Reduction and Acquisition Control) Project. We analyzed and designed the system using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) with the CASE tool Rational Rose 98. The system has been implemented in a modular way with Java packages using Swing and RMI. This system is component-based with pluggability. Object orientation concepts and UML notations have been applied throughout the development.

  14. Sliding mode control-based linear functional observers for discrete-time stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnesh; Janardhanan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2017-11-01

    Sliding mode control (SMC) is one of the most popular techniques to stabilise linear discrete-time stochastic systems. However, application of SMC becomes difficult when the system states are not available for feedback. This paper presents a new approach to design a SMC-based functional observer for discrete-time stochastic systems. The functional observer is based on the Kronecker product approach. Existence conditions and stability analysis of the proposed observer are given. The control input is estimated by a novel linear functional observer. This approach leads to a non-switching type of control, thereby eliminating the fundamental cause of chatter. Furthermore, the functional observer is designed in such a way that the effect of process and measurement noise is minimised. Simulation example is given to illustrate and validate the proposed design method.

  15. RU COOL's scalable educational focus on immersing society in the ocean through ocean observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.; McDonnell, J. D.; Kohut, J. T.; Glenn, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Many regions of the ocean are exhibiting significant change, suggesting the need to develop effective focused education programs for a range of constituencies (K-12, undergraduate, and general public). We have been focused on developing a range of educational tools in a multi-pronged strategy built around using streaming data delivered through customized web services, focused undergraduate tiger teams, teacher training and video/documentary film-making. Core to the efforts is on engaging the undergraduate community by leveraging the data management tools of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and the education tools of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ocean Observing Initiative (OOI). These intuitive interactive browser-based tools reduce the barriers for student participation in sea exploration and discovery, and allowing them to become "field going" oceanographers while sitting at their desk. Those undergraduate student efforts complement efforts to improve educator and student engagement in ocean sciences through exposure to scientists and data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, we will reduce the logistical costs of bringing ocean science to students in grades 6-16. We are providing opportunities to: 1) build capacity of scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia. We are using a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. Finally we use data and video products to entrain public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. For example Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has garnered interest in movie theatres

  16. Observation of Discrete-Time-Crystal Signatures in an Ordered Dipolar Many-Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovny, Jared; Blum, Robert L.; Barrett, Sean E.

    2018-05-01

    A discrete time crystal (DTC) is a robust phase of driven systems that breaks the discrete time translation symmetry of the driving Hamiltonian. Recent experiments have observed DTC signatures in two distinct systems. Here we show nuclear magnetic resonance observations of DTC signatures in a third, strikingly different system: an ordered spatial crystal. We use a novel DTC echo experiment to probe the coherence of the driven system. Finally, we show that interactions during the pulse of the DTC sequence contribute to the decay of the signal, complicating attempts to measure the intrinsic lifetime of the DTC.

  17. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  18. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  19. Consistency of direct integral estimator for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujačić, Ivan; Dattner, Itai

    In this paper we use the sieve framework to prove consistency of the ‘direct integral estimator’ of parameters for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations, which are commonly used for modeling dynamic processes.

  20. Using the SPICE system to help plan and interpret space science observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A portable multimission information system named SPICE is used to assemble, archive, and provide easy user access to viewing geometry and other ancillary information needed by space scientists to interpret observations of bodies within our solar system. The modular nature of this system lends it to use in planning such observations as well. With a successful proof of concept on Voyager, the SPICE system has been adapted to the Magellan, Galileo and Mars Observer missions, and to a variety of ground based operations. Adaptation of SPICE for Cassini and the Russian Mars 94/96 projects is underway, and work on Cassini will follow, SPICE has been used to support observation planning for moving targets on the Hubble Space Telescope Project. Applications for SPICE on earth science, space physics and other astrophysics missions are under consideration.

  1. The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Paas, F., Marcus, N., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J. (2009). The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 21-30.

  2. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data, 2004-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  3. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data, 2004-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  4. NCDC feed of Global Telecommunication System (GTS) marine observations in International Maritime Meteorological Archive (IMMA) Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained here are surface marine observations from many different sources via the NCDC Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Marine in International...

  5. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  6. Synchronization and secure communication of chaotic systems via robust adaptive high-gain fuzzy observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Chang-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Mignon

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative robust adaptive high-gain fuzzy observer design scheme and its application to synchronization and secure communication of chaotic systems. It is assumed that their states are immeasurable and their parameters are unknown. The structure of the proposed observer is represented by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and has the integrator of the estimation error. It improves the performance of high-gain observer and makes the proposed observer robust against noisy measurements, uncertainties and parameter perturbations as well. Using Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive law is derived to estimate the unknown parameters and the stability of the proposed observer is analyzed. Some simulation result of synchronization and secure communication of chaotic systems is given to present the validity of theoretical derivations and the performance of the proposed observer as an application.

  7. INTAROS: Development of an integrated Arctic observation system under Horizon 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sandven, Stein; Sagen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    INTAROS is a research and innovation action funded under the H2020-BG-09 call for the five-year period 2016-2021. INTAROS will develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation (EO) data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. EO data will therefore be integrated into iAOS based on existing products and databases. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing Arctic observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the selected networks. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote, including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. Multidisciplinary data integrated under INTAROS will contribute to better understanding of interactions and coupling in the complex Arctic ice-ocean-land-atmosphere system. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism

  8. Near Fault Observatories (NFO) services and integration plan for European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2016-04-01

    the services provided by other Thematic Core Services for the standard data (e.g. seismic and geodetic) and on the direct access to the e-infrastructures of individual NFOs via the Integrated Core Services web services for access and distribution of non standard data (e.g. strain- and tilt-meters, geochemical and electro- magneto-telluric data). We will collaborate with the other groups possessing the same data on data harmonization in terms of both format and metadata description to optimise and facilitate the integration and interoperability processes. The services will include a Virtual Laboratory, novel visualization tools for data and products describing the anatomy of active faults and the physical processes governing earthquake generation. VL is an online engagement and knowledge sharing initiative for communicating to the other scientists, stockholders and the public the state of scientific knowledge concerning earthquake source and tectonic processes generating catastrophic events. The availability of real-time data provides the unique opportunity of observing all phases of the earthquake rupture. It is thus of crucial importance developing methodologies to follow in real-time the evolution of the event (e.g. Earthquake Early Warning systems). NFOs are ideal infrastructures for hosting testing centers where a variety of scientific algorithms for real-time monitoring can be independently evaluated. Besides the interest for fundamental science, such developments have a societal impact and can attract new stakeholders such as industry partners who are interested in adopting in such (e.g. EEW) technologies.

  9. Manufacturing systems considered as time domain control systems : receding horizon control and observers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roset, B.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis considers manufacturing systems and model-based controller design, as well as their combinations. The objective of a manufacturing system is to create products from a selected group of raw materials and semifinished goods. In the field of manufacturing systems control is an important

  10. An Application of Chaotic Chua's System for Secure Chaotic Communication Based on Sliding Mode observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemih, K.; Halimi, M.; Ghanes, M.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study the design and implementation of analog secure communication systems via synchronized chaotic Chua's circuit with sliding mode observer. For this, we adopt an approach based on an inclusion of the message in the transmitter and in the receiver; we use a sliding mode observer with un-known input in order to recover the information. Finally, an analog electronic circuit with Multisim software is designed to physically realize the complete system (transmitter-receiver).

  11. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  12. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.; Hunnius, S.; Elk, M. van; Ede, F.L. van; Bekkering, H.

    2011-01-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor.

  13. Evaluating the Validity of Classroom Observations in the Head Start Designation Renewal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom observations are increasingly common in education policies as a means to assess the quality of teachers and/or education programs for purposes of making high-stakes decisions. This article considers one policy, the Head Start Designation Renewal System (DRS), which involves classroom observations to assess the quality of Head Start…

  14. The Mirror Neuron System and Observational Learning: Implications for the Effectiveness of Dynamic Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning by observing and imitating others has long been recognized as constituting a powerful learning strategy for humans. Recent findings from neuroscience research, more specifically on the mirror neuron system, begin to provide insight into the neural bases of learning by observation and imitation. These findings are discussed here, along…

  15. Interest Rate Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Pepic

    2014-01-01

    Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are many modific...

  16. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  17. Adaptive observer based synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowong, S.; Yamapi, R.

    2005-05-01

    This study addresses the adaptive synchronization of a class of uncertain chaotic systems in the drive-response framework. For a class of uncertain chaotic systems with unknown parameters and external disturbances, a robust adaptive observer based response system is constructed to synchronize the uncertain chaotic system. Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat lemma ensure the global synchronization between the drive and response systems even if Lipschitz constants on function matrices and bounds on uncertainties are unknown. Numerical simulation of the Genesio-Tesi system verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  18. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  19. Autopoiesis, Observation and Informatics: Lessons from the Development of Autopoietic Systems Theory in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Hashimoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with redefining the notion of information from a perspective of systems theory. In recent years, the notion of information, which was closely related to the framework of old cybernetics, has been refined in parallel with the emergence of new cybernetics, especially second-order cybernetics and autopoiesis. The systemic view of new cybernetics provides us with the notion of “informationally closed system.” This notion is congruent with the epistemological implications of radical constructivism. In order to help understand this argument, we aim at highlighting the development of autopoietic systems theory in Japan. Autopoiesis has often been considered as a thoroughly closed system in Japan, where the relationships between autopoiesis and radical constructivism have frequently been overlooked. This is mainly because the importance which autopoietic systems theory originally attaches to the notion of observer and observation has been inadequately discussed, and autopoietic systems theory is regarded as distinct from second-order cybernetics and radical constructivism. However, they must be dealt with together, and Humberto Maturana should be given credit for his ontology of observing. Since the publication of his paper “Biology of Cognition,” Maturana has been attempting to explain the notion of observation as a biological phenomenon in his own way. Likewise, by taking into consideration the notion of observation, we can build a unified theory of information. Fundamental Informatics, which is being developed by Toru Nishigaki, outlines a unified approach to information by putting human observers at the center of his theory. Social and mechanical information is generated only when human observers conduct observations on the basis of biological information, and this mechanism of generation of information is discussed through the notion of “hierarchical autonomous system.” For an autopoietic organi- zation to be

  20. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts....... The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  1. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  2. Integrating observational and modelling systems for the management of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M. E.; Jones, E. M.; Margvelashvili, N.; Mongin, M.; Rizwi, F.; Robson, B.; Schroeder, T.; Skerratt, J.; Steven, A. D.; Wild-Allen, K.

    2016-02-01

    Observational and modelling systems provide two sources of knowledge that must be combined to provide a more complete view than either observations or models alone can provide. Here we describe the eReefs coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model that has been developed for the Great Barrier Reef; and the multiple observations that are used to constrain the model. Two contrasting examples of model - observational integration are highlighted. First we explore the carbon chemistry of the waters above the reef, for which observations are accurate, but expensive and therefore sparse, while model behaviour is highly skilful. For carbon chemistry, observations are used to constrain model parameterisation and quantify model error, with the model output itself providing the most useable knowledge for management purposes. In contrast, ocean colour provides inaccurate, but cheap and spatially and temporally extensive observations. Thus observations are best combined with the model in a data assimilating framework, where a custom-designed optical model has been developed for the purposes of incorporating ocean colour observations. The future management of Great Barrier Reef water quality will be based on an integration of observing and modelling systems, providing the most robust information available.

  3. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  4. Nonlinear observer for synchronization of chaotic systems with application to secure data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Perez-Pinacho, Claudia A.

    2014-06-01

    The main issue of this work is related with the design of a class of nonlinear observer in order to synchronize chaotic dynamical systems in a master-slave scheme, considering different initial conditions. The oscillator of Chen is proposed as a benchmark model and a bounded-type observer is proposed to reach synchronicity between both two chaotic systems. The proposed observer contains a proportional and sigmoid form of a bounded function of the synchronization error in order to provide asymptotic synchronization with a satisfactory performance. Some numerical simulations were carrying out in order to show the operation of the proposed methodology, with possible applications to secure data communications issues.

  5. On the observer design problem for continuous-time switched linear systems with unknown switchings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez–Gutiérrez, D.; Čelikovský, Sergej; Ramírez–Trevino, A.; Castillo-Toledo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 352, č. 4 (2015), s. 1595-1612 ISSN 0016-0032 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20433S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : observer design * switched systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/TR/celikovsky-0442959.pdf

  6. Observation of new satellites in Cs-Ar system using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Young, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption line shape of Cs-Ar system is recorded using two-photon ionization of the system with Cs(7P) as an intermediate state. New satellite structures in the wings of Cs(7P) are observed which were not resolved in previous absorption measurements. Also the absolute absorption cross section in the blue wing is measured

  7. Sum-of-squares based observer design for polynomial systems with a known fixed time delay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rehák, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2015), s. 858-873 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : sum-of-squares polynomial * observer * polynomial system Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.628, year: 2015 http://www.kybernetika.cz/content/2015/5/856

  8. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  9. 78 FR 39638 - U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System; Regulations To Certify and Integrate Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... regional system operations and maintenance. The RICE must illustrate its standard operating procedures for... designing, operating, and improving regional coastal and ocean observing systems in order to ensure the... set priorities for distributing funds (e.g., requirement for Governing Board or governing body...

  10. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  11. State and actuator fault estimation observer design integrated in a riderless bicycle stabilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela Mendoza, Jorge Aurelio; Astorga Zaragoza, Carlos Manuel; Zavala Río, Arturo; Pattalochi, Leo; Canales Abarca, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with an observer design for Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems with high-order time-varying parameter dependency. The proposed design, considered as the main contribution of this paper, corresponds to an observer for the estimation of the actuator fault and the system state, considering measurement noise at the system outputs. The observer gains are computed by considering the extension of linear systems theory to polynomial LPV systems, in such a way that the observer reaches the characteristics of LPV systems. As a result, the actuator fault estimation is ready to be used in a Fault Tolerant Control scheme, where the estimated state with reduced noise should be used to generate the control law. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been tested using a riderless bicycle model with dependency on the translational velocity v, where the control objective corresponds to the system stabilization towards the upright position despite the variation of v along the closed-loop system trajectories. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  13. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  14. Development of a Lunar-Phase Observation System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernhuar Tarng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing the lunar phase requires long-term involvement, and it is often obstructed by bad weather or tall buildings. In this study, a lunar-phase observation system is developed using the augmented reality (AR technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to help students observe and record lunar phases easily. By holding the mobile device towards the moon in the sky, the screen will show the virtual moon at the position of the real moon. The system allows the user to record the lunar phase, including its azimuth/elevation angles and the observation date and time. In addition, the system can shorten the learning process by setting different dates and times for observation, so it can solve the problem of being unable to observe and record lunar phases due to a bad weather or the moon appearing late in the night. Therefore, it is an effective tool for astronomy education in elementary and high schools. A teaching experiment has been conducted to analyze the learning effectiveness of the system and the results show that it is effective in learning the lunar concepts. The questionnaire results reveal that students considered the system easy to operate and it is useful in locating the moon and recording the lunar data.

  15. Nonlinear unknown input sliding mode observer based chaotic system synchronization and message recovery scheme with uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, B.B.; Nath, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present manuscript, observer based synchronization and message recovery scheme is discussed for a system with uncertainties. LMI conditions are analytically derived solution of which gives the observer design matrices. Earlier approaches have used adaptive laws to address the uncertainties, however in present work, decoupling approach is used to make observer robust against uncertainties. The methodology requires upper bounds on nonlinearity and the message signal and estimates for these bounds are generated adaptively. Thus no information about the nature of nonlinearity and associated Lipschitz constant is needed in proposed approach. Message signal is recovered using equivalent output injection which is a low pass filtered equivalent of the discontinuous effort required to maintain the sliding motion. Finally, the efficacy of proposed Nonlinear Unknown Input Sliding Mode Observer (NUISMO) for chaotic communication is verified by conducting simulation studies on two chaotic systems i.e. third order Chua circuit and Rossler system.

  16. Adaptive Observer-Based Fault-Tolerant Control Design for Uncertain Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design of the robust fault-tolerant control (FTC system based on adaptive observer for uncertain linear time invariant (LTI systems. In order to improve robustness, rapidity, and accuracy of traditional fault estimation algorithm, an adaptive fault estimation algorithm (AFEA using an augmented observer is presented. By utilizing a new fault estimator model, an improved AFEA based on linear matrix inequality (LMI technique is proposed to increase the performance. Furthermore, an observer-based state feedback fault-tolerant control strategy is designed, which guarantees the stability and performance of the faulty system. Moreover, the adaptive observer and the fault-tolerant controller are designed separately, whose performance can be considered, respectively. Finally, simulation results of an aircraft application are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methods.

  17. Cyberinfrastructure Initiatives of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. R.; Faundeen, J. L.; Petiteville, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) was established in 1984 in response to a recommendation from the Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations Working Group on Growth, Technology, and Employment's Panel of Experts on Satellite Remote Sensing. CEOS participants are Members, who are national or international governmental organizations who operate civil spaceborne Earth observation satellites, and Associates who are governmental organizations with civil space programs in development or international scientific or governmental bodies who have an interest in and support CEOS objectives. The primary objective of CEOS is to optimize benefits of satellite Earth observations through cooperation of its participants in mission planning and in development of compatible data products, formats, services, applications and policies. To pursue its objectives, CEOS establishes working groups and associated subgroups that focus on relevant areas of interest. While the structure of CEOS has evolved over its lifetime, today there are three permanent working groups. One is the Working Group on Calibration and Validation that addresses sensor-specific calibration and validation and geophysical parameter validation. A second is the Working Group on Education, Training, and Capacity Building that facilitates activities that enhance international education and training in Earth observation techniques, data analysis, interpretation and applications, with a particular focus on developing countries. The third permanent working group is the Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The purpose of WGISS is to promote collaboration in the development of the systems and services based on international standards that manage and supply the Earth observation data and information from participating agencies' missions. WGISS places great emphasis on the use of demonstration projects involving user groups to solve the critical interoperability issues associated with the

  18. On the identifiability of linear dynamical systems. [parameters observation in presence of white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Consider the situation in which the unknown parameters of a stationary linear system may be parametrized by a set of unknown parameters. The question thus arises of when such a set of parameters can be uniquely identified on the basis of observed data. This problem is considered here both in the case of input and output observations and in the case of output observations in the presence of a white noise input. Conditions for local identifiability are derived for both situations and a sufficient condition for global identifiability is given for the former situation, i.e., when simultaneous input and output observations are available.

  19. Improved upper bounds on Kaluza-Klein gravity with current Solar System experiments and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xue-Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing (China); Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-15

    As an extension of previous works on classical tests of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravity and as an attempt to find more stringent constraints on this theory, its effects on physical experiments and astronomical observations conducted in the Solar System are studied. We investigate the gravitational time delay at inferior conjunction caused by KK gravity, and use new Solar System ephemerides and the observation of Cassini to strengthen constraints on KK gravity by up to two orders of magnitude. These improved upper bounds mean that the fifth-dimensional space in the soliton case is a very flat extra dimension in the Solar System, even in the vicinity of the Sun. (orig.)

  20. Observability analysis of a MEMS INS/GPS integration system with gyroscope G-sensitivity errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen; Hu, Xiaoping; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua; Luo, Bing

    2014-08-28

    Gyroscopes based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology suffer in high-dynamic applications due to obvious g-sensitivity errors. These errors can induce large biases in the gyroscope, which can directly affect the accuracy of attitude estimation in the integration of the inertial navigation system (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The observability determines the existence of solutions for compensating them. In this paper, we investigate the observability of the INS/GPS system with consideration of the g-sensitivity errors. In terms of two types of g-sensitivity coefficients matrix, we add them as estimated states to the Kalman filter and analyze the observability of three or nine elements of the coefficient matrix respectively. A global observable condition of the system is presented and validated. Experimental results indicate that all the estimated states, which include position, velocity, attitude, gyro and accelerometer bias, and g-sensitivity coefficients, could be made observable by maneuvering based on the conditions. Compared with the integration system without compensation for the g-sensitivity errors, the attitude accuracy is raised obviously.

  1. Observability Analysis of a MEMS INS/GPS Integration System with Gyroscope G-Sensitivity Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gyroscopes based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS technology suffer in high-dynamic applications due to obvious g-sensitivity errors. These errors can induce large biases in the gyroscope, which can directly affect the accuracy of attitude estimation in the integration of the inertial navigation system (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS. The observability determines the existence of solutions for compensating them. In this paper, we investigate the observability of the INS/GPS system with consideration of the g-sensitivity errors. In terms of two types of g-sensitivity coefficients matrix, we add them as estimated states to the Kalman filter and analyze the observability of three or nine elements of the coefficient matrix respectively. A global observable condition of the system is presented and validated. Experimental results indicate that all the estimated states, which include position, velocity, attitude, gyro and accelerometer bias, and g-sensitivity coefficients, could be made observable by maneuvering based on the conditions. Compared with the integration system without compensation for the g-sensitivity errors, the attitude accuracy is raised obviously.

  2. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  3. 48 CFR 52.232-17 - Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor to the Government under this contract shall bear simple interest from the date due until paid... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interest. 52.232-17... Interest. As prescribed in 32.611(a) and (b), insert the following clause: INTEREST (OCT 2010) (a) Except...

  4. Observer-based hyperchaos synchronization in cascaded discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the observer-based synchronization in a cascade connection of hyperchaotic discrete-time systems. The paper demonstrates that exact synchronization in finite time is achievable between pairs of drive-response systems using only a scalar synchronizing signal. This 'propagated synchronization' starts from the innermost drive-response system pair and propagates toward the outermost drive-system pair. Choosing the drive-system input to be an information signal (encrypted via an arbitrary encryption function) yields a potential application of this architecture in chaos-based communications.

  5. Observer Design for a Time Delay System via the Razumikhin Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rehák, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2017), s. 2226-2231 ISSN 1561-8625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : observer * time-delay system * input-to-state stability * quantization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asjc.1507/full

  6. Multi-viewpoint Smartphone AR-based Learning System for Solar Movement Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Tian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding solar movement (e.g., solar diurnal motion is difficult for those are beginning to learn about astronomy. Previous research has revealed that observation-based learning can help make astronomical phenomena clearer to understand for such learners. In this research, Smartphone Augmented Reality (AR technology and 3D content were used to develop a multi-viewpoint Smartphone AR-based learning system (M-VSARLS for solar movement observations that can be used in the real-world environment. The goal of this research is to assess the usefulness of the system, usability of the AR function and 3D content, and the overall effect of the system on the learner’s motivation through task-based experiments with follow-up questionnaires. The results show that the M-VSARL system is effective in improving the observational skills and learning ability of learners, and in enhancing their motivation to learn about solar movement.

  7. The Grand Challenges of WCRP and the Climate Observing System of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    The successful implementation the Paris agreement on climate change (COP21) calls for a well-designed global monitoring system of essential climate variables, climate processes and Earth system budgets. The Grand Challenges implemented by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) provide an opportunity to investigate issues of high societal relevance, directly related to sea level rise, droughts, floods, extreme heat events, food security, and fresh water availability. These challenges would directly benefit from a well-designed suite of systematic climate observations. Quantification of the evolution of the global energy, water and carbon budgets as well as the development and the production of near-term and regional climate predictions require that a comprehensive, focused, multi-platform observing system (satellites, ground-based and in situ observations) be established in an international context. This system must be accompanied by the development of climate services that should translate and disseminate scientific outcomes as actionable information for users and stakeholders.

  8. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems; Observations de parametres d'ordre multiples dans les systemes d'electrons 5f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, E

    2005-12-15

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  9. Full Two-Body Problem Mass Parameter Observability Explored Through Doubly Synchronous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex Benjamin; Scheeres, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The full two-body problem (F2BP) is often used to model binary asteroid systems, representing the bodies as two finite mass distributions whose dynamics are influenced by their mutual gravity potential. The emergent behavior of the F2BP is highly coupled translational and rotational mutual motion of the mass distributions. For these systems the doubly synchronous equilibrium occurs when both bodies are tidally-locked and in a circular co-orbit. Stable oscillations about this equilibrium can be shown, for the nonplanar system, to be combinations of seven fundamental frequencies of the system and the mutual orbit rate. The fundamental frequencies arise as the linear periods of center manifolds identified about the equilibrium which are heavily influenced by each body’s mass parameters. We leverage these eight dynamical constraints to investigate the observability of binary asteroid mass parameters via dynamical observations. This is accomplished by proving the nonsingularity of the relationship between the frequencies and mass parameters for doubly synchronous systems. Thus we can invert the relationship to show that given observations of the frequencies, we can solve for the mass parameters of a target system. In so doing we are able to predict the estimation covariance of the mass parameters based on observation quality and define necessary observation accuracies for desired mass parameter certainties. We apply these tools to 617 Patroclus, a doubly synchronous Trojan binary and flyby target of the LUCY mission, as well as the Pluto and Charon system in order to predict mutual behaviors of these doubly synchronous systems and to provide observational requirements for these systems’ mass parameters

  10. Measurements of the phase behavior of ternary systems of interest to the gas process: II : the system CO2 + methanol + prednisolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Tesauro, C.; Reverchon, E.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the phase behavior of the ternary system carbon dioxide + methanol + prednisolone has been studied experimentally. For this purpose, carbon dioxide has been chosen as the anti-solvent gas, methanol as the organic solvent, and prednisolone as the model drug that should be micronized

  11. Evaluating observer agreement of scoring systems for foot integrity and footrot lesions in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foddai Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scoring scale with five ordinal categories is used for visual diagnosis of footrot in sheep and to study its epidemiology and control. More recently a 4 point ordinal scale has been used by researchers to score foot integrity (wall and sole horn damage in sheep. There is no information on observer agreement using either of these scales. Observer agreement for ordinal scores is usually estimated by single measure values such as weighted kappa or Kendall’s coefficient of concordance which provide no information where the disagreement lies. Modeling techniques such as latent class models provide information on both observer bias and whether observers have different thresholds at which they change the score given. In this paper we use weighted kappa and located latent class modeling to explore observer agreement when scoring footrot lesions (using photographs and videos and foot integrity (using post mortem specimens in sheep. We used 3 observers and 80 photographs and videos and 80 feet respectively. Results Both footrot and foot integrity scoring scales were more consistent within observers than between. The weighted kappa values between observers for both footrot and integrity scoring scales ranged from moderate to substantial. There was disagreement between observers with both observer bias and different thresholds between score values. The between observer thresholds were different for scores 1 and 2 for footrot (using photographs and videos and for all scores for integrity (both walls and soles. The within observer agreement was higher with weighted kappa values ranging from substantial to almost perfect. Within observer thresholds were also more consistent than between observer thresholds. Scoring using photographs was less variable than scoring using video clips or feet. Conclusions Latent class modeling is a useful method for exploring components of disagreement within and between observers and this information could

  12. Ionospheric Simulation System for Satellite Observations and Global Assimilative Model Experiments - ISOGAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Stephens, Philip; Iijima, Bryron A.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and imaging the Earth's ionosphere as well as understanding its structures, inhomogeneities, and disturbances is a key part of NASA's Heliophysics Directorate science roadmap. This invention provides a design tool for scientific missions focused on the ionosphere. It is a scientifically important and technologically challenging task to assess the impact of a new observation system quantitatively on our capability of imaging and modeling the ionosphere. This question is often raised whenever a new satellite system is proposed, a new type of data is emerging, or a new modeling technique is developed. The proposed constellation would be part of a new observation system with more low-Earth orbiters tracking more radio occultation signals broadcast by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) than those offered by the current GPS and COSMIC observation system. A simulation system was developed to fulfill this task. The system is composed of a suite of software that combines the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) including first-principles and empirical ionospheric models, a multiple- dipole geomagnetic field model, data assimilation modules, observation simulator, visualization software, and orbit design, simulation, and optimization software.

  13. Validation and Inter-comparison Against Observations of GODAE Ocean View Ocean Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Smith, G. C.; Lu, Y.; Hernandez, F.; Regnier, C.; Drevillon, M.; Ryan, A.; Martin, M.; Spindler, T. D.; Brassington, G. B.; Oke, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    For weather forecasts, validation of forecast performance is done at the end user level as well as by the meteorological forecast centers. In the development of Ocean Prediction Capacity, the same level of care for ocean forecast performance and validation is needed. Herein we present results from a validation against observations of 6 Global Ocean Forecast Systems under the GODAE OceanView International Collaboration Network. These systems include the Global Ocean Ice Forecast System (GIOPS) developed by the Government of Canada, two systems PSY3 and PSY4 from the French Mercator-Ocean Ocean Forecasting Group, the FOAM system from UK met office, HYCOM-RTOFS from NOAA/NCEP/NWA of USA, and the Australian Bluelink-OceanMAPS system from the CSIRO, the Australian Meteorological Bureau and the Australian Navy.The observation data used in the comparison are sea surface temperature, sub-surface temperature, sub-surface salinity, sea level anomaly, and sea ice total concentration data. Results of the inter-comparison demonstrate forecast performance limits, strengths and weaknesses of each of the six systems. This work establishes validation protocols and routines by which all new prediction systems developed under the CONCEPTS Collaborative Network will be benchmarked prior to approval for operations. This includes anticipated delivery of CONCEPTS regional prediction systems over the next two years including a pan Canadian 1/12th degree resolution ice ocean prediction system and limited area 1/36th degree resolution prediction systems. The validation approach of comparing forecasts to observations at the time and location of the observation is called Class 4 metrics. It has been adopted by major international ocean prediction centers, and will be recommended to JCOMM-WMO as routine validation approach for operational oceanography worldwide.

  14. Advancing coastal ocean modelling, analysis, and prediction for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, John L.; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Allen, Arthur; Baltes, Rebecca; Baptista, Antonio; He, Ruoying; Hogan, Patrick; Kurapov, Alexander; Mehra, Avichal; Quintrell, Josie; Schwab, David; Signell, Richard; Smith, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines strategies that would advance coastal ocean modelling, analysis and prediction as a complement to the observing and data management activities of the coastal components of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The views presented are the consensus of a group of US-based researchers with a cross-section of coastal oceanography and ocean modelling expertise and community representation drawn from Regional and US Federal partners in IOOS. Priorities for research and development are suggested that would enhance the value of IOOS observations through model-based synthesis, deliver better model-based information products, and assist the design, evaluation, and operation of the observing system itself. The proposed priorities are: model coupling, data assimilation, nearshore processes, cyberinfrastructure and model skill assessment, modelling for observing system design, evaluation and operation, ensemble prediction, and fast predictors. Approaches are suggested to accomplish substantial progress in a 3–8-year timeframe. In addition, the group proposes steps to promote collaboration between research and operations groups in Regional Associations, US Federal Agencies, and the international ocean research community in general that would foster coordination on scientific and technical issues, and strengthen federal–academic partnerships benefiting IOOS stakeholders and end users.

  15. Promise and Capability of NASA's Earth Observing System to Monitor Human-Induced Climate Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and launched on Terra in December 1999 and Aqua in May 2002, is designed to meet the scientific needs for satellite remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and land and ocean surface properties. This sensor and multi-platform observing system is especially well suited to observing detailed interdisciplinary components of the Earth s surface and atmosphere in and around urban environments, including aerosol optical properties, cloud optical and microphysical properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, land surface reflectance, fire occurrence, and many other properties that influence the urban environment and are influenced by them. In this presentation I will summarize the current capabilities of MODIS and other EOS sensors currently in orbit to study human-induced climate variations.

  16. Parameter Identification and Synchronization of Uncertain Chaotic Systems Based on Sliding Mode Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-lian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of nonlinear uncertain chaotic systems is investigated. We propose a sliding mode state observer scheme which combines the sliding mode control with observer theory and apply it into the uncertain chaotic system with unknown parameters and bounded interference. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the constraints of synchronization and proof are given. This method not only can realize the synchronization of chaotic systems, but also identify the unknown parameters and obtain the correct parameter estimation. Otherwise, the synchronization of chaotic systems with unknown parameters and bounded external disturbances is robust by the design of the sliding surface. Finally, numerical simulations on Liu chaotic system with unknown parameters and disturbances are carried out. Simulation results show that this synchronization and parameter identification has been totally achieved and the effectiveness is verified very well.

  17. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    model because voters cannot easily tell benevolent from egoistic candidates by observing their pre-election behavior. Egoistic types may strategically imitate benevolent types in the pre-election stage to extract rents once in office. We show that strategic imitation is less likely if the political...... system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper...

  18. Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pepić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are manymodifications of the standard swap created to better satisfy the different needs of market players.

  19. Active remote observing system for the 1-m telescope at Tonantzintla Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Abel; Martínez, Luis A.; Hernández, Héctor; Garfias, Fernando; Ángeles, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    We have designed and installed a new active remote observing system for the 1-m, f/15 telescope at the Tonantzintla Observatory. This remote system is operated in real-time through the Internet, allowing an observer to control the building, the telescope (pointing, guiding and focusing) and the CCD image acquisition at the main and finder telescopes from the Instituto de Astronomia headquarters in Mexico City (150 KM away). The whole system was modeled within the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the design has proved to be versatile enough for a variety of astronomical instruments. We describe the system architecture and how different subsystems (telescope control, main telescope and finder image acquisition, weather station, videoconference, etc.) that are based on different operative system platforms (Linux, Windows, uIP) have been integrated. We present the first results of an IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel. Recent remote direct imaging and spectroscopic observations have been used to test the astronomical site. We conclude that this remote system is an excellent tool for supporting research and graduated observational astronomy programs.

  20. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Initial Actions to Enhance Data Sharing to Meet Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adang, T.

    2006-05-01

    Over 60 nations and 50 participating organizations are working to make the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) a reality. The U.S. contribution to GEOSS is the Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), with a vision of enabling a healthy public, economy and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system. The international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations have developed strategic plans for both GEOSS and IEOS, respectively, and are now working the first phases of implementation. Many of these initial actions are data architecture related and are being addressed by architecture and data working groups from both organizations - the GEO Architecture and Data Committee and the USGEO Architecture and Data Management Working Group. NOAA has actively participated in both architecture groups and has taken internal action to better support GEOSS and IEOS implementation by establishing the Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO IDE). GEO IDE provides a "system of systems" framework for effective and efficient integration of NOAA's many quasi-independent systems, which individually address diverse mandates in such areas resource management, weather forecasting, safe navigation, disaster response, and coastal mapping among others. GEO IDE will have a services oriented architecture, allowing NOAA Line Offices to retain a high level of independence in many of their data management decisions, and encouraging innovation in pursuit of their missions. Through GEO IDE, NOAA partners (both internal and external) will participate in a well-ordered, standards-based data and information infrastructure that will allow users to easily locate, acquire, integrate and utilize NOAA data and information. This paper describes the initial progress being made by GEO and USGEO architecture and data working groups, a status report on GEO IDE development within NOAA, and an assessment of

  1. Local tests of gravitation with Gaia observations of Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, Aurélien; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe; Hestroffer, Daniel; David, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    In this proceeding, we show how observations of Solar System Objects with Gaia can be used to test General Relativity and to constrain modified gravitational theories. The high number of Solar System objects observed and the variety of their orbital parameters associated with the impressive astrometric accuracy will allow us to perform local tests of General Relativity. In this communication, we present a preliminary sensitivity study of the Gaia observations on dynamical parameters such as the Sun quadrupolar moment and on various extensions to general relativity such as the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters, the fifth force formalism and a violation of Lorentz symmetry parametrized by the Standard-Model extension framework. We take into account the time sequences and the geometry of the observations that are particular to Gaia for its nominal mission (5 years) and for an extended mission (10 years).

  2. Decentralized Observer with a Consensus Filter for Distributed Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized observer with a consensus filter for the state observation of a discrete-time linear distributed systems. In this setup, each agent in the distributed system has an observer with a model of the plant that utilizes the set of locally available measurements, which may not make the full plant state detectable. This lack of detectability is overcome by utilizing a consensus filter that blends the state estimate of each agent with its neighbors' estimates. We assume that the communication graph is connected for all times as well as the sensing graph. It is proven that the state estimates of the proposed observer asymptotically converge to the actual plant states under arbitrarily changing, but connected, communication and sensing topologies. As a byproduct of this research, we also obtained a result on the location of eigenvalues, the spectrum, of the Laplacian for a family of graphs with self-loops.

  3. Residual generation with unknown input observer for linear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherpour, Esmaeel A.; HairiTazdi, Mohammad Reza; Mahjoob, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with residual vector generation for fault detection problems in linear systems via unknown input observer (UIO) when the so-called observer matching condition is not satisfied. Based on the relative degree between unknown input and output, a vector of the auxiliary output is introduced so that the observer matching condition is satisfied with respect to the vector. Auxiliary outputs are related to the derivatives of measured signals. However, differentiation leads to excessive amplification of measurement noise. A dynamically equivalent configuration of linear systems is developed using successive integrations to avoid differentiation. As such, auxiliary outputs are constructed without differentiation. Then, the equivalent dynamic system and its corresponding auxiliary outputs are used to generate the residual vector via an exponentially converging UIO. Fault detection in the generated residual vector is also investigated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via numerical simulation.

  4. Results of scatterometer systems analysis for NASA/MSC Earth Observation Sensor Evaluation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, K.; Vlahos, N.; Brandt, O.; Graybeal, G.

    1971-01-01

    Radar scatterometers have applications in the NASA/MSC Earth Observation Aircraft Program. Over a period of several years, several missions have been flown over both land and ocean. In this paper a system evaluation of the NASA/MSC 13.3-GHz Scatterometer System is presented. The effects of phase error between the Scatterometer channels, antenna pattern deviations, aircraft attitude deviations, environmental changes, and other related factors such as processing errors, system repeatability, and propeller modulation, were established. Furthermore, the reduction in system errors and calibration improvement was investigated by taking into account these parameter deviations. Typical scatterometer data samples are presented.

  5. Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low-Speed Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low-speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) is applied. A control law for stabilizing the system and adaptive laws for updating both of the weights in the RBFN and a bounding constant are established so that the whole closed-loop system is stable...

  6. Development of a novel disturbance observer based fractional order PD controller for a gun control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Zheng, Liang; Chen, Jilin; Wang, Li; Hou, Yuanlong

    2014-01-01

    Motion control of gun barrels is an ongoing topic for the development of gun control equipment (GCE) with excellent performances. In this paper, a novel disturbance observer (DOB) based fractional order PD (FOPD) control strategy is proposed for the GCE. By adopting the DOB, the control system behaves as if it were the nominal closed-loop system in the absence of disturbances and uncertainties. The optimal control parameters of the FOPD are determined from the loop-shaping perspective, and the Q-filter of the DOB is deliberately designed with consideration of system robustness. The linear frame of the proposed control system will enable the analysis process more convenient. The disturbance rejection properties and the tracking performances of the control system are investigated by both numerical and experimental tests, the results demonstrate that the proposed DOB based FOPD control system is of more robustness, and it is much more suitable for the gun control system with strong nonlinearity and disturbance.

  7. Developing Vocabularies to Improve Understanding and Use of NOAA Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis project (NOSIA II), is an attempt to capture and tell the story of how valuable observing systems are in producing products and services that are required to fulfill the NOAA's diverse mission. NOAA's goals and mission areas cover a broad range of environmental data; a complexity exists in terms and vocabulary as applied to the creation of observing system derived products. The NOSIA data collection focused first on decomposing NOAA's goals in the creation and acceptance of Mission Service Areas (MSAs) by NOAA senior leadership. Products and services that supported the MSAs were then identified through the process of interviewing product producers across NOAA organization. Product Data inputs including models, databases and observing system were also identified. The NOSIA model contains over 20,000 nodes each representing levels in a network connecting products, datasources, users and desired outcomes. An immediate need became apparent that the complexity and variety of the data collected required data management to mature the quality and the content of the NOSIA model. The NOSIA Analysis Database (ADB) was developed initially to improve consistency of terms and data types to allow for the linkage of observing systems, products and NOAA's Goals and mission. The ADB also allowed for the prototyping of reports and product generation in an easily accessible and comprehensive format for the first time. Web based visualization of relationships between products, datasources, users, producers were generated to make the information easily understood This includes developing ontologies/vocabularies that are used for the development of users type specific products for NOAA leadership, Observing System Portfolio mangers and the users of NOAA data.

  8. Using MERRA Gridded Innovation for Quantifying Uncertainties in Analysis Fields and Diagnosing Observing System Inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Redder, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    MERRA is a NASA reanalysis for the satellite era using a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 5 (GEOS-5). The Project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales and places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The characterization of uncertainty in reanalysis fields is a commonly requested feature by users of such data. While intercomparison with reference data sets is common practice for ascertaining the realism of the datasets, such studies typically are restricted to long term climatological statistics and seldom provide state dependent measures of the uncertainties involved. In principle, variational data assimilation algorithms have the ability of producing error estimates for the analysis variables (typically surface pressure, winds, temperature, moisture and ozone) consistent with the assumed background and observation error statistics. However, these "perceived error estimates" are expensive to obtain and are limited by the somewhat simplistic errors assumed in the algorithm. The observation minus forecast residuals (innovations) by-product of any assimilation system constitutes a powerful tool for estimating the systematic and random errors in the analysis fields. Unfortunately, such data is usually not readily available with reanalysis products, often requiring the tedious decoding of large datasets and not so-user friendly file formats. With MERRA we have introduced a gridded version of the observations/innovations used in the assimilation process, using the same grid and data formats as the regular datasets. Such dataset empowers the user with the ability of conveniently performing observing system related analysis and error estimates. The scope of this dataset will be briefly described. We will present a systematic analysis of MERRA innovation time series for the conventional observing system, including maximum

  9. Towards a General Theory of Extremes for Observables of Chaotic Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Faranda, Davide; Wouters, Jeroen; Kuna, Tobias

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we provide a connection between the geometrical properties of the attractor of a chaotic dynamical system and the distribution of extreme values. We show that the extremes of so-called physical observables are distributed according to the classical generalised Pareto distribution and derive explicit expressions for the scaling and the shape parameter. In particular, we derive that the shape parameter does not depend on the chosen observables, but only on the partial dimensions of the invariant measure on the stable, unstable, and neutral manifolds. The shape parameter is negative and is close to zero when high-dimensional systems are considered. This result agrees with what was derived recently using the generalized extreme value approach. Combining the results obtained using such physical observables and the properties of the extremes of distance observables, it is possible to derive estimates of the partial dimensions of the attractor along the stable and the unstable directions of the flow. Moreover, by writing the shape parameter in terms of moments of the extremes of the considered observable and by using linear response theory, we relate the sensitivity to perturbations of the shape parameter to the sensitivity of the moments, of the partial dimensions, and of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the attractor. Preliminary numerical investigations provide encouraging results on the applicability of the theory presented here. The results presented here do not apply for all combinations of Axiom A systems and observables, but the breakdown seems to be related to very special geometrical configurations.

  10. Towards a General Theory of Extremes for Observables of Chaotic Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Faranda, Davide; Wouters, Jeroen; Kuna, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a connection between the geometrical properties of the attractor of a chaotic dynamical system and the distribution of extreme values. We show that the extremes of so-called physical observables are distributed according to the classical generalised Pareto distribution and derive explicit expressions for the scaling and the shape parameter. In particular, we derive that the shape parameter does not depend on the chosen observables, but only on the partial dimensions of the invariant measure on the stable, unstable, and neutral manifolds. The shape parameter is negative and is close to zero when high-dimensional systems are considered. This result agrees with what was derived recently using the generalized extreme value approach. Combining the results obtained using such physical observables and the properties of the extremes of distance observables, it is possible to derive estimates of the partial dimensions of the attractor along the stable and the unstable directions of the flow. Moreover, by writing the shape parameter in terms of moments of the extremes of the considered observable and by using linear response theory, we relate the sensitivity to perturbations of the shape parameter to the sensitivity of the moments, of the partial dimensions, and of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the attractor. Preliminary numerical investigations provide encouraging results on the applicability of the theory presented here. The results presented here do not apply for all combinations of Axiom A systems and observables, but the breakdown seems to be related to very special geometrical configurations.

  11. Ocean Observatories and the Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS: Developing the Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalo, M. G.

    2006-05-01

    The National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations is responsible for the planning, coordination and development of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System, IOOS, which is both the U.S. contribution to GOOS as well as the ocean component of GEOSS. The IOOS is comprised of global observations as well as regional coastal observations coordinated so as to provide environmental information to optimize societal management decisions including disaster resilience, public health, marine transport, national security, climate and weather impact, and natural resource and ecosystem management. Data comes from distributed sensor systems comprising Federal and state monitoring efforts as well as regional enhancements, which are managed through data management and communications (DMAC) protocols. At present, 11 regional associations oversee the development of the observing System components in their region and are the primary interface with the user community. The ocean observatories are key elements of this National architecture and provide the infrastructure necessary to test new technologies, platforms, methods, models, and practices which, when validated, can transition into the operational components of the IOOS. This allows the IOOS to remain "state of the art" through incorporation of research at all phases. Both the observatories as well as the IOOS will contribute to the enhanced understanding of the ocean and coastal system so as to transform science results into societal solutions.

  12. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  13. Satellite lidar and radar: Key components of the future climate observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud feedbacks represent the dominant source of uncertainties in estimates of climate sensitivity and aerosols represent the largest source of uncertainty in climate forcing. Both observation of long-term changes and observational constraints on the processes responsible for those changes are necessary. The existing 30-year record of passive satellite observations has not yet provided constraints to significantly reduce these uncertainties, though. We now have more than a decade of experience with active sensors flying in the A-Train. These new observations have demonstrated the strengths of active sensors and the benefits of continued and more advanced active sensors. This talk will discuss the multiple roles for active sensors as an essential component of a global climate observing system.

  14. Observing Tropospheric Water Vapor by Radio Occultation using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Hajj, G. A.; Hardy, K. R.; Romans, L. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    Given the importance of water vapor to weather, climate and hydrology, global humidity observations from satellites are critical. At low latitudes, radio occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere using the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites allow water vapor profiles to be retrieved with accuracies of 10 to 20% below 6 to 7 km altitude and approx. 5% or better within the boundary layer. GPS observations provide a unique combination of accuracy, vertical resolution (less than or equal to 1 km) and insensitivity to cloud and aerosol particles that is well suited to observations of the lower troposphere. These characteristics combined with the inherent stability of radio occultation observations make it an excellent candidate for the measurement of long term trends.

  15. Development of a Lunar-Phase Observation System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Ou, Kuo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Observing the lunar phase requires long-term involvement, and it is often obstructed by bad weather or tall buildings. In this study, a lunar-phase observation system is developed using the augmented reality (AR) technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to help students observe and record lunar phases easily. By holding the mobile device towards the moon in the sky, the screen will show the virtual moon at the position of the r...

  16. Development and evaluation of an observational system for goalball match analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Pereira Morato

    Full Text Available Abstract Our purpose was to develop and evaluate an observational system for goalball match analysis. We used a non-participant systematic game observation method including eight elite games, video recorded, and randomly chosen. Observational categories and performance indicators were determined for each offensive (i.e., ball control, attack preparation, and throwing and defensive principles (i.e., defensive balance, throw reading, and blocking. The comprehensive method of development and the ideal reliability levels (kappa coefficient of 0.81–1.00 of this protocol ensure the generation of quantitative and qualitative information for players and coaches and the rigor required for scientific use.

  17. A Sun Path Observation System Based on Augment Reality and Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernhuar Tarng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the augmented reality technology and sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and three-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to develop a Sun path observation system for applications in astronomy education. The orientation and elevation of the Sun can be calculated by the system according to the user’s location and local time to simulate the Sun path. When holding the mobile device toward the sky, the screen will show the virtual Sun at the same position as that of the real Sun. The user can record the Sun path and the data of observation date, time, longitude, and latitude using the celestial hemisphere and the pole shadow on the system. By setting different observation times and locations, it can be seen that the Sun path changes with seasons and latitudes. The system provides contextual awareness of the Sun path concepts, and it can convert the observation data into organized and meaningful astronomical knowledge to enable combination of situated learning with spatial cognition. The system can solve the problem of being not able to record the Sun path due to a bad weather or topographical restrictions, and therefore it is helpful for elementary students when conducting observations. A teaching experiment has been conducted to analyze the learning achievement of students after using the system, and the results show that it is more effective than traditional teaching aids. The questionnaire results also reveal that the system is easy to operate and useful in recording the Sun path data. Therefore, it is an effective tool for astronomy education in elementary schools.

  18. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  19. Nonlinear Inference in Partially Observed Physical Systems and Deep Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozdeba, Paul J.

    The problem of model state and parameter estimation is a significant challenge in nonlinear systems. Due to practical considerations of experimental design, it is often the case that physical systems are partially observed, meaning that data is only available for a subset of the degrees of freedom required to fully model the observed system's behaviors and, ultimately, predict future observations. Estimation in this context is highly complicated by the presence of chaos, stochasticity, and measurement noise in dynamical systems. One of the aims of this dissertation is to simultaneously analyze state and parameter estimation in as a regularized inverse problem, where the introduction of a model makes it possible to reverse the forward problem of partial, noisy observation; and as a statistical inference problem using data assimilation to transfer information from measurements to the model states and parameters. Ultimately these two formulations achieve the same goal. Similar aspects that appear in both are highlighted as a means for better understanding the structure of the nonlinear inference problem. An alternative approach to data assimilation that uses model reduction is then examined as a way to eliminate unresolved nonlinear gating variables from neuron models. In this formulation, only measured variables enter into the model, and the resulting errors are themselves modeled by nonlinear stochastic processes with memory. Finally, variational annealing, a data assimilation method previously applied to dynamical systems, is introduced as a potentially useful tool for understanding deep neural network training in machine learning by exploiting similarities between the two problems.

  20. Thermospheric winds in the auroral oval: observations of small scale structures and rapid fluctuations by a Doppler imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, S.; Rees, D.

    1990-01-01

    At high geomagnetic latitudes, thermospheric wind flows are dramatically affected by the combined effects of magnetospheric ion convection and Joule and particle heating. Thermospheric winds have been observed by ground based and space-borne Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs). Short period, localized wind fluctuations have always been difficult to resolve with a conventional FPI, due to the limited time and spatial resolution. However, the highest quality wind data obtained by these instruments from the middle and upper thermosphere have implied that thermospheric winds may respond to the combination of strong local ion drag forcing and heating within the auroral oval and polar cap, with spatial scale sizes of 50-500 km, and with time scales as short as 10-30 min. Since the 1982/1983 winter, a prototype Doppler Imaging System (DIS) has been operated at Kiruna (67.84 0 N, 20.42 0 E). This instrument maps thermospheric wind flows over a region some 500 km in diameter centred on Kiruna and has observed many interesting features in the thermospheric wind fields. In particular, strong local wind gradients, rapid wind reversals and small scale structures are regularly observed, particularly during geomagnetically disturbed nights. (author)

  1. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Crafting decision options and alternatives for designing cultural observation system using general morphological modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Moghaddampour

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available According to connoisseurs, cultural system is encountering a fully new space in future decades and cultural indicators will be exposed by some dangers; for the same reason, cultural observation activities in management dialogue of Iran are emphasized; the concept of “observation” in Iran is facing with challenges including being far from the concepts of futures studies and the focus on “cultural indicators monitoring” while cultural engineering needs foresight and identification of affecting progressive and deterring factors on the culture. The present study aims at providing alternatives to design an observation system by considering the monitoring and scanning simultaneously to bring out strategic and futurist vision for cultural organizations. To this end, the solution space and morphological field of observation (parameters and values by using MA/Carma Viewer software package is designed based on the literature review and forming a five-member expert group and specialized conversations. Upon Internal Consistency Assessment of parameters and by considering some values as drivers, Parameters Activity Check was conducted to study the reactions by other parameters and values. After sense-making and proper understanding of the model behavior, an Inference and “What-If” model were devised; some configurations were studied and provided in order to aware a part of proper alternatives for designing a cultural observation system (two scenarios. Scenario selection is different due to contingencies and conditions of executing the process as well as the users’ needs and goals in cultural observation system and cultural organizations can make decisions and design detailed observation systems by using morphological models, solution space and alternatives provided in the present study and depended on their goals and needs.

  3. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  4. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest…

  5. Turing patterns in parabolic systems of conservation laws and numerically observed stability of periodic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Blake; Jung, Soyeun; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Turing patterns on unbounded domains have been widely studied in systems of reaction-diffusion equations. However, up to now, they have not been studied for systems of conservation laws. Here, we (i) derive conditions for Turing instability in conservation laws and (ii) use these conditions to find families of periodic solutions bifurcating from uniform states, numerically continuing these families into the large-amplitude regime. For the examples studied, numerical stability analysis suggests that stable periodic waves can emerge either from supercritical Turing bifurcations or, via secondary bifurcation as amplitude is increased, from subcritical Turing bifurcations. This answers in the affirmative a question of Oh-Zumbrun whether stable periodic solutions of conservation laws can occur. Determination of a full small-amplitude stability diagram - specifically, determination of rigorous Eckhaus-type stability conditions - remains an interesting open problem.

  6. Observing complex action sequences: The role of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Kaplan, Jonas; Greenfield, Patricia M; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-11-15

    A fronto-parietal mirror neuron network in the human brain supports the ability to represent and understand observed actions allowing us to successfully interact with others and our environment. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we wanted to investigate the response of this network in adults during observation of hierarchically organized action sequences of varying complexity that emerge at different developmental stages. We hypothesized that fronto-parietal systems may play a role in coding the hierarchical structure of object-directed actions. The observation of all action sequences recruited a common bilateral network including the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system and occipito-temporal visual motion areas. Activity in mirror neuron areas varied according to the motoric complexity of the observed actions, but not according to the developmental sequence of action structures, possibly due to the fact that our subjects were all adults. These results suggest that the mirror neuron system provides a fairly accurate simulation process of observed actions, mimicking internally the level of motoric complexity. We also discuss the results in terms of the links between mirror neurons, language development and evolution.

  7. Reduced-Rank Array Modes of the California Current Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Arango, Hernan G.; Edwards, Christopher A.

    2018-01-01

    The information content of the ocean observing array spanning the U.S. west coast is explored using the reduced-rank array modes (RAMs) derived from a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system covering a period of three decades. RAMs are an extension of the original formulation of array modes introduced by Bennett (1985) but in the reduced model state-space explored by the 4D-Var system, and reveal the extent to which this space is activated by the observations. The projection of the RAMs onto the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the 4D-Var background error correlation matrix provides a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of the measurements in observing the circulation. It is found that much of the space spanned by the background error covariance is unconstrained by the present ocean observing system. The RAM spectrum is also used to introduce a new criterion to prevent 4D-Var from overfitting the model to the observations.

  8. An Approach for State Observation in Dynamical Systems Based on the Twisting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach for state estimation in dynamical systems, with the special focus on hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed observer structure is based on the framework of the so-called twisting algorithm. This algorithm utilizes the sign of the state being the target...

  9. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

  10. Assessing the Student-Instructional Setting Interface Using an Eco-Behavioral Observation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Jo M.

    1992-01-01

    An eco-behavioral observation system was developed for use with students with behavior disorders or emotional disturbances. Discussed are the ecosystem definition, the student-instructional setting interface, and the assessment procedure, including evaluation of the quality of academic responding, program evaluation, staff development, and…

  11. Observer agreement of the Manchester Triage System and the Emergency Severity Index: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, M. N.; Ubbink, D. T.; Chin a Choi, V.; Luitse, J. S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To compare inter and intra-observer agreement of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) and the Emergency Severity Index (ESI). Methods: 50 representative emergency department (ED) scenarios derived from actual cases were presented to 18 ED nurses from three different hospitals. Eight of

  12. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) System as a Form of Intervention and Support for New Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The period covering the first 3 months of life consists of a series of pivotal, life-changing transitions for the infant, for the parents, and for the emerging parent-child relationship. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a relationship-based tool that offers individualized information to parents about their baby's communication…

  13. Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0) with automatic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tae-Geun; Byeon, Seoyeon; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Lee, Sang-Yun; Hwang, Sungyong; Choi, Changsu; Gibson, Coyne Andrew; Kuehne, John W.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2018-01-01

    We introduce Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0), with an automatic observing system. It is developed for monitoring the variabilities of many sources at a time, e.g. young stellar objects and active galactic nuclei. It can also find the locations of transient sources such as a supernova or gamma-ray bursts. In 2017 February, we installed the wide-field 10-inch telescope (Takahashi CCA-250) as a piggyback system on the 30-inch telescope at the McDonald Observatory in Texas, US. The 10-inch telescope has a 2.35 × 2.35 deg field-of-view with a 4k × 4k CCD Camera (FLI ML16803). To improve the observational efficiency of the system, we developed a new automatic observing software, KAOS30 (KHU Automatic Observing Software for McDonald 30-inch telescope), which was developed by Visual C++ on the basis of a windows operating system. The software consists of four control packages: the Telescope Control Package (TCP), the Data Acquisition Package (DAP), the Auto Focus Package (AFP), and the Script Mode Package (SMP). Since it also supports the instruments that are using the ASCOM driver, the additional hardware installations become quite simplified. We commissioned KAOS30 in 2017 August and are in the process of testing. Based on the WIT0 experiences, we will extend KAOS30 to control multiple telescopes in future projects.

  14. Observation impact studies with the Mercator Ocean analysis and forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E. D.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Lellouche, J. M.; Drevillon, M.; Turpin, V.; Benkiran, M.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean produces and delivers in real-time ocean analysis and forecasts on a daily basis. The quality of the analysis highly relies on the availability and quality of the assimilated observations.Tools are developed to estimate the impact of the present network and to help designing the future evolutions of the observing systems in the context of near real time production of ocean analysis and forecasts. OSE and OSSE are the main approaches used in this context. They allow the assessment of the efficiency of a given data set to constrain the ocean model circulation through the data assimilation process. Illustrations will mainly focus on the present and future evolution of the Argo observation network and altimetry constellation, including the potential impact of future SWOT data. Our systems show clear sensitivities to observation array changes, mainly depending on the specified observation error and regional dynamic. Impact on non observed variables can be important and are important to evaluate. Dedicated diagnostics has to be define to measure the improvements bring by each data set. Alternative approaches to OSE and OSSE are also explored: approximate computation of DFS will be presented and discussed. Limitations of each approach will be discussed in the context of real time operation.

  15. Proposed Empirical Entropy and Gibbs Energy Based on Observations of Scale Invariance in Open Nonequilibrium Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Adrian F

    2017-09-07

    There is no widely agreed definition of entropy, and consequently Gibbs energy, in open systems far from equilibrium. One recent approach has sought to formulate an entropy and Gibbs energy based on observed scale invariances in geophysical variables, particularly in atmospheric quantities, including the molecules constituting stratospheric chemistry. The Hamiltonian flux dynamics of energy in macroscopic open nonequilibrium systems maps to energy in equilibrium statistical thermodynamics, and corresponding equivalences of scale invariant variables with other relevant statistical mechanical variables such as entropy, Gibbs energy, and 1/(k Boltzmann T), are not just formally analogous but are also mappings. Three proof-of-concept representative examples from available adequate stratospheric chemistry observations-temperature, wind speed and ozone-are calculated, with the aim of applying these mappings and equivalences. Potential applications of the approach to scale invariant observations from the literature, involving scales from molecular through laboratory to astronomical, are considered. Theoretical support for the approach from the literature is discussed.

  16. Nonlinear Robust Observer-Based Fault Detection for Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection approach based on nonlinear robust observer is designed for the networked suspension control system of Maglev train with random induced time delay. First, considering random bounded time-delay and external disturbance, the nonlinear model of the networked suspension control system is established. Then, a nonlinear robust observer is designed using the input of the suspension gap. And the estimate error is proved to be bounded with arbitrary precision by adopting an appropriate parameter. When sensor faults happen, the residual between the real states and the observer outputs indicates which kind of sensor failures occurs. Finally, simulation results using the actual parameters of CMS-04 maglev train indicate that the proposed method is effective for maglev train.

  17. Toward Implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Sharing Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Uhlir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the views of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions of employment or affiliation. This article was first written as a “white paper” for the Group on Earth Observations (GEO under Task DA-06-01, “Furthering the Practical Application of the Agreed GEOSS Data Sharing Principles,” which was led beginning in 2006 by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA of the International Council for Science (ISCU under the auspices of the GEO Architecture and Data Committee. We would like to thank the many individuals who helped facilitate the writing of the article or its review. These include Michael Rast, Michael Tanner, and Masami Onoda of the GEO Secretariat, and Kathleen Cass of the CODATA Secretariat, all of whom provided a great deal of project guidance and administrative support; Charles Barton, Australian National University, and Jack Hill, the U.S. Geological Survey, for their contributions to the drafting of the article; Santiago Borrero, Dora Ann Lange Canhos, Yukiko Fukasaku, Huadong Guo, Alexei Gvishiani, Bernard Minster, Steve Rossouw, and Fraser Taylor for providing review comments on earlier drafts; and the many representatives to GEO from its Member States or Affiliated Organizations, who also provided significant substantive comments and suggestions. We also acknowledge the strong support and encouragement of José Achache, Director of the GEO Secretariat, who recognized early on the importance of this effort. Finally, we wish to thank the editors of the Journal of Space Law and the CODATA Data Science Journal, for their assistance with the publishing of this article.

  18. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  19. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  20. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  1. The Earth Observation Data for Habitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard; Blonda, Palma; Bunting, Peter; Jones, Gwawr; Inglada, Jordi; Arias, Marcela; Kosmidou, Vasiliki; Petrou, Zisis I.; Manakos, Ioannis; Adamo, Maria; Charnock, Rebecca; Tarantino, Cristina; Mücher, Caspar A.; Jongman, Rob H. G.; Kramer, Henk; Arvor, Damien; Honrado, Joāo Pradinho; Mairota, Paola

    2015-05-01

    To support decisions relating to the use and conservation of protected areas and surrounds, the EU-funded BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species (BIO_SOS) project has developed the Earth Observation Data for HAbitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system for consistent mapping and monitoring of biodiversity. The EODHaM approach has adopted the Food and Agriculture Organization Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy and translates mapped classes to General Habitat Categories (GHCs) from which Annex I habitats (EU Habitats Directive) can be defined. The EODHaM system uses a combination of pixel and object-based procedures. The 1st and 2nd stages use earth observation (EO) data alone with expert knowledge to generate classes according to the LCCS taxonomy (Levels 1 to 3 and beyond). The 3rd stage translates the final LCCS classes into GHCs from which Annex I habitat type maps are derived. An additional module quantifies changes in the LCCS classes and their components, indices derived from earth observation, object sizes and dimensions and the translated habitat maps (i.e., GHCs or Annex I). Examples are provided of the application of EODHaM system elements to protected sites and their surrounds in Italy, Wales (UK), the Netherlands, Greece, Portugal and India.

  2. Real space channelization for generic DBT system image quality evaluation with channelized Hotelling observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Vancoillie, Liesbeth; Young, Kenneth; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a relatively new 3D mammography technique that promises better detection of low contrast masses than conventional 2D mammography. The parameter space for DBT is large however and finding an optimal balance between dose and image quality remains challenging. Given the large number of conditions and images required in optimization studies, the use of human observers (HO) is time consuming and certainly not feasible for the tuning of all degrees of freedom. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that could predict human detectability for clinically relevant details embedded within a newly developed structured phantom for DBT applications. DBT series were acquired on GE SenoClaire 3D, Giotto Class, Fujifilm AMULET Innovality and Philips MicroDose systems at different dose levels, Siemens Inspiration DBT acquisitions were reconstructed with different algorithms, while a larger set of DBT series was acquired on Hologic Dimensions system for first reproducibility testing. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Gabor channels was developed The parameters of the Gabor channels were tuned on all systems at standard scanning conditions and the candidate that produced the best fit for all systems was chosen. After tuning, the MO was applied to all systems and conditions. Linear regression lines between MO and HO scores were calculated, giving correlation coefficients between 0.87 and 0.99 for all tested conditions.

  3. Placement of Synchronized Measurements for Power System Observability during Cascaded Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandam, Venkatesh; Jain, Trapti

    2017-11-01

    Cascaded outages often result in power system islanding followed by a blackout and therefore considered as a severe disturbance. Maintaining the observability of each island may help in taking proper control actions to preserve the stability of individual islands thus, averting system collapse. With this intent, a strategy for placement of synchronized measurements, which can be obtained from phasor measurement units (PMU), has been proposed in this paper to keep the system observable during cascaded outages also. Since, all the cascaded failures may not lead to islanding situations, therefore, failures leading to islanding as well as non-islanding situations have been considered. A topology based algorithm has been developed to identify the islanding/non-islanding condition created by a particular cascaded event. Additional contingencies such as single line loss and single PMU failure have also been considered after the occurrence of cascaded events. The proposed method is further extended to incorporate the measurement redundancy, which is desirable for a reliable state estimation. The proposed scheme is tested on IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and a practical Indian 246-bus networks. The numerical results ensure the observability of the power system under system intact as well as during cascaded islanding and non-islanding disturbances.

  4. Transformation of nonlinear discrete-time system into the extended observer form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparin, V.; Kotta, Ü.

    2018-04-01

    The paper addresses the problem of transforming discrete-time single-input single-output nonlinear state equations into the extended observer form, which, besides the input and output, also depends on a finite number of their past values. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of both the extended coordinate and output transformations, solving the problem, are formulated in terms of differential one-forms, associated with the input-output equation, corresponding to the state equations. An algorithm for transformation of state equations into the extended observer form is proposed and illustrated by an example. Moreover, the considered approach is compared with the method of dynamic observer error linearisation, which likewise is intended to enlarge the class of systems transformable into an observer form.

  5. Distributed Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Multiagent Systems Via Sliding Mode Observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qikun; Shi, Peng; Shi, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of distributed adaptive fuzzy control is investigated for high-order uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems on directed graph with a fixed topology. It is assumed that only the outputs of each follower and its neighbors are available in the design of its distributed controllers. Equivalent output injection sliding mode observers are proposed for each follower to estimate the states of itself and its neighbors, and an observer-based distributed adaptive controller is designed for each follower to guarantee that it asymptotically synchronizes to a leader with tracking errors being semi-globally uniform ultimate bounded, in which fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate unknown functions. Based on algebraic graph theory and Lyapunov function approach, using Filippov-framework, the closed-loop system stability analysis is conducted. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the developed design techniques.

  6. Disturbance attenuation of nonlinear control systems using an observer-based fuzzy feedback linearization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-J.; Lin, Y.-F.

    2007-01-01

    The almost disturbance decoupling and trajectory tracking of nonlinear control systems using an observer-based fuzzy feedback linearization control (FLC) is developed. Because not all of the state variables of the nonlinear dynamic equations are available, a nonlinear state observer is employed to estimate the state variables. The feedback linearization control guarantees the almost disturbance decoupling performance and the uniform ultimate bounded stability of the tracking error system. Once the tracking errors are driven to touch the global final attractor with the desired radius, the fuzzy logic control is immediately applied via human expert's knowledge to improve the convergence rate. One example, which cannot be solved by the first paper on the almost disturbance decoupling problem, is proposed in this paper to exploit the fact that the tracking and the almost disturbance decoupling performances are easily achieved by our proposed approach. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability, the study has investigated a pendulum control system

  7. In vivo observation of gold nanoparticles in the central nervous system of Blaberus discoidalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Jorge M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs are widely studied for biomedical applications. Understanding interactions between NPs and biomolecules or cells has yet to be achieved. Here we present a novel in vivo method to study interactions between NPs and the nervous system of the discoid or false dead-head roach, Blaberus discoidalis. The aims of this study were to present a new and effective method to observe NPs in vivo that opens the door to new methods of study to observe the interactions between NPs and biological systems and to present an inexpensive and easy-to-handle biological system. Results Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (nAuNPs of 50 nm in diameter were injected into the central nervous system (CNS of the insect. By using such a cost effective method, we were able to characterize nAuNPs and to analyze their interactions with a biological system. It showed that the charged particles affected the insect's locomotion. The nAuNPs affected the insect's behavior but had no major impacts on the life expectancy of the cockroach after two months of observation. This was apparently due to the encapsulation of nAuNPs inside the insect's brain. Based on cockroach's daily activity, we believed that the encapsulation occurred in the first 17 days. Conclusions The method proposed here is an inexpensive and reliable way of observing the response of biological systems to nanoparticles in-vivo. It opens new windows to further understand how nanoparticles affect neural communication by monitoring insect activity and locomotion.

  8. An observational study of the accuracy and completeness of an anesthesia information management system: recommendations for documentation system changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Bryan A; Moss, Jacqueline A; Berner, Eta S

    2013-08-01

    Anesthesia information management systems must often be tailored to fit the environment in which they are implemented. Extensive customization necessitates that systems be analyzed for both accuracy and completeness of documentation design to ensure that the final record is a true representation of practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a recently installed system in the capture of key perianesthesia data. This study used an observational design and was conducted using a convenience sample of nurse anesthetists. Observational data of the nurse anesthetists'delivery of anesthesia care were collected using a touch-screen tablet computer utilizing an Access database customized observational data collection tool. A questionnaire was also administered to these nurse anesthetists to assess perceived accuracy, completeness, and satisfaction with the electronic documentation system. The major sources of data not documented in the system were anesthesiologist presence (20%) and placement of intravenous lines (20%). The major sources of inaccuracies in documentation were gas flow rates (45%), medication administration times (30%), and documentation of neuromuscular function testing (20%)-all of the sources of inaccuracies were related to the use of charting templates that were not altered to reflect the actual interventions performed.

  9. Commentary on two classroom observation systems: moving toward a shared understanding of effective teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2013-12-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to serve a particular purpose and are put to that purpose; four that technology can help; and five, there are policy implications for valid and reliable classroom observation tools. The two observation systems presented in this special issue represent an important step forward and a move toward policy that promises to make a true difference in what is defined as high quality and effective teaching, what it looks like in the classroom, and how these practices can be more widely disseminated so that all children, including those attending under-resourced schools, can experience effective instruction, academic success and the lifelong accomplishment that follows. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baatz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER, Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs, and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1 widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2 develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3 identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  11. An Observing System Simulation Experiment of assimilating leaf area index and soil moisture over cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Sebastien; Barbu, Alina; Calvet, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    A Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) is an off-line data assimilation system featuring uncoupled land surface model which is driven by observation-based atmospheric forcing. In this study the experiments were conducted with a surface externalized (SURFEX) modelling platform developed at Météo-France. It encompasses the land surface model ISBA-A-gs that simulates photosynthesis and plant growth. The photosynthetic activity depends on the vegetation types. The input soil and vegetation parameters are provided by the ECOCLIMAP II global database which assigns the ecosystem classes in several plant functional types as grassland, crops, deciduous forest and coniferous forest. New versions of the model have been recently developed in order to better describe the agricultural plant functional types. We present a set of observing system simulation experiments (OSSE) which asses leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture assimilation for improving the land surface estimates in a controlled synthetic environment. Synthetic data were assimilated into ISBA-A-gs using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). This allows for an understanding of model responses to an augmentation of the number of crop types and different parameters associated to this modification. In addition, the interactions between uncertainties in the model and in the observations were investigated. This study represents the first step of a process that envisages the extension of LDAS to the new versions of the ISBA-A-gs model in order to assimilate remote sensing observations.

  12. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatz, Roland; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Li, Li; Weintraub, Samantha R.; Loescher, Henry W.; Mirtl, Michael; Groffman, Peter M.; Wall, Diana H.; Young, Michael; White, Tim; Wen, Hang; Zacharias, Steffen; Kühn, Ingolf; Tang, Jianwu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Braud, Isabelle; Flores, Alejandro N.; Kumar, Praveen; Lin, Henry; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Jones, Julia; Gholz, Henry L.; Vereecken, Harry; Van Looy, Kris

    2018-05-01

    Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1) widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2) develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3) identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  13. Design of a Polynomial Fuzzy Observer Controller With Sampled-Output Measurements for Nonlinear Systems Considering Unmeasurable Premise Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chuang; Lam, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a polynomial fuzzy observer controller for nonlinear systems, where the design is achieved through the stability analysis of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based (PFMB) observer-control system. The polynomial fuzzy observer estimates the system states using estimated premise variables. The estimated states are then employed by the polynomial fuzzy controller for the feedback control of nonlinear systems represented by the polynomial fuzzy model. The system stability of the P...

  14. Distributed Fusion Estimation for Multisensor Multirate Systems with Stochastic Observation Multiplicative Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fangfang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the fusion estimation problem of a class of multisensor multirate systems with observation multiplicative noises. The dynamic system is sampled uniformly. Sampling period of each sensor is uniform and the integer multiple of the state update period. Moreover, different sensors have the different sampling rates and observations of sensors are subject to the stochastic uncertainties of multiplicative noises. At first, local filters at the observation sampling points are obtained based on the observations of each sensor. Further, local estimators at the state update points are obtained by predictions of local filters at the observation sampling points. They have the reduced computational cost and a good real-time property. Then, the cross-covariance matrices between any two local estimators are derived at the state update points. At last, using the matrix weighted optimal fusion estimation algorithm in the linear minimum variance sense, the distributed optimal fusion estimator is obtained based on the local estimators and the cross-covariance matrices. An example shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  15. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health: Moving from Research to Operational End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate NASA's applied science programs efforts to transition from research to operations to benefit society. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in health research and the transition to operational end users.

  16. Stochastic Signal Processing for Sound Environment System with Decibel Evaluation and Energy Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In real sound environment system, a specific signal shows various types of probability distribution, and the observation data are usually contaminated by external noise (e.g., background noise of non-Gaussian distribution type. Furthermore, there potentially exist various nonlinear correlations in addition to the linear correlation between input and output time series. Consequently, often the system input and output relationship in the real phenomenon cannot be represented by a simple model using only the linear correlation and lower order statistics. In this study, complex sound environment systems difficult to analyze by using usual structural method are considered. By introducing an estimation method of the system parameters reflecting correlation information for conditional probability distribution under existence of the external noise, a prediction method of output response probability for sound environment systems is theoretically proposed in a suitable form for the additive property of energy variable and the evaluation in decibel scale. The effectiveness of the proposed stochastic signal processing method is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data in sound environment systems.

  17. IRTF/SPEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE UNUSUAL KEPLER LIGHT CURVE SYSTEM KIC 8462852

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Marengo, M., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We have utilized the NASA/IRTF 3 m SpeX instrument’s high-resolution spectral mode to observe and characterize the near-infrared flux emanating from the unusual Kepler light curve system KIC 8462852. By comparing the resulting 0.8–4.2 μm spectrum to a mesh of model photospheric spectra, the 6 emission line analyses of the Rayner et al. catalog, and the 25 system collections of debris disks we have observed to date using SpeX under the Near InfraRed Debris disk Survey, we have been able to additionally characterize the system. Within the errors of our measurements, this star looks like a normal solar abundance main-sequence F1V to F3V dwarf star without any obvious traces of significant circumstellar dust or gas. Using Connelley and Greene’s emission measures, we also see no evidence of significant ongoing accretion onto the star nor any stellar outflow away from it. Our results are inconsistent with large amounts of static close-in obscuring material or the unusual behavior of a YSO system, but are consistent with the favored episodic giant comet models of a Gyr old stellar system favored by Boyajian et al. We speculate that KIC 8462852, like the ∼1.4 Gyr old F2V system η Corvi, is undergoing a late heavy bombardment, but is only in its very early stages.

  18. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Shi, Yunbo; Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV) systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works. PMID:27327657

  19. EVLA OBSERVATIONS CONSTRAIN THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROGENITOR SYSTEM OF Type Ia SUPERNOVA 2011fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Moe, Maxwell; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-fai; Dittmann, Jason A.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Rupen, Michael P.; Badenes, Carles; Fransson, Claes

    2012-01-01

    We report unique Expanded Very Large Array observations of SN 2011fe representing the most sensitive radio study of a Type Ia supernova to date. Our data place direct constraints on the density of the surrounding medium at radii ∼10 15 -10 16 cm, implying an upper limit on the mass loss rate from the progenitor system of M-dot -10 M ☉ yr -1 (assuming a wind speed of 100 km s –1 ) or expansion into a uniform medium with density n CSM ∼ –3 . Drawing from the observed properties of non-conservative mass transfer among accreting white dwarfs, we use these limits on the density of the immediate environs to exclude a phase space of possible progenitor systems for SN 2011fe. We rule out a symbiotic progenitor system and also a system characterized by high accretion rate onto the white dwarf that is expected to give rise to optically thick accretion winds. Assuming that a small fraction, 1%, of the mass accreted is lost from the progenitor system, we also eliminate much of the potential progenitor parameter space for white dwarfs hosting recurrent novae or undergoing stable nuclear burning. Therefore, we rule out much of the parameter space associated with popular single degenerate progenitor models for SN 2011fe, leaving a limited phase space largely inhabited by some double degenerate systems, as well as exotic single degenerates with a sufficient time delay between mass accretion and SN explosion.

  20. Observations of nickel, chromium, and zinc in QSO absorption-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.M.; Roth, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    New observations of Ni II, Cr II, and Zn II in several damped Ly-alpha QSO absorption-line systems at z about 2 are presented. Using the N(Zn II)/N(H I) ratio as a probe of the metallicity and N(Cr II)/N(Zn II) as a measure of the dust content, it is found that the heavy-element abundances in the z = 1.921 system toward the QSO 2206-199N are 20 percent solar and that the dust-to-gas ratio is 11 percent of the Galactic disk value. The observations of these species in the z = 2.309 system toward PHL 957 yield a more extreme metallicity (4 percent solar) and dust-to-gas ratio (3 percent Galactic). In addition, a depletion of Ni in the z = 2.039 absorber toward PKS 0458 - 020 and an absence of C I absorption in the z about 2 damped systems toward 1215 + 333 and 2359 - 022 are found which are consistent with a lack of dust. Among the four damped systems whose Ni, Cr, and Zn abundances have been examined quantitatively to date, all show convincing evidence of much lower metallicities and dust content than the Galactic disk. The implications of these results with regard to the interpretation of the high-redshift damped Ly-alpha systems as an evolving population of young galaxies are discussed. 41 refs