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Sample records for objective tonsil volume

  1. Tonsil volume, tonsil grade and obstructive sleep apnea: is there any meaningful correlation?

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    Michel Burihan Cahali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between oropharyngeal examination and objective palatine tonsil volume in snoring adults and verify the influence of the oropharyngeal anatomy, body mass index, age, and severity of obstructive sleep apnea on actual tonsil volume. In addition, we aimed to assess the influence of tonsil size on obstructive sleep apnea in adults. INTRODUCTION: Pharyngeal wall geometry is often altered in adults who have obstructive sleep apnea, and this might influence the findings of the oropharyngeal examination that, in turn, are the key factors when considering surgical management for this condition. Furthermore, the correlation between the actual tonsil volume and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in adults is currently unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied 130 patients with obstructive sleep apnea or primary snoring who underwent pharyngeal surgery with intraoperative measurement of tonsil volume. We compared tonsil volume with preoperative polysomnography, oropharyngeal examination, and anthropometric data. RESULTS: We found a significant correlation between actual tonsil volume and subjective tonsil grade. We also found a significant correlation between tonsil volume and the apnea-hypopnea index. Using a multivariate linear regression model, tonsil volume was found to be significantly correlated with age, body mass index, and oropharyngeal examination, but not with polysomnography. Clinically, only the rare tonsil grade IV was indicative of more severe obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong correlation between clinical tonsil grade and objective tonsil volume in snoring adults, and this correlation exists regardless of the presence or severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Pharyngeal tissue volume likely reflects the body mass index rather than obstructive sleep apnea severity.

  2. Tonsillitis

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    ... of tonsillitis include: Red, swollen tonsils White or yellow coating or patches on the tonsils Sore throat Difficult or painful swallowing Fever Enlarged, tender glands (lymph nodes) in the neck ...

  3. Targeted Treatment With Radio Frequency Ablation for Lingual Tonsil

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    Suvi Renkonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benign enlargement of the lingual tonsils due to various causes may cause symptoms that warrant treatment. Conventional lingual tonsillectomy remains a challenging procedure, and there is no established standard procedure. We aimed to review the patients receiving different methods of lingual tonsil surgery for various indications at our institute. Methods: Retrospective clinical data on all patients with an ablative operation of the tongue base during the 8-year period between 2007 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, were reviewed. The larger cohort comprised 35 patients, of whom 26 were men (74%. Ten patients had undergone solely lingual tonsil radio frequency ablation (LTRFA. The minimum follow-up time for all patients was 2 years. Results: Of the 10 patients, 5 patients with LTRFA had been operated on because of symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy and 5 because of periodic fever associated with possible lingual tonsil involvement. In 2 of the 5 patients with periodic fever, the fever cycles ended after the operation. Of the 5 patients, 3 patients with symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy have been non-symptomatic after 1 to 3 treatment sessions. The last 2 patients continue to have persistent symptoms. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Development of new approaches for the management of various lingual tonsil conditions is warranted. Lingual tonsil volume reduction by LTRFA seems to be a treatment alternative with low morbidity but with limited curative effect only.

  4. Tonsillitis (For Kids)

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    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... for Educators Search English Español Tonsillitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Tonsillitis Print Way in the back of your ...

  5. Influence of radiofrequency surgery on architecture of the palatine tonsils.

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    Plzak, Jan; Macokova, Pavla; Zabrodsky, Michal; Kastner, Jan; Lastuvka, Petr; Astl, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency surgery is a widely used modern technique for submucosal volume reduction of the tonsils. So far there is very limited information on morphologic changes in the human tonsils after radiofrequency surgery. We performed histopathological study of tonsillectomy specimens after previous bipolar radiofrequency induced thermotherapy (RFITT). A total of 83 patients underwent bipolar RFITT for hypertrophy of palatine tonsils. Tonsil volume reduction was measured by 3D ultrasonography. Five patients subsequently underwent tonsillectomy. Profound histopathological examination was performed to determine the effect of RFITT on tonsillar architecture. All tonsillectomy specimens showed the intact epithelium, intact germinal centers, normal vascularization, and no evidence of increased fibrosis. No microscopic morphological changes in tonsillectomy specimens after bipolar RFITT were observed. RFITT is an effective submucosal volume reduction procedure for treatment of hypertrophic palatine tonsils with no destructive effect on microscopic tonsillar architecture and hence most probably no functional adverse effect.

  6. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

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    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  7. Palatine Tonsils Asymmetry: 10 Years Experience of the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná

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    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A few patients with asymmetric palatine tonsils have lymphoma; but most lymphomas in palatine tonsils evolve with tonsillar asymmetry. Objective: To report the profile of patients and histopathological changes in patients submitted to adenotonsillectomy/tonsillectomy with disproportional palatine tonsils. Method: Retrospective study based on data analysis from the Pathologic Anatomy Service Database and in the review of reports of patients submitted to adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy with palatine tonsils asymmetry during the period from October 1999 through October 2009 at the Clinical Hospital (HC of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR. Results: 50 patients took part, aged between 3 to 53 years old, mean age of 14.05 years. The anatomopathological exam confirmed 48 patients (96% with lymphoid hyperplasia and 2 cases of lymphoma (4%. These included men aged from 40 to 53 yeas with complaint of unilateral increase of the tonsil, one of whom had other symptoms (asthenia and weight loss. Upon physical examination: tonsils disproportion without involvement of other organs or lymph nodes. Conclusion: Our study is according to the literature as regards the fact the lymphomas are more common in men, the patient is the first one to notice the increase in volume and the asymmetry is larger than 2 degrees between palatine tonsils in cases of lymphoma. Although it is rare, even in the presence of differences, there are chances for the asymmetry to evolve to a malignant profile. The need for anatomopathological evaluation of a part must be considered along with other clinical data that suggests a malignant profile.

  8. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in acute tonsillitis].

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    Tomiyama, M

    1994-09-01

    To objectively evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety in acute tonsillitis, flomoxef (FMOX) was examined for the distribution of sensitivity of clinical strains to it and for its clinical usefulness. 1. The 80% minimum inhibitory concentration of 11 clinical strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 6 of Gram-negative bacteria and 5 of anaerobic bacteria was 0.39 microgram/ml. FMOX showed the strongest, most comprehensive antibacterial action among the drugs tested. 2. Thirty patients received FMOX. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated in 28 patients, and clinical usefulness and safety in 30. 3. The clinical efficacy rate ('excellent' and 'good') was 75% (21/28). 4. As for bacteriological response, bacterial elimination rates were 67% for Gram-positive bacteria, 100% for Gram-negative bacteria, 100% for anaerobic bacteria and 100% for mixed infections. 5. Side effects occurred in 2 (6%) patients: drug eruption and diarrhea in 1 patient each. These symptoms improved rapidly after discontinuation of the drug. 6. Although abnormal clinical test results were found in 7 (23%) patients, i.e., increases in GOT and GPT in 2, in GPT in 4 and in BUN in 1, they were transient. 7. The usefulness of FMOX was assessed in light of its efficacy and safety. It was highly satisfactory in 14 patients, satisfactory in 11, relatively satisfactory in 1, unsatisfactory in 2 and highly unsatisfactory in 2, and rate of usefulness was 83%. FMOX is considered to be highly useful for the treatment of severe acute tonsillitis.

  9. Lymphoepithelial Cyst in the Palatine Tonsil

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    Fatih Bingöl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC is the most commonly encountered congenital neck pathology in the lateral part of the neck. A 66-year-old woman presented to the ENT clinic due to difficulty in swallowing persisting for approximately 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass at right tonsil. Surgery was performed due to this unilateral tonsillar mass, which was excised together with the right tonsil. LEC was diagnosed at histopathological examination. LEC in the palatine tonsil is rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of LEC in the palatine tonsil.

  10. Having Your Tonsils Taken Out (For Kids)

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    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Having Your Tonsils Taken Out KidsHealth / For Kids / Having Your Tonsils Taken Out What's in this ...

  11. Tonsillitis

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    ... 11 View Video Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  12. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

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    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  13. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children

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    Chen Li’e

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. METHODS: Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure were determined for all participants. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011. We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022. Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001. However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  14. Recurrent Acute Tonsillitis, The 'Core' Issue

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    Saikat Samaddar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today bacteriological and patho-anatomical considerations too are taken into account while treating a case of tonsillitis. Past decade has seen the rise of resistance amongst the common pathogens, as well as rise in the number of unusual offenders. Determination of the true offending organism and prescribing an antibiotic as per the sensitivity pattern is of utmost importance.  Materials and Method: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. The study population consisted of patients presenting with recurrent attacks of acute tonsillitis. Determination of throat swab micro flora, ASO titre and core tissue microflora was done and correlated statistically. Result: There was poor correlation between throat swab and core tissue microflora. Positive predictive value of throat swab was 10%. Pseudomonas is the predominant flora harbouring tonsillar core in our study population. Amoxicillin the most commonly prescribed antibiotic stands out to be the most resistant one. No statistical significance could be reached comparing streptococcal tonsillitis with ASO titre. Discussion: The real pathology within the tonsil core is not always reflected in routine throat swab and bacteriology of recurrent tonsillitis may differ in different regions. ASO titre estimation adds up to the economic burden if rheumatic fever is not suspected. Judicious use of antibiotics based on true sensitivity pattern is encouraged. In the era of antibiotics Tonsillectomy still holds an important position in the management of recurrent attacks. Conclusion: Pseudomonas was found to be the most common pathogen in recurrent acute tonsillitis. Core tissue study remains the Gold standard in identifying the pathogenic organism. Oral third generation Cephalosporin was the most efficacious antibiotic for recurrent tonsillitis in our study population.

  15. Lymphangiomatous Polyp of Tonsil: A Case Report.

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    Sayar, Hamide; Sayar, Çağdaş; Adamhasan, Fulya; Uğuz, Aysun

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangiomatous polyps of the palatine tonsils are uncommon hamartomatous proliferations that could be clinically misdiagnosed as malignant neoplasms. These polyps consist of dilated lymphatic vessels located inside fibrous and/or adipose tissue. In this paper, a 27-year-old man who presented to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of dysphagia is presented. On physical examination, the patient had a smooth, polypoid mass extending from the posterior section of the right palatine tonsil into the oropharynx. The patient underwent right tonsillectomy. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed typical features of a lymphangiomatous polyp of the tonsil. The case is reported with the accompanying literature to avoid the possibility of misdiagnosing it as a malignant lesion clinically.

  16. Medical image of the week: teenage tonsils

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    Knox AM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18 year old woman complained of gradual onset throat pain and symptoms of a viral URI with nasal congestion, conjunctivitis and coryza. Later, faint macular rash appeared on her hands. Shallow ulcers developed on her tonsils (Figure 1. She was diagnosed with coxsakie viral infection and treated conservatively with ibuprofen. A 19 year old man was seen for fatigue, malaise and odynophagia. Because of concern for peritonsilar abscess due to R>L tonsil enlargement (Figure 2 he was given intravenous steroids and antibiotics. His pain improved dramatically and he tested positive for infectious mononucleosis.

  17. Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates on the Surface and Core of Tonsils from Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis

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    Meera Niranjan Khadilkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Controversy regarding treatment of tonsillitis based on throat culture report still persists. If surface culture is a determinant of bacteriology of the core, then rational therapy could be aimed at organisms cultured by surface swab. Materials and Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients of chronic tonsillitis who underwent tonsillectomy. Tonsil surface and core swabs were studied for aerobic and anaerobic growth. Result Eighty seven percent patients had aerobic growth on tonsil surface and ninety percent in tonsil core. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest aerobic bacteria isolated. Anaerobic growth was present in 47% patients on tonsil surface, and 48% in core. Porphyromonas sp. was the commonest anaerobic bacterium isolated. Discussion There was no statistically significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found in tonsil surface and core.  Conclusion Throat swabs adequately represent core pathogen, and are dependable in detecting bacteriology of chronic tonsillitis.

  18. Efficient decision-making by volume-conserving physical object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song-Ju; Aono, Masashi; Nameda, Etsushi

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most important intellectual abilities of not only humans but also other biological organisms, helping their survival. This ability, however, may not be limited to biological systems and may be exhibited by physical systems. Here we demonstrate that any physical object, as long as its volume is conserved when coupled with suitable operations, provides a sophisticated decision-making capability. We consider the multi-armed bandit problem (MBP), the problem of finding, as accurately and quickly as possible, the most profitable option from a set of options that gives stochastic rewards. Efficient MBP solvers are useful for many practical applications, because MBP abstracts a variety of decision-making problems in real-world situations in which an efficient trial-and-error is required. These decisions are made as dictated by a physical object, which is moved in a manner similar to the fluctuations of a rigid body in a tug-of-war (TOW) game. This method, called ‘TOW dynamics’, exhibits higher efficiency than conventional reinforcement learning algorithms. We show analytical calculations that validate statistical reasons for TOW dynamics to produce the high performance despite its simplicity. These results imply that various physical systems in which some conservation law holds can be used to implement an efficient ‘decision-making object’. The proposed scheme will provide a new perspective to open up a physics-based analog computing paradigm and to understanding the biological information-processing principles that exploit their underlying physics. (paper)

  19. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in tonsils of children with recurrent tonsillitis.

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    Brook, I; Yocum, P; Friedman, E M

    1981-01-01

    Tonsils were obtained from 50 children suffering from recurrent tonsillitis. Patients' ages ranged from 2.5 to 17 years (mean 6 years); 29 were males and 21 females. The tonsils were sectioned in half after heat searing of the surface and the core material was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora was obtained in all patients, yielding an average of 7.8 isolates (4.1 anaerobes and 3.7 aerobes) per specimen. There were 207 anaerobes isolated. The predominant isolates were 101 Bacteroides sp (including 10 B fragilis group, and 47 B melaninogenicus group), 29 Fusobacterium sp, 34 Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (25 Peptococcus sp and 9 Peptostreptococcus sp) and 16 Veillonella sp. There were 185 aerobic isolates. The predominant isolates were 41 alpha-hemolytic streptococci, 24 Staphylococcus aureus, 19 beta-hemolytic streptococci (11 group A, 4 group B, and 2 each group C and F), 14 Haemophilus sp (including 12 H influenzae type B) and 5 H parainfluenzae. Beta-lactamase production was noted in 56 isolates recovered from 37 tonsils. These were all isolates of S aureus (24) and B fragilis (10), 15 of 47 B melaninogenicus (32%), 5 of the 12 B oralis (42%), and 2 of 12 H influenzae type B (17%). Our findings indicate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic nature of deep tonsillar flora in children with recurrent tonsillitis, and demonstrate the presence of many beta-lactamase-producing organisms in 74% of the patients.

  20. Effect of sampling and short isolation methodologies on the recovery of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils.

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    Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sampling (swab samples compared to destructive samples) on isolation rates of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Moreover, the relative efficiency of different rapid, routinely applicable isolation methods was evaluated. Therefore, swab and destructive samples from tonsils of 120 pigs at slaughter were analyzed in parallel using direct plating and different enrichment methods. Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) agar, cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar, and Yersinia enterocolitica chromogenic medium (YeCM) were used as selective agar media. For enrichment, irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth and peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth were incubated at 25°C for 48 h. Overall, 55 tonsils (45.8%) were positive for Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Recovery was significantly higher using the destructive method compared to the swabbing method. Direct plating resulted in 47 and 28 Y. enterocolitica-positive destructive and swab samples, respectively. Alkali treatment of PSB and ITC enrichment broths significantly increased recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples. The performance of YeCM for qualitative and quantitative isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils was equal to SSDC and CIN. In conclusion, direct plating and ISO 10273: 2003 with minor modifications are suitable and rapid methods for isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples.

  1. Benign mass in tonsil- cavernous hemangioma.

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    Joseph, Sumitha; Prakash, M; Mohammed, Hafida K; Govar, Aberna

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is also called as 'ANGIOMA CAVERNOSUM' or 'CAVERNOMA' as benign lesion of blood vessels. They are similar to strawberry hemangioma but deeply situated. Although most often associated with skin it is also sometimes found in mucous membrane, brain and the viscera. The diagnosis of hemangiomas is mainly based on clinical evaluation . Isolated hemangiomas in the tonsillar tissue is a rare occurance. In this we report had a case of adult tonsillar hemangioma of left side associated with recurrent tonsillitis . He was effectively managed surgically without any complications.

  2. Generation of benchmark DVH's for normal tissues in IMRT for base of tongue and tonsil cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.; Arun Singh, O.; Goswami, P.; Bhardwaj, A.; Santam; Susmita, Goshal; Sharma, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    IMRT is the treatment of choice for treatment of prostate and H and N cancer treatment but it take quality of time to generate an optimal treatment plan and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) varies significantly from one plan to other patient plan which is difficult to compare. Here the authors propose to generate bench mark DVH's for normal tissues for Base of tongue (BOT) and Tonsil cancer treatment to bring consistency in selection of plans and reduce the overall time of planning and comparison b/n different plan will be simpler and easier. Here the authors propose to generate benchmark DVH for spinal cord, larynx, pharynx, parotid and brain stem for BOT and tonsil patients treated with Intensity modulated radiotherapy in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. And to see whether Benchmark DVH can be effectively used in IMRT for BOT and Ca Tonsil

  3. Primary mantle cell lymphoma of tonsil: Case report

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    Knežević Snežana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mantle cell lymphoma is rare type of the mature B cell lymphoma. It includes 4% - 6% of all Non Hodgkin's Lymphomas. Compared to the other subtypes of lymphoma it develops more often in older men, and the median age of patients is 65 years. Primary tonsillar lymphoma accounts for less than 1% of head and neck malignancies. Method: Data obtained from medical records of the patient. Objective: Emphasize the importance of early and accurate diagnosis and early treatment of malignant diseases. Case report: Patient RP, 63 years old, presents with difficult swallowing, hoarseness, enlarged tonsils, snoring. Left tonsil almost sets into the right tonsillar vine, displaces the uvula and covers the isthmus. Respiratory sound is normal, with rhythmic action of the heart and soft abdomen. Good general condition. Echo: enlarged and actively altered lymph glands of the middle right jugular chain, the largest 148x77 mm, on the left side lymph nodes are enlarged, the largest is 143x72 mm. Echo of the abdomen inconspicuous. Lab: WBC 5.9, RBC 5.2, Hb 152, Hct 0.44, SE 10, CK 129, LDH 331, CRP 4.6, ALP 61, fibrinogen 2.4, Ca2+ 2.3, phosphate 0.8; BK, HCV, HBsAg, EB, HIV negative. X-ray of the chest inconspicuous. Admitted to the hematology department of the General Hospital. PH: Immunoproliferative disease. Immunohistochemistry, at the institute of Pathology: IHH CK AE1-AE3, PAX5 +, CD20 +, CD3, bcl2 +, bcl6-, CyklinD1 +, CD23-, CD43 +, MUM1 - / +, Ki67 + in about 20% of the tumor cells. Morphological and immunohistochemical findings: Mantle cell lymphoma. MSCD of the neck, chest and upper abdomen: Left tonsil diameter is 28x32 mm and length is 36mm, with lobular contour and heterogeneous structure, asymmetrically narrowing lumen of the airways to 7 mm. pathologically enlarged submandibular and par jugular lymph nodes (10-15 mm diameter on the left. There were no pathological findings in the lung parenchyma. Abdominal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes

  4. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

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    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  5. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

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    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Joji; Okamura, Terue; Shakudo, Miyuki

    2001-01-01

    In clinical F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the head and neck region, remarkable symmetric tonsillar FDG uptake is sometimes observed. We determined the incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake and investigated the significance of tonsillar FDG uptake. Between June 1998 and August 1998, we obtained informed consent from 17 patients who were scheduled to undergo a FDG-PET study for their own disease (11 men and 6 women; aged 22 to 77 yr) and who did not have head and neck disease to perform FDG-PET scanning of the head and neck region in addition to their target organs. The incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake were determined. Remarkable tonsillar FDG uptake was found in 9 patients. The SUVs of these FDG uptakes ranged from 2.48 to 6.75, with a mean of 4.29±1.20 (SD). Tonsillar FDG uptakes in the remaining 8 patients were not remarkable, and their SUVs ranged from 1.93 to 3.31, with a mean of 2.46±0.45. Head and neck disease does not appear to have been responsible for the increase in tonsillar FDG uptake. Differences among tonsillar FDG uptake in these 17 patients without head and neck disease appear to reflect differences in activity of ''physiological'' inflammation of the palatine tonsils. (author)

  7. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

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    Jin Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy.We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group.The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  8. Prevalence of the Helicobacter pylori in the tonsils and adenoids

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    Tuba Bayindir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about the existence and effects of Helicobacter pylori (Hp in adenotonsillar tissue. OBJECTIVE: A clinical study was conducted to assess the existence of Hp in the adenoid and/or adenotonsillar tissues, which were surgically excised due to chronic adenotonsillitis. METHODS: Phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for the detection of Hp and cytotoxin-associated gene as virulence gene were examined in 84 adenotonsillar tissues obtained from 64 patients and patients' serum by using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Hp IgG was detected in 57 (89% patients' serum. A total of seven tissue samples from 64 patients (10.9% were found positive for Hp DNA, of which five were adenoids and two were tonsil tissues. All polymerase chain reaction positive samples were also positive for the cytotoxin-associated gene, which is a virulence determinant for the organism. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that children are exposed to Hp at an early age of their life in this province. Hp may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic adenotonsillitis, especially in endemic areas.

  9. The functional role of the tonsils in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Y; Nachmani, A; Ophir, D

    1994-08-01

    To present illustrative cases showing various tonsillar influences on speech and to present a clinical method for patient evaluation establishing concepts of management and a rational therapeutic approach. The cases were selected from a group of approximately 1000 patients referred to the clinic because of suspected palatal diseases. Complete velopharyngeal assessment was made, including otolaryngologic, speech, and hearing examinations, polysomnography, nasendoscopy, multiview videofluoroscopy, and cephalometry. New observations further elucidate the intimate relation between the tonsils and the velopharyngeal valve. The potential influence of the tonsils on the velopharyngeal valve mechanism, in hindering or assisting speech, is described. In selected cases, the decision to perform tonsillectomy depends on its potential effect on speech. The combination of nasendoscopic and multiview videofluoroscopic studies of the mechanical properties of the tonsils during speech is required for patients who present with velopharyngeal insufficiency in whom tonsillar hypertrophy is found. These studies are also required in patients with palatal anomalies who are candidates for tonsillectomy.

  10. Probabilistic Characterization of Partial Volume Effects in Imaging of Rectangular Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulaevskaya, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    In imaging, a partial volume effect refers to the problem that arises when the system resolution is low relative to the size of the object being imaged [1, 2]. In this setting, it is likely that most voxels occupied by the object are only partially covered, and that the fraction covered in each voxel is low. This makes the problem of object detection and image segmentation very difficult because the algorithms designed for these purposes rely on pixel summary statistics. If the area covered by the object is very low in relatively many of the total number of the voxels the object occupies, these summary statistics may not reach the thresholds required to detect this object. It is thus important to understand the extent of partial volume effect for a given object size and resolution. This technical report focuses on rectangular objects and derives the probability distributions for three quantities for such objects: 1) the number of fully covered voxels, 2) the number of partially covered voxels, and 3) the fractions of the total volume covered in the partially covered voxels. The derivations are first shown for 2-D settings and are then extended to 3-D settings.

  11. POSITION OF CEREBELLAR TONSILS IN REFERENCE TO FORAMEN MAGNUM: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Normal position of the cerebellar tonsils is described to be at or above the foramen magnum. Western studies have shown the cerebellar tonsils to be below the foramen magnum. Position of tonsils is of great importance in assessing the hind brain deformity–Chiari malformation. There are no Indian studies to corroborate the findings. Hence, we proposed a basic study to find out the existence of tonsillar ectopia (Position of tonsils below the foramen magnum) in normal population. Ou...

  12. MRT letter: Guided filtering of image focus volume for 3D shape recovery of microscopic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, a shape from focus (SFF) method is proposed that utilizes the guided image filtering to enhance the image focus volume efficiently. First, image focus volume is computed using a conventional focus measure. Then each layer of image focus volume is filtered using guided filtering. In this work, the all-in-focus image, which can be obtained from the initial focus volume, is used as guidance image. Finally, improved depth map is obtained from the filtered image focus volume by maximizing the focus measure along the optical axis. The proposed SFF method is efficient and provides better depth maps. The improved performance is highlighted by conducting several experiments using image sequences of simulated and real microscopic objects. The comparative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed SFF method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Whole object surface area and volume of partial-view 3D models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulukutla, Gopal K; Proussevitch, Alexander A; Genareau, Kimberly D; Durant, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Micro-scale 3D models, important components of many studies in science and engineering, are often used to determine morphological characteristics such as shape, surface area and volume. The application of techniques such as stereoscopic scanning electron microscopy on whole objects often results in ‘partial-view’ models with a portion of object not within the field of view thus not captured in the 3D model. The nature and extent of the surface not captured is dependent on the complex interaction of imaging system attributes (e.g. working distance, viewing angle) with object size, shape and morphology. As a result, any simplistic assumptions in estimating whole object surface area or volume can lead to significant errors. In this study, we report on a novel technique to estimate the physical fraction of an object captured in a partial-view 3D model of an otherwise whole object. This allows a more accurate estimate of surface area and volume. Using 3D models, we demonstrate the robustness of this method and the accuracy of surface area and volume estimates relative to true values. (paper)

  14. FEATURES IMMUNOLOGIC INDICATORS OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS ASSOCIATED WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchma I.U

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tonsillitis are the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. One of the causes of tonsillitis, with severe clinical manifestations or erased is the Epstein - Barr virus (EBV. According to the literature, more than 90% of the adult population infected with EBV and are lifelong carriers of the virus. After primary infection replication of the virus in asymptomatic or in the case of a weakened immune system may develop infectious mononucleosis. Primary EBV infection in adolescence and adults is much greater than in children and often causes the formation of chronic forms. The main entrance gate is EBV oropharyngeal epithelium. In epithelial cells undergoing complete EBV replication with lysis of cells and the formation of a large number of virions. EBV infects B lymphocytes through the interaction of the surface gp320 virus with CD21 (receptor for complement component C3d. In EBV-infected B lymphocytes are two possible kinds of replication: lytic and latent process. During replication of EBV lytic expressed approximately 100 proteins are immunogenic but are 4 types of proteins, which have specific antibodies: early antigen - EA; viral capsid antigen - VCA; Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen - EBNA; latent membrane protein - LMP. LMP-1 induced bcl-2 (a blocker of apoptosis in B-cells and promotes proliferation and migration of B-lymphocytes. Thus, EBV infection is characterized by widespread, reactivation of infection from infected parts that most often manifests itself with recurrent infection with symptoms of chronic tonsillitis. Objective: what features of general and local immunological parameters inherent in chronic tonsillitis in the acute stage, caused by reactivation of EBV infection. Materials and methods. The study included 311 patients with chronic tonsillitis subcompensated in the acute stage. Microbiological testing of samples produced from the throat, determined EBV DNA in saliva, EVB-VCA-IgM, EVB-EA-IgG and EVB-NA-IgG in

  15. Cartilaginous Choristoma of the Tonsil: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bedir

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion:  Choristomas may cause difficulty in the differential diagnosis of true neoplasms, since they are rare and may grow. Therefore pathologists should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions, because cartilaginous choristomas of the tonsil are a rare entity.

  16. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  17. Analysis of Buried Dielectric Objects Using Higher-Order MoM for Volume Integral Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    A higher-order method of moments (MoM) is applied to solve a volume integral equation for dielectric objects in layered media. In comparison to low-order methods, the higher-order MoM, which is based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre vector basis functions and curvilinear hexahedral elements,...

  18. Diagnostic Value of Histological and Microbiological Screening in Etiopathogenesis of Recurrent and Hypertrophic Tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldis Viesturs

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the mechanisms and causes of recurrent tonsillitis is considerable. CD4+CD25+ T-lymphocytes have an important role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. The aim of our research was to compare the diagnostic value of palatine tonsils histological and microbiological screening in patients with hypertrophic and recurrent tonsillitis. 14 patients with hypertrophic and 10 patients with chronic tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were enrolled in the study. Rapid diagnosis of adenovirus, parainfluenza, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus infection was made before tonsillectomy by viral antigen detection using the immunofluorescence procedure from tonsils. Herpes simplex and cytomegaloviruses DNA were detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Samples for bacteriological studies were collected using a cotton swab. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate S-100 and TGF-beta1 expression. The obtained results showed that patients with recurrent tonsillitis had less S-100 and TGF-beta1 positive cells in parafollicular regions compared to patients with hypertrophic tonsillitis. In both groups, tonsils were colonized predominantly by gram-positive microorganisms and adenovirus (36% of cases. However, in patients with recurrent tonsillitis, associations of gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and viruses (40% of cases were observed. To conclude, recurrent tonsillitis is characterized by the breakdown of the immunological tolerance to oral microflora.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF BIS-QUINOXALINE DERIVATIVES USING TONSIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A convenient and efficient synthesis of new bis-quinoxaline is described, involving ... the following composition (in %): SiO2: 74.5, Al2O3: 9.3, MgO: 0.4, Fe2O3: 1.3, CaO: 4.0, K2O: 0.4 and .... Tonsil clay is a nanoparticle with layered structure.

  20. Improvement of herpetic stomatitis therapy in patients with chronic tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepilin А.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine the clinical and pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis. Materials and methods: Medical examination and treatment of 60 patients have been carried out. The marker of endogenous intoxication, infectious severity and immunity has been investigated. Results. It has been established that use of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis has allowed to decrease infectious severity in par-odontal recess and evidence of local inflammation, to normalize immunity indices and reduce the level of endogenous intoxication that has been liable for acceleration of recuperation processes and lowering of frequency of stomatitis recurrences. Conclusion. The clinical efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis conditioned by the decreasing of activity of local inflammatory process according to the reducing of level pro-inflammatory cytokines, infectious burden of the mouth cavity, endogenous intoxication

  1. PROPHYLACTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF FUSAFUNGINE IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008/2009, at the time of influenza epidemic, the study of ambulatory prophylactic treatment of fusafungine (Bioparox in 50 children 7–15 years old with chronic tonsillitis was performed. All these children underwent regular ENT check-up. The control group included 50 schoolchildren the same age without chronic diseases of upper airways. After the treatment with intranasal fusafungine, the amount of patients with Streptococcus pyogenes was decreased 1,6 times low (and after 3 months of treatment it was decreased 3,5 times low. The sanation of palatine tonsils from Candida albicans was detected (eradication of microorganism was achieved in 58% of cases, and the amount of patients with pharyngomycosis was decreased 2,4 times low. Patient’s quality of life significantly increased, and ENT-specialists met less complaints (in 4,5–15 times low. The morbidity with respiratory infections in 3 months after the treatment with fusafungine was 7,5 times low than in control group.Key words: schoolchildren, chronic tonsillitis, acute respiratory infection, fusafungine.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:26-31

  2. Experience of Using Immunomodulatory Therapy in Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Tonsillitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory therapy is an important part of treating patients with chronic tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus group A, on the background of antibiotic therapy it allows us to achieve a more effective elimination of the pathogen. Administration of Imupret in the comprehensive treatment for exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis of streptococcal origin leads to the rapid disappearance of clinical manifestations of the disease, high frequency of pathogen elimination, reduces the incidence of chronic tonsillitis exa­cerbations.

  3. Long-term results of ipsilateral radiotherapy for tonsil cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Ryoolk; Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of ipsilateral radiotherapy for the patient with well lateralized tonsil cancer: not cross midline and <1 cm of tumor invasion into the soft palate or base of tongue. From 2003 to 2011, twenty patients with well lateralized tonsil cancer underwent ipsilateral radiotherapy. Nineteen patients had T1-T2 tumors, and one patient had T3 tumor; twelve patients had N0-N2a disease and eight patients had N2b disease. Primary surgery followed by radiotherapy was performed in fourteen patients: four of these patients received chemotherapy. Four patients underwent induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The remaining two patients received induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and definitive CCRT, respectively. No patient underwent radiotherapy alone. We analyzed the pattern of failure and complications. The median follow-up time was 64 months (range, 11 to 106 months) for surviving patients. One patient had local failure at tumor bed. There was no regional failure in contralateral neck, even in N2b disease. At five-year, local progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and progression-free survival rates were 95%, 100%, and 95%, respectively. One patient with treatment failure died, and the five-year overall survival rate was 95%. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia was found in one patient at least 6 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Ipsilateral radiotherapy is a reasonable treatment option for well lateralized tonsil cancer. Low rate of chronic xerostomia can be expected by sparing contralateral major salivary glands.

  4. Object Tracking Vision System for Mapping the UCN τ Apparatus Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Rowan; UCNtau Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The UCN τ collaboration has an immediate goal to measure the lifetime of the free neutron to within 0.1%, i.e. about 1 s. The UCN τ apparatus is a magneto-gravitational ``bottle'' system. This system holds low energy, or ultracold, neutrons in the apparatus with the constraint of gravity, and keeps these low energy neutrons from interacting with the bottle via a strong 1 T surface magnetic field created by a bowl-shaped array of permanent magnets. The apparatus is wrapped with energized coils to supply a magnetic field throughout the ''bottle'' volume to prevent depolarization of the neutrons. An object-tracking stereo-vision system will be presented that precisely tracks a Hall probe and allows a mapping of the magnetic field throughout the volume of the UCN τ bottle. The stereo-vision system utilizes two cameras and open source openCV software to track an object's 3-d position in space in real time. The desired resolution is +/-1 mm resolution along each axis. The vision system is being used as part of an even larger system to map the magnetic field of the UCN τ apparatus and expose any possible systematic effects due to field cancellation or low field points which could allow neutrons to depolarize and possibly escape from the apparatus undetected. Tennessee Technological University.

  5. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  6. Inverse optimization of objective function weights for treatment planning using clinical dose-volume histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babier, Aaron; Boutilier, Justin J.; Sharpe, Michael B.; McNiven, Andrea L.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.

    2018-05-01

    We developed and evaluated a novel inverse optimization (IO) model to estimate objective function weights from clinical dose-volume histograms (DVHs). These weights were used to solve a treatment planning problem to generate ‘inverse plans’ that had similar DVHs to the original clinical DVHs. Our methodology was applied to 217 clinical head and neck cancer treatment plans that were previously delivered at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Canada. Inverse plan DVHs were compared to the clinical DVHs using objective function values, dose-volume differences, and frequency of clinical planning criteria satisfaction. Median differences between the clinical and inverse DVHs were within 1.1 Gy. For most structures, the difference in clinical planning criteria satisfaction between the clinical and inverse plans was at most 1.4%. For structures where the two plans differed by more than 1.4% in planning criteria satisfaction, the difference in average criterion violation was less than 0.5 Gy. Overall, the inverse plans were very similar to the clinical plans. Compared with a previous inverse optimization method from the literature, our new inverse plans typically satisfied the same or more clinical criteria, and had consistently lower fluence heterogeneity. Overall, this paper demonstrates that DVHs, which are essentially summary statistics, provide sufficient information to estimate objective function weights that result in high quality treatment plans. However, as with any summary statistic that compresses three-dimensional dose information, care must be taken to avoid generating plans with undesirable features such as hotspots; our computational results suggest that such undesirable spatial features were uncommon. Our IO-based approach can be integrated into the current clinical planning paradigm to better initialize the planning process and improve planning efficiency. It could also be embedded in a knowledge-based planning or adaptive radiation therapy framework to

  7. Model building with a dynamical volume element in gravity, particle theory and theories of extended object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:The Volume Element of Space Time can be considered as a geometrical object which can be independent of the metric. The use in the action of a volume element which is metric independent leads to the appearance of a measure of integration which is metric independent. This can be applied to all known generally coordinate invariant theories, we will discuss three very important cases: 1. 4-D theories describing gravity and matter fields, 2. Parametrization invariant theories of extended objects and 3. Higher dimensional theories including gravity and matter fields. In case 1, a large number of new effects appear: (i) spontaneous breaking of scale invariance associated to integration of degrees of freedom related to the measure, (ii) under normal particle physics laboratory conditions fermions split into three families, but when matter is highly diluted, neutrinos increase their mass and become suitable candidates for dark matter, (iii) cosmic coincidence between dark energy and dark matter is natural, (iv) quintessence scenarios with automatic decoupling of the quintessence scalar to ordinary matter, but not dark matter are obtained (2) For theories or extended objects, the use of a measure of integration independent of the metric leads to (i) dynamical tension, (ii) string models of non abelian confinement (iii) The possibility of new Weyl invariant light-like branes (WTT.L branes). These Will branes dynamically adjust themselves to sit at black hole horizons and in the context of higher dimensional theories can provide examples of massless 4-D particles with nontrivial Kaluza Klein quantum numbers, (3) In Bronx and Kaluza Klein scenarios, the use of a measure independent of the metric makes it possible to construct naturally models where only the extra dimensions get curved and the 4-D observable space-time remain flat

  8. Effect of in-feed versus injected oxytetracycline on piglet nasal and tonsil microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have revealed the core microbiome of pig nasal and tonsil regions. However, little is known about how antibiotics and their different routes of administration affect the microbiome of these areas. Such questions are important areas to research since the tonsil and nasal regions are p...

  9. Detection and characterization of Ah receptor in tissue and cells from human tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, A.; Okey, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ah receptor was identified and characterized in cytosol and nuclear extracts from human tonsils obtained at surgery from children 2 to 6 years of age. Ah receptor was found in cytosol prepared from whole-tonsil homogenates as well as in cytosol and nuclear fractions prepared from tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts grown in primary culture. Cytosolic Ah receptor was detectable in tonsillar tissue with either halogenated (2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)) or nonhalogenated (3-[3H]methylcholanthrene and [3H]benzo[a]pyrene) aromatic hydrocarbons and sedimented at approximately 9 S after velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients. The apparent binding affinity (Kd) of [3H]TCDD for Ah receptor ranged from 3 to 12 nM in cytosols from seven different donors. The same analyses indicated a concentration of Ah receptor in human tonsils of approximately 100-300 fmol/mg cytosolic protein. Incubation of either tonsil lymphocytes or tonsil fibroblasts with [3H]TCDD resulted in transformation of cytosolic Ah receptor to a nuclear binding form which could be detected as a specifically labeled peak sedimenting at approximately 6 S on sucrose gradients. These data demonstrate the existence of Ah receptor in human tonsils and suggest that this immune organ may be an appropriate model for further studies on the mechanism and manifestation of aromatic hydrocarbon-induced immunotoxicity in man

  10. BACTERIAL LYSATES FOR TOPICAL APPLICATION IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have carried on the research of the influence Imudon exerts (during topical application on the run of chronic tonsillitis among 48 children aged between 5 and 10 years old, being dispensary registrants. The sublingual application of a medicine 6 pills daily within 20 days demonstrated the frequency reduction of chronic tonsillitis acerbations by 2.9 times, as well as the reduction of total need in systemic antibacterial treatment by 10 times. Apart from that, the frequency of S. pyogenes group a exposure reduced by 3 times. The researchers noticed the tendency to normalization of pharynx biocenosis. Thus, Imudon may be recommended for the daily courses of treatment to the people, suffering from chronic tonsillitis, palatine tonsil auxesis and recurrent tonsillo-pharyngites.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, children, prevention, bacterial lysates.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of the Position of the Cerebellar Tonsil before and after Posterior Spinal Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tomas Bosio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  To evaluate variations in cerebellar tonsil position after posterior spinal fusion (PSF in neurologically intact patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS.  Methods: We retrospective evaluated 40 patients with AIS and no neurological symptoms that underwent PSF. Anteroposterior and sagittal standing radiographs, and sagittal hindbrain MRI were performed in all patients before and after spinal surgery.  The level of the cerebellar tonsil relative to the magnum foramen was measured according to the method described by Aboulezz (J Comput Assist Tomogr 1985. We evaluate variations in cerebellar tonsil position in relation to spinal correction and spinal elongation after PSF. Results: Mean preoperative magnitude of the curve was 53,15° (SD 10,46° and thoracic kyphosis was 35,42º (SD 12,38°. Mean postoperative values were 7,45º (SD 7,33°  and 27,87º (SD 9,03°, respectively. This represents 86% correction in the coronal plane (p<0.00001 and 25% of kyphosis variation (p<0.00001. The average length of the spine in the coronal plane was 44,5 cm (SD 5,25 cm in preoperative x-rays and 48,27 cm (SD 4,40 cm in postoperative x-rays (p<0.00001.  The average length in the sagittal plane was 50,87 cm (SD 4,47 cm in preoperative x-rays and 55,13cm (SD 3,27 cm in postoperative x-rays (p<0.00001. There was no significant difference in the position of the Cerebellar Tonsil before and after spinal correction (p=0,6042. In 10 (25% of the 40 patients, we observed caudal displacement in cerebellar tonsil position after PSF. Average displacement in these patients was 1,22 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm. In 21 patients we did not observe any variation and in 2 a cephalic displacement was measured. Conclusions:  In most AIS patients, position of the cerebellar tonsil does not change with PSF. We were not able to find any correlation between curve correction or spine elongation and variations in cerebellar tonsillar position.

  12. Detection of human papilloma virus in the tonsils of children undergoing tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Moreira Xavier Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV is related to respiratory mucosal diseases, such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, as well as to upper-respiratory-tract malignancies. There are few reports concerning the prevalence of HPV in the upper respiratory tract of non-affected individuals. We examined the prevalence of HPV in the tonsils of children of the general population scheduled for tonsillectomy. Samples were taken from the tonsils of 100 children undergoing tonsillectomy and were then tested for HPV with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, utilizing the generic primers MY09 and MY 11. The study excluded children known to have HPV and HIV-related diseases. Parents and legal guardians completed a standardized socio-demographic questionnaire. The questionnaire revealed that 84% of the mothers had at least one risk factor for genital HPV. None of the tonsil samples were positive for HPV. Apparently HPV does not commonly colonize the tonsils of children undergoing routine tonsillectomy.

  13. Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the

  14. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jensen

    Full Text Available The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the

  15. Neurotrophins and their receptors in human lingual tonsil: an immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bronzetti, Elena; Felici, Laura M; Alicino, Valentina; Ionta, Brunella; Bronzetti, Benedetto; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Grande, Claudia; Zamai, Loris; Pasquantonio, Guido; De Vincentiis, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Lymphoid organs are supplied by many nerve endings associated with different kinds of cells and macrophages. The role of this innervation on the release of locally active molecules is still unclear. Lingual tonsils belong to Waldeyer's Ring, in close association with palatine tonsils and nasopharyngeal (adenoids) tonsils, thus constituting part of NALT (nasal-associated lymphoid tissue) together with the tubal tonsils and lateral pharyngeal bands. In this study, we focused our attention on the expression of some neurotrophins (NTs) and their high- and low-affinity receptors in human lingual tonsils. Light immunohistochemistry showed that human tonsillar samples were generally positive for all the NTs investigated (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4) and their receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC and p75) with some different expression levels. NGF and TrKC were strongly expressed in macrophages, but weakly in lymphocytes. However, BDNF and TrKB was highly expressed in lymphocytes and weaker in macrophages. The low-affinity receptor for NGF, p75, was mainly moderately expressed in the analysed samples. These results suggest the presence of a pattern of neurotrophin innervation in the human lingual tonsil which may play a role in sustaining inflammatory conditions and in modulating a close interaction between the nervous system and the different immune cellular subtypes.

  16. Usage Volume and Trends Indicate Academic Library Online Learning Objects and Tutorials Are Being Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Muriel Lavallee Warren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hess, A. N., & Hristova, M. (2016. To search or to browse: How users navigate a new interface for online library tutorials. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 23(2, 168-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10691316.2014.963274 Objective – To discover how users interact with a new online interface for learning objects, user preferences for types of access when given both browsing and searching options, and user needs for tutorial subject matter. Design – Mixed methods, with quantitative analysis of web traffic and qualitative analysis of recorded search terms through grounded textual theory. Setting – An academic library in the Western United States of America. Subjects – Users of the Libraries’ online tutorials and learning objects. Methods – The researchers collected web traffic statistics and organically occurring searches from the Libraries’ tutorial access interface. They defined the collection period as the 2013/2014 academic year, with collection beginning in September 2013 and ending in April 2014. Web traffic for organic searches, facilitated searches (search results accessed through clicking on particular words in a tag cloud, and categorical browsing was collected via Google Analytics. They categorized other interaction types (accessing featured content, leaving the page, etc. under an umbrella term of “other.” Their analysis of web traffic was limited to unique page views, with unique page views defined as views registered to different browser sessions. Unique page views were analyzed to determine which types of interface interaction occurred most frequently, both on-campus and off-campus, and whether there were differences in types of interaction preferred over time or by users with different points of origin. Individual organic search keywords and phrases, and the dates and times of those searches, were separately collected and recorded. One of the researchers coded the recorded organic search terms using

  17. Functional state of palatine tonsils in children with diabetes type 1

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    Андрей Афанасиевич Лайко

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. Chronic disease of lymphoepithelial throat structures (CHLTS in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1 are widespread according to our earlier studies. The frequent exacerbations lead to the rise of glycemia profile, worsening of patient life quality and effectiveness of the complex therapy of the main disease.Aim of research: to assess the functional state of palatine tonsils in children and teenagers with DM-1 and chronic tonsillitis.Materials and methods. During the period 2014-2015 years there was carried out clinical and laboratory examination of 51 children with DM-1 6-18 years old. All children were treated in endocrinological department of National child specialized hospital “Ohmatdit”. The main group of observance included 40 children with DM-1 and CT, the control one included 11 children and teenagers with DM-1 without ENT-pathology. All children of the main and control groups underwent cytological examination of the tonsillar crypt lacunas content.Results and discussion. The highest specific weight of the chronic diseases of lymphepithelial throat structures (CDLTS in the main group of observation was revealed at the presence of chronic tonsillitis. In children with DM-1was diagnosed CT – 17 (33,3 %, CT and nasal septum curvature– 16 (31,3 %, CT and adenoid – 9 (17,7 %, CT and palatine tonsils hypertrophy – 5 (9,8 %, CT and recidivous nasal bleedings – 4 (7,8 %. According to the results of this examination in children with CDLTS and DM-1 were separated the four cytological groups that characterize the functional state of palatine tonsils.I. Good functional power of palatine tonsils.II. High activity of lymphoid tissue of palatine tonsils.III. Compensated functional power of palatine tonsils.IV. Decompensation of palatine tonsils functions.Conclusion. Cytological examination of tonsillar crypt lacunas content in children and teenagers with DM-1 may be the accessible and informative method of assessment of

  18. A longer stay for the kissing disease: epidemiology of bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, P; Saunders, J; Fenton, J E

    2013-02-01

    Anecdotally, infectious mononucleosis is considered a more severe infection than bacterial tonsillitis, requiring a longer hospital stay. However, there is little in the literature comparing the epidemiology of the two conditions. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis, in particular any differences in the length of in-patient stay. The hospital in-patient enquiry system was used to analyse patients admitted with bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis between 1990 and 2009 inclusive. There was a total of 3435 cases over the 20 years: 3064 with bacterial tonsillitis and 371 with infectious mononucleosis. The mean length of stay was 3.22 days for bacterial tonsillitis and 4.37 days for infectious mononucleosis. The median length of stay for each condition was compared using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test, and a significant difference detected (p mononucleosis have a significantly longer stay in hospital than those with bacterial tonsillitis.

  19. The correlation between tonsil size and academic performance is not a direct one, but the results of various factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kargoshaie, AA; Najafi, M; Akhlaghi, M; Khazraie, HR; Hekmatdoost, A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic upper airway obstruction most often occurs when both tonsils and adenoid are enlarged but may occur when either is enlarged. Obstructive sleep syndrome in young children has been reported to be associated with an adverse effect on learning and academic performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative size of the tonsil on academic performance in 4th grade school children. In 320 children, physical examination to determine the size of tonsils was performed by t...

  20. Radiologic evaluation of adenoids and tonsils in children with obstructive sleep apnea: Plain films and fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreplick Fernbach, S.; Brouillette, T.; Riggs, T.W.; Hunt, C.E.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-six children with obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated by lateral neck radiographs during wakefulness, and by polygraphic monitoring and upper airway fluoreoscopy during natural sleep. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, palatal surgery, and central nervous system disease were excluded from the study. Moderate or marked enlargement of tonsils and adenoids was noted on lateral neck radiographs of 18 of 26 patients. An objective measure of adenoidal enlargement, the adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio, correlated well with subjective judgment of adenoidal size but was not generally more useful than subjective estimation. Upper airway fluroescopy demonstrated the site and mechanism of obstruction in all patients. Because all children with moderate to marked adenotonsillar enlargement demonstrated obstruction at the adenoidal or tonsillar level on fluoroscopy, we now screen children with suspected sleep apnea with lateral airway radiographs and polysomnography. Fluoroscopy is reserved for children with mild adenotosillar enlargement, craniofacial dysplasia, prior cleft palate repair, or neuromuscular disorders. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of obstuctive sleep apnea in children involve anatomic factors which narrow the upper airway, sleep-related hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator musculature, and compensatory mechanisms to prevent or alleviate asphyxia.

  1. Radiologic evaluation of adenoids and tonsils in children with obstructive sleep apnea: Plain films and fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreplick Fernbach, S.; Brouillette, T.; Riggs, T.W.; Hunt, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-six children with obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated by lateral neck radiographs during wakefulness, and by polygraphic monitoring and upper airway fluoreoscopy during natural sleep. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, palatal surgery, and central nervous system disease were excluded from the study. Moderate or marked enlargement of tonsils and adenoids was noted on lateral neck radiographs of 18 of 26 patients. An objective measure of adenoidal enlargement, the adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio, correlated well with subjective judgment of adenoidal size but was not generally more useful than subjective estimation. Upper airway fluroescopy demonstrated the site and mechanism of obstruction in all patients. Because all children with moderate to marked adenotonsillar enlargement demonstrated obstruction at the adenoidal or tonsillar level on fluoroscopy, we now screen children with suspected sleep apnea with lateral airway radiographs and polysomnography. Fluoroscopy is reserved for children with mild adenotosillar enlargement, craniofacial dysplasia, prior cleft palate repair, or neuromuscular disorders. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of obstuctive sleep apnea in children involve anatomic factors which narrow the upper airway, sleep-related hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator musculature, and compensatory mechanisms to prevent or alleviate asphyxia. (orig.)

  2. EXPERIENCE OF SEA WATER HYPERTONIC SOLUTION APPLICATION FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Karpova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effectiveness of sea water hypertonic solution (Aqua Maris troath and oral cavity spray, Jadran, Croatia medication to treat chronic tonsillitis of the compensated form on 84 children aged between 5 and 15. All children had their tonsil lacunae rinsed in a day № 6–8. 64 children had them rinsed with the sea water hypertonic solution (main group, while 20 children had them rinsed with the nitrofural solution (comparison group. Treatment effectiveness was determined according to dynamics of main symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia, hyperemia and mucosa infiltration of pillars of the fauces, as well as the degree of tonsil bacterial number before and after treatment (by the 14th day. The dynamic analysis of subjective data during treatment revealed more significant and positive changes among the children of the main group if compared with patients from the comparison group. After treatment the researchers noticed reduction of tonsil bacterial number among 90,62% of children from the main group, whereas this rate made up 60% in the comparison group. Acquired data allowed recommending this medication for the multimodality therapy of infant adenoid disease.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, treatment, children, sea water hypertonic solution.

  3. INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE SMOKING ON CONTENT OF NICKEL IN CHILDREN PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study was pharyngeal tonsils which his anatomic location is interesing tissue. They are first tissue which has contact content in air inhalation substances in selective way. Pharyngeal tonsils came from children who lived in Silesia province. Some of these children have been expose to passive smoking. Contains nickel in pharyngeal tonsils was marked by the method of Inductively Coupled Plasma. Geometrical mean of contents of nickel in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed to tobacco smoke girls was 0,75 µg/g, in unexposed girls was 0,67 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys was 0,55 µg/g and unexposed boys 0,6 µg/g was observed. The results have verified that sex, living place and exposure to tobacco smoke matter in accumulation nickel in pharyngeal tonsils. The cross-corelation analysis between content of Ni and other metals, found out positive corelation between Ni and Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ca, Mg.

  4. Transient analysis of scattering from ferromagnetic objects using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2016-11-02

    An explicit marching on-in-time scheme for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on ferromagnetic scatterers is described. The proposed method solves a coupled system of time domain magnetic field volume integral and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations. The unknown fluxes and fields are discretized using full and half Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space and bandlimited temporal interpolation functions in time. The coupled system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and integrated in time using a PE(CE)m type linear multistep method to obtain the unknown expansion coefficients. Numerical results demonstrating the stability and accuracy of the proposed scheme are presented.

  5. Transient analysis of scattering from ferromagnetic objects using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time scheme for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on ferromagnetic scatterers is described. The proposed method solves a coupled system of time domain magnetic field volume integral and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations. The unknown fluxes and fields are discretized using full and half Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space and bandlimited temporal interpolation functions in time. The coupled system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and integrated in time using a PE(CE)m type linear multistep method to obtain the unknown expansion coefficients. Numerical results demonstrating the stability and accuracy of the proposed scheme are presented.

  6. Correlation of Objective Assessment Data With General Surgery Resident In-Training Evaluation Reports and Operative Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Jad M; AlJamal, Yazan N; Ruparel, Raaj K; Rowse, Phillip G; Heller, Stephanie F; Farley, David R

    2018-05-14

    Faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, and operative case volumes often tell little about true resident performance. We developed an objective structured clinical examination called the Surgical X-Games (5 rooms, 15 minutes each, 12-15 tests total, different for each postgraduate [PGY] level). We hypothesized that performance in X-Games will prove more useful in identifying areas of strength or weakness among general surgery (GS) residents than faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, or operative cases volumes. PGY 2 to 5 GS residents (n = 35) were tested in a semiannual X-Games assessment using multiple simulation tasks: laparoscopic skills, bowel anastomosis, CT/CXR analysis, chest tube placement, etc. over 1 academic year. Resident scores were compared to their ABSITE, in-training evaluation reports, and operating room case numbers. Academic medical center. PGY-2, 3, 4, and 5 GS residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Results varied greatly within each class except for staff evaluations: in-training evaluation reports medians for PGY-2s were 5.3 (range: 5.0-6.0), PGY-3s 5.9 (5.5-6.3), PGY-4s 5.6 (5.0-6.0), and PGY-5s were 6.1 (5.6-6.9). Although ABSITE and operating room case volumes fluctated greatly with each PGY class, only X-Games scores (median: PGY-2 = 82, PGY-3 = 61, PGY-4 = 76, and PGY-5 = 60) correlated positively (p < 0.05) with operative case volume and negatively (p < 0.05) with staff evaluations. X-Games assessment generated wide differentiation of resident performance quickly, inexpensively, and objectively. Although "Minnesota-nice" surgical staff may feel all GS trainees are "above average," objective assessment tells us otherwise. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging with k-means clustering objectively measures whole muscle volume compartments in sarcopenia/cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Calum; MacGillivray, Thomas J; Eeley, Clare; Stephens, Nathan A; Beggs, Ian; Fearon, Kenneth C; Greig, Carolyn A

    2011-02-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are characterized by infiltration of non-contractile tissue within muscle which influences area and volume measurements. We applied a statistical clustering (k-means) technique to magnetic resonance (MR) images of the quadriceps of young and elderly healthy women and women with cancer to objectively separate the contractile and non-contractile tissue compartments. MR scans of the thigh were obtained for 34 women (n = 16 young, (median) age 26 y; n = 9 older, age 80 y; n = 9 upper gastrointestinal cancer patients, age 65 y). Segmented regions of consecutive axial images were used to calculate cross-sectional area and (gross) volume. The k-means unsupervised algorithm was subsequently applied to the MR binary mask image array data with resultant volumes compared between groups. Older women and women with cancer had 37% and 48% less quadriceps muscle respectively than young women (p k-means subtracted a significant 9%, 14% and 20% non-contractile tissue from the quadriceps of young, older and patient groups respectively (p K-means objectively separates contractile and non-contractile tissue components. Women with upper GI cancer have significant fatty infiltration throughout whole muscle groups which is maintained when controlling for age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  9. Detection of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp funduliforme in tonsillitis in young adults by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Hagelskjær Kristensen, Lena; Prag, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Throat swabs from 61 patients, aged 18-32 years, with non-streptococcal tonsillitis (NST) and 92 healthy controls were examined for the presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum DNA using a novel TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for F. necrophorum subspecies. The assay was based on the g...

  10. Smell and taste in patients with neoplasms tumors of palatine tonsils treated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korytowska, A.; Szmeja, Z.; Wojtowicz, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The smell and taste investigations were made in group of 47 subjects with neoplasms of palatine tonsils surgical treated with radiation and in group of 7 subjects treated only by radiation. The investigation presents mostly quantitative disturbance of smell in both groups but with temporary character. (author)

  11. Peritonsillaer absces. Forekomst af operationskraevende sygdom i tilbageblevne tonsil efter unilateral tonsillektomi à chaud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Sørensen, J A; Andersen, N H

    1991-01-01

    .3% of the patients under 30 years of age were readmitted for surgery on the remaining tonsil during the follow up period. Only 0.5% of the patients over 30 years were readmitted. Previous investigations have shown increasing frequency of pharyngitis after bilateral tonsillectomy. The present authors suggest...

  12. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  13. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in the tonsils of pigs with proliferative enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Lindecrona, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    to necropsy but not in four pigs with moderate PE lesions. However, L. intracellularis was detected in the tonsils of 4/9 pigs with PE complicated with necroses and in 4/4 pigs with proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy in which L. intracellularis antigen also was demonstrated in tonsillar macrophages...

  14. Evaluation of a PCR for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Nielsen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    strains of A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR test was 10(3) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/PCR test tube and was not affected by addition of 10(6) E. coli CFU/PCR test tube. Mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of 101 pigs from 9 different herds were tested by culture and by PCR using four...

  15. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven

    2010-02-01

    Tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method ISO 10273:2003. In addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. In total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/O:3. Fifty out of the 52 positive samples (96.2%) were detected by direct plating. Enumeration showed an average concentration of 4.5 log(10) CFU g(-1) and 4.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) tonsil on Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates, respectively. The enrichment procedures recommended by the ISO 10273:2003 method were not optimal for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils: two days enrichment in irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth resulted in an isolation rate of 84.6%, while 5 days enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth recovered only 59.6% of positive samples. Reducing the enrichment time in PSB from 5 to 2 days resulted in a significantly higher recovery rate (94.2%) and might serve as an appropriate enrichment protocol for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Compared to enrichment culture methods, results based on direct plating can be obtained in a shorter time course and provide quantitative data that might be needed for further risk assessment studies.

  17. STUDIES ON DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ZINC IONS IN THE PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The zinc is one of the most important microelements. Element this conditions has corrected the functioning the nervous system of, immunological, sense of taste and smell. It the weakness of activity was manifested was the shortage of zinc and children’s motive development. The aim of this study was samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living on Malopolska Region, Silesia and village (made up the area of reference of Southern Poland. We investigated population 95 children, in this 40 girls (42% and 55 boys (58% in age from 2 till 15 years (average 6,8 years. The content of zinc was determined by ICP – AES method. Average the content of zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in whole studied children’s population carried out 74,51 µg/g. The statistical differences were not affirmed among average (the average geometrical content of ions of zinc in studied come from girls – 73,15 µg/g and the boys – 75,49 µg/g. The differences between sex appear, in case of ranges of changes, at boys range this it is clearly larger (55,86–97,59 µg/g in comparison to girls (58,34–88,68 µg/g how also near comparison of content answering 95 percentylowi (the incidental resulting with large environmental exposition contents it in the pharyngeal boys’ tonsils is larger – (87,73 µg/g in comparison to young girls (81,98 µg/g. It was established, on basis of report of changes quotient content zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in function of changes of content zinc in air dust, the physiological quantities of zinc in pharyngeal tonsil on level 42 µg/g.

  18. Acute Streptococcal Tonsillitis in a Child. Questions asked by Life (Scientific Answers to the Question Put by the Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nagornaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of acute tonsillitis remains relevant in clinical pediatrics. A special role in its etiology belongs to group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, which is found in every fourth child with acute bacterial tonsillitis. In this article there is presented an analysis of the clinical case of streptococcal tonsillitis in children and the pathogen, epidemiology and prognosis of the disease are described. The authors reviewed the current diagnosis criteria and international treatment approaches. There has been grounded the use of cefuroxime axetil for eradication of Streptococcus pyogenes.

  19. Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Indu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the caprine tubal tonsil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 μm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE, also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 μm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 μm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 μm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV cells, and

  20. Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, V. R.; Lucy, K. M.; Chungath, J. J.; Ashok, N.; Maya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 µm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE), also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 µm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 µm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 µm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV) cells, and goblet cells. The

  1. THE ROLE OF PHYTOTHERAPY IN OPTIMIZATION OF REHABILITATION AT A HEALTH RESORT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Kondrat’eva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors present results of a treatment with complex of physical methods and phyto drug Tonsilgon N (Althaeae officinalis L., Chamomilla recutita, Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L., Achillea millefolium L., Quercus robur, Taraxacum officinale of 35 children with chronic tonsillitis at a health resort. Clinical, immunological effectiveness and safety was estimated. Inclusion of the drug in treatment scheme resulted in decrease of morbidity with acute respiratory infections and rate of exacerbations of tonsillitis. Phyto drug has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activity manifested in increase of level of humoral factors in nasal secretion and cytoprotective effect related to positive changes in functional state of epithelium of nasal mucous membrane in children with chronic tonsillitis.Key words: children, chronic tonsillitis, rehabilitation, phytotherapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:58-63

  2. THE SPITZER EXTRAGALACTIC REPRESENTATIVE VOLUME SURVEY: THE ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH-z SDSS QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falder, J. T.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Bonfield, D. G.; Lacy, M.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S.; Surace, J.; Mauduit, J.-C.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Afonso, J.; Cava, A.; Seymour, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the environments of SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We concentrate on the high-redshift QSOs as these have not been studied in large numbers with data of this depth before. We use the IRAC 3.6-4.5 μm color of objects and ancillary r-band data to filter out as much foreground contamination as possible. This technique allows us to find a significant (>4σ) overdensity of galaxies around QSOs in a redshift bin centered on z ∼ 2.0 and an (>2σ) overdensity of galaxies around QSOs in a redshift bin centered on z ∼ 3.3. We compare our findings to the predictions of a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, based on the ΛCDM MILLENNIUM simulation, and find for both redshift bins that the model predictions match well the source density we have measured from the SERVS data.

  3. Research study of the treatment efficacy of staphylococcia in the palatine tonsils by using Raman-scattering spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Asadova, A. A.; Ityaksov, Yu. D.; Tyumchenkova, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of effectiveness of the staphylococcal infections treatment in the tonsils is carried out using Raman spectroscopy method. Spectral changes were established in the treatment of palatine tonsils with the antibiotic Amoksiklav. It was shown that when the antibiotic dosage is 500mg / 10ml, the lines disappear at wave numbers 735 cm-1 and 783 cm-1, 986 cm-1, and 1633 cm-1, corresponding to adenine, cytosine, proteins, and amide I, which indicates the effectiveness of treatment.

  4. Changes in Tonsil B Cell Phenotypes and EBV Receptor Expression in Children Under 5-Years-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlford, Eric M; Baresel, Paul C; Wilmore, Joel R; Mortelliti, Anthony J; Coleman, Carrie B; Rochford, Rosemary

    2018-03-01

    Palatine tonsils are principally B cell organs that are the initial line of defense against many oral pathogens, as well as the site of infection for others. While the size of palatine tonsils changes greatly in the first five years of life, the cellular changes during this period are not well studied. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a common orally transmitted virus that infects tonsillar B cells. Naïve B cells are thought to be the target of primary infection with EBV in vivo, suggesting that they are targeted by the virus. EBV enters B cells through CD21, but studies of older children and adults have not shown differences in surface CD21 between naïve B cells and other tonsil B cell populations. In this study, we used an 11-color flow cytometry panel to detail the changes in B cell subpopulations in human tonsils over the first five years of life from 33 healthy US children. We provide reference ranges for tonsil B cell subpopulations over this age range. We show that the frequency of naïve tonsil B cells decreases over the early years of life, and that naïve B cells expressed higher surface levels of CD21 relative to other tonsil B cell populations. We show that young children have a higher frequency of naïve tonsil B cells, and importantly that these cells express increased surface EBV receptor, suggesting that young children have a larger pool of cells that can be infected by the virus. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Twin Rectal Tonsils Mimicking Carcinoid or Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Masanori; Muguruma, Naoki; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-09-01

    The rectal tonsil is a rare polypoid lesion exclusively found in the rectum and is considered a reactive proliferation of the lymphoid tissue. Although this lesion is benign, we recommend that it should be differentiated from carcinoid or polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, based on gross findings. In this case report, we describe a case of rectal lesions with a unique appearance in a 41-year-old man. Colonoscopy revealed two 5-mm-sized nodules located opposite from each other on the left and right sides of the lower rectum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was conducted. Histopathologically, both lesions were mainly located in the submucosa and consisted of prominent lymphoid follicles with germinal centers of various sizes. No immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 was seen in the germinal centers. Immunohistochemical staining for kappa and lambda light chains revealed a polyclonal pattern. Therefore, these lesions were diagnosed as rectal tonsils.

  6. Pulsating Tonsil Due to Medial Displacement of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsini, Albaraa Y; Ibrahim, Alsheikhi

    2017-05-06

    BACKGROUND The internal carotid artery (ICA) is about 2.5 cm away from the tonsils. It has no branches in the cervical portion. ICA anomalies of the neck zone may result in a massive arterial bleeding during pharynx and neck surgery. Due to these anomalies, the surgeon must be aware of this risk during tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and pharyngeal operations.  CASE REPORT A 23-year-old woman who was discovered to have an acute S curling-type anomaly of the ICA in contact with the lateral border of the right tonsil during a work-up for a tonsillectomy. This anomaly was incidentally discovered via computed tomography (CT) with contrast. In re-evaluating the course of treatment, we found a severe S-shape kink on the right side, bringing it close to the right tonsil by approximately 2 mm, and putting it at severe risk of injury during a simple tonsillectomy, possibly exposing the patient to serious bleeding. Partial tonsillectomy was performed for this patient with the aim to preserve and not expose the internal carotid artery. Pulsation of right tonsil was recorded. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery. CONCLUSIONS Undetected ICA anomaly variation can lead to fatal bleeding during a simple procedure, like tonsillectomy. We recommend vigilance during tonsillectomy if one is using a hot dissection method versus a cold dissection method, which may allow for detection of a perioperative ICA anomaly. Tonsillectomy performed by a junior resident should be under direct supervision, particularly if the hot dissection method is used.

  7. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2013-01-01

    and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium...... were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults...

  8. The metabolically active bacterial microbiome of tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughter pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne eMann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23-171 OTUs. Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits were most abundant (10.6% and 41.8% respectively in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of metabolically active bacteria, (ii the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination.

  9. Assessment of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Bozan, Nazım; Kozan, Ahmet; Belli, Şeyda Bayel; Arslan, Ayşe; Cankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    To emphasize the effectiveness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme, which has important roles in the differentiation of lymphoid cells, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Serum and tissue samples were obtained from 25 patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis. In the control group, which also had 25 subjects, only serum samples were taken as obtaining tissue samples would not have been ethically appropriate. ADA enzyme activity, catalase (CAT), carbonic anhydrase (CA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of patients and control group subjects. The serum values of both groups were compared. In addition, the tissue and serum values of patients were compared. Serum ADA activity and the oxidant enzymes MDA and NO values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p ADA activity (p > 0.05). Elevated ADA activity may be effective in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis both by impairing tissue structure and contributing to SOR formation.

  10. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Updating the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in adults. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina GASCÓN-RUBIO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Acute pharyngitis in adults (APA is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in primary care. The main objective of this review is to update the therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of APA and to determine which interventions have the greatest impact in reducing morbidity and improving the quality of life of patients, which directly affects the consumption of health resources. Material and Methods: First clinical criteria of the FAA, indications of tonsillectomy and patterns of antibiotic therapy according to clinical guidelines of national and international scientific societies were defined. Subsequently, the literature related to the treatment of the FAA including other therapeutic options not covered in previous clinical guidelines (P. Leucotomos extract, vaccination by the mucosal route, AM3 and beta-glucans, homeopathy and herbal medicine was revised. ClinicalKey bases and PubMed data were used. Results: The comparison of the studies was difficult due to the disparity of criteria for inclusion and diagnostics, sample sizes, time tracking and poor uniformity in the clinical scales measuring variations. Conclusions: Therefore we cannot conclude whether a therapeutic option is more effective than another in the treatment and prevention of adult APA.

  12. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  13. Do the cerebellar tonsils move during flexion and extension of the neck in patients with Chiari I malformation? A radiological study with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Rizk, Elias; Chern, Joshua J; Oskouian, Rod J; Oakes, W Jerry

    2016-03-01

    In the past, diagnosis of the Chiari I malformation has primarily been made on midsagittal MRI. We hypothesized that based on the frequent presentation of opisthotonos in patients with hindbrain hernia (primarily Chiari II malformation but sometimes Chiari I malformation) that the hyperextension might be a compensatory technique used by such patients to bring the cerebellar tonsils up out of the cervical spine. This prospective study reviewed imaging of patients with Chiari I malformation who underwent flexion/extension MRI for evaluation of their hindbrain herniation. Age-matched controls were used for comparison. In general, there was elevation of the cerebellar tonsils with extension and increased descent with flexion of the cervical spine. In 72 % of patients, flexion of the neck resulted in descent of the cerebellar tonsils. In 64 % of patients, extension of the neck resulted in ascent of the cerebellar tonsils. In the 14 patients with an associated syrinx, 71 % were found to have caudal movement of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion, and only 43 % were observed to have any movement of the cerebellar tonsils in neck extension compared to patients without a syrinx where ascent of the tonsils was seen in only nine during neck extension. Two patients were observed to have the reverse finding of ascent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion and descent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck extension. Five patients had no movement of the cerebellar tonsils in either flexion or extension of the neck, and one of these had a small syrinx. Although minimal and not in all patients, we observed elevation of the herniated cerebellar tonsils with extension of the cervical spine in patients with Chiari I malformation. This finding provides evidence as to why some patients with hindbrain herniation present with opisthotonos and supports earlier findings that CSF flow is reduced at the craniocervical junction in flexion in patients with Chiari I malformation.

  14. Synovial Sarcoma of the Palatine Tonsil:Report of Two Cases and Review of theLiterature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Azarpira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe young men with synovial sarcoma in the palatine tonsil, who presented with a 3-4 month history of progressive sore throat, tonsillar ulcerativemass and bleeding. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed that the tumors arose from the palatine tonsil and extended to the parapharyngeal space. Both tumors were too advanced to remove completely; therefore, they underwent surgical debulking during tonsillectomy and partial pharyngectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochem-ical studies confirmed the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma of the palatine tonsil. Despite postoperative radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, they relapsed 18 and 22 months later. The first patient died from unresectable local recurrent disease three years after primary diagnosis, and the second patient is alive after 36 months, but suffers from unresectable locoregional recurrent disease and is receiving palliative chemotherapy and supportive care.

  15. [Effectiveness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope in a case of unexpected difficult airway due to lingual tonsil hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, P; Alarcón, L; Del Castillo, T; Cabrerizo, P; Díaz, S

    2015-05-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy can cause varying degrees of airway obstruction and is considered a risk factor for difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation. We report a case of unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unknown lingual tonsil hypertrophy that was solved with the use of the GlideScope video laryngoscope. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical necrotising fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to unilateral tonsillitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Asad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive infection with high morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis in a healthy young man, caused by unilateral tonsillitis with a successful outcome without aggressive debridement. Case presentation A 41-year-old man was admitted to our unit with a diagnosis of severe acute unilateral tonsillitis. On admission, he had painful neck movements and the skin over his neck was red, hot and tender. Computed tomography scan of his neck and chest showed evidence of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to underlying pharyngeal disease. He was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. His condition improved over the next 3 days but a tender and fluctuant swelling appeared in the suprasternal region. A repeat scan showed the appearance of an abscess extending from the pretracheal region to the upper mediastinum which was drained through a small transverse anterior neck incision. After surgery, the patient's condition quickly improved and he was discharged on the 18th day of admission. Conclusion Less invasive surgical techniques may replace conventional aggressive debridement as the treatment of choice for cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

  17. Sinekia Palatum Molle dan Pilar Tonsil ke Dinding Faring Posterior pada Pasien Tuberkulosis Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desno Marbun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tuberkulosis paru masih merupakan penyakit infeksi yang sering dijumpai dan masalah kesehatan di dunia. Sinekia yang disebabkan oleh infeksi kronik tuberkulosis pada daerah faring merupakan kasus yang jarang terjadi. Pembentukan sinekia ini menyebabkan obstruksi saluran napas bagian atas dan dapat menyebabkan gangguan menelan. Laporan kasus ini dimaksudkan untuk memaparkan penatalaksanaan pasien tuberkulosis paru disertai kelainan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior. Seorang pasien laki-laki usia 40 tahun terdiagnosis tuberkulosis milier yang telah mendapatkan pengobatan antituberkulosis 4 bulan datang dengan keluhan hidung tersumbat, suara sengau, dan gangguan menelan sejak 2 bulan sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Dilakukan pelepasan sinekia dengan cara reseksi dan insisi palatum molle pendekatan intraoral dengan panduan endoskopi, didapatkan massa jaringan granuloma pada tepi sinekia tersebut. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi berupa jaringan granuloma tuberkulosis. Pascaoperasi pasien dapat bernapas lancar melalui hidung dan gangguan menelan menghilang. Simpulan, operasi pelepasan sinekia diputuskan mengingat gangguan obstruksi saluran napas atas. Penatalaksanaan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior dengan operasi memberikan hasil yang baik untuk patensi jalan napas dan fungsi menelan.

  18. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Donnelly, Lane F.; Shott, Sally R.; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S.

    2006-01-01

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  20. Effect of tulathromycin on the carrier status of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the tonsils of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.; Nielsen, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific...

  1. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in/on tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna; Filipović, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    A total of 156 tonsils and 156 mandibular lymph nodes from fattening pigs originating from 13 farms were sampled in Croatian slaughterhouses and examined for Salmonella spp. (n=78 per organ) and Yersinia enterocolitica (n=78 per organ) by cultural methods. Salmonella was isolated from two tonsils only, both originated from animals from the same farm (5.12%), while Y. enterocolitica were recovered from 26 tonsils (33.33%) which could be traced back to 10 farms. Salmonella was absent in mandibular lymph nodes, and Y. enterocolitica was isolated from eight lymph nodes (10.25%) which originated from six farms. Y. enterocolitica was present inside the lymph nodes of two pigs. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in/on pig tonsils could be the result of cross-contamination during splitting the carcasses with head. This procedure may result in higher prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on surface of mandibular lymph nodes than in their depth. Traditional veterinary postmortem examination of pig halves will not necessarily contribute to cross-contamination with Salmonella or Yersinia under conditions of present slaughter practice.

  3. Within-batch prevalence and quantification of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils of pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-03-14

    Yersiniosis is a common bacterial zoonosis in Europe and healthy pigs are known to be the primary reservoir of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. However, little information is available about the prevalence of these pathogens within pig batches at time of slaughter. The tonsils of 7047 fattening pigs, belonging to 100 farms, were aseptically collected immediately after evisceration in two Belgian slaughterhouses. The batch size varied between 70 and 930 pigs. On average, 70 pigs were sampled per batch. The tonsils were examined by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates and the number of suspect Yersinia colonies was counted. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 were found in tonsils of 2009 pigs (28.5%), originating from 85 farms. The within-batch prevalence in positive farms ranged from 5.1 to 64.4%. The number of Y. enterocolitica in positive pigs varied between 2.01 and 5.98 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil, with an average of 4.00 log10 CFU g(-1) tonsil. Y. pseudotuberculosis was found in seven farms, for which the within-batch prevalence varied from 2 to 10%. In five of these farms, both Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were simultaneously present. Human pathogenic Yersinia spp. are widespread in slaughter pig batches in Belgium as 87% of the tested batches were infected with these pathogens at the time of slaughter. The large variation of the prevalence between batches may lead to different levels of contamination of carcasses and risks for public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus in non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the tonsil in Indonesian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kurniawan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty cases of tonsillar non-Hodgkin lymphoma seen at the Department of Anatomic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia during 1995-1997 were studied clinicopathologically. The specimens were analysed for routine histopathology, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The lymphoma was found mostly in the 7th decade, the median age was 57.5 year. Male to female ratio was 1:1. The hostological types were 70% of intermediate grade and 30% of high grade of malignancy. All of the lymphomas were B cell lymphomas. EBER and LMP1 were not expressed in all cases. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 69-72Keywords : tonsil lymphoma, clinicopathologic profile, immunopheno type, ebv

  5. Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E Zautner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two major indications for tonsillectomy are recurrent tonsillitis (RT and peritonsillar abscess (PTA. Unlike PTAs, which are primarily treated surgically, RT is often cured by tonsillectomy only after a series of failed drug therapy attempts. Although the bacteriological background of RT has been studied, the reason for the lack of success of conservative therapeutic approaches is not well understood. METHODS: In a prospective study, tonsil specimens from 130 RT patients and 124 PTA patients were examined for the presence of extra- and intracellular bacteria using antibiotic protection assays. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from RT patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing and MSCRAMM-gene-PCR. Their ability for biofilm formation was tested and their cell invasiveness was confirmed by a flow cytometric invasion assay (FACS, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: S. aureus was the predominant species (57.7% in RT patients, whereas Streptococcus pyogenes was most prevalent (20.2% in PTA patients. Three different assays (FACS, FISH, antibiotic protection assay showed that nearly all RT-associated S. aureus strains were located inside tonsillar cells. Correspondingly, the results of the MSCRAMM-gene-PCRs confirmed that 87% of these S. aureus isolates were invasive strains and not mere colonizers. Based upon PFGE analyses of genomic DNA and on spa-gene typing the vast majority of the S. aureus isolates belonged to different clonal lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that intracellular residing S. aureus is the most common cause of RT and indicate that S. aureus uses this location to survive the effects of antibiotics and the host immune response. A German translation of the Abstract is provided as supplementary material (Abstract S1.

  6. Evidence for a stepwise program of extrathymic T cell development within the human tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClory, Susan; Hughes, Tiffany; Freud, Aharon G.; Briercheck, Edward L.; Martin, Chelsea; Trimboli, Anthony J.; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Leone, Gustavo; Nuovo, Gerard; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a broad repertoire of T cells, which is essential for effective immune function, occurs in the thymus. Although some data suggest that T cell development can occur extrathymically, many researchers remain skeptical that extrathymic T cell development has an important role in generating the T cell repertoire in healthy individuals. However, it may be important in the setting of poor thymic function or congenital deficit and in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, or regenerative medicine. Here, we report evidence that a stepwise program of T cell development occurs within the human tonsil. We identified 5 tonsillar T cell developmental intermediates: (a) CD34+CD38dimLin– cells, which resemble multipotent progenitors in the bone marrow and thymus; (b) more mature CD34+CD38brightLin– cells; (c) CD34+CD1a+CD11c– cells, which resemble committed T cell lineage precursors in the thymus; (d) CD34–CD1a+CD3–CD11c– cells, which resemble CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells in the thymus; and (e) CD34–CD1a+CD3+CD11c– cells. The phenotype of each subset closely resembled that of its thymic counterpart. The last 4 populations expressed RAG1 and PTCRA, genes required for TCR rearrangement, and all 5 subsets were capable of ex vivo T cell differentiation. TdT+ cells found within the tonsillar fibrous scaffold expressed CD34 and/or CD1a, indicating that this distinct anatomic region contributes to pre–T cell development, as does the subcapsular region of the thymus. Thus, we provide evidence of a role for the human tonsil in a comprehensive program of extrathymic T cell development. PMID:22378041

  7. Numerical suppression of the twin image in in-line holography of a volume of micro-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L; Fournier, C; Fournel, T; Ducottet, C

    2008-01-01

    We address the twin-image problem that arises in holography due to the lack of phase information in intensity measurements. This problem is of great importance in in-line holography where spatial elimination of the twin image cannot be carried out as in off-axis holography. A unifying description of existing digital suppression methods is given in the light of deconvolution techniques. Holograms of objects spread in 3D cannot be processed through available approaches. We suggest an iterative algorithm and demonstrate its efficacy on both simulated and real data. This method is suitable to enhance the reconstructed images from a digital hologram of small objects

  8. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Bergstrand, L.; Tylen, U.; Aspelin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  9. Visual classification of emphysema heterogeneity compared with objective measurements: HRCT vs spiral CT in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, K.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B. [Department of Thoracic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstrand, L. [Department of Radiology, Danderyds Hospital, Danderyd (Sweden); Tylen, U. [Deparment of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenberg (Sweden); Aspelin, P. [Department of Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether spiral CT is superior to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the radiological morphology of emphysema, and whether the combination of both CT techniques improves the evaluation in patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The material consisted of HRCT (with 2-mm slice thickness) and spiral CT (with 10-mm slice thickness) of 94 candidates for LVRS. Selected image pairs from these examinations were evaluated. Each image pair consisted of one image from the cranial part of the lung and one image from the caudal part. The degree of emphysema in the two images was calculated by computer. The difference between the images determined the degree of heterogeneity. Five classes of heterogeneity were defined. The study was performed by visual classification of 95 image pairs (spiral CT) and 95 image pairs (HRCT) into one of five different classes of emphysema heterogeneity. This visual classification was compared with the computer-based classification. Spiral CT was superior to HRCT with 47% correct classifications of emphysema heterogeneity compared with 40% for HRCT-based classification (p<0.05). The combination of the techniques did not improve the evaluation (42%). Spiral CT is superior to HRCT in determining heterogeneity of emphysema visually, and should be included in the pre-operative CT evaluation of LVRS candidates. (orig.)

  10. NAD(P-DEPENDENT DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF INFANTS WITH ENLARGEMENT OF PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed and examined 57 children 1 to 3 years old diagnosed with enlargement of pharyngeal tonsils. A control group was presented by 35 healthy children. Bioluminescence technique was applied for studying NAD(P-dependent dehydrogenase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Activation of aerobic respiration and increasing activity of pentose phosphate cycle-dependent plastic processes were registered in blood lymphocytes of children with hypertrophic pharyngeal tonsils; along with decreased function of malate-aspartate shunt in energy metabolism of the cells, diminished anaerobic reaction of NADHdependent LDH, lower interaction between Krebs cycle and reactions of amino acid metabolism, and reduced activity of glutathione reductase.

  11. Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Occult Tonsil Cancer in Patients with Cervical Nodal Metastasis from an Unknown Primary Site at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hye Ok; Kim, Dae Yoon; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Cho, So Hyun; Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Sang Yoon; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the added value of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values over magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of occult palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with cervical nodal metastasis from a cancer of an unknown primary site. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Differences in the bimodal histogram parameters of the ADC values were assessed among occult palatine tonsil SCC (n = 19), overt palatine tonsil SCC (n = 20), and normal palatine tonsils (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze differences among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best differentiating parameters. The increased sensitivity of histogram analysis over MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of occult palatine tonsil SCC was evaluated as added value. Histogram analysis showed statistically significant differences in the mean, standard deviation, and 50th and 90th percentile ADC values among the three groups (P histogram analysis was 52.6% over MR imaging alone and 15.8% over combined conventional MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Adding ADC histogram analysis to conventional MR imaging can improve the detection sensitivity for occult palatine tonsil SCC in patients with a cervical nodal metastasis originating from a cancer of an unknown primary site. © RSNA, 2015.

  12. Quantification of hygiene indicators and Salmonella in the tonsils, oral cavity and rectal content samples of pigs during slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Mattheus, Wesley; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2018-05-01

    The tonsils, oral cavity and faeces of 94 pigs at slaughter were sampled to assess the numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli in the rectal content, tonsils and oral cavity of pigs at time of evisceration. Moreover, the prevalence, numbers and types of Salmonella spp. were determined. Mean numbers of Enterobacteriaceae in tonsils and the oral cavity differed between slaughterhouses. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae relative to total aerobic bacteria differed between the different tissues, though large variations were observed between animals. Salmonella spp. were mostly detected in oral cavity swabs (n = 51, 54%), of which six samples were contaminated in numbers over 2.0 log CFU/100 cm 2 . Salmonella spp. were also recovered from 17 tonsillar tissue samples (18%) and 12 tonsillar swabs (13%). Out of the 29 rectal content samples from which Salmonella was recovered (31%), most were lowly contaminated, in the range between -1 and 0 log CFU/g. The predominant serotypes were S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant, which were recovered from 33 and 13 pigs, respectively. In most cases, the same serotypes and MLVA profiles were found in pigs slaughtered during the same day, thus suggesting a common source of contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of Kanchnara Guggulu and Tankana-Madhu Pratisarana in the management of Tundikeri (tonsillitis) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Tarak R; Patel, K S; Kori, V K; Rajagopala, S; Manjusha, R

    2016-01-01

    Tonsillitis is a common illness in the childhood period. There are about 7,455,494 cases of tonsillitis in India per year. Tonsillitis can be compared with Tundikeri in Ayurveda. In the present study, Kanchnara Guggulu tablets and Pratisarana of Tankana-Madhu were selected. To evaluate the effect of Kanchnar Guggulu and Tankana-Madhu Pratisarana in the management of Tundikeri in children. In the present study, a total of 31 patients aged between 5 and 16 years attending the outpatient department of Kaumarbhritya Department and Shalakya Tantra Department were registered. Among them, 26 patients completed the treatment. Kanchnara Guggulu tablets were administered orally in Group A and in Group B, Pratisarana with Tankana-Madhu was done along with the oral administration of Kanchnara Guggulu tablets. The results showed that in Group A, 21.43% of patients got complete remission, 42.86% of patients got marked improvement and 35.71% of patients got moderate improvement. In Group B, 25% of patients got complete remission, 58.33% of patients got marked improvement and 16.67% of patients got moderate improvement. Both the groups showed highly significant results in all cardinal and associated features of Tundikeri . Kanchnara Guggulu and Tankana-Madhu Pratisarana are a safe and effective modality for the treatment of Tundikeri .

  14. Designed Surface Topographies Control ICAM-1 Expression in Tonsil-Derived Human Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei S. Vasilevich

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs, the T-cell zone stromal cell subtype in the lymph nodes, create a scaffold for adhesion and migration of immune cells, thus allowing them to communicate. Although known to be important for the initiation of immune responses, studies about FRCs and their interactions have been impeded because FRCs are limited in availability and lose their function upon culture expansion. To circumvent these limitations, stromal cell precursors can be mechanotranduced to form mature FRCs. Here, we used a library of designed surface topographies to trigger FRC differentiation from tonsil-derived stromal cells (TSCs. Undifferentiated TSCs were seeded on a TopoChip containing 2176 different topographies in culture medium without differentiation factors, then monitored cell morphology and the levels of ICAM-1, a marker of FRC differentiation. We identified 112 and 72 surfaces that upregulated and downregulated, respectively, ICAM-1 expression. By monitoring cell morphology, and expression of the FRC differentiation marker ICAM-1 via image analysis and machine learning, we discovered correlations between ICAM-1 expression, cell shape and design of surface topographies and confirmed our findings by using flow cytometry. Our findings confirmed that TSCs are mechano-responsive cells and identified particular topographies that can be used to improve FRC differentiation protocols.

  15. Adenoid and tonsil surgeries in children: How relevant is pre-operative blood grouping and cross-matching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Onotai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a part of pre-operative evaluation, several otolaryngologists group and cross-match blood routinely for children undergoing adenoid and tonsil surgeries. This practice has generated several debates either in support or against this practice. The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the incidence of post-tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy bleeding and blood transfusions in otherwise healthy children with adenoid/tonsil pathologies conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH. Patients and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study of children who underwent adenoid and tonsil surgeries in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT surgery of UPTH from January 2003 to December 2012. Children with family history of bleeding disorders and derangement of clotting profile as well as different co-morbidity like sickle cell disease were excluded from this study. The patients′ data were retrieved from the registers of ENT out-patient clinics, theatre registers and patients case notes. Demographic data, indications for surgery, preoperative investigations, complications and management outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: Out of 145 children that had adenoid and tonsil surgeries; only 100 met the criteria for this study. The study subjects included 65 males and 35 females (male: female ratio 1.9:1 belonging to 0-16 years age group (mean age: 3.46 ± 2.82 years. The age group of 3-5 years had the highest (n = 40, 40% number of surgeries. Adenotonsillectomy was the commonest (n = 85, 85% surgery performed on patients who had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The commonest (n = 6, 6% complication was haemorrhage, and only few (n = 3, 3% patients had blood transfusion. However, mortality was recorded in some (n = 3, 3% patients. Conclusion: This study confirms that the incidence of post adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy bleeding in otherwise healthy children is low and rarely requires blood transfusion

  16. Characterisation of insulin-producing cells differentiated from tonsil derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Park, Woo-Jae; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Woo, So-Youn; Jo, Inho; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Park, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    Tonsil-derived (T-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display mutilineage differentiation potential and self-renewal capacity and have potential as a banking source. Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease in modern society, and the transplantation of pancreatic progenitor cells or various stem cell-derived insulin-secreting cells has been suggested as a novel therapy for diabetes. The potential of T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells or insulin-secreting cells has not yet been investigated. We examined the potential of human T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic islet cells using two different methods based on β-mercaptoethanol and insulin-transferin-selenium, respectively. First, we compared the efficacy of the two methods for inducing differentiation into insulin-producing cells. We demonstrated that the insulin-transferin-selenium method is more efficient for inducing differentiation into insulin-secreting cells regardless of the source of the MSCs. Second, we compared the differentiation potential of two different MSC types: T-MSCs and adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). T-MSCs had a differentiation capacity similar to that of A-MSCs and were capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose concentration. Islet-like clusters differentiated from T-MSCs had lower synaptotagmin-3, -5, -7, and -8 levels, and consequently lower secreted insulin levels than cells differentiated from A-MSCs. These results imply that T-MSCs can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells and could provide a novel, alternative cell therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics "entity" (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code's parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred as git

  18. The part of soluble and insoluble forms of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in particulate matter and in the pharyngeal tonsils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have confirmed that the pharyngeal tonsil is a good biomarker of exposure due to its position relative to inhaled air so that multiple elements can be accumulated in this organ. The aim of the study is to determine the share of soluble and insoluble compounds of individual elements in suspended particles in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Ca,Mg by the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The content of the analyzed elements is defined in 86 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Tychy and in 76 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Chorzów, as well as in the suspended particles in the air occurring in soluble and insoluble form. The specified coefficients k1, k2 present in the equation division allow the indication the greater importance of soluble and insoluble fraction of an element present in the inhaled air. Results. The value of the coefficients in the equation division based on gender confirmed its importance. Conclusions. The values detect area variation in relation to passive smoking in the extent of accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca in pharyngeal tonsils.

  19. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  20. PET imaging of thin objects: measuring the effects of positron range and partial-volume averaging in the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexoff, David L., E-mail: alexoff@bnl.gov; Dewey, Stephen L.; Vaska, Paul; Krishnamoorthy, Srilalan; Ferrieri, Richard; Schueller, Michael; Schlyer, David J.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Methods: Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Results: Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean{+-}S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59{+-}1.1%, 64{+-}4.4% and 67{+-}1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. Conclusions: The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.

  1. Agranulocitose e tonsilite associadas ao uso de metimazol Agranulocytosis with tonsillitis associated with methimazole therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge T. Zambrana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento do hipertireoidismo com drogas antitireoidianas pode provocar, em 0,2 a 0,3% dos casos, um importante efeito colateral: a agranulocitose. As complicações infecciosas decorrentes desta condição afetam principalmente a orofaringe, sendo a tonsilite uma de suas manifestações. No presente trabalho, é relatado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, com 33 anos, apresentando odinofagia e febre resistentes à vários antibióticos. A paciente era portadora de hipertireoidismo e estava em uso de metimazol há dois meses. Com o diagnóstico de angina agranulocítica, foi suspensa a droga e iniciado tratamento com ciprofloxacina, sintomáticos e estimulador de colônias granulocíticas, além de fluconazol. A paciente evoluiu satisfatoriamente, recebendo alta dez dias após o início do tratamento. Quinze dias depois, uma tireoidectomia total foi realizada. O objetivo deste relato é ressaltar a importância de se conhecer os efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos, advertir os pacientes sobre os mesmos e alertar os médicos quanto à necessidade de se avaliar o paciente como um todo, investigando sobre outras doenças existentes e medicamentos em uso.The treatment of hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs can cause a significant side effect in 0.2 to 0.3% of the cases: agranulocytosis. Infectious complications caused by this condition affect mainly the throat, and tonsillitis is one of its manifestations. The present study reported the case of a female patient, 33 years old, manifesting odynophagia and fever resistant to many antibiotics. The patient showed hyperthyroidism and had been using methimazole for two months. With the diagnoses of agranulocytic angina, the drug was withdrawn and treatment with ciprofloxacin, symptomatic drugs and granulocytic-colony stimulator, besides fluconazol was started. The patient developed satisfactorily, being discharged ten days after the beginning of the treatment. Fifteen days later, total

  2. High abundance and diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in faeces and tonsils of pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, I; Garcia-Graells, C; Biasino, W; Gowda, T; Botteldoorn, N; De Zutter, L

    2017-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the abundance of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in the faeces and tonsils of 96 pigs during slaughter. Moreover, different isolates from a selected number of pigs were tested to study the diversity of bla ESBL genes within E. coli isolates from one pig. Cefotaxime-resistant bacteria (based on enumeration results on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were found in the faeces of 77 pigs (80%; 95% CI: 70-87%) and the tonsils of 91 pigs (95%; 95% CI: 88%-98%). Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (based on enumeration results on Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were detected in 72 faecal samples (75%; 95% CI: 64-83%) and 45 tonsil samples (47%; 95% CI: 35-59%), in numbers up to 5.5 and 5.6log 10 CFU/g, respectively. On average, around 1/10,000 E. coli in both faeces and tonsils were cefotaxime-resistant, though large variations were observed between pigs. Within one sample, CREC isolates with up to five different combinations of ESBL genes were observed. In three out of 16 faecal samples and six out of 14 tonsil samples, only one ESBL gene profile was found. The high numbers of CREC that are occasionally found in the faeces and tonsils of pigs during slaughter may represent an important source of contamination of carcasses and subsequently pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent trends in prescribing antibiotics for acute tonsillitis in pediatric ambulatory care in Taiwan, 2000-2009: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lo-Yi; Lai, Chou-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jen; Cho, Ching-Yi; Luo, Yu-Cheng; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Wu, Keh-Gong

    2017-08-01

    Acute tonsillitis is the leading diagnosis in pediatric ambulatory care, and group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is the main reason for antibiotic prescriptions in patients with acute tonsillitis. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in prescribing antibiotics and to investigate the prescription patterns for acute tonsillitis in pediatric ambulatory care in Taiwan from 2000 to 2009. Data on children younger than 18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute tonsillitis were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2000 to 2009. Concomitant bacterial infections were excluded. Sex, age, seasonality, location, level of medical institution, and physician specialty were analyzed. Annual and monthly changes in antibiotic prescriptions and classification were also evaluated. A total of 40,775 cases were enrolled, with an overall antibiotic prescription rate of 16.8%. There was a remarkable decline in the antibiotic prescription rates for tonsillitis from 28.4% in 2000 to 10.9% in 2009. Factors associated with a higher prescription rate included older age, visits from eastern Taiwan, medical centers, and nonpediatrician physicians. Otolaryngologists had higher antibiotic prescription rate, whereas pediatricians had the lowest (21.9% vs. 11.6%). The rates of obtaining throat cultures were low although the culture performing rate in the medical centers was significantly higher (12.3%, p < 0.001). From 2000 to 2009, there was a remarkable decline in the antibiotic prescription rates for tonsillitis. Further studies to evaluate diagnostic tools such as rapid antigen detection tests or throat cultures to decrease antibiotic prescriptions are warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.

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    Carolina Stenfeldt

    Full Text Available A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18-24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs.

  5. Accumulation of selected elements in the pharyngeal tonsils of children as a result of secondary dust emission

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    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of secondary dust and car emission on the intoxication of adenoids. Material and methods. The amount of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr in pharyngeal tonsils of children living in Tychy (n 86, and in Chorzów (n 76 as well as the amount of the selected elements in suspended dust was determined by the ICP – AES method. The biological material had previously been subjected to mineralization using of nitric acid (V spectrally pure Merck. Results. Secondary emission as a potential additional source of trace elements in tonsils is described by secondary emission coefficient and by the additional weight of the metal present in general air pollution. Conclusions. The degree of accumulation of analyzed elements in the adenoid tissue mostly depends on the content of these elements in soluble form in suspended dust in the ground layer of air, as a result of secondary and car emissions.

  6. Value of procalcitonin and interleukin-6 in diagnosis of acute tonsillitis children complicated with sepsis%降钙素原及白介素-6测定在急性扁桃体炎合并脓毒症患儿中的诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志颖; 赵云红; 周沛然; 邹娜娜; 张翔

    2017-01-01

    目的 研究降钙素原及白介素-6测定在小儿急性扁桃体炎并脓毒症患儿中的诊断价值.方法 选取2013年6月-2015年7月急性扁桃体炎并脓毒症患儿86例为脓毒症组,急性扁桃体炎患儿90例为扁桃体炎组、健康儿童44例为对照组;分别对患儿进行降钙素原(PCT)、白介素-6(IL-6)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)、白细胞计数(WBC)、中性粒细胞比值(N)水平以及急性生理与慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)评分测定,比较其结果在三组中治疗前、第3天、第5天及治疗结束变化情况.结果 治疗前,脓毒症组、扁桃体炎组PC T为(14.92±3.84)ng/mL、(11.10±1.00)ng/mL、IL-6为(365.20±78.00)ng/L、(262.20±47.00)ng/L)、CRP为(19.48±2.00)mg/L、(16.20±2.32)mg/L、WBC为(18.50±7.40)×109/L、(11.60±2.40)×109/L、N为(85.00±4.70)%、(78.00±2.15)%水平以及APACHEⅡ评分(20.60±4.20)分、(14.61±2.10)分,均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);脓毒症组,治疗第3天各项指标(PCT(25.12±4.10)ng/mL、IL-6(468.20±64.00)ng/L、CRP(24.60±3.10)mg/L、WBC(22.72±2.10)×109/L、N(89.00±3.84)%水平以及APACHEⅡ评分(27.10±3.10)分,均高于治疗前;治疗第5天(PCT(13.05±2.16)ng/mL、IL-6(80.50±4.10)ng/L、CRP(14.20±3.30)mg/L、WBC(7.20±1.00)×109/L、N(89.00±3.84)%水平以及APACHEⅡ评分(14.20±3.30)分,低于治疗第3天;治疗第3天和第5天,各项指标高于扁桃体炎组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗结束,与扁桃体炎组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 PC T及IL-6检测有助于小儿急性扁桃体炎合并脓毒症的早期诊断、病情评估和临床指导,且PCT、IL-6的截断值14.50ng/mL、365.50ng/L,能为临床早期诊断提供参考.%OBJECTIVE To study the value of procalcitonin (PCT ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in diagnosis of acute tonsillitis children complicated with sepsis .METHODS From Jun 2013 to Jul 2015 ,a total of 86 acute tonsillitis children complicated with sepsis were chosen

  7. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

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    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65% followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%. There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm’s early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections.

  8. Detection, enumeration and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in pig tonsils at slaughter in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco

    2014-05-02

    Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of

  9. Fusion of LiDAR and aerial imagery for the estimation of downed tree volume using Support Vector Machines classification and region based object fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sowmya

    downed tree classification with fused LiDAR and aerial image. The classified tree pixels are utilized in the object based region fitting technique to compute the diameter and height of the downed trees and the volume of the trees are estimated. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  10. Periodontal disease bacteria specific to tonsil in IgA nephropathy patients predicts the remission by the treatment.

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    Yasuyuki Nagasawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (IgA nephropathy (IgAN is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Some bacteria were reported to be the candidate of the antigen or the pathogenesis of IgAN, but systematic analysis of bacterial flora in tonsil with IgAN has not been reported. Moreover, these bacteria specific to IgAN might be candidate for the indicator which can predict the remission of IgAN treated by the combination of tonsillectomy and steroid pulse. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We made a comprehensive analysis of tonsil flora in 68 IgAN patients and 28 control patients using Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. We also analyzed the relationship between several bacteria specific to the IgAN and the prognosis of the IgAN. Treponema sp. were identified in 24% IgAN patients, while in 7% control patients (P = 0.062. Haemophilus segnis were detected in 53% IgAN patients, while in 25% control patients (P = 0.012. Campylobacter rectus were identified in 49% IgAN patients, while in 14% control patients (P = 0.002. Multiple Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that Treponema sp. or Campylobactor rectus are significant for the remission of proteinuria (Hazard ratio 2.35, p = 0.019. There was significant difference in remission rates between IgAN patients with Treponema sp. and those without the bacterium (p = 0.046, and in remission rates between IgAN patients with Campylobacter rectus and those without the bacterium (p = 0.037 by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Those bacteria are well known to be related with the periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria has known to cause immune reaction and many diseases, and also might cause IgA nephropathy. CONCLUSION: This insight into IgAN might be useful for diagnosis of the IgAN patients and the decision of treatment of IgAN.

  11. Periodontal disease bacteria specific to tonsil in IgA nephropathy patients predicts the remission by the treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Iio, Kenichiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Date, Yasuhiro; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Horii, Arata; Inohara, Hidenori; Imai, Enyu; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Some bacteria were reported to be the candidate of the antigen or the pathogenesis of IgAN, but systematic analysis of bacterial flora in tonsil with IgAN has not been reported. Moreover, these bacteria specific to IgAN might be candidate for the indicator which can predict the remission of IgAN treated by the combination of tonsillectomy and steroid pulse. We made a comprehensive analysis of tonsil flora in 68 IgAN patients and 28 control patients using Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. We also analyzed the relationship between several bacteria specific to the IgAN and the prognosis of the IgAN. Treponema sp. were identified in 24% IgAN patients, while in 7% control patients (P = 0.062). Haemophilus segnis were detected in 53% IgAN patients, while in 25% control patients (P = 0.012). Campylobacter rectus were identified in 49% IgAN patients, while in 14% control patients (P = 0.002). Multiple Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that Treponema sp. or Campylobactor rectus are significant for the remission of proteinuria (Hazard ratio 2.35, p = 0.019). There was significant difference in remission rates between IgAN patients with Treponema sp. and those without the bacterium (p = 0.046), and in remission rates between IgAN patients with Campylobacter rectus and those without the bacterium (p = 0.037) by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Those bacteria are well known to be related with the periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria has known to cause immune reaction and many diseases, and also might cause IgA nephropathy. This insight into IgAN might be useful for diagnosis of the IgAN patients and the decision of treatment of IgAN.

  12. Incidental Mycobacterium-induced granulomatous inflammation of the follicular pharyngeal tonsils in a South African farmed ostrich (Struthio camelus

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    Martina R. Crole

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycobacteriosis (AM is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium aviumcomplex (MAC, which can spread from avians to other farmed animals such as cattle and pigs as well as to humans. This study is the first report of granulomatous inflammation, as a result of avian mycobacteriosis, in the follicular pharyngeal tonsils of a farmed ostrich. The head of an apparently healthy farmed adult ostrich was obtained after slaughter. Each pharyngeal fold displayed a large tissue mass. This tissue was routinely prepared for light microscopy and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Grocott methenamine silver, Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen. Immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify Mycobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. Histologically, the tissue masses consisted of confluent mature micro-granulomata that were characterised by central caseous necrosis surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and lymphoid cells and an outer mature fibrous connective tissue capsule. Within some foci of caseous necrosis were variably sized colonies of small, Gram-negative, acid-fast bacilli, which showed positive IHC labelling for Mycobacterium spp., leading to a presumptive diagnosis of AM. PCR thus proved useful in excluding the presence of notifiable Mycobacteriumspp. The significance and role of the pharyngeal tonsils of ratites in diseases such as AM warrant specific attention. Moreover, as ratites are known to present with AM infections with apparently no visible loss in body condition, as presumably occurred in the present case, it is imperative that unusual masses in apparently healthy ratites be thoroughly investigated.

  13. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae PCR typing system based on the apx and omlA genes - evaluation of isolates from lungs and tonsils of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Andreasen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    . The PCR typing system was tested on 102 field strains of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lungs of diseased pigs. The serotyping results of the investigated field strains were in agreement with the apr and omlA gene patterns found in the reference strains of the bacteria, with the exception of the oml...... gene patterns and in 89% of the isolates using the omlA gene. The same serotype specific apx/omlA gene pattern was thus found in the majority of the tonsil isolates and in isolates from diseased lungs. Most of the differences in the omlA gene were found in 18 tonsil isolates of serotype 12. The oml...

  14. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis due to bacterial tonsillitis Fasceite necrotizante cervical secundária a amigdalite bacteriana

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    Bruno Zilberstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe and potentially fatal soft tissue infection, but involvement of the head and neck is rare. We report on 4 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis arising from tonsillitis. One patient was diabetic and one had received steroids before disease development. One patient developed acute respiratory failure and died of septic shock. Three patients recovered, helped by early recognition, aggressive surgical intervention, appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics, and supportive therapy. The common bacteria found in all abscess samples were Streptococcus sp., but mixed flora with anaerobic organisms was seen in all but 1 case. Tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess must be suspected as a cause of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and a successful result can be achieved with immediate aggressive treatment.A fasceite necrotizante cervical é uma infecção grave de partes moles do pescoço. Trata-se de entidade rara, porém quando presente tem como principal origem um foco infeccioso odontogênico. São descritos 4 casos de fasceite necrotizante cervical a partir de tonsilites e abscesso peritonsilar, os quais, foram admitidos e tratados na unidade de terapia intensiva. Um dos pacientes era portador de Diabetes Melittus não insulino- dependente e outro paciente havia recebido corticoterapia antes do desenvolvimento da infecção. Em um dos casos ocorreu mediastinite, insuficiência respiratória e o paciente evolui para o óbito em decorrência de choque séptico. Durante o tratamento, 3 pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente devido ao diagnostico precoce, tratamento cirúrgico agressivo e utilização de antibiótico terapia de largo espectro. A bactéria mais comumente encontrada foi o Streptococcus sp, mas flora mista com germes anaeróbios foi encontrada em 3 dos casos descritos. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se suspeitar de tonsilite e abscesso peritonsilar como causa de fasceite necrotizante cervical para que tratamento agressivo e

  15. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

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    Chunyu Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed. At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers.

  16. Determining the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils using PCR and culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Yersiniosis is believed to be the third most common intestinal zoonosis in the European Union, after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species responsible for human infections. Pigs are regarded as the biggest reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, which are mainly isolated from pig tonsils. The aim of this paper is to examine the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in pigs which were slaughtered in a Polish abattoir. Real-time PCR and culture methods were used to assess the prevalence of patho- genic Y. enterocolitica strains in pig tonsils. Real-time PCR was applied to detect inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. Y. enterocolitica was also isolated by applying direct plating, unselective (tryptic soy broth) and selective (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate bouillon) enrichment. A total of 180 pigs were studied, of which 85% and 32% respectively were found to be infected with inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. The 92 inv-positive and ail-positive isolates, from 57 culture- positive tonsils, underwent bio- and serotyping. The most common was bioserotype 4/O:3, which was found in 53 (93%) out of 57 culture-positive tonsils. Strains of bioserotypes 2/O:5, 2/O:9 and 2/O:5.27 occurred in significantly lower numbers. The prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was found to be high in the ton- sils of slaughtered pigs, using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR method for the detection and identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is sensitive and specific, which has been verified by specificity and sensitivity tests using the pure cultures. Serotypes were distinguished from each other using PCR serotyping. The PCR method was essential in forming our conclusions.

  17. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, M.; Fang, J.; Peng, X.; Cui, H.

    2016-11-01

    Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed). At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+) by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers. (Author)

  18. Comparison of detection procedures of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in lungs, tonsils, and synovial fluid of slaughtered pigs and their distributions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanon, Metta; Tummaruk, Padet; Thongkamkoon, Pacharee; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct PCR (DP) gave similar results to culture prior to PCR (CPP) for detecting mycoplasmas in different types of pig tissues. A total of 724 samples obtained from lungs, tonsils, or synovial fluids from 270 slaughtered pigs were used. The history of clinical signs, lung score, and the presence of joint lesions were recorded during sample collection. The rates of detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis using both procedures were evaluated. The overall prevalences of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae, and M. hyorhinis were 40.3%, 12.3%, and 64.6%, respectively, and the detection rate depended on the sample type and the procedure used. With lung tissue, DP gave a higher detection rate for M. hyopneumoniae (77.4%) than CPP (38.5%). M. hyorhinis was detected by CPP at 15.6% and 18.1% and by DP at 31.5% and 5.2%, respectively. The positive rate derived from tonsil from CPP was closed to that of DP. Using synovial fluid could not yield any positive M. hyorhinis from CPP whereas 37.2% was positive from DP. In contrast, using sample tissue from lung and tonsil by CPP could show much higher positive number than that of DP. There was a significant relationship between joint lesion and M. hyorhinis detection by DP (P hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis detection by DP and CPP, respectively. Tonsil was likely the community of persistent M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis with highly detection by CPP. Synovial fluid was apparently unsuitable for mycoplasmal culture. The accuracy of mycoplasmal detection may depend upon the type of sample relevant to the detection procedure used.

  19. Oral inoculation of young dairy calves with Mycoplasma bovis results in colonization of tonsils, development of otitis media and local immunity.

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    Fiona Maunsell

    Full Text Available Because M. bovis otitis media is an economically important problem, there is a need to understand the pathogenesis of disease, not only to improve our understanding of the factors contributing to the development of this disease but also to inform the development of improved diagnostic tests and therapy. Oral ingestion of M. bovis-contaminated milk is linked, but not definitively proven, to development of otitis media. In the current study, we demonstrate that oral ingestion of M. bovis infected colostrum can result in an ascending infection and development of otitis media. Importantly, M. bovis was found to have a previously unrecognized tendency for colonization of the tonsils of calves, which most likely contributed to the subsequent development of otitis media. In contrast, transtracheal inoculation failed to produce clinically significant upper respiratory tract disease, although did induce lower respiratory tract disease. The upper respiratory tract was the major site of M. bovis-specific B cell and mucosal IgA responses in calves inoculated by the oral route. The oral inoculation route of infection presented here is particularly suited to the study of host-pathogen interactions during initial colonization of the tonsils, expansion of infection and dissemination to the lower respiratory tract and middle ear. In addition, it could be used to investigate potential new preventative or control strategies, especially those aimed at limiting colonization of the tonsils and/or spread to the middle ear.

  20. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  1. Surgical treatment of type I Chiari malformation: the role of Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation

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    Claudio Henrique Fernandes Vidal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for type 1 Chiari malformation (CM 1 is one of the most controversial topics in the neurosurgical field. The present study evaluated two of the most applied surgical techniques to treat CM 1. Method 32 patients were evaluated and divided in two groups: group 1 had 16 patients that were submitted to decompression of occipital bone and dura mater of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ; group 2 also had 16 patients and in addition to the previous procedure, they were submitted to Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation. The comparison between the groups included neurological exam and cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging during pre and postoperative periods. Results Both techniques were equivalents in terms of neurological improvement of the patients (p > 0.05, but the group 2 had more surgical complications, with relative risk of 2.45 (CI 1.55-3.86 for adverse events. Whatever the cerebrospinal fluid flow at CVJ, the patients of the group 1 achieved greater amount of flow than the group 2 (p < 0.05 during the postoperative period. Conclusion The cranial and dural decompression of the CVJ without arachnoidal violation was the best surgical intervention for treatment of CM 1, between these two compared techniques.

  2. Clusterin in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids: localization to M cells and follicular dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Phebe; Kujala, Pekka; Waelput, Wim; Peters, Peter J; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2008-03-01

    The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the follicles of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a key player in the initiation of mucosal immune responses. We recently reported strong clusterin expression in the FAE of murine Peyer's patches. In this study, we examined the expression of clusterin in the human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Waldeyer's ring. Immunohistochemistry for clusterin in human Peyer's patches, appendix and colon lymphoid follicles revealed expression in M cells and in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Using cryo-immunogold electron microscopy in Peyer's patches, we observed cytosolic immunoreactivity in M cells and labeling in the ER/Golgi biosynthetic pathway in FDCs. In palatine tonsils and adenoids, we demonstrated clusterin expression in germinal centers and in the lymphoepithelium in the crypts where M cells are localized. In conclusion, clusterin is expressed in M cells and follicular dendritic cells at inductive sites of human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue suggesting a role for this protein in innate immune responses. Moreover, the use of clusterin as a human M cell marker could prove to be a valuable tool in future M cell research.

  3. Mobilization of immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing plasma cells in Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of broilers vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, M; Khan, M Z I; Siddiqi, M N H; Masum, M A

    2013-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of various groups of broiler chickens and the response of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccines (BCRDV) on the mobilization of Igs-cells during postnatal development of organs was investigated in the Dept. of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. In this study twelve chickens were grouped into vaccinated broilers (D14 and D28) which had received vaccines first at D3 of age and a booster dose given at D13; and non-vaccinated broilers (D1) which had not been vaccinated. In this study, it was observed that the frequency and distribution of Igs-positive cells were higher at D14 and at D28 rather than D1. Among Igs-positive cells, the IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgM and IgA-positive cells in the Harderian gland of D14 and D28 groups of chickens, however, in day-old chickens, the frequency of IgM-positive cells in this gland were greater. In the cecal tonsil, the frequency and distribution of IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgA- and IgM-positive cells both at D14 and D28 ages of chicken. On the other hand, in day-old chickens, the frequency and distribution of IgA-positive cells were insignificantly greater, followed by IgM and IgG-positive cells. In the trachea, few immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells were distributed in the subepithelial layer. IgM-positive cells were higher followed by IgG and IgA-positive cells in the trachea in D14 and D28 groups of chickens. In the same organ, IgG-positive plasma cells were greater than IgA and IgM-positive cells at one-day old. When the data for Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea were compared statistically, it was observed that Igs-positive cells were statistically more common in cecal tonsils in day old chickens, and with the advancement of age, Igs-positive cells were found more in the Harderian gland. In conclusion, with the advancement of age in chickens the Harderian gland

  4. A single point acupuncture treatment at large intestine meridian: a randomized controlled trial in acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Lill, Christian; Lüdtke, Rainer; Gleditsch, Jochen; Rasp, Gerd; Irnich, Dominik

    2009-09-01

    One out of 4 patients visiting a general practitioner reports of a sore throat associated with pain on swallowing. This study was established to examine the immediate pain alleviating effect of a single point acupuncture treatment applied to the large intestine meridian of patients with sore throat. Sixty patients with acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. They either received acupuncture, or sham laser acupuncture, directed to the large intestine meridian section between acupuncture points LI 8 and LI 10. The main outcome measure was the change of pain intensity on swallowing a sip of water evaluated by a visual analog scale 15 minutes after treatment. A credibility assessment regarding the respective treatment was performed. The pain intensity for the acupuncture group before and immediately after therapy was 5.6+/-2.8 and 3.0+/-3.0, and for the sham group 5.6+/-2.5 and 3.8+/-2.5, respectively. Despite the articulation of a more pronounced improvement among the acupuncture group, there was no significant difference between groups (Delta=0.9, confidence interval: -0.2-2.0; P=0.12; analysis of covariance). Patients' satisfaction was high in both treatment groups. The study was prematurely terminated due to a subsequent lack of suitable patients. A single acupuncture treatment applied to a selected area of the large intestine meridian was no more effective in the alleviation of pain associated with clinical sore throat than sham laser acupuncture applied to the same area. Hence, clinically relevant improvement could be achieved. Pain alleviation might partly be due to the intense palpation of the large intestine meridian. The benefit of a comprehensive acupuncture treatment protocol in this condition should be subject to further trials.

  5. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluni M. Wijesundara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS. There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA and peptidoglycan (PGN (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE or aqueous extracts (AE for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6% of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8, human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2, epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2. Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis.

  6. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  7. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The localization of the larvae of the reindeer nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx was investigated in 21 reindeer, 11 months old, during April, and in 5 animals during November. In reindeer, without the presence of larvae, no preformed pharyngeal pouch was found at the predilection site, dorsomedially in the pharynx, but an unpaired tronsil, tentatively named Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis. In 12 of the animals investigated during April, a puch containing larvae of C. trompe was found at the predilection site, i.e. the site of the dorsomedially located tonsil. Histologically remnants of tonsil tissue was present at the opening of the pouch. In 3 animals a pouch, containing larvae, was found in the left lateral wall and in 2 animals in the right lateral wall of the pharynz between the opening of Tuba auditiva and the tonsil. In one animal 2 pouches were found, one in the tonsil tissue and one located in the right lateral wall of pharynx. In serial sections from two animals investigated during November, 1 :st instar larvae of Cephenomyia trompe were found in the crypts of the tonsills. The fact that the tonsil tissue is a predilection site for C. trompe larvae may be due to the mechanical protection the 1st instar larvae can find in the crypts. Larvae may, however, also attach to other parts of the pharyngeal mucosa. During their development the larvae penetrate the mucosa forming a pouch. The wall of this pouch consists of a naked acute granulation tissue heavily infiltrated with eosinophilic leucocytes. In connection with the healing process, starting when the larvae have left, a pouch may remain, characterized by walls of chronic granulation tissue covered by a mucous membrane. This pouch could well be misinterpreted as a preformed pouch.Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren i en tidigare okänd tonsillvävnad (Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning

  8. Effect of administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the occurrence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media in 3 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, F; Colombo, M; Giuliani, M G; Danza, M L; Basile, I; Bollani, T; Conti, A M; Zanvit, A; Rottoli, A S

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten. By randomization, 222 enrolled children attending the first year of kindergarten were divided into a treated group (N = 111) receiving for 6 months a daily treatment with BLIS K12 (Bactoblis®) and a control group (N = 111) who were monitored as untreated controls. During the 6 months of treatment and 3 months of follow-up, the children were evaluated for treatment tolerance, and for episodes of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media. During the 6-month trial (N = 111 per group) the incidence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media was approximately 16%, 9% and 44% respectively in the treated group and 48%, 4% and 80% in the control group. During the 3-months follow-up (N = 29 per group) the corresponding rates of infection were 15%, 0% and 12% in the treated group and 26%, 6% and 36% in the controls. No apparent side effects were detected in the treated group either during treatment or follow-up. All of the enrolled children completed the study. The daily administration of BLIS K12 to children attending their first year of kindergarten was associated with a significant reduction in episodes of streptococcal pharyngitis and acute otitis media. No protection against scarlet fever was detected.

  9. Use of a novel serum ELISA method and the tonsil-carrier state for evaluation of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae distributions in pig herds with or without clinical arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Friis, Niels Filskov

    2005-01-01

    on porcine serum following experimental Mycoplasma infections as well as by analysis of samples from one Danish herd known to be free of M. hyosynoviae and samples from two Norwegian herds without clinical suspicion of M. hyosynoviae infections since their establishment. The epidemiology of M. hyosynoviae...... determined by culture of cross-sectional samples of whole-blood (n = 238) and tonsil scrapings (n = 322), respectively. Levels of serum antibodies (n = 396) were measured by the novel indirect ELISA test. There was no significant difference in the ELISA results between the MhA and the MhC herds. Pigs...

  10. Associação entre hipertrofia adenotonsilar, tonsilites e crises álgicas na anemia falciforme Association between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, tonsillitis and painful crises in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salles

    2009-06-01

    lgica no mesmo período; e não houve diferença quanto ao valor da hemoglobina anual média entre os que apresentaram e os que não apresentaram hipertrofia adenotonsilar obstrutiva.OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia; to investigate possible association between the presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months and episodes of painful crises in the same period; and to compare the mean annual hemoglobin level in children and adolescents with and without obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy. METHODS: Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 85 children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. All patients answered a questionnaire and underwent a standard otolaryngology examination, including endoscopic endonasal approach. The diagnosis of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was made according to the Brodsky scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was 55.3%. Obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was associated with history of difficulty in eating (76.7 vs. 23.5%, p = 0.003, presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months (70.6 vs. 29.4%, p = 0.021, loud snoring (73.0 vs. 27.0%, p = 0.004, and sleep apnea (71.8 vs. 28.2%, p = 0.005. Patients with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy had more episodes of recurrent upper airway tract infection (62.5 vs. 37.5; p = 0.010. The presence of more than five episodes of tonsillitis in the last 12 months was associated with episodes of painful crises (median = 12 vs. 2, p = 0.017. There was no significant difference between mean annual hemoglobin levels of patients with obstructive adenotonsilar hypertrophy vs. nonobstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy: 7.6 vs. 8.2 g/dL, p = 0.199. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy was 55.3% in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia; the presence of

  11. Tonsils and Adenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  12. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  13. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  14. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  15. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  16. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  17. CX3CR1 is expressed by human B lymphocytes and mediates [corrected] CX3CL1 driven chemotaxis of tonsil centrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corcione

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractalkine/CX(3CL1, a surface chemokine, binds to CX(3CR1 expressed by different lymphocyte subsets. Since CX(3CL1 has been detected in the germinal centres of secondary lymphoid tissue, in this study we have investigated CX(3CR1 expression and function in human naïve, germinal centre and memory B cells isolated from tonsil or peripheral blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate unambiguously that highly purified human B cells from tonsil and peripheral blood expressed CX(3CR1 at mRNA and protein levels as assessed by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and competition binding assays. In particular, naïve, germinal centre and memory B cells expressed CX(3CR1 but only germinal centre B cells were attracted by soluble CX(3CL1 in a transwell assay. CX(3CL1 signalling in germinal centre B cells involved PI3K, Erk1/2, p38, and Src phosphorylation, as assessed by Western blot experiments. CX(3CR1(+ germinal centre B cells were devoid of centroblasts and enriched for centrocytes that migrated to soluble CX(3CL1. ELISA assay showed that soluble CX(3CL1 was secreted constitutively by follicular dendritic cells and T follicular helper cells, two cell populations homing in the germinal centre light zone as centrocytes. At variance with that observed in humans, soluble CX(3CL1 did not attract spleen B cells from wild type mice. OVA immunized CX(3CR1(-/- or CX(3CL1(-/- mice showed significantly decreased specific IgG production compared to wild type mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model whereby human follicular dendritic cells and T follicular helper cells release in the light zone of germinal centre soluble CX(3CL1 that attracts centrocytes. The functional implications of these results warrant further investigation.

  18. Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia T. Soderholm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS commonly causes pharyngitis in children and adults, with severe invasive disease and immune sequelae being an infrequent consequence. The ability of GAS to invade the host and establish infection likely involves subversion of host immune defenses. However, the signaling pathways and innate immune responses of epithelial cells to GAS are not well-understood. In this study, we utilized RNAseq to characterize the inflammatory responses of primary human tonsil epithelial (TEpi cells to infection with the laboratory-adapted M6 strain JRS4 and the M1T1 clinical isolate 5448. Both strains induced the expression of genes encoding a wide range of inflammatory mediators, including IL-8. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed genes between mock and JRS4- or 5448-infected TEpi cells were enriched in transcription factor networks that regulate IL-8 expression, such as AP-1, ATF-2, and NFAT. While JRS4 infection resulted in high levels of secreted IL-8, 5448 infection did not, suggesting that 5448 may post-transcriptionally dampen IL-8 production. Infection with 5448ΔcepA, an isogenic mutant lacking the IL-8 protease SpyCEP, resulted in IL-8 secretion levels comparable to JRS4 infection. Complementation of 5448ΔcepA and JRS4 with a plasmid encoding 5448-derived SpyCEP significantly reduced IL-8 secretion by TEpi cells. Our results suggest that intracellular infection with the pathogenic GAS M1T1 clone induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in primary tonsil epithelial cells, but modulates this host response by selectively degrading the neutrophil-recruiting chemokine IL-8 to benefit infection.

  19. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  20. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  1. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  2. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume III. Student Terminal Performance Objectives and Instructional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the third volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  3. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  4. Idiopathic Radiation Recall Dermatitis Developing Nine Months after Cessation of Cisplatin Therapy in Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Melnyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To report on a suspected case of idiopathic radiation recall dermatitis in an individual nine months after radiation and chemotherapy treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the right tonsil. Radiation recall dermatitis is the development of a reaction in a previously irradiated area of skin after the administration of an aggravating medication. A review of the literature revealed several cases of radiation recall dermatitis that occur following radiation therapy and the institution of chemotherapy. Other medications have also been implicated in radiation recall dermatitis; however, this patient has not started any new medications since completion of his combined therapy. The patient developed this skin reaction in a distribution pattern identical to the area that received the highest radiation dose suggesting a possible link between radiation recall dermatitis and radiation dose. Radiation recall dermatitis is a reaction that is typically seen shortly after the reinstitution of chemotherapy during radiation therapy. This case illustrates that other medical etiologies are possible and suggests a relationship between radiation recall dermatitis and the total radiation dose an area receives.

  5. Stakeholders' views of recurrent sore throat, tonsillitis and their management: a qualitative interview study for the NAtional Trial of Tonsillectomy IN Adults (NATTINA Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, L A; Rousseau, N S; Wilson, J A; Wilkes, S; Haighton, C A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the impact of recurrent sore throats and tonsillitis in adults and stakeholder views of treatment pathways. Qualitative semistructured interview design reporting novel data from a feasibility study for a UK national trial of tonsillectomy in adults. Nine study sites linked to ear, nose and throat departments in National Health Service hospitals located across the United Kingdom. Fifteen patients, 11 general practitioners and 22 ear, nose and throat staff consented to in-depth interviews, which were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Views of stakeholder groups. Recurrent sore throats were reported to severely impact patients' family, work and social life. Ear, nose and throat staff stated that patients faced increasing barriers to secondary care service access. General practitioners were under pressure to reduce 'limited clinical value' surgical procedures. The findings from this study suggest that there is a disconnect between the attitudes of the stakeholders and the reality of recurrent sore throat, tonsillectomy procedures and service provision. More evidence for the role of tonsillectomy is needed from randomised controlled trials to determine whether it should continue to be ranked as a procedure of limited clinical effectiveness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  7. Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Species in Pig Tonsils and Raw Pork Meat by the Real-Time Pcr and Culture Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, M A

    2017-09-26

    The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid and accurate real-time PCR method to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pork. Yersinia enterocolitica is considered to be a crucial zoonosis, which can provoke diseases both in humans and animals. The classical culture methods designated to detect Y. enterocolitica species in food matrices are often very time-consuming. The chromosomal locus _tag CH49_3099 gene, that appears in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, was applied as DNA target for the 5' nuclease PCR protocol. The probe was labelled at the 5' end with the fluorescent reporter dye (FAM) and at the 3' end with the quencher dye (TAMRA). The real-time PCR cycling parameters included 41 cycles. A Ct value which reached a value higher than 40 constituted a negative result. The developed for the needs of this study qualitative real-time PCR method appeared to give very specific and reliable results. The detection rate of locus _tag CH49_3099 - positive Y. enterocolitica in 150 pig tonsils was 85 % and 32 % with PCR and culture methods, respectively. Both the Real-time PCR results and culture method results were obtained from material that was enriched during overnight incubation. The subject of the study were also raw pork meat samples. Among 80 samples examined, 7 ones were positive when real-time PCR was applied, and 6 ones were positive when classical culture method was applied. The application of molecular techniques based on the analysis of DNA sequences such as the Real-time PCR enables to detect this pathogenic bacteria very rapidly and with higher specificity, sensitivity and reliability in comparison to classical culture methods.

  8. Gene expression profiling of chicken cecal tonsils and ileum following oral exposure to soluble and PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, and lysate of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Yitbarek, Alexander; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C. jejuni lysate, are effective in reducing the intestinal burden of C. jejuni in chickens; however, the mechanisms behind this protection have yet to be determined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of host responses conferred by these treatments. Chickens were treated orally with soluble CpG ODN, or PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, or C. jejuni lysate, and expression of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides was evaluated in cecal tonsils and ileum using quantitative RT-PCR. Oral administration of soluble CpG ODN upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCLi2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4/1, IL-10 and IL-13, while treatment with PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN upregulated the expression of IL-1β, CXCLi2, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). C. jejuni lysate upregulated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, AvBD1, and CATHL-3. In conclusion, induction of cytokine and antimicrobial peptides expression in intestinal microenvironments may provide a means of reducing C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens, a key step in reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Clinical Potential of Semisynthetic Penicillins in Acute Bacterial Otitis Media and Acute Bacterial Tonsillitis in Children in the Practice of ENT Doctor: Focus on Ospamox and Amoxsiclav®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Popovych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide prevalence of bacterial infections of upper respiratory tract, especially in childhood, the presence of complications that threaten the health and lives of patients necessitate the prescription of a rational systemic antibiotic therapy. Given the fact that in most cases the characteristics of the bacterial spectrum as an etiologic agent of these diseases is known, penicillin antibiotics are the first line in this pathology. On the example of two clinical cases, we have considered the use of suspension Ospamox (amoxicillin and Amoxiclav® (amoxicillin clavulanate in children with acute tonsillitis and acute otitis media, which demonstrated high efficacy and safety of treatment.

  10. Auto-segmentation of low-risk clinical target volume for head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinzhong; Beadle, Beth M; Garden, Adam S; Gunn, Brandon; Rosenthal, David; Ang, Kian; Frank, Steven; Williamson, Ryan; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence; Dong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate atlas-based auto-segmentation methods to improve the quality of the delineation of low-risk clinical target volumes (CTVs) of unilateral tonsil cancers. Sixteen patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy for left tonsil tumors. These patients were treated by a total of 8 oncologists, who delineated all contours manually on the planning CT image. We chose 6 of the patients as atlas cases and used atlas-based auto-segmentation to map each the atlas CTV to the other 10 patients (test patients). For each test patient, the final contour was produced by combining the 6 individual segmentations from the atlases using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation algorithm. In addition, for each test patient, we identified a single atlas that produced deformed contours best matching the physician's manual contours. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the physician's manual contours using the slice-wise Hausdorff distance (HD), the slice-wise Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and a total volume overlap index. No single atlas consistently produced good results for all 10 test cases. The multiatlas segmentation achieved a good agreement between auto-segmented contours and manual contours, with a median slice-wise HD of 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, median slice-wise DSC of 80.2% ± 5.9%, and total volume overlap of 77.8% ± 3.3% over the 10 test cases. For radiation oncologists who contoured both the test case and one of the atlas cases, the best atlas for a test case had almost always been contoured by the oncologist who had contoured that test case, indicating that individual physician's practice dominated in target delineation and was an important factor in optimal atlas selection. Multiatlas segmentation may improve the quality of CTV delineation in clinical practice for unilateral tonsil cancers. We also showed that individual physician's practice was an important factor in selecting the optimal atlas for atlas-based auto

  11. Abortive lytic Epstein–Barr virus replication in tonsil-B lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis and a subset of the chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerner AM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner,1 Safedin Beqaj21Department of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA; 2Pathology Inc, Torrance, CA, USAAbstract: A systematic 2001–2007 review of 142 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients identified 106 CFS patients with elevated serum IgG antibodies to the herpesviruses Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus, or human herpesvirus (HHV 6 in single or multiple infections, with no other co-infections detected. We named these 106 patients group-A CFS. Eighty-six of these 106 group-A CFS patients (81% had elevated EBV early antibody, early antigen (diffuse, serum titers. A small group of six patients in the group-A EBV subset of CFS, additionally, had repetitive elevated-serum titers of antibody to the early lytic replication-encoded proteins, EBV dUTPase, and EBV DNA polymerase. The presence of these serum antibodies to EBV dUTPase and EBV DNA polymerase indicated EBV abortive lytic replication in these 6 CFS patients. None of 20 random control people (age- and sex-matched, with blood drawn at a commercial laboratory had elevated serum titers of antibody to EBV dUTPase or EBV DNA polymerase (P < 0.01. This finding needs verification in a larger group of EBV CFS subset patients, but if corroborated, it may represent a molecular marker for diagnosing the EBV subset of CFS. We review evidence that EBV abortive lytic replication with unassembled viral proteins in the blood may be the same in infectious mononucleosis (IM and a subset of CFS. EBV-abortive lytic replication in tonsil plasma cells is dominant in IM. No complete lytic virion is in the blood of IM or CFS patients. Complications of CFS and IM include cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Circulating abortive lytic-encoded EBV proteins (eg, EBV dUTPase, EBV DNA polymerase, and others may be common to IM and CFS. The intensity and duration of the circulating EBV-encoded proteins might differentiate the IM and EBV subsets of CFS

  12. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...

  13. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  14. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Guido Donato,2 Federico Fomia,3 Teresa Adami,4 Domenico Careddu,5 Claudia Cassandro,6 Roberto Albera61Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2ASL 1, Cuneo, 3ASL 3, Brescia, 4Infective Diseases, Verona, 5ASL 13, Novara, 6Surgical Science Department, Università degli Studi, Torino, ItalyBackground: The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media.Methods: We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®, and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product.Results: The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90% and/or acute otitis media (about 40%, calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period

  16. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  17. Herniation of the cerebellar tonsils after suprasellar arachnoid cyst shunt: case report Herniação das tonsilas cerebelares após shunt de cisto aracnóide supra-selar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mendonça

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the caudal dislocation of the cerebellar tonsils may occur associated with clinical conditions such as an intracranial mass lesion or Chiari I and II malformation. It may also be acquired after repeated lumbar punctures or lumboperitoneostomy. The occurrence of cerebellar herniation after derivation of intracranial arachnoid cyst is extremely rare, and there are only three cases reported in the medical literature. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with precocious puberty and suprasellar arachnoid cyst who developed a symptomatic herniation of the cerebellar tonsils three years after a cystoperitoneostomy. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy with duraplasty and partial tonsilectomy, showing afterwards, remission of the symptoms. We discussed the pathogenesis suggested in the literature.Sabe-se que o deslocamento caudal das tonsilas cerebelares pode ocorrer em associação com condições clínicas tais como: lesão expansiva intracraniana ou malformação de Chiari I e II. Pode ainda ser adquirido após repetidas punções lombares ou lomboperitoniostomia. A ocorrência de herniação cerebelar após derivação de cisto aracnóide intracraniano é evento extremamente raro, existindo apenas três casos relatados na literatura médica. O caso de menino de 9 anos de idade, com puberdade precoce e cisto aracnóide supra-selar, que desenvolveu herniação sintomática das tonsilas cerebelares três anos após cistoperitoniostomia. O paciente foi submetido a craniectomia suboccipital com plástica dural e tonsilectomia parcial, apresentando remissão dos sintomas. Discutimos a patogênese sugerida na literatura.

  18. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  19. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  20. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  1. Planning Economic Activities to Support Counterinsurgency Objectives. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    57 James Warden, “Agricultural Development Team Working to Boost Afghanistan’s Crop Yield .” Re- printed in Afghanistan...Province 109 Make Move Store Spend Agriculture (46%) How: Labor intensive, dirt farming via drip irrigation systems(e.g., wheat, maize , alfalfa...DTO altered its operations and resolved the gap in leadership. 157 Baram Chah is an Afghanistan

  2. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  3. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  4. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  5. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  6. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  7. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  8. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  9. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  10. F-16 Task Analysis Criterion-Referenced Objective and Objectives Hierarchy Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    dQescribe the next , 6beclfic action. to "tke in performing our, jottack using HUD back-up lAW Phase lanui. (Pooe: 768 ) Pace: 768 usi 9 HD back-up. a(Pae:767...aircraft I Given a photograph or Uiven a photograph or Givers a photograph or drawing of a drawing of a friendly drawing of a hinrese rsa -pact military

  11. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  12. Effects of uncertainty in model predictions of individual tree volume on large area volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; James A. Westfall

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory estimates of tree volume for large areas are typically calculated by adding model predictions of volumes for individual trees. However, the uncertainty in the model predictions is generally ignored with the result that the precision of the large area volume estimates is overestimated. The primary study objective was to estimate the effects of model...

  13. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  14. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  15. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches....

  16. Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects is reviewed. The results of optical studies of the proper motions and alignments, variability, and polarization of HH objects and the results of spectroscopic studies are discussed. Ground-based infrared studies and far-infrared observations are reviewed. Findings on the properties of molecular clouds associated with HH objects, on gas flows associated with HH IR stars, on maser emission, and on radio continuum observations are considered. A history of proposed excitation mechanisms for HH objects is briefly presented, and the salient shock-wave calculations aimed at synthesizing the spectra of HH objects are summarized along with hypotheses that have been advanced about the origin of the objects. 141 references

  17. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the principal characteristics and problems associated with the prototype BL Lacertae. The most important characteristics of this group and its relevance, the consideration of a few particular objects in moderate detail, the relation between these objects QSOs, and normal galaxies, and finally the possible physical nature of BL Lac objects and the important questions they raise are treated. 15 references

  18. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  19. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  20. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  1. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  2. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  3. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  4. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  5. Objects of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Describes learning objects, also known as granules, chunks, or information nuggets, and likens them to help screens. Discusses concerns about how they can go wrong: (1) faulty pretest questions; (2) missing links in the learning object chain; (3) poor frames of reference; and (4) lack of customization. (JOW)

  6. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  7. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  8. Stability of multihypernuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rather, Asloob A.; Usmani, A.A.; Patra, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    In present work, we analyze the stability of multi-hypernuclear objects having higher content of strangeness. The aim of this work is to test the stability of such objects which might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. Studies of such type of systems might have great implication to nuclear-astrophysics

  9. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  10. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many

  11. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  12. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  13. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  14. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  15. Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Toussaint, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used to lift the larger object, resulting in a

  16. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  17. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  18. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  19. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  20. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  1. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  2. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  3. CODAS object monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, M.R.; Rainford, M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  5. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  6. Formula-derived prostate volume determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite disadvantages such as time-consuming and tedious to the user, planimetric volumetry is considered to be the most accurate method for prostate volume determination. This study investigates the possibilities of formula-derived volume determination and reveals the best alternative

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  8. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  9. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  10. Media, journalism, objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the text around the themes: Media and Journalism, are confronted two directions of opinions: humanism and elitism. Humanism believes that media and journalism must be metaphysically objective: able to tell the truth regardless of time, place and terms of events. Another approach, elitism, is connected with Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's conceptual apparatus includes: Idea, History dialectic, 'cunning mind,' self- development and self-realization. In this context, media and journalism are considered as organic unity, an inseparable part of some dialectical totality. More specifically media and journalism can be objective only if they defend concrete ideological assumptions of society to which they belong. Any other understanding of these two concepts is non-objective, mere moralizing and / or demagoguery.

  11. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  12. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  13. Quantum objective realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednorz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether quantum measurements reflect some underlying objective reality has no generally accepted answer. We show that a description of such reality is possible under natural conditions such as linearity and causality, although in terms of moments and cumulants of finite order and without relativistic invariance. The proposed construction of observations’ probability distribution originates from weak, noninvasive measurements, with detection error replaced by some external finite noise. The noise allows us to construct microscopic objective reality, but remains dynamically decoupled and hence unobservable at the macroscopic level. (paper)

  14. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  15. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  16. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  17. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  18. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  19. The Object of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines a methodological approach for investigating how consumers create brand meaning using the material resources companies provide. The approach draws from Material Engagement Theory—to discuss the role of consumers in creating patterns of meaning by engaging with objects. It also e...

  20. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  1. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  2. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  3. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  4. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  5. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  6. Radiological characterisation - Know your objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindow, Veronica; Moeller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When developing a programme for mapping the radiological characteristics of a facility to be decommissioned it is important to take into account the objectives of the programme. Will the results be used to plan for radiological control and selection of appropriate decontamination and dismantling techniques? Will the radiological inventory be used for dimensioning of future waste repositories? These are two examples of the applications for such studies, which could require that a radiological characterisation programme be adapted to provide the data appropriate to the intended use. The level of detail and scope needed for a radiological characterisation will also vary depending on how the data will be used. An application to free-release a facility requires a comprehensive survey and well documented analysis in order to ensure that no radioactive contamination above prescribed levels is present. A bounding calculation to determine the maximum anticipated volumes and activity of radioactive waste requires a different approach. During the past few years, older decommissioning studies for the Swedish nuclear power plants have been updated (or are in the process of being updated). The decommissioning study's main purpose is to estimate the cost for decommissioning. The cost estimation is based on material and activity inventories, which in turn is based on previous and, in some cases, updated radiological characterisations of the facilities. The radiological inventory is an important part of the study as it affects the cost of decommissioning but also the uncertainties and accuracy of the cost estimation. The presentation will discuss the challenges in specifying a radiological characterisation programme with multiple objectives, together with insights on how data delivered can be applied to yield results suitable for the intended purpose, without introducing excessive conservatism. The intent of the presentation is to define issues that can be of use in various aspects

  7. Development of Automatic Visceral Fat Volume Calculation Software for CT Volume Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Nemoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop automatic visceral fat volume calculation software for computed tomography (CT volume data and to evaluate its feasibility. Methods. A total of 24 sets of whole-body CT volume data and anthropometric measurements were obtained, with three sets for each of four BMI categories (under 20, 20 to 25, 25 to 30, and over 30 in both sexes. True visceral fat volumes were defined on the basis of manual segmentation of the whole-body CT volume data by an experienced radiologist. Software to automatically calculate visceral fat volumes was developed using a region segmentation technique based on morphological analysis with CT value threshold. Automatically calculated visceral fat volumes were evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient with the true volumes and the error relative to the true volume. Results. Automatic visceral fat volume calculation results of all 24 data sets were obtained successfully and the average calculation time was 252.7 seconds/case. The correlation coefficients between the true visceral fat volume and the automatically calculated visceral fat volume were over 0.999. Conclusions. The newly developed software is feasible for calculating visceral fat volumes in a reasonable time and was proved to have high accuracy.

  8. Method and apparatus for imaging volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebin, R.; Carpenter, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    An imaging system projects a two dimensional representation of three dimensional volumes where surface boundaries and objects internal to the volumes are readily shown, and hidden surfaces and the surface boundaries themselves are accurately rendered by determining volume elements or voxels. An image volume representing a volume object or data structure is written into memory. A color and opacity is assigned to each voxel within the volume and stored as a red (R), green (G), blue (B), and opacity (A) component, three dimensional data volume. The RGBA assignment for each voxel is determined based on the percentage component composition of the materials represented in the volume, and thus, the percentage of color and transparency associated with those materials. The voxels in the RGBA volume are used as mathematical filters such that each successive voxel filter is overlayed over a prior background voxel filter. Through a linear interpolation, a new background filter is determined and generated. The interpolation is successively performed for all voxels up to the front most voxel for the plane of view. The method is repeated until all display voxels are determined for the plane of view. (author)

  9. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  10. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  11. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern “scientific” archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited....... The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  12. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  13. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  14. Object-Based Benefits without Object-Based Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    The organization of visual information into objects strongly influences visual memory: Displays with objects defined by two features (e.g. color, orientation) are easier to remember than displays with twice as many objects defined by one feature (Olson & Jiang, 2002). Existing theories suggest that this ‘object-benefit’ is based on object-based limitations in working memory: because a limited number of objects can be stored, packaging features together so that fewer objects have to be remembe...

  15. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  16. Reliability of tanoak volume equations when applied to different areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman H. Pillsbury; Philip M. McDonald; Victor Simon

    1995-01-01

    Tree volume equations for tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) were developed for seven stands throughout its natural range and compared by a volume prediction and a parameter difference method. The objective was to test if volume estimates from a species growing in a local, relatively uniform habitat could be applied more widely. Results indicated...

  17. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  18. Review of Meeting Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical

  19. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  20. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  1. Voludensitometry. Three dimensional display of medical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darier, P.; Garderet, P.; Grangeat, P.; Matte, P.; Tournier, E.; Villafana, R.

    1984-05-01

    In order to study the volumic cartography of material density (X-rays imaging), of proton density (RMN imaging) or of specific activity of a marker (γ or β + imaging) a set of calculation results (called voxels) is reconstructed from sensor data collection. Voxels are identified by a triplet of space coordinates and they represent a local estimation of the parameter to be studied. The concepts for representation there upon developed can be extended for any parameter for which additivity is meaningful. The operator has to govern a software in order to work out the documents leading himself to a mental representation of the object. On a display these documents will be either graphics, images or image sequences. The elementary process for elaboration of one image includes: - conditionning the volume: definition of absolute coordinates (geometrical transformations), interactive extraction (surgery) or automation extraction (segmentation) of sub-volumes, contextual organization (sub-volumes ordering, dissolution); - reduction to two dimensions of the information either by spatial integration (radiography), or by surface representation (morphoscopy). This contribution introduces these different concepts showing the way to the design of an interactive display console. Video recorded sequences that have been realised using an experimental software will illustrate the preliminary results [fr

  2. Efficient light scattering through thin semi-transparent objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns real-time rendering of thin semi-transparent objects. An object in this category could be a piece of cloth, eg. a curtain. Semi-transparent objects are visualized most correctly using volume rendering techniques. In general such techniques are, however, intractable for real-ti...... in this new area gives far better results than what is obtainable with a traditional real-time rendering scheme using a constant factor for alpha blending....

  3. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  4. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  5. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  6. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  7. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  8. Workshop objectives and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the Workshop was to create a platform in order to better understand different approaches to managing uncertainty in post-closure safety cases and regulatory approaches in different national waste management programmes. The principal objectives of the Workshop were to: - To identify common elements in different approaches for managing uncertainty. - To facilitate information exchange and to promote discussion on different technical approaches to the management and characterisation of uncertainty and on the role of risk. - To explore the merits of alternative approaches to risk-informed decision making. - To identify the potential for further developments of methods or strategies to support the management of uncertainties. The workshop was organised into plenary sessions and working group discussions: The first plenary session focused on establishing a framework for understanding the management of uncertainties and the use of risk. It comprised oral presentations drawing on a range of experience from both active participants in the development and assessment of safety cases and keynotes presentations by external participants involved in risk management in other sectors. The working group discussions covered three technical themes: Risk management and decision making. Regulatory requirements and review of uncertainty and risk in safety cases. Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainties and the assignment of probabilities, the use of expert judgements, and the presentation of information on uncertainties and risk were examined. The aim of the working groups was to develop an understanding of the specific issues, and to identify any further activities that will support the development and/or evaluation of safety cases. The round up plenary session brought together information and conclusions from each of the working groups. Common elements in the different approaches to treating uncertainty and risk were identified, along with

  9. Effects of Selected Object Characteristics on Object Permanence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Kathleen M.; Lingle, John H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the degree to which both object familiarity and motivational factors influence infants' search behavior in an object permanence test. Infants' search behavior for an unfamiliar test object was compared with search behavior for (a) an experientially familiar object that each infant had played with daily for a…

  10. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  11. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  12. Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.

  13. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  14. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  15. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  16. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  17. Subjective versus objective assessment of breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseler, Helga; Smith, Joanna; Bowman, Adrian; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ju, Xiangyang; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ray, Arup K

    2013-05-01

    To date breast assessment has been conducted mainly subjectively. However lately validated objective three-dimensional (3D) imaging was developed. The study aimed to assess breast reconstruction subjectively and objectively and conduct a comparison. In forty-four patients after immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with solely the extended latissimus dorsi flap the breast was captured by validated 3D imaging method and standardized 2D photography. Breast symmetry was subjectively evaluated by six experts who applied the Harris score giving a mark of 1-4 for a poor to excellent result. An error study was conducted by examination of the intra and inter-observer agreement and agreement on controls. By Procrustes analysis an objective asymmetry score was obtained and compared to the subjective assessment. The subjective assessment showed that the inter-observer agreement was good or substantial (p-value: value: fair (p-values: 0.159, 0.134, 0.099) to substantial (p-value: 0.005) intra-observer agreement. The objective assessment revealed that the reconstructed breast showed a significantly smaller volume compared to the opposite side and that the average asymmetry score was 0.052, ranging from 0.019 to 0.136. When comparing the subjective and objective method the relationship between the two scores was highly significant. Subjective breast assessment lacked accuracy and reproducibility. This was the first error study of subjective breast assessment versus an objective validated 3D imaging method based on true 3D parameters. The substantial agreement between established subjective breast assessment and new validated objective method supported the value of the later and we expect its future role to expand. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.

  19. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  20. An interactive visualization tool for mobile objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    Recent advancements in mobile devices---such as Global Positioning System (GPS), cellular phones, car navigation system, and radio-frequency identification (RFID)---have greatly influenced the nature and volume of data about individual-based movement in space and time. Due to the prevalence of mobile devices, vast amounts of mobile objects data are being produced and stored in databases, overwhelming the capacity of traditional spatial analytical methods. There is a growing need for discovering unexpected patterns, trends, and relationships that are hidden in the massive mobile objects data. Geographic visualization (GVis) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) are two major research fields that are associated with knowledge discovery and construction. Their major research challenges are the integration of GVis and KDD, enhancing the ability to handle large volume mobile objects data, and high interactivity between the computer and users of GVis and KDD tools. This dissertation proposes a visualization toolkit to enable highly interactive visual data exploration for mobile objects datasets. Vector algebraic representation and online analytical processing (OLAP) are utilized for managing and querying the mobile object data to accomplish high interactivity of the visualization tool. In addition, reconstructing trajectories at user-defined levels of temporal granularity with time aggregation methods allows exploration of the individual objects at different levels of movement generality. At a given level of generality, individual paths can be combined into synthetic summary paths based on three similarity measures, namely, locational similarity, directional similarity, and geometric similarity functions. A visualization toolkit based on the space-time cube concept exploits these functionalities to create a user-interactive environment for exploring mobile objects data. Furthermore, the characteristics of visualized trajectories are exported to be utilized for data

  1. The volume of the human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, Georg; Roehner, Eric; Windisch, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, particularly in septic knee surgery, the volume of the human knee joint has not been established to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine knee joint volume and whether or not it is dependent on sex or body height. Sixty-one consecutive patients (joints) who were due to undergo endoprosthetic joint replacement were enrolled in this prospective study. During the operation, the joint volume was determined by injecting saline solution until a pressure of 200 mmHg was achieved in the joint. The average volume of all knee joints was 131 ± 53 (40-290) ml. The volume was not found to be dependent on sex, but it was dependent on the patients' height (R = 0.312, p = 0.014). This enabled an estimation of the joint volume according to V = 1.6 height - 135. The considerable inter-individual variance of the knee joint volume would suggest that it should be determined or at least estimated according to body height if the joint volume has consequences for the diagnostics or therapy of knee disorders.

  2. Implications of perspective in teaching objects first and object design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    There are an increasing number of books published on the important topics of "object-oriented programming" and "object-oriented design" for use in education. However, object-orientation can be viewed from a number of different perspectives---each perspective having its benefits and liabilities...

  3. Two Types of Visual Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypulec Błażej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that human vision represents objects, it is less clear which of the various philosophical notions of ‘object’ adequately characterizes visual objects. In this paper, I show that within contemporary cognitive psychology visual objects are characterized in two distinct, incompatible ways. On the one hand, models of visual organization describe visual objects in terms of combinations of features, in accordance with the philosophical bundle theories of objects. However, models of visual persistence apply a notion of visual objects that is more similar to that endorsed in philosophical substratum theories. Here I discuss arguments that might show either that only one of the above notions of visual objects is adequate in the context of human vision, or that the category of visual objects is not uniform and contains entities properly characterized by different philosophical conceptions.

  4. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  5. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse NOTE: ...

  6. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  7. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  8. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  9. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  11. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  12. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation...

  13. Decoupling Object Detection and Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In…

  14. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon

  15. Delivered volumes of enteral nutrition exceed prescribed volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Renee Nichole; Utech, Anne; Velez, Maria Eugenia; Schwartz, Katie

    2014-10-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) provisions are typically calculated based on a 24-hour infusion period. However, feedings are often interrupted for daily activities, procedures, or gastrointestinal intolerance. The study's objective was to determine the delivered EN quantities provided to stable hospitalized patients, using cellular time and measured volumes to verify our EN calculation adjustment. A supply of consecutively numbered ready-to-hang (RTH) EN product was delivered to the bedside of 26 inpatients with established EN tolerance at goal rates on various types of nursing units. The dietitian weighed the volume remaining in the infusing product and recorded the measurement time. On the following days, the dietitian continued to weigh the infusing RTH product and the empty RTH bottles saved by nursing. The primary outcome was the difference between the prescribed and delivered EN provisions, which was calculated with a paired t test. Patients received significantly more calories in the delivered enteral feeding (mean [SD], 1678 [385] kcal) than prescribed calories in the EN order (1489 [246 kcal]; t = 3.736, P = .001), adjusting for observed time. No significant differences were found between nursing units, product, and rate. EN delivered may actually exceed ordered amounts by 5%–21% (mean, 12%) with feeding pump inaccuracy as the primary contributing factor. This differs from what others have found. Our findings support using a volume-based ordering system vs a rate-based ordering system for more accurate EN delivery.

  16. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  17. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flow rate measurement in a volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2018-04-17

    A system for measuring flow rate within a volume includes one or more transmission devices that transmit one or more signals through fluid contained within the volume. The volume may be bounded, at least in part, by an outer structure and by an object at least partially contained within the outer structure. A transmission device located at a first location of the outer structure transmits a first signal to a second location of the outer structure. A second signal is transmitted through the fluid from the second location to a third location of the outer structure. The flow rate of the fluid within the volume may be determined based, at least in part, on the time of flight of both the first signal and the second signal.

  19. A note on gauge fixing in theories of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgin, E.

    1989-08-01

    We discuss the light-cone type gauges (old and new) and the associated residual symmetries in theories of extended objects. We also discuss certain covariant gauges and in particular a covariant gauge for membranes which admits the contact diffeomorphisms of the world-volume as a residual symmetry. (author). 12 refs

  20. NJP VOLUME 40 No 1B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-07-13

    10.4314/njp.v40i1,9. Abstract Objective: Although the calibre of the airway is kept patent by multifactorial control system, there is evidence that ..... Lewinshohn HC, Capel LH, Smart. J. Changes in forced expiratory volumes throughout ...

  1. Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; Mourits, Maarten Ph

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare techniques for extraocular muscle (EOM) volume measurement and to provide guidelines for future measurements. DESIGN: Systematic review. RESULTS: Existing techniques used to measure extraocular muscle volumes on radiologic scans can be divided into manual

  2. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  3. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  4. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  5. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  6. Channels as Objects in Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is often a sort of a protocol associated to each class, stating when and how certain methods should be called. Given that this protocol is, if at all, described in the documentation accompanying the class, current mainstream object-oriented languages cannot provide for the verification of client code adherence against the sought class behaviour. We have defined a class-based concurrent object-oriented language that formalises such protocols in the form of usage types. Usage types are attached to class definitions, allowing for the specification of (1 the available methods, (2 the tests clients must perform on the result of methods, and (3 the object status - linear or shared - all of which depend on the object's state. Our work extends the recent approach on modular session types by eliminating channel operations, and defining the method call as the single communication primitive in both sequential and concurrent settings. In contrast to previous works, we define a single category for objects, instead of distinct categories for linear and for shared objects, and let linear objects evolve into shared ones. We introduce a standard sync qualifier to prevent thread interference in certain operations on shared objects. We formalise the language syntax, the operational semantics, and a type system that enforces by static typing that methods are called only when available, and by a single client if so specified in the usage type. We illustrate the language via a complete example.

  7. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  8. Rethinking the objectivity of ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Charles Burke

    2011-01-01

    Commonsense says that morality is objective. But skeptics deny that the normativity and fallibility that characterize this objectivity really exist. I disagree. I develop an account of moral facts that vindicates the objectivity of ethics. Moreover, I do this without relying on either the strong foundational claims of realism and constructivism, or the revisionary logic of expressivism. Instead, I build from a moral psychology that is modest and familiar--one that focuses on the distinctive, ...

  9. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Michał; Szewczyk, Roman

    2013-12-02

    This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth's field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  10. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  11. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  12. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  13. Intuitive modeling of vaporish objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Dmitry; Gentil, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to model gases in computer graphics started in the late 1970s. Since that time, there have been many approaches developed. In this paper we present a non-physical method allowing to create vaporish objects like clouds or smoky characters. The idea is to create a few sketches describing the rough shape of the final vaporish object. These sketches will be used as condensation sets of Iterated Function Systems, providing intuitive control over the object. The advantages of the new method are: simplicity, good control of resulting shapes and ease of eventual object animation.

  14. Object 'Ukryttya' 1986-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the materials pertaining to 'Ukryttya' Object state. The results of researches of fuel containing materials conditions and of forecast of their future behavior are demonstrated, aerosol characterizations, mechanisms of production of liquid radioactive waste, radiation conditions at SO industrial site and NSC assembly site, as well as analysis of 'Ukryttya' Objects environmental impact, are performed. The conditions of 'Ukryttya' Object building structures are described. Preparation and realization of international projects for conversion of 'Ukryttya' Object into an ecologically safe system, including the 'Ukryttya' Implementation Plan (SIP), are considered

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Identification of computer graphics objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossinskyi Yu.M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of computer graphics methods in problems of creating drawings, charts, drafting, etc. The widespread use of these methods requires the development of efficient algorithms for the identification of objects of drawings. The article analyzes the model-making algorithms for this problem and considered the possibility of reducing the time using graphics editing operations. Editing results in such operations as copying, moving and deleting objects specified images. These operations allow the use of a reliable identification of images of objects methods. For information on the composition of the image of the object along with information about the identity and the color should include information about the spatial location and other characteristics of the object (the thickness and style of contour lines, fill style, and so on. In order to enable the pixel image analysis to structure the information it is necessary to enable the initial code image objects color. The article shows the results of the implementation of the algorithm of encoding object identifiers. To simplify the process of building drawings of any kind, and reduce time-consuming, method of drawing objects identification is proposed based on the use as the ID information of the object color.

  17. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  18. Measurement of liver volume by emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, M.K.; Hopkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    In 22 volunteers without clinical or laboratory evidence of liver disease, liver volume was determined using single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT). This technique provided excellent object contrast between the liver and its surroundings and permitted calculation of liver volume without geometric assumptions about the liver's configuration. Reproducibility of results was satisfactory, with a root-mean-square error of less than 6% between duplicate measurements in 15 individuals. The volume measurements were validated by the use of phantoms

  19. An evaluation of the volume and concentration of alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    objective of this study was to evaluate the volume and alcohol concentration of ... Keywords: Alcohol content, Standard drink measure,. Sales regulation, Port .... 1993. 9. Stockwell T, Blaze-Temple D, Walker C. The effect of. 'standard drink' ...

  20. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. ... with the objective of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, .... Any type of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy that cannot be discontinued for 7 days.

  1. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  2. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P.M.; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kahn, René S.; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in

  3. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  4. Training volume and performance of young Spanish national and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the volume of training of young national and international level swimmers, how it evolves andits relationship with performance. The sample comprised of 202 swimmers (11to 18 years old), selected by the Royal Spanish Swimming Federation. The volumes of pool and ...

  5. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction or increase in ocular volume may indicate ocular pathology. Unfortunately the reference values utilized for ocular volume had been that of non-Africans. It is therefore pertinent to have a reference value of normal for Africans. Objective: To document the computer tomography (CT) scan measured ...

  6. A Persistent Object Manager for HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Arderiu ribera, E; Couet, O; Duellmann, D; Conde gonzalez carrascosa, F J; Shiers, J; Ferrero merlino, B; Baranski, A

    2002-01-01

    % RD45 \\\\ \\\\ RD45 is currently investigating solutions to the problem of storing, managing and accessing the extremely large volumes of data that will be created at the LHC where, given the anticipated lifetime and data rates, a system capable of scaling to approximately 100~PB is required. The project places strong emphasis on the use of industry standard solutions wherever possible, and is currently focussing on the potential use of commercial standards-conforming Object Database Management Systems transparently coupled to Mass Storage Systems. Production use of components of what could eventually become the solution for LHC has already been made by existing experiments at CERN, and it is planned to gradually increase the amount of physics data handled by the system into the multi-TB range and beyond over the next years.

  7. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2010-01-01

    to the particular object and in order to handle the demand for flexibility, there is an increasing demand for avoiding such dedicated mechanical alignment systems. Rather, it would be desirable to automatically locate and grasp randomly placed objects from tables, conveyor belts or even bins with a high accuracy...

  8. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  9. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  10. What Makes an Object Memorable?

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies on image memorability have shed light on what distinguishes the memorability of different images and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties that make those images memorable. However, a clear understanding of the memorability of specific objects inside an image remains elusive. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to answer the question: what exactly is remembered about an image? We augment both the images and object segmentations from the PASCAL-S dataset with ground truth memorability scores and shed light on the various factors and properties that make an object memorable (or forgettable) to humans. We analyze various visual factors that may influence object memorability (e.g. color, visual saliency, and object categories). We also study the correlation between object and image memorability and find that image memorability is greatly affected by the memorability of its most memorable object. Lastly, we explore the effectiveness of deep learning and other computational approaches in predicting object memorability in images. Our efforts offer a deeper understanding of memorability in general thereby opening up avenues for a wide variety of applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  12. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  13. Introducing Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of teaching programming at universities, colleges and high schools went through a major change roughly in the mid 1990s: The teaching of objectorientation in introductory courses slowly became mainstream. Fairly soon, the Object First or Objects Early school of thought was formulated...

  14. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal

  16. What Makes an Object Memorable?

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit; Peterson, Joshua; Khosla, Aditya; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on image memorability have shed light on what distinguishes the memorability of different images and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties that make those images memorable. However, a clear understanding of the memorability of specific objects inside an image remains elusive. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to answer the question: what exactly is remembered about an image? We augment both the images and object segmentations from the PASCAL-S dataset with ground truth memorability scores and shed light on the various factors and properties that make an object memorable (or forgettable) to humans. We analyze various visual factors that may influence object memorability (e.g. color, visual saliency, and object categories). We also study the correlation between object and image memorability and find that image memorability is greatly affected by the memorability of its most memorable object. Lastly, we explore the effectiveness of deep learning and other computational approaches in predicting object memorability in images. Our efforts offer a deeper understanding of memorability in general thereby opening up avenues for a wide variety of applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, A.D.; Mazzi, B.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Water, van de W.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are

  18. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  19. Exploring Power with Object Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Ylirisku, Salu; Knutz, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Object Theatre as an approach to address power in design. We understand power as a relational activity that emerges and is upheld through particular ways of relating (Elias, 1991; Stacey, 2007). The spontaneity in participant actions through Object Theatre exercises renders pr...

  20. Semantic memory in object use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.

  1. Object Oriented Programming in Director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Director is one of the most popular authoring software. As software for developing multimedia applications, Director is an object oriented programming environment. A very important issue to develop multimedia applications is the designing of their own classes. This paper presents the particular aspects concerning the available facilities offered by Lingo to design classes and to generate objects.

  2. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  3. Properties of BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, A.M.; Pittsburgh, University, Pittsburgh, Pa.)

    1980-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are examined in light of their recently realized similarities to quasars and associations with galactic radiation. The criteria typically used to define BL Lac objects are analyzed, with attention given to radio spectra, optical continual, radio and optical variability, optical polarization and emission lines, and evidence that BL Lac objects and optically violent variables represent the most compact and strongly variable sources among the general class of quasars is discussed. Connections between BL Lac objects and the galaxies in which they have been observed to be embedded are discussed and it is pointed out that no low-luminosity quasars have been found to be associated with first-ranked giant ellipticals. Future observations which may clarify the properties and relationships of BL Lac objects are indicated

  4. The Surrealist Collection of Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I shall discuss the Surrealist collection of objects as a form of art which arises out of mass production forces of the new era. These goods, deeply rooted in the capitalist laws of use-, exchange- and surplus-value, carry in themselves two materialist approaches which end in dialectical materialism. On the one hand, they epitomize the supreme forces of commodity fetishism ingrained in capitalist structures; on the other hand, they arouse unconscious desires which respond to the needs of the society of consumption. Thus, I will explore the act of object-collecting in the most radical Surrealist practices (dream objects, found objects, poème-objets, calligrammes, readymades and Surrealist objects as a way to not only delve into a new art, but also to reflect on societal ongoing transformations and paradoxes.

  5. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  6. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  7. MRI volume measurement of basal ganglia volumes in patients with Tourette's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jie; Li Kuncheng; Cao Yanxiang; Zhang Miao; Sui Xin; Zhang Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate MRI measurement of basal ganglia volumes in patients with Tourette's syndrome. Methods: Ten patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. Volumes of bilateral caudate, putamen and pallidum were measured, and the results were analyzed using paired t test. The basal ganglia volume was normalized according to individual brain volume. The basal ganglia volumes of TS patients were compared with normal control group using independent-sample t test. Results: In 10 healthy volunteers, volumes of the left caudate, putamen, pallidum were significantly larger compared with those of the right side (P 0.05) in TS patients. After normalized processing, the volumes of the left caudate (7.06 ± 0.48) cm 3 , putamen (8.81±1.01) cm 3 , pallidum (2.64± 0.38) cm 3 were smaller than those of control group [caudate (11.05±1.86) cm 3 , putamen (9.97± 1.11) cm 3 , pallidum (3.04±0.37) cm 3 ] (t=-6.577, -2.457, -2.376, P 3 in TS patients was significantly smaller compared with the control group (9.81±1.83) cm 3 (t=-4.258, P 0.05). Conclusion: The basal ganglia volumes were significantly decreased in patients with TS. MRI volumetric measurement was an important tool for evaluating pathologic changes of TS. (authors)

  8. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  9. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  10. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  11. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  12. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Ming, Katherine Y.; Singer, Brett C.

    2005-01-05

    The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces. Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms. Access to 33 rooms in nine residences consisting of bathrooms, bedroom/offices and common areas was solicited from among research group members living in the East San Francisco Bay Area. A systematic approach was implemented for measuring rooms and objects from 300 cm{sup 2} and larger. The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area-to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area-to-volume ratios also were determined for each room. The bathrooms had the highest total surface area-to-volume ratios. Bedrooms generally had higher ratios than common areas consisting of kitchens, living/dining rooms and transitional rooms. Total surface area-to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2.3 and 4.7 m{sup 2} m{sup -3}. The importance of individual objects and materials with respect to sorption will depend upon the sorption coefficients for the various VOC/materials combinations. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.5 m{sup 2} m{sup -3} for all three types of rooms.

  13. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  14. Electroanalytical chemistry. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is part of a series aimed at authoritative reviews of electroanalytical techniques and related areas of investigation. Volume 14 clearly maintains the high standards and proven usefulness of the series. Topics covered include conformation change and isomerization associated with electrode reactions, infrared vibrational spectroscopy of the electrode-solution interface, and precision in linear sweep and cyclic voltametry. A short history of electrochemical techniques which include the term square wave is provided

  15. Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) wer...

  16. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  17. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  18. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  19. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ghost imaging is an optical imaging technique that utilizes the correlations between optical fields in two channels. One of the channels contains the object, however...

  20. Delphi FND Application Object Library -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi FND Application Object Library contains the following data elements, but are not limited to temporary data tables for the logged in session, information about...

  1. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  2. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  3. Laser sources for object illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, G.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  4. Topological objects in hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of topological objects in hadronic physics is discussed, with emphasis on the role of the Wess-Zumino term and induced transmutation of quantum numbers in chiral bag models. Some applications to nuclear systems are given

  5. On the Aging of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2016-01-01

    The article seeks to develop a new conceptual framework suitable for analysing the ageing processes of objects in modern culture. The basic intuition is that object experience cannot be analysed separately from collective participation. The article focuses on the question of the ‘timeless’ nature...... of modernist design and seeks to understand why modernist objects age more slowly than other objects. First, inspired by the late Durkheim’s account of symbolism, I turn to the experiential effects of collective embeddedness. Second, I enter the field of architectural practices and architectural theory....... Visiting early modernist ideologue Adolf Loos, I seek to understand the modernist attitude as a direct response to experiences of the acceleration of ageing processes characteristic of modern culture. I then try to show how Loos’s explicit awareness of the collective dimension is ignored by the subsequent...

  6. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... development: Grounding We develop an empirically based conceptualization of modelling and use of models in system development projects characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in requirements and point to implications for tools and techniques for modelling in such a setting. Techniques We introduce......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...

  7. Object detection and tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian J.

    2017-05-30

    Methods and apparatuses for analyzing a sequence of images for an object are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the method identifies a region of interest in the sequence of images. The object is likely to move within the region of interest. The method divides the region of interest in the sequence of images into sections and calculates signal-to-noise ratios for a section in the sections. A signal-to-noise ratio for the section is calculated using the section in the image, a prior section in a prior image to the image, and a subsequent section in a subsequent image to the image. The signal-to-noise ratios are for potential velocities of the object in the section. The method also selects a velocity from the potential velocities for the object in the section using a potential velocity in the potential velocities having a highest signal-to-noise ratio in the signal-to-noise ratios.

  8. Exotic objects of atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eletskii, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    There has been presented a short survey of physical properties, methods of production and exploration as well as directions of practical usage of the objects of atomic physics which are not yet described in detail in modern textbooks and manuals intended for students of technical universities. The family of these objects includes negative and multicharged ions, Rydberg atoms, excimer molecules, clusters. Besides of that, in recent decades this family was supplemented with new nanocarbon structures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The textbook “Exotic objects of atomic physics” [1] edited recently contains some information on the above-listed objects of the atomic physics. This textbook can be considered as a supplement to classic courses of atomic physics teaching in technical universities.

  9. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  10. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Typically, an object is a monolithic entity with a fixed interface.  To increase flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct.  An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects.  It may also be use...... to a mainstream virtual machine in order to improve on the support for family polymorphism.  The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type system has been shown by a mechanically checked proof in Coq....

  11. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1983-07-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex structure of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and lacertae objects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronouys radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation.

  12. Command in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbeck, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer what type of command will best serve the Army's Objective Force in gaining the initiative, building momentum, and exploiting success to achieve land dominance in the future...

  13. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  14. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  15. Well-Being and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.

  16. Catastrophic Events Caused by Cosmic Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Adushkin, Vitaly

    2008-01-01

    Many times all of us could hear from mass media that an asteroid approached and swept past the Earth. Such an asteroid or comet will inevitably strike the planet some day. This volume considers hazards due to collisions with cosmic objects, particularly in light of recent investigations of impacts by the authors. Each chapter written by an expert contains an overview of an aspect and new findings in the field. The main hazardous effects – cratering, shock, aerial and seismic waves, fires, ejection of dust and soot, tsunami are described and numerically estimated. Numerical simulations of impacts and impact consequences have received much attention in the book. Fairly small impacting objects 50 -100 m in diameter pose a real threat to humanity and their influence on the atmosphere and ionosphere is emphasized. Especially vulnerable are industrially developed areas with dense population, almost all Europe is one of them. Special chapters are devoted to the famous 1908 Tunguska event and new results of its sim...

  17. Three-dimensional cinematography with control object of unknown shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapena, J; Harman, E A; Miller, J A

    1982-01-01

    A technique for reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) motion which involves a simple filming procedure but allows the deduction of coordinates in large object volumes was developed. Internal camera parameters are calculated from measurements of the film images of two calibrated crosses while external camera parameters are calculated from the film images of points in a control object of unknown shape but at least one known length. The control object, which includes the volume in which the activity is to take place, is formed by a series of poles placed at unknown locations, each carrying two targets. From the internal and external camera parameters, and from locations of the images of point in the films of the two cameras, 3D coordinates of the point can be calculated. Root mean square errors of the three coordinates of points in a large object volume (5m x 5m x 1.5m) were 15 mm, 13 mm, 13 mm and 6 mm, and relative errors in lengths averaged 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  19. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  20. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 5, A laboratory greenhouse study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 2 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1997-01-31

    The Clean Air Act, as revised in 1992, has spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have resulted in large volumes of wet scrubber sludges. In general, these sludges must be dewatered, chemically treated, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives must be found. Wet scrubbing with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has emerged as an efficient, cost effective technology for SO2 removal. When combined with an appropriate oxidation system, the wet scrubber sludge can be used to produce gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use. Product value generally increases with purity of the by-product(s). The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati produces gypsum by products that can be formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2. Such materials may have agricultural value as soil conditioners, liming agents and sources of plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, S). This report describes a greenhouse study designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg gypsum from the Zimmer Station pilot plant as amendments for improving the quality of agricultural soils and mine spoils that are currently unproductive because of phytotoxic conditions related to acidity and high levels of toxic dissolved aluminum (Al). In particular, the technical literature contains evidence to suggest that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone in modifying soil chemical conditions below the immediate zone of application. Representative samples of by-product gypsum and Mg(OH)2 from the Zimmer Station were initially characterized. The gypsum was of high chemical purity and consisted of well crystalline, lath-shaped particles of low specific surface area. By contrast, the by-product Mg(OH)2 was a high surface area material (50 m2 g

  1. Technical Assistance in Evaluating Career Education Projects. Final Report. Volume I: Summary Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson; And Others

    This document contains the first of five volumes reporting the activities and results of a career education evaluation project conducted to accomplish the following two objectives: (1) to improve the quality of evaluations by career education projects funded by the United States Office of Career Education (OCE) through the provision of technical…

  2. Testing Object-Oriented Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Skov, Stefan H.

    The report is a result of an activity within the project Centre for Object Technology (COT), case 2. In case 2 a number of pilot projects have been carried out to test the feasibility of using object technology within embedded software. Some of the pilot projects have resulted in proto-types that......The report is a result of an activity within the project Centre for Object Technology (COT), case 2. In case 2 a number of pilot projects have been carried out to test the feasibility of using object technology within embedded software. Some of the pilot projects have resulted in proto......-types that are currently being developed into production versions. To assure a high quality in the product it was decided to carry out an activ-ity regarding issues in testing OO software. The purpose of this report is to discuss the issues of testing object-oriented software. It is often claimed that testing of OO...... software is radically different form testing traditional software developed using imperative/procedural programming. Other authors claim that there is no difference. In this report we will attempt to give an answer to these questions (or at least initiate a discussion)....

  3. Object Pragmatics and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the advent of language in the light of the appropriation of the cultural uses of the material objects related to material culture and the constitution of their public and shared meanings linked to their uses. First, we suggest that the Object Pragmatics paradigm offers a framework which allows us to take into account the uses of objects in daily life as a site of social conventions, communication and public and shared meanings. Second, we would like to underline the key role of the adult's mediations in the child's ability to evolve towards linguistic development. This contribution will discuss the notion of scenario involving primarily the object, as a possible semiotic tool to support the child's transition to language. We will finally illustrate that it is possible to take into consideration the mastery of conventional uses of the object in the child's ability to engage in a scenario and then to move towards communication and speech development. These issues will be addressed in the context of a research project which focuses on the observation of children interacting with an adult at 16, 20 and 24 months. These longitudinal data were collected by video in a semi-experimental triadic interaction design. The triadic interaction is considered as a relevant unit for the observation and analysis of the role of material culture in speech development, suggesting the existence of new mechanisms to be taken into account in addition to the interactive conditions largely mentioned in literature.

  4. Geometrical objects architecture and the mathematical sciences 1400-1800

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume explores the mathematical character of architectural practice in diverse pre- and early modern contexts. It takes an explicitly interdisciplinary approach, which unites scholarship in early modern architecture with recent work in the history of science, in particular, on the role of practice in the scientific revolution. As a contribution to architectural history, the volume contextualizes design and construction in terms of contemporary mathematical knowledge, attendant forms of mathematical practice, and relevant social distinctions between the mathematical professions. As a contribution to the history of science, the volume presents a series of micro-historical studies that highlight issues of process, materiality, and knowledge production in specific, situated, practical contexts. Our approach sees the designer’s studio, the stone-yard, the drawing floor, and construction site not merely as places where the architectural object takes shape, but where mathematical knowledge itself is depl...

  5. Object technology: A white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

    1992-05-11

    Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

  6. Exploring object-oriented technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Object oriented technologies are the corner stone of modern software development. A piece of software is today conceived, constructed and tested as a set of objects interacting with each other, rather than as a large sequential program. OO is present throughout the whole software life cycle allowing for maintainable code re-use, clean design and manageable complexity. OO is also the seed upon which other technologies are being built and deployed, such as distributed computing, component models, open interoperability, etc.This series of three seminars will provide a pragmatic overview on the main ideas behind OO software development and will explain the inner workings of the most outstanding technologies being built on OO, such as UML, CORBA, Component Models, Agent Oriented Computing, Business Objects, etc.

  7. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex strUcture of Seyfert galaxies quasars and lacertae ob ects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronoUs radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation

  8. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  9. Elaborazione didattica di Learning Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available L’idea di un modello didattico problematico per la realizzazione di Learning Objects riprende i temi del problematicismo pedagogico e si impegna a definire un’ipotesi formativa complessa capace di valorizzare la possibile positiva compresenza integrata di strategie didattiche diverse (finanche antitetiche ma componibili in una logica appunto di matrice problematicista. Il punto di partenza del modello proposto è rappresentato dalla opportunità di definire tre tipologie fondamentali di Learning Objects, rispettivamente centrati sull’oggetto, sul processo e sul soggetto dell’apprendimento.

  10. TACTILE SENSING FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The artificial sense of touch is a research area that can be considered still in demand, compared with the human dexterity of grasping a wide variety of shapes and sizes, perform complex tasks, and switch between grasps in response to changing task requirements. For handling unknown objects...... in unstructured environments, tactile sensing can provide more than valuable to complementary vision information about mechanical properties such as recognition and characterization, force, pressure, torque, compliance, friction, and mass as well as object shape, texture, position and pose. In this paper, we...

  11. Object oriented JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    You will first be introduced to object-oriented programming, then to the basics of objects in JavaScript. This book takes a do-it-yourself approach when it comes to writing code, because the best way to really learn a programming language is by writing code. You are encouraged to type code into Firebug's console, see how it works and then tweak it and play around with it. There are practice questions at the end of each chapter to help you review what you have learned.For new to intermediate JavaScript developer who wants to prepare themselves for web development problems solved by smart JavaSc

  12. Stereological estimation of nuclear mean volume in invasive meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1996-01-01

    A stereological estimation of nuclear mean volume in bone and brain invasive meningiomas was made. For comparison the nuclear mean volume of benign meningiomas was estimated. The aim was to investigate whether this method could discriminate between these groups. We found that the nuclear mean...... volume in the bone and brain invasive meningiomas was larger than in the benign tumors. The difference was significant and moreover it was seen that there was no overlap between the two groups. In the bone invasive meningiomas the nuclear mean volume appeared to be larger inside than outside the bone....... No significant difference in nuclear mean volume was found between brain and bone invasive meningiomas. The results demonstrate that invasive meningiomas differ from benign meningiomas by an objective stereological estimation of nuclear mean volume (p

  13. The volume of a soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-01-01

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  14. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  15. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  16. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  17. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  18. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  19. Photogrammetric Measurements of Heritage Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumeliene, E.; Nareiko, V.; Suziedelyte Visockiene, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cultural heritage is an invaluable example of human culture and creativity. The majority of them can become unstable or can be destroyed due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. In order to restore, preserve, and systematize data about architectural heritage objects, it is necessary to have geodetic, photogrammetric measurements of such data and to constantly monitor condition of the objects. The data of immovable cultural objects for many years are stored in photogrammetric data archives. Such archives have Germany, Lithuania, England and other countries. The article gives a brief introduction of the history of data archives formation and presents a photogrammetric and modern methods of modelling the spatial geometric properties of objects currently used to reveal immovable cultural properties and to evaluate geometric sizes. The pilot work was done with the Concept Capture simulation program that was developed by the Bentley company with photos of the Blessed Virgin Mary painting in Pivašiūnai of Trakai district. A shot from the ground with 12.4 MP resolution Pentax K-x camera was done using lenses with different focal lengths. The painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary is coordinated by 4 reference geodesic points and therefore after the modelling work it was possible to evaluate the accuracy of the created model. Based on the results of the spatial (3D) model, photo shooting and modelling recommendations are presented, the advantages of the new technology are distinguished.

  20. Michael Beitz: Objects of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefferle, Mary

    2014-01-01

    For this Instructional Resource, the author interviewed contemporary sculptor Michael Beitz, who uses art to explore the role of designed objects in human communication and emotional experience. This column was written in response to calls for using Enduring Understandings/Big Ideas (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013; Stewart &…

  1. Managed Objects for Infrastructure Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Bodum, Lars; Kolar, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Using data objects to describe features in the real world is a new idea and several approaches have already been shown to match scientific paradigms exceedingly well. Depending on the required level of abstraction, it is possible to represent the world more or less close to reality. In the realm ...

  2. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  3. Quantitative Nuclear Cardiology: How objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, J.C.W.; Raval, U.; Soman, P.; Lahiri, A.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study was to establish the accuracy required from the operator in indicating the centre and axis the left ventricle, and in placing regions of interest (ROIs), whilst using the MYO TOMO and MYO QUANT software to analyze tomographic data from nuclear cardiology

  4. Teachers' Careers: The Objective Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetts, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the objective dimension of teachers' careers showing how 530 British male/female teachers are distributed throughout the pay scale and promotions making up the formal structure of teaching. Indicates length of experience is the rewarding but not the sole factor in bureaucratic structure and differential male/female career achievements.…

  5. Compact objects and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandford, Roger; Agol, Eric; Broderick, Avery; Heyl, Jeremy; Koopmans, Leon; Lee, Hee-Won

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the spectropolarimetric study of compact objects, specifically black holes (stellar and massive) and neutron stars are reviewed. The lectures are organized around five topics: disks, jets, outflows, neutron stars and black holes. They emphasize physical mechanisms and are

  6. The Objective of Financial Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    Alerts public school business officials to a financial reporting concepts statement to be issued by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board in late 1986. The new directive will outline four objectives concerned with accountability procedures, resource management and compliance information, operating results, and future financial capabilities.…

  7. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  8. Objective techniques for psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

    1973-01-01

    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  9. Fast and Objective MRTD measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Bakker, S.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Manufacturers and Users of the Thermal Imagers have spent very much time upon the definition and measurement of the generally accepted performance curve: MRTD (Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference). The need for a cheap and fast, objective measurement method has considerably increased since the

  10. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  11. How Medical Students Use Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terrill A.; And Others

    Two related studies were undertaken at Southern Illinois University on how students in the School of Medicine use the instructional objectives faculty prepare for them. Students in the classes of 1978 and 1979 were surveyed in their final month of training. The second survey was modified, based on responses from the first. The five research…

  12. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  13. Recurrent processing during object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. O'Reilly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of of naturally-occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain's visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time.

  14. Design of object processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoras, D.R.; Hoede, C.

    Object processing systems are met rather often in every day life, in industry, tourism, commerce, etc. When designing such a system, many problems can be posed and considered, depending on the scope and purpose of design. We give here a general approach which involves graph theory, and which can

  15. ANNOTATION SUPPORTED OCCLUDED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking occluded objects at different depths has become as extremely important component of study for any video sequence having wide applications in object tracking, scene recognition, coding, editing the videos and mosaicking. The paper studies the ability of annotation to track the occluded object based on pyramids with variation in depth further establishing a threshold at which the ability of the system to track the occluded object fails. Image annotation is applied on 3 similar video sequences varying in depth. In the experiment, one bike occludes the other at a depth of 60cm, 80cm and 100cm respectively. Another experiment is performed on tracking humans with similar depth to authenticate the results. The paper also computes the frame by frame error incurred by the system, supported by detailed simulations. This system can be effectively used to analyze the error in motion tracking and further correcting the error leading to flawless tracking. This can be of great interest to computer scientists while designing surveillance systems etc.

  16. Objects as closures: Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss denotational semantics of object-oriented languages, using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin, in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  17. Objects as closures - Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    The denotational semantics of object-oriented languages is discussed using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin (1988), in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  18. Estudo comparativo do padrão de respiração e a porcentagem de ocupação da nasofaringe pela tonsila faríngea em crianças com ou sem história de infecção pelo HIV A comparative study of the breathing pattern and amount of nasopharynx obstruction by the pharyngeal tonsil in hiv infected and non infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michella Dinah Zastrow

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a associação entre o padrão de respiração e o tamanho da tonsila faríngea em 122 crianças (60 infectadas pelo HIV e 62 sem infecção. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As crianças foram analisadas quanto ao padrão de respiração, fluxo nasal e ocupação da tonsila faríngea em radiografias cefalométricas de perfil, através de uma análise computadorizada. RESULTADOS: O padrão de respiração de maior ocorrência nos dois grupos foi o tipo misto. A maioria das crianças apresentou tipo de respiração bucal ou mista, não havendo associação entre o tipo de respiração e presença do HIV (p=0,091. O fluxo nasal mostrou predomínio do fluxo médio nos dois grupos. As crianças sem história de infecção pelo HIV apresentaram fluxo nasal de médio a grande e a maioria das crianças infectadas pelo HIV apresentou de pouco a médio fluxo nasal de ar, havendo uma associação positiva entre o fluxo nasal e a infecção pelo HIV (pAIM: the goal of the present investigation was to study the association between breathing pattern and pharyngeal tonsil size in 122 children (60 HIV infected and 62 without such infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The children were analyzed as to their breathing pattern, nasal flow and pharyngeal tonsil obstruction seen in side cephalometric x-rays, by means of a computerized analysis. RESULTS: The pattern that most occurred in both groups was the mixed type. Most of the children presented oral or mixed type breathing and there was no association between the type of breathing and HIV presence (p=0.091. Nasal flow was mainly medium in both groups. Children without prior history of HIV infection had medium to large nasal flow and most of the HIV-infected children had medium nasal airflow. There was a positive association between nasal flow and HIV infection (p<0.0001. The average percentage of nasopharynx obstruction by the pharyngeal tonsil was high in both groups, and there was

  19. Multi-objective optimization of inverse planning for accurate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ruifen; Pei Xi; Cheng Mengyun; Li Gui; Hu Liqin; Wu Yican; Jing Jia; Li Guoli

    2011-01-01

    The multi-objective optimization of inverse planning based on the Pareto solution set, according to the multi-objective character of inverse planning in accurate radiotherapy, was studied in this paper. Firstly, the clinical requirements of a treatment plan were transformed into a multi-objective optimization problem with multiple constraints. Then, the fast and elitist multi-objective Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) was introduced to optimize the problem. A clinical example was tested using this method. The results show that an obtained set of non-dominated solutions were uniformly distributed and the corresponding dose distribution of each solution not only approached the expected dose distribution, but also met the dose-volume constraints. It was indicated that the clinical requirements were better satisfied using the method and the planner could select the optimal treatment plan from the non-dominated solution set. (authors)

  20. Turbulence and Self-Organization Modeling Astrophysical Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Marov, Mikhail Ya

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the development of continuum models of natural turbulent media. It provides a theoretical approach to the solutions of different problems related to the formation, structure and evolution of astrophysical and geophysical objects. A stochastic modeling approach is used in the mathematical treatment of these problems, which reflects self-organization processes in open dissipative systems. The authors also consider examples of ordering for various objects in space throughout their evolutionary processes. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers in the fields of mechanics, astrophysics, geophysics, planetary and space science.

  1. Objective-guided image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Gao, Shenghua

    2013-04-01

    Automatic image annotation, which is usually formulated as a multi-label classification problem, is one of the major tools used to enhance the semantic understanding of web images. Many multimedia applications (e.g., tag-based image retrieval) can greatly benefit from image annotation. However, the insufficient performance of image annotation methods prevents these applications from being practical. On the other hand, specific measures are usually designed to evaluate how well one annotation method performs for a specific objective or application, but most image annotation methods do not consider optimization of these measures, so that they are inevitably trapped into suboptimal performance of these objective-specific measures. To address this issue, we first summarize a variety of objective-guided performance measures under a unified representation. Our analysis reveals that macro-averaging measures are very sensitive to infrequent keywords, and hamming measure is easily affected by skewed distributions. We then propose a unified multi-label learning framework, which directly optimizes a variety of objective-specific measures of multi-label learning tasks. Specifically, we first present a multilayer hierarchical structure of learning hypotheses for multi-label problems based on which a variety of loss functions with respect to objective-guided measures are defined. And then, we formulate these loss functions as relaxed surrogate functions and optimize them by structural SVMs. According to the analysis of various measures and the high time complexity of optimizing micro-averaging measures, in this paper, we focus on example-based measures that are tailor-made for image annotation tasks but are seldom explored in the literature. Experiments show consistency with the formal analysis on two widely used multi-label datasets, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baseline methods in terms of example-based measures on four

  2. Correlation between orbital volume, body mass index, and eyeball position in healthy East asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Ho; Lee, Young Hen; Lee, Hwa; Kim, Jung Wan; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were measure the orbital volume of healthy Koreans and analyze the differences between orbital tissue volume with respect to age and sex and to assess any correlation between body mass index (BMI), eyeball position, and orbital volume. We retrospectively evaluated the scan results of patients who had undergone orbital computed tomography scans between November 2010 and November 2011. We assessed the scan results of 184 orbits in 92 adults who had no pathology of the orbit. The individuals were classified into 3 groups with respect to age. Orbital volume, effective orbital volume (defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume), extraocular muscle volume, orbital fat volume, and transverse globe protrusion were recorded and analyzed. The records of the subjects were reviewed retrospectively, and BMI was calculated. A correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between BMI, eyeball position, and orbital volume. Orbital tissue volume, with the exception of orbital fat volume, was larger in men compared with women. In both sexes, orbital fat volume increased with increasing age, whereas the other volumes decreased. Orbital tissue volumes increased with increasing BMI, but transverse globe protrusion was not significantly related to BMI. In addition, orbital volume and effective orbital volume were positively correlated with transverse globe protrusion. These results provide basic information about the effects of age, sex, and BMI on orbital volume and eyeball position in healthy Koreans. Furthermore, these results will be helpful in the diagnosis of orbital diseases and in planning orbital surgeries.

  3. Fuzzy object models for newborn brain MR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Syoji; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2013-03-01

    Newborn brain MR image segmentation is a challenging problem because of variety of size, shape and MR signal although it is the fundamental study for quantitative radiology in brain MR images. Because of the large difference between the adult brain and the newborn brain, it is difficult to directly apply the conventional methods for the newborn brain. Inspired by the original fuzzy object model introduced by Udupa et al. at SPIE Medical Imaging 2011, called fuzzy shape object model (FSOM) here, this paper introduces fuzzy intensity object model (FIOM), and proposes a new image segmentation method which combines the FSOM and FIOM into fuzzy connected (FC) image segmentation. The fuzzy object models are built from training datasets in which the cerebral parenchyma is delineated by experts. After registering FSOM with the evaluating image, the proposed method roughly recognizes the cerebral parenchyma region based on a prior knowledge of location, shape, and the MR signal given by the registered FSOM and FIOM. Then, FC image segmentation delineates the cerebral parenchyma using the fuzzy object models. The proposed method has been evaluated using 9 newborn brain MR images using the leave-one-out strategy. The revised age was between -1 and 2 months. Quantitative evaluation using false positive volume fraction (FPVF) and false negative volume fraction (FNVF) has been conducted. Using the evaluation data, a FPVF of 0.75% and FNVF of 3.75% were achieved. More data collection and testing are underway.

  4. Lung volume recruitment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Srour

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function abnormalities have been described in multiple sclerosis including reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC and cough but the time course of this impairment is unknown. Peak cough flow (PCF is an important parameter for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and a reduced PCF has a direct impact on airway clearance and may therefore increase the risk of respiratory tract infections. Lung volume recruitment is a technique that improves PCF by inflating the lungs to their maximal insufflation capacity. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to describe the rate of decline of pulmonary function and PCF in patients with multiple sclerosis and describe the use of lung volume recruitment in this population. METHODS: We reviewed all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to a respiratory neuromuscular rehabilitation clinic from February 1999 until December 2010. Lung volume recruitment was attempted in patients with FVC <80% predicted. Regular twice daily lung volume recruitment was prescribed if it resulted in a significant improvement in the laboratory. RESULTS: There were 79 patients included, 35 of whom were seen more than once. A baseline FVC <80% predicted was present in 82% of patients and 80% of patients had a PCF insufficient for airway clearance. There was a significant decline in FVC (122.6 mL/y, 95% CI 54.9-190.3 and PCF (192 mL/s/y, 95% 72-311 over a median follow-up time of 13.4 months. Lung volume recruitment was associated with a slower decline in FVC (p<0.0001 and PCF (p = 0.042. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function and cough decline significantly over time in selected patients with multiple sclerosis and lung volume recruitment is associated with a slower rate of decline in lung function and peak cough flow. Given design limitations, additional studies are needed to assess the role of lung volume recruitment in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  5. Development of a Wrapper Object, TRelap, for RELAP5 Code for Use in Object Oriented Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    TRelap object class has been developed to enable object oriented programming techniques to be used where functionality of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulic system analysis code is needed. The TRelap is an object front for Dynamic Link Library (DLL) manifestation of the Relap5 code, Relap5.dll. In making the Relap5.dll, the top most structure of the RELAP5 was altered to enable the external calling procedures to control and the access the memory. The alteration was performed in such a way to allow the entire 'fa' and the f tb' memory spaces to be accessible to the calling procedure. Thus, any variable contained within the 'fa' array such as the parameters for the components, volumes, junctions, and heat structures can be accessed by the external calling procedure through TRelap. Various methods and properties to control the RELAP5 calculation and to access and manipulate the variables are built into the TRelap to enable easy manipulation. As a verification effort, a simple program was written to demonstrate the capability of the TRelap

  6. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  7. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  8. IMRT optimization with pseudo-biologic objective function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    The pseudo-biologic objective function has been proposed for the IMRT optimization. It is similar to the biological objective function in mathematical shape, but uses physical parameters. The pseudo-biologic objective function concept is consisted of the target coverage index (TCI) and the organ score index (OSI), was introduced. The TCI was expressed as the sum of all of the weighted bins of target dose volume histogram (DVH). The weights were given as the normal distribution of which the average is 100 % and the standard deviation is ±. The OSI was expressed as similar way. The average of the normal distribution was 0% of the dose and that of standard deviation was selected as a function of limiting dose and its importance. The objective function could be calculated as the product of the TCI and OSI's. The RTP Tool Box (RTB) was used for this study. The constraints applied in the optimization was intuitively clinical experience based numbers, while the physical objective function asks just numbers which are not necessarily based on the clinic, and the parameters for the biologic objective functions are uncertain. The OSI's from the pseudo-biological function showed better results than from the physical functions, while TCI's showed similar tendency. We could show that the pseudo-biologic function can be used for an IMRT objective function on behalf of the biological objective function

  9. The Agency of Memory Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    and international tourists’ photographs and notes, especially their visual encounters with the exhibition, are understood as participatory interactions in the course of memory work. The article’s aim is twofold: introducing an ANT-inspired methodology to the field of memory studies, and mapping a Sowetan memory......This article analyses the multifarious acts of cultural memory taking place in the small, almost hidden, exhibition space of the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa, home to the photographic exhibition “The Story of Soweto.” Next to the photographs (1950-2010) by well-known apartheid...... of action, examining the idea that objects, such as images, that leave a trace can act as mediators of memory. Starting from visitors’ appropriations of the exhibition space, the essay sheds light on the different life cycles of memory objects, in particular images, and their diverse mediations. Domestic...

  10. Swarm Science objectives and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, Hermann; Hulot, Gauthier

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated instrume......Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme to be launched in 2009. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The innovative constellation concept and a unique set of dedicated...... instruments will provide the necessary observations that are required to separate and model the various sources of the geomagnetic field. This will provide new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and Sun-Earth connection processes....

  11. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.

  12. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, R.; Guven, J.; Rojas, E.

    2004-12-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler Lagrange equations.

  13. Ranking Specific Sets of Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Woltran, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Ranking sets of objects based on an order between the single elements has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In particular, it has been shown that it is in general impossible to find a total ranking - jointly satisfying properties as dominance and independence - on the whole power set of objects. However, in many applications certain elements from the entire power set might not be required and can be neglected in the ranking process. For instance, certain sets might be ruled out due to hard constraints or are not satisfying some background theory. In this paper, we treat the computational problem whether an order on a given subset of the power set of elements satisfying different variants of dominance and independence can be found, given a ranking on the elements. We show that this problem is tractable for partial rankings and NP-complete for total rankings.

  14. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  15. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2004-01-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  16. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  17. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Badyuk, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Badyuk N. S. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS. АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ МЕДИЦИНЫ № 3 (17), 2009 г. P. 96-104 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1020024 http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/23091/13-Badyuk.pdf?sequence=1 WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS Badyuk N. S. Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Odessa, Ukraine Summary In the work presented they discuss several peculiarities of wa...

  18. MDSplus objects-Python implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredian, T., E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.ed [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW17-268, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW17-268, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object-oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization.

  19. MDSplus objects-Python implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredian, T.; Stillerman, J.; Manduchi, G.

    2010-01-01

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object-oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization.

  20. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  1. Object recognition by implicit invariants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http:// staff .utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf

  2. Advertising. Advanced placement of objects

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the ...

  3. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources

  4. Hijazi Architectural Object Library (haol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Boehm, J.

    2017-02-01

    As with many historical buildings around the world, building façades are of special interest; moreover, the details of such windows, stonework, and ornaments give each historic building its individual character. Each object of these buildings must be classified in an architectural object library. Recently, a number of researches have been focusing on this topic in Europe and Canada. From this standpoint, the Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) has reproduced Hijazi elements as 3D computer models, which are modelled using a Revit Family (RFA). The HAOL will be dependent on the image survey and point cloud data. The Hijazi Object such as Roshan and Mashrabiyah, become as vocabulary of many Islamic cities in the Hijazi region such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and even for a number of Islamic historic cities such as Istanbul and Cairo. These architectural vocabularies are the main cause of the beauty of these heritage. However, there is a big gap in both the Islamic architectural library and the Hijazi architectural library to provide these unique elements. Besides, both Islamic and Hijazi architecture contains a huge amount of information which has not yet been digitally classified according to period and styles. Due to this issue, this paper will be focusing on developing of Heritage BIM (HBIM) standards and the HAOL library to reduce the cost and the delivering time for heritage and new projects that involve in Hijazi architectural styles. Through this paper, the fundamentals of Hijazi architecture informatics will be provided via developing framework for HBIM models and standards. This framework will provide schema and critical information, for example, classifying the different shapes, models, and forms of structure, construction, and ornamentation of Hijazi architecture in order to digitalize parametric building identity.

  5. Truth as a Mathematical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Béziau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.

  6. Object discrimination using electrotactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Tapas J; Hasse, Brady A; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2018-04-09

    A variety of bioengineering systems are being developed to restore tactile sensations in individuals who have lost somatosensory feedback because of spinal cord injury, stroke, or amputation. These systems typically detect tactile force with sensors placed on an insensate hand (or prosthetic hand in the case of amputees) and deliver touch information by electrically or mechanically stimulating sensate skin above the site of injury. Successful object manipulation, however, also requires proprioceptive feedback representing the configuration and movements of the hand and digits. Therefore, we developed a simple system that simultaneously provides information about tactile grip force and hand aperture using current amplitude-modulated electrotactile feedback. We evaluated the utility of this system by testing the ability of eight healthy human subjects to distinguish among 27 objects of varying sizes, weights, and compliances based entirely on electrotactile feedback. The feedback was modulated by grip-force and hand-aperture sensors placed on the hand of an experimenter (not visible to the subject) grasping and lifting the test objects. We were also interested to determine the degree to which subjects could learn to use such feedback when tested over five consecutive sessions. The average percentage correct identifications on day 1 (28.5%  ±  8.2% correct) was well above chance (3.7%) and increased significantly with training to 49.2%  ±  10.6% on day 5. Furthermore, this training transferred reasonably well to a set of novel objects. These results suggest that simple, non-invasive methods can provide useful multisensory feedback that might prove beneficial in improving the control over prosthetic limbs.

  7. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  8. Cosmic objects and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozental, I L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

    1977-02-01

    Considered are the connections between the parameters of elementary particles (mass ''size'') and the characteristics of stars (the main sequence stars, white dwarf stars and pulsars). Presented is the elementary theory of black hole radiation in the framework of which all the regularities of the process are derived. The emphiric numerical sequence connecting nucleon mass and universe constants (G, h, c) with the masses of some cosmic objects is given.

  9. POMP - Pervasive Object Model Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    The focus on mobile devices is continuously increasing, and improved device connectivity enables the construction of pervasive computing systems composed of heterogeneous collections of devices. Users who employ different devices throughout their daily activities naturally expect their applications...... computing environment. This system, named POM (Pervasive Object Model), supports applications split into coarse-grained, strongly mobile units that communicate using method invocations through proxies. We are currently investigating efficient execution of mobile applications, scalability to suit...

  10. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  11. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  12. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  13. Probabilistic object and viewpoint models for active object recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ,θ′(f occ). V. EXPERIMENTS A. Dataset For our experiments, we use the active recognition dataset introduced by [12]. The training data consists of everyday objects such as cereal boxes, ornaments, spice bottle, etc. Images were captured every 20 degrees... are to be verified TABLE I CONFUSION MATRIX FOR BINARY A MODEL Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Obscured Cereal Battery Curry box Elephant Handbag MrMin Salad Bottle Spice Bottle Spray Can Spray Can 1 Cereal 0.9800 0...

  14. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Erkmen, Baris I; Yu Nan

    2013-01-01

    The term 'ghost imaging' was coined in 1995 when an optical correlation measurement in combination with an entangled photon-pair source was used to image a mask placed in one optical channel by raster-scanning a detector in the other, empty, optical channel. Later, it was shown that the entangled photon source could be replaced with thermal sources of light, which are abundantly available as natural illumination sources. It was also shown that the bucket detector could be replaced with a remote point-like detector, opening the possibility to remote-sensing imaging applications. In this paper, we discuss the application of ghost-imaging-like techniques to astronomy, with the objective of detecting intensity-correlation signatures resulting from space objects of interest, such as exo-planets, gas clouds, and gravitational lenses. An important aspect of being able to utilize ghost imaging in astronomy, is the recognition that in interstellar imaging geometries the object of interest can act as an effective beam splitter, yielding detectable variations in the intensity-correlation signature.

  15. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  16. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  17. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations

  18. Multimodality imaging with CT, MR and FDG-PET for radiotherapy target volume delineation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, David; Scarsbrook, Andrew F.; Sykes, Jonathan; Ramasamy, Satiavani; Subesinghe, Manil; Carey, Brendan; Wilson, Daniel J.; Roberts, Neil; McDermott, Gary; Karakaya, Ebru; Bayman, Evrim; Sen, Mehmet; Speight, Richard; Prestwich, Robin J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the variation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma gross tumour volume (GTV) delineation between CT, MR and FDG PET-CT imaging. A prospective, single centre, pilot study was undertaken where 11 patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers (2 tonsil, 9 base of tongue primaries) underwent pre-treatment, contrast enhanced, FDG PET-CT and MR imaging, all performed in a radiotherapy treatment mask. CT, MR and CT-MR GTVs were contoured by 5 clinicians (2 radiologists and 3 radiation oncologists). A semi-automated segmentation algorithm was used to contour PET GTVs. Volume and positional analyses were undertaken, accounting for inter-observer variation, using linear mixed effects models and contour comparison metrics respectively. Significant differences in mean GTV volume were found between CT (11.9 cm 3 ) and CT-MR (14.1 cm 3 ), p < 0.006, CT-MR and PET (9.5 cm 3 ), p < 0.0009, and MR (12.7 cm 3 ) and PET, p < 0.016. Substantial differences in GTV position were found between all modalities with the exception of CT-MR and MR GTVs. A mean of 64 %, 74 % and 77 % of the PET GTVs were included within the CT, MR and CT-MR GTVs respectively. A mean of 57 % of the MR GTVs were included within the CT GTV; conversely a mean of 63 % of the CT GTVs were included within the MR GTV. CT inter-observer variability was found to be significantly higher in terms of position and/or volume than both MR and CT-MR (p < 0.05). Significant differences in GTV volume were found between GTV volumes delineated by radiologists (9.7 cm 3 ) and oncologists (14.6 cm 3 ) for all modalities (p = 0.001). The use of different imaging modalities produced significantly different GTVs, with no single imaging technique encompassing all potential GTV regions. The use of MR reduced inter-observer variability. These data suggest delineation based on multimodality imaging has the potential to improve accuracy of GTV definition. ISRCTN Registry: ISRCTN34165059. Registered 2

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in HORMAD2 associated with tonsillectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Bager, Peter; Liu, Xueping

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation of the tonsils is a normal response to infection, but some individuals experience recurrent, severe tonsillitis and massive hypertrophy of the tonsils in which case surgical removal of the tonsils may be considered. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants associate...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic association involve general lymphoid hyper-reaction throughout the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue system.......BACKGROUND: Inflammation of the tonsils is a normal response to infection, but some individuals experience recurrent, severe tonsillitis and massive hypertrophy of the tonsils in which case surgical removal of the tonsils may be considered. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants associated...... with tonsillectomy. METHODS: We used tonsillectomy information from Danish health registers and carried out a genome-wide association study comprising 1464 patients and 12 019 controls of Northwestern European ancestry, with replication in an independent sample set of 1575 patients and 1367 controls. RESULTS...

  20. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Grobovšek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The first and important phase of documentation of cultural heritage objects is to understand which objects need to be documented. The entire documentation process is determined by the characteristics and scope of the cultural heritage object. The next question to be considered is the expected outcome of the documentation process and the purpose for which it will be used. These two essential guidelines determine each stage of the documentation workflow: the choice of the most appropriate data capturing technology and data processing method, how detailed should the documentation be, what problems may occur, what the expected outcome is, what it will be used for, and the plan for storing data and results. Cultural heritage objects require diverse data capturing and data processing methods. It is important that even the first stages of raw data capturing are oriented towards the applicability of results. The selection of the appropriate working method can facilitate the data processing and the preparation of final documentation. Documentation of paintings requires different data capturing method than documentation of buildings or building areas. The purpose of documentation can also be the preservation of the contemporary cultural heritage to posterity or the basis for future projects and activities on threatened objects. Documentation procedures should be adapted to our needs and capabilities. Captured and unprocessed data are lost unless accompanied by additional analyses and interpretations. Information on tools, procedures and outcomes must be included into documentation. A thorough analysis of unprocessed but accessible documentation, if adequately stored and accompanied by additional information, enables us to gather useful data. In this way it is possible to upgrade the existing documentation and to avoid data duplication or unintentional misleading of users. The documentation should be archived safely and in a way to meet

  1. Intralesional and metastatic heterogeneity in malignant melanomas demonstrated by stereologic estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Erlandsen, M

    1990-01-01

    Regional variability of nuclear 3-dimensional size can be estimated objectively using point-sampled intercepts obtained from different, defined zones within individual neoplasms. In the present study, stereologic estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, within peripheral...... melanomas showed large interindividual variation. This finding emphasizes that unbiased estimates of nuclear vv are robust to regional heterogeneity of nuclear volume and thus suitable for purposes of objective, quantitative malignancy grading of melanomas....

  2. Multisensory memory for object identity and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported that audiovisual object presentation improves memory encoding of object identity in comparison to either auditory or visual object presentation. However, multisensory memory effects on retrieval, on object location, and of other multisensory combinations are yet unknown. We

  3. PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP PENGUASAAN KONSEP DASAR MATERI VOLUME BENDA PUTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Galih Adirakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was determine the application of contextual teaching learning approach to improve the mastery of concepts volume of the rotary object. The study design was nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Data collection technique used pretest and posttest to determine the mastery of concepts of volume of the rotary object. Hypothesis testing using t-test to compare the the mastery of concepts volume of the rotary object in the experimental class and control class, then a further test by comparing the mean (compare means and average absolute gain Based on the research result the data show that it can be concluded that the approach of contextual learning significantly distinction of concepts volume of the rotary object. Keywords:  Contextual Teaching Learning Approach, The Mastery of Concepts, Volume of The Rotary Object

  4. Quantum volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light. The scheme is based on a counterpropagating quantum signal wave and a strong classical reference wave as in a classical volume hologram and therefore can be called a quantum volume hologram. The medium for the hologram consists of a spatially extended ensemble of atoms placed in a magnetic field. The write-in and readout of this quantum hologram is as simple as that of its classical counterpart and consists of a single-pass illumination. In addition, we show that the present scheme for a quantum hologram is less sensitive to diffraction and therefore is capable of achieving a higher density of storage of spatial modes as compared to previous proposals. We present a feasibility study and show that experimental implementation is possible with available cold atomic samples. A quantum hologram capable of storing entangled images can become an important ingredient in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  5. CONSUMER BETWEEN OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Dina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society where the consumer, due to the diversity and abundance of products and services whose characteristics are becoming more similar, has to make choices that are increasingly difficult. Another aspect that has led to a profound transformation of the consumer behavior is due to the large volume of information, supplied by the Internet, information which in some cases is not accurate, but is decisively influencing the consumer. In equal measure, the difficulty of making a purchasing decision is caused by the fact that with the opening to the global market, where the products and services were depersonalized, gaining common features, and where the concept of quality tends to no longer relate to the same standards as a few decades ago, having suffered major changes. The quality of products is a fundamental requirement of competitiveness, and quality assessment is a personal right of the consumer, because this is a direct effect of quality of life. (“Fundamentele ştiinţei mărfurilor” Dinu Vasile, 2008

  6. Accelerator operation management using objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.; Valdez, M.

    1995-04-01

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented.

  7. Accelerator operation management using objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.; Valdez, M.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented

  8. Objective - oriented financial analysis introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostova – Pickett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of financial analysis has been immeasurably strengthened in recent years thanks to the ongoing evolution of computerized approaches in the form of spreadsheets and computer-based financial models of different types. These devices not only relieved the analyst's computing task, but also opened up a wide range of analyzes and research into alternative sensitivity, which so far has not been possible. The main potential for object-oriented financial analysis consists in enormously expanding the analyst's capabilities through an online knowledge and information interface that has not yet been achieved through existing methods and software packages.

  9. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  10. Hyperspectral imaging simulation of object under sea-sky background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Lin, Jia-xuan; Gao, Wei; Yue, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image simulation plays an important role in spaceborne/airborne load demonstration and algorithm development. Hyperspectral imaging is valuable in marine monitoring, search and rescue. On the demand of spectral imaging of objects under the complex sea scene, physics based simulation method of spectral image of object under sea scene is proposed. On the development of an imaging simulation model considering object, background, atmosphere conditions, sensor, it is able to examine the influence of wind speed, atmosphere conditions and other environment factors change on spectral image quality under complex sea scene. Firstly, the sea scattering model is established based on the Philips sea spectral model, the rough surface scattering theory and the water volume scattering characteristics. The measured bi directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data of objects is fit to the statistical model. MODTRAN software is used to obtain solar illumination on the sea, sky brightness, the atmosphere transmittance from sea to sensor and atmosphere backscattered radiance, and Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to calculate the sea surface object composite scattering and spectral image. Finally, the object spectrum is acquired by the space transformation, radiation degradation and adding the noise. The model connects the spectrum image with the environmental parameters, the object parameters, and the sensor parameters, which provide a tool for the load demonstration and algorithm development.

  11. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  12. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  13. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second

  14. Ten objectives for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A

    2000-02-01

    Sustainable development is one of the fundamental strategies for China's socioeconomic development in its 10th 5-Year Plan (2001-2005) period and beyond. It is a human-centered strategy focusing on improved quality of life in which environmental quality is an important part. This article presents 10 objectives that must be achieved for the sustainable development strategy to succeed. These objectives are: 1) continue to implement the family planning program; 2) maintain a dynamic balance of arable land (not less than 123 million hectares) and implement an agricultural development strategy; 3) maintain a dynamic balance of water resources by reducing water consumption for every unit of gross development product growth and agricultural value added; 4) import large quantities of oil and natural gas; 5) control emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide by large cities and industries and close high-pollution thermal power plants; 6) compensate for ¿forest deficit¿ with ¿trade surplus¿ by reducing timber production and increase timber import; 7) import large quantities of iron ore, copper, zinc, aluminum, and other minerals and encourage foreign participation in resource exploration and development; 8) make time-bound commitments to clean up large cities, rivers, and lakes and forcefully close down seriously polluting enterprises; 9) implement a massive ecological construction project to slow down ecological degradation; and 10) develop the environmental industry and eco-buildup to expand domestic demand, increase employment, and alleviate poverty.

  15. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Inertial objects in complex flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Rayhan; Ho, George; Cavas, Samuel; Bao, Jialun; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Chaotic Advection and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents both describe stirring and transport in complex and time-dependent flows, but FTLE analysis has been largely limited to either purely kinematic flow models or high Reynolds number flow field data. The neglect of dynamic effects in FTLE and Lagrangian Coherent Structure studies has stymied detailed information about the role of pressure, Coriolis effects and object inertia. We present results of laboratory and numerical experiments on time-dependent and multi-gyre Stokes flows. In the lab, a time-dependent effectively two-dimensional low Re flow is used to distinguish transport properties of passive tracer from those of small paramagnetic spheres. Companion results of FTLE calculations for inertial particles in a time-dependent multi-gyre flow are presented, illustrating the critical roles of density, Stokes number and Coriolis forces on their transport. Results of Direct Numerical Simulations of fully resolved inertial objects (spheroids) immersed in a three dimensional (ABC) flow show the role of shape and finite size in inertial transport at small finite Re. We acknowledge support of NSF DMS-1418956.

  17. AVNG system objectives and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macarthur, Duncan W.; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released to the monitoring party. At the same time, the monitoring party must gain sufficient confidence from the measurement to believe that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The AVNG that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC-VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG measures the three attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass >2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ( 240 Pu to 239 Pu) <0.1' and was demonstrated in Sarov for a joint US/Russian audience in June 2009. In this presentation, we will outline the goals and objectives of the AVNG measurement system. These goals are driven by the two, sometimes conflicting, requirements mentioned above. We will describe the conceptual design of the AVNG and show how this conceptual design grew out of these goals and objectives.

  18. Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. Method The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Results Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. Conclusions The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects. PMID:16585437

  19. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign and atypical meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    A stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign and atypical meningiomas was made. The aim was to investigate whether this method could discriminate between these two meningeal neoplasms. The difference was significant and it was moreover seen that there was no overlap between the two groups....... The results demonstrate that atypical meningiomas can be distinguished from benign meningiomas by an objective stereological estimation of nuclear volume....

  20. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  1. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....... We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. PARTICIPANTS...... find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes...

  2. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Observations of fast variable objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    A problem on studying fast variable astronomic objects is considered. The basis of the method used in the experiment is a detailed photoelectric study of a fast variableness along with spectroscopy of a high time resolution. Power spectrum of the SS Cyg brightness oscillations and autocorrelation function of the AX Mon brightness are analyzed as an example. To provide a reliable identification of parameters of star active regions responsible for the fast variableness, an experiment is proposed, the ''synchronous spectroscopy'' method being used. The method is based on the supposition about temporary stationarity of occasional processes within the limits of the time scale of several hours. The block diagram of the experiment is described

  4. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  5. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    made. This is certainly the case in the Danish development. Based on the theories about these abstraction mechanisms, the basic principles for classification systems are presented and the observed misconceptions are analyses and explained. Furthermore, it is argued that the purpose of classification...... systems has changed and that new opportunities should be explored. Some proposals for new applications are presented and carefully aligned with IT opportunities. Especially, the use of building modelling will give new benefits and many of the traditional uses of classification systems will instead...... be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of evolved objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    In this review, the authors are concerned with spectroscopic observations of evolved objects made in the wavelength range 1-300μm. Spectroscopic observations can conveniently be divided into studies of narrow lines, bands and broader continua. The vibrational frequencies of molecular groups fall mainly in this spectral region and appear as vibration-rotation bands from the gas phase, and as less structured, but often broader, features from the solid state. Many ionic lines, including recombination lines of abundant species and fine structure lines of astrophysically important ions also appear in this region. The continuum can arise from a number of mechanisms - photospheric emission, radiation from dust, free-free transitions in ionized gas and non-thermal processes. (Auth.)

  7. Location mortgage in accounting objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygiska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mechanism of the implementation of all kinds of mortgage (mortgage, pledge, mortgage of securities, security of property rights, the mortgage of goods in circulation or processing, tax lien defined the specificity of receipt/return of the mortgage, particularly payments between mortgagor and the mortgagee. Determine the subject property entities that can act as mortgage; identified by their place in the system of objects of accounting mortgagor and the mortgagee. The peculiarities of the balance sheet and off-balance sheet assets as a reflection of your collateral. Identified two groups of mortgage transactions: transactions with mortgage for its receipt and transmission; business transactions related to the conditions of loan agreements (loan and mortgage. The results are shown in the research paper proposals allow for further research to develop mortgage organizational and methodological support the operations accounting for the effective management of financial resources and obligations, collateralised.

  8. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  9. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  10. Objective growth monitoring of the maxilla in full term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohoff, Ariane; Stamm, Thomas; Meyer, Ulrich; Wiechmann, Dirk; Ehmer, Ulrike

    2006-03-01

    To develop a non-invasive method for longitudinal maxillary volume measurements and to provide first normative data. Thirty-four healthy infants served as a gold standard for a growing population sample. Alginate impressions were taken of the upper jaw within the first week after birth, and consecutively at different stages of development. The plaster casts were digitised by an optical scanner generating a high resolution polygon mesh of each object. The digital models were aligned to a reference coordinate system with an iterative, landmark-independent procedure. Biometric linear and volume measurements were obtained by using feature-dependent calculations independent of landmark placements. Intra-investigator reproducibility was tested by repeated alignments and measurements of 30 randomly selected casts. To assess the effect of mesh resolution, the reproducibility test was repeated with low resolution models. The method was proved to be valid on the defined gold standard consisting of 96 consecutive edentulous casts. Feature-dependent, linear distances are less error prone (0.56-2.66%) compared to subjectively determined measurements (0.88-3.65%). The same applies to feature-dependent volume calculations (4.34%) compared to subjectively determined volumes (4.95%). Mesh resolution shows an effect (pbiometric measurement for bone growth evaluation.

  11. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  12. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de

    2017-01-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  13. Strong volume, stable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article is the September-October 1993 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. Activity was brisk, with 15 deals concluded. Six were in the spot concentrates market, with four of the six deals involving U.S. utilities and approximately 1.8M pounds of U3O8 equivalent. There were five conversion deals announced, with four of the five deals involving U.S. utilities. Four deals were concluded in the enrichment market, and the deals involving U.S. utilities were approximately 327k SWUs. On the horizon, there are deals for approximately 4.1M SWU

  14. Volume of emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, P; Whimster, W F

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the volume of emphysema in excised lungs is presented, with its validation. This method is based on macroscopic point counting using a perforated grid but only the holes (points) overlying emphysema need be counted to produce results within a percentage standard error of 5%. Application of the method shows that an adequate assessment of emphysema cannot be made from one lung slice alone, and that the amount of emphysema found in one lung cannot be used to predict the a...

  15. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  16. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  17. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  18. Study on hybrid multi-objective optimization algorithm for inverse treatment planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Song Gang; Wu Yican

    2007-01-01

    Inverse treatment planning for radiation therapy is a multi-objective optimization process. The hybrid multi-objective optimization algorithm is studied by combining the simulated annealing(SA) and genetic algorithm(GA). Test functions are used to analyze the efficiency of algorithms. The hybrid multi-objective optimization SA algorithm, which displacement is based on the evolutionary strategy of GA: crossover and mutation, is implemented in inverse planning of external beam radiation therapy by using two kinds of objective functions, namely the average dose distribution based and the hybrid dose-volume constraints based objective functions. The test calculations demonstrate that excellent converge speed can be achieved. (authors)

  19. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV measurement of flow around moving objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, D.; Longmire, E.K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recently developed method to measure three components of velocity within a volumetric space. We present a visual hull technique that automates identification and masking of discrete objects within the measurement volume, and we apply existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to measure the velocity surrounding the objects. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling bodies of different shape with Reynolds number {proportional_to}1,000. Acquired image sets are processed using separate routines to reconstruct both the volumetric mask around the object and the surrounding tracer particles. After particle reconstruction, the reconstructed object mask is used to remove any ghost particles that otherwise appear within the object volume. Velocity vectors corresponding with fluid motion can then be determined up to the boundary of the visual hull without being contaminated or affected by the neighboring object velocity. Although the visual hull method is not meant for precise tracking of objects, the reconstructed object volumes nevertheless can be used to estimate the object location and orientation at each time step. (orig.)

  20. Advertising. Advanced placement of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising