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Sample records for obesity body fat

  1. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  2. Skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and body mass index in obese and non-obese Indian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity is presently increasing worldwide and has created enormous concern for researchers working in the field of obesity related diseases with special interest in child health and development. Selected anthropometric measurements including stature, body mass, and skinfolds are globally accepted sensitive indicators of growth patterns and health status of a child. The present study was therefore aimed not only at evaluating the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, body fat percentage (%fat) in obese school going boys of West Bengal, India, but also aimed to compare these data with their non-obese counterparts. Ten to sixteen year old obese boys (N = 158) were separated from their non-obese counterparts using the age-wise international cut-off points of BMI. Skinfolds were measured using skinfold calipers, BMI and %fat were calculated from standard equations. Body mass, BMI, skinfolds and %fat were significantly (Pimportance in order to identify or categorize obese boys, and to take preventative steps to minimise serious health problems that appear during the later part of life.

  3. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

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    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  4. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  5. Body Fat Composition: A Predictive Factor for Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajeev; Lesser, Daniel J; Oliveira, Flavia G S A; Tran, Winston H; Keens, Thomas G; Khoo, Michael C K; Davidson Ward, Sally L

    2015-09-15

    The association between body fat composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning and pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) is not well established. We investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and DEXA parameters and their association with SRBD in obese children. Overnight polysomnography was performed on obese/overweight children (10-17 years) with habitual snoring. Total body fat mass (g), trunk fat mass (g), total body % fat, and trunk % fat were determined by DEXA. Forty-one subjects were studied. Logarithm (Log) total arousal index correlated with BMI (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat mass (p fat (p fat mass (p fat (p fat mass and trunk fat mass as well as BMI correlated with total arousal index and desaturation index. BMI correlated with DEXA parameters in 10-12 year old males but not in 13-17 year old males. The value of using DEXA scanning to study the relationship between obesity and SRBD may depend on age and pubertal stage. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

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    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  7. Insulin resistance, body composition, and fat distribution in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Eun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body composition, especially distribution of body fat, and insulin resistance on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. One hundred obese children (66 boys, 34 girls) with (n=60) and without NAFLD (n=40) were assessed. Anthropometry, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasonography, and dual energy x-ray absorption metry (DXA) were evaluated in all subjects. Subject age and measurements of liver enzymes, γ- glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT), uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance were significantly different between the non-NAFLD group and NAFLD group. Body fat and trunk fat percentage were significantly different between the two groups (pfat percentage was not (p=0.683). Insulin resistance correlated significantly with body fat and trunk fat percentages, age, liver enzymes, γGT, and uric acid in obese children. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that insulin resistance and trunk fat percentage significantly affected the development of NAFLD in obese children. Body fat, especially abdominal fat, influences the development of insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD in obese children. Therefore, body composition measurement using DXA, in conjunction with biochemical tests, may be beneficial in evaluating obese children with NAFLD.

  8. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  10. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  11. Treatment of obesity in children: Parent's perceived emotional barriers as predictor of change in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Odegård, Rønnaug; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Research supports the use of family-based interventions in the treatment of obesity in children, but there is a lack of knowledge about what factors affect parents' ability to carry out the lifestyle changes necessary to reduce their child's obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parents' self-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers, subjective norms, and attitudes could predict change in their children's body fat at 6 month and 2 year follow-ups after a family-based treatment of obesity. Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Scores (BMI SDS) were calculated and body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 99 treatment-seeking children with obesity (ages 7-12; 48 girls, 51 boys; mean BMI SDS = 2.99) at baseline, after 6 month and after 2 year follow-up. Parental cognitions regarding diet and physical activity were examined by parent-completed questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether the selected health cognitions could predict treatment outcome. Parental perceived emotional barriers was a significant predictor of change in body fat at 6 month (β = -.32, p = .001) and 2 year (β = -.38, p = .002) follow-up when the initial body fat values were controlled. Self-efficacy, subjective norms and attitudes did not improve the amount of variance explained. Parents' perceived emotional barriers significantly predict change in total body fat in children treated for obesity. In order to increase treatment-efficacy, perceived emotional barriers should be addressed. © 2011 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  13. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  14. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  15. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  16. Body Fat Distribution, Serum Leptin, And Insulin Resistance In Obese Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan ZA*,Attia MF**, Ahmed AH**;Hassan HA***,

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OS A) is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by endocrine and metabolic changes. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether there is interrelationship between body fat, serum leptin, glucose-insulin metabolism and OSA. Subjects and measurements: we studied 23 obese subjects with OSA (13 males,& 10 females; age mean 36 ± 4.4 years; BMI: 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; WHR: 1.2 ± .25 in males and 0.81+.5 in females ;Apnoea Index "AI"( 9.2 ±6.1) event/hour o...

  17. Effect of Body Fat Distribution on Pulmonary Functions in Young Healthy Obese Students

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    Sowmya Timmanna Koraddi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. WHO defines obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI ≥30 2 Kg/m . Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the world and has effects on different body systems. Main is the impact on respiratory function. Aim & Objectives: We have aimed to study the gender difference in obesity induced changes on pulmonary functions and determine adiposity marker which best predicts the pulmonary function in young adult obese individuals and age-matched non-obese young adult subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional 2 study was conducted on obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m male (n=32 and female (n=18 students aged 18-25 years and compared with age matched non-obese (BMI 2 18.5–24.99 Kg/m male (n=23 and female subjects (n=27 as controls. Weight(kg, Height(cm, Body -2 Mass Index(BMI, kgm , Waist Circumference(WC, cm, Waist to Hip Ratio(WHR,Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, L, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV , L/min, 1 FEV , FEF (L/sec, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 1% 25-75% (PEFR, L/min and Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP, mm Hg were recorded. Results: Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate and Respiratory Rate were significantly higher in obese students when compared to their respective controls. We observed highly significant reduction in PEFR (p<0.001 and MEP (p<0.001 in both obese male and female groups compared to controls. FEV was 1% significantly lower in obese female students. Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, WHR and WC were significant predictors of PEFR. BMI was only the significant predictor of MEP. WHtR and WHR were best predictors of FVC, FEF and FEV . 25-75% 1 Conclusion: Obesity and pattern of fat distribution have independent effect on pulmonary function.

  18. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

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    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  19. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  20. Impact of obesity and body fat distribution on cardiovascular risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese.

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    Thomas, G Neil; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lam, Karen S L; Janus, Edward D; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai Hing

    2004-11-01

    Body fat distribution has been reported to differentially contribute to the development of cardiovascular risk. We report the relative associations between general and central obesity and risk factors in 2893 Chinese subjects recruited from the Hong Kong population. Anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC) and BMI], surrogate measures of insulin resistance (fasting plasma glucose and insulin, oral glucose tolerance test, 2 hours glucose and insulin), fasting lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. General obesity was classified as BMI > or =25.0 kg/m(2) and central obesity as a WC > or =80 or > or =90 cm in women and men, respectively. A total of 39.2% of the population was found to be obese. Obesity per se increased the levels of the risk factors, but central adiposity contributed to a greater extent to adverse high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin resistance levels. There was a continuous relationship between increasing obesity, both general and central, and cardiovascular risk, with lowest risk associated with the lowest indices of obesity. In the 1759 nonobese subjects divided into quartiles of BMI or WC, the levels of the cardiovascular risk factors still significantly increased with increasing quartiles of adiposity. Central adiposity appears to contribute to a greater extent than general adiposity to the development of cardiovascular risk in this population. The relationship between obesity parameters and risk is a continuum, with risk factors significantly increasing even at levels usually considered nonobese. These observations support the proposed redefinition of overweight and obesity in Asian populations using lower cut-off points.

  1. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

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    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

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    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  3. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  4. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort.

  5. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  6. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n = 13) or a nonexercising control group (n = 14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group by time interaction (P < .05) for heart rate, sympathovagal balance, and body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P < .05); and R-R intervals significantly increased (P < .05) following WBVT compared to no changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r = .63, P < .05). Our findings indicate that WBVT improves HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  7. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan eZhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSafflower yellow (SY is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. MethodsHFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg-1 daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies.ResultsThe administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P<0.05. IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1, PKB protein kinase (AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1 in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9, 2.8, 3.3 and 5.9 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P<0.05.ConclusionsSY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The possible mechanism is to

  8. Body Fat Percentages by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Corresponding to Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Overweight and Obesity in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Indians are suspected to have higher body fat percent at a given body mass index (BMI than their western counterparts. Objective To estimate percent body fat in apparently healthy Indian children and adolescents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and explore linkages of BMI with body fat percent for better health risk assessment. Methods Age, weight, height of 316 boys and 250 girls (6–17 years were recorded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. High adiposity was defined as body fat percent (BF% > McCarthy's 85th percentile of body fat reference data. Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC was carried out for CDC BMI Z score for it's ability to judge excess fatness. Results High BF% was seen in 38.5% boys and 54.0% girls (p < 0.05. Percentage of obese children as defined by the BMI cutoffs of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF (2.1% for boys and 6.9% for girls was lower than that using Indian (13.7% for boys and 20.9% for girls and CDC (14.1% for boys and 20.9% for girls cutoffs. The point closest to one on the ROC curves of CDC BMI Z-scores indicated high adiposity at BMI cutoff of 22 at the age of 17 yr in both the genders. Conclusions Higher body fat percentage is associated with lower BMI values in Indian children.

  9. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K; Smith, Caren E; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M

    2014-12-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although determining the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term glucocorticoid concentrations as a risk factor for childhood obesity and adverse body-fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, G; van den Akker, E L T; de Rijke, Y B; Koper, J W; Jaddoe, V W; van Rossum, E F C

    2016-10-01

    Childhood obesity is an important risk factor for premature development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) at adulthood. There is need for understanding of the mechanisms underlying the MetS and obesity. Patients with Cushing's disease suffer from similar metabolic complications, leading to the hypothesis that inter-individual cortisol variation may contribute to the onset of obesity. In addition, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-gene polymorphisms resulting in differential glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity, have been associated with an adverse metabolic profile. To study associations of GC levels in scalp hair, as a marker of long-term systemic GC concentrations, and genetically determined GC sensitivity with obesity and body-fat distribution in children. We performed a cross-sectional study of cortisol and cortisone concentrations over a 3-month period, measured by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in hair of 3019 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R study. Genotyping of GR-gene polymorphisms was performed. Of all children, 4.3% was obese and 13.4% overweight. Cortisol was significantly associated with risk of obesity (odd ratio (OR): 9.4 (3.3-26.9)) and overweight (OR: 1.4 (1.0-2.0)). Cortisone was associated with risk of obesity (OR: 1.9 (1.0-3.5)). Cortisol and cortisone were significantly positively associated with body mass index, fat mass (FM) index and android/gynecoid FM ratio. GR polymorphisms were not associated with adiposity parameters. Long-term cortisol concentrations are strongly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity and adverse body-fat distribution. Future research may reveal whether these are causal relations and may be a target for therapy.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF BODY FAT IN OBESE PATIENTS PREOPERATIVELY FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mônica; Toimil, Rosana Farah; Rasslan, Zied; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Gradinar, Ana Lúcia Torloni; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    The study of body composition in patient candidates for bariatric surgery is directly related to the increase and distribution of body fat in the development of cardiovascular disease. To correlate anthropometric indicators and bioelectrical impedance in the assessment of body fat in female candidates for bariatric surgery. Cross-sectional, observational study of 88 women. The weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference data were evaluated in the anthropometric analysis. The body fat was determinate by bioelectrical impedance conducted according to the manufacturer´s recommended technique with a specific severe obesity formula. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the average waist circumference and body mass index for better analysis of the results. The group had a mean age of 39.7 years (±7.2), average weight of 125.6 kg (±16.2), mean body mass index of 48.7 kg/m2 (±6.4) and the mean waist circumference 137.6 cm (±12.4). Negative and significant relationship between BMI values waist circumference and resistance obtained by bioelectrical impedance ​​were found. By analyzing the two groups the mean BMI and waist circumference, a significant relationship was observed, ie, the higher the degree of obesity less resistance was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. The higher is the obesity the lower is value found for resistance. The increase of anthropometric indicators (BMI and waist circumference) determined reduction in resistance and reactance obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis in obese women candidates to bariatric surgery. O estudo da composição corporal em pacientes candidatas à cirurgia bariátrica tem relação direta com o aumento e distribuição da gordura corporal e no desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares. Estudar a correlação entre indicadores antropométricos e da bioimpedância elétrica na avaliação da gordura corporal em mulheres candidatas à cirurgia bariátrica. Estudo transversal

  12. Does body fat percentage predict post-exercise heart rate response in non-obese children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezdimirovic, Tatjana; Stajer, Valdemar; Semeredi, Sasa; Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-05-24

    A correlation between adiposity and post-exercise autonomic regulation has been established in overweight and obese children. However, little information exists about this link in non-obese youth. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between body fat percentage (BFP) and heart rate recovery after exercise [post-exercise heart rate (PEHR)], a marker of autonomic regulation, in normal-weight children and adolescents. We evaluated the body composition of 183 children and adolescents (age 15.0±2.3 years; 132 boys and 51 girls) who performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill, with the heart rate monitored during and immediately after exercise. A strong positive trend was observed in the association between BFP and PEHR (r=0.14; p=0.06). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that our model explained 18.3% of the variance in PEHR (p=0.00), yet BFP accounted for only 0.9% of the variability in PEHR (p=0.16). The evaluation of the contribution of each independent variable revealed that only two variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to our model (pfatness seems to poorly predict PEHR in our sample of non-obese children and adolescents, while non-modifiable variables (age and gender) were demonstrated as strong predictors of heart rate recovery. The low amount of body fat reported in non-obese young participants was perhaps too small to cause disturbances in autonomic nervous system regulation.

  13. Effect of modified fasting therapy on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koh-Woon; Song, Mi-Yeon; Chung, Seok-Hee; Chung, Won-Seok

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in obese subjects. Twenty-six patients participated in a 14-day fast, during which they ingested a supplement made from fermented medicinal herbs and carbohydrates (intake: 400-600 kcal/d). The schedule included 7 prefasting relief days and 14 days of stepwise reintroduction of food. The patients also took part in an exercise program that incorporated Qigong, weight training, and walking exercises. The efficacy of treatments was observed by assessing body fat mass and muscle mass, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and triglycerides in each study period. Specific symptoms or side effects were reported. Body weight and body fat mass both decreased significantly by (5.16 ± 0.95) and (3.89 ± 0.79) kg (both P fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise could be effective and safe on obese patients.

  14. The Association of Serum Total Peptide YY (PYY) with Obesity and Body Fat Measures in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Ji, Yunqi; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2014-01-01

    PYY is an appetite suppressing hormone. Low circulating PYY has been linked to greater BMI. However data is controversial and this association has not been verified in large human populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fasting serum total PYY is associated with obesity status and/or adiposity at the population level. A total of 2094 subjects (Male-523, Female-1571) participated in this investigation. Total PYY was measured in fasting serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obesity status (NW-normal-weight, OW-overweight and OB-obese) was determined by the Bray Criteria according to body fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and the WHO criteria according to BMI. One-way ANOVA and multiple regression was used to assess the adiposity-specific association between PYY and the following; weight, BMI, waist-circumference, hip-circumference, waist-hip ratio, percent body fat (%BF), trunk fat (%TF), android fat (%AF) and gynoid fat (%GF). PYY was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB groups defined by neither %BF nor BMI for both men and women. However among women, fasting PYY was positively associated with adiposity measures. Women with the highest (Top 33%) waist-circumference, %BF and %TF had significantly higher PYY (10.5%, 8.3% and 9.2% respectively) than women with the lowest (Bottom 33%). Age, smoking, medication use and menopause were all positively associated with PYY levels in women but not in men. To our knowledge this is the largest population based study, with the most comprehensive analysis and measures of confounding factors, to explore the relationship of circulating PYY with obesity. Contrary to initial findings in the literature we discovered that PYY was positively associated with body fat measures (waist-circumference, %BF and %TF) in women. Although the effect size of the positive association of PYY with obesity in women is small, and potentially negligible, it may in fact represent a protective

  15. Effects of Agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) on Body Fat and Serum Lipids in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Barragán-Álvarez, Carla P; Diaz-Martinez, Nestor E; Rathod, Vineet; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Obesity affects millions of people worldwide, constituting a public health problem associated with premature mortality. Agave fructans decrease fat mass, body and liver weight, and generate satiety in rodents. In the present study the effects of agave fructans on weight control, lipid profile, and physical tolerability were evaluated in obese people. Twenty-eight obese volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, 96 mg/bw of agave fructans was administered for 12 weeks; in the second group, maltodextrin as a placebo was administered for 12 weeks. All participants consumed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal/day. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the study. The body mass index (BMI) of the agave fructans treated group was reduced significantly from the baseline to the final measurements. Hip and waist circumferences decreased statistically in both groups. A decrease of 10% in total body fat was observed in the agave fructans treated group, resulting in a statistically significant difference in the final versus baseline measurements between the Agave fructans treated group and the placebo treated group. Triglycerides were reduced significantly in the agave fructans treated group. Glucose values did not change in either group. Agave fructans intake was safe and well tolerated throughout the study. The results showed that the ingestion of agave fructans enhanced the decrease in BMI, the decrease in total body fat, and the decrease in triglycerides in obese individuals who consume a low-calorie diet.

  16. Serum galectin-1 levels are positively correlated with body fat and negatively with fasting glucose in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Paketçi, Ahu; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2017-09-01

    Galectin-1, a recently identified peptide, is primarily released from the adipose tissue. Although galectin-1 was shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, its specific function is not clearly understood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum galectin-1 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. A total of 45 obese children (mean age: 12.1±3.1years) and 35 normal-weight children (mean age: 11.8±2.2years) were enrolled. Clinical [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat and blood pressure] and biochemical [glucose, insulin, lipids, galectin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin levels] parameters were assessed. Serum galectin-1, hsCRP and leptin levels were significantly higher in obese children than those in normal-weight children (12.4 vs 10.2ng/mL, pobese children, galectin-1 levels correlated negatively with fasting glucose (r=-0.346, p=0.020) and positively with fat mass (r=0.326, p=0.026) and WC standard deviation score (SDS) (r=0.451, p=0.002). The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum galectin-1 levels were significantly associated with fasting glucose and WC SDS. This study showed that obese children had significantly higher galectin-1 levels in proportion to fat mass in obese cases than those in healthy children, which may be interpreted as a compensatory increase in an attempt to improve glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Similarity in percent body fat between white and Vietnamese women: implication for a universal definition of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2010-06-01

    It has been widely assumed that for a given BMI, Asians have higher percent body fat (PBF) than whites, and that the BMI threshold for defining obesity in Asians should be lower than the threshold for whites. This study sought to test this assumption by comparing the PBF between US white and Vietnamese women. The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation. In the first study, 210 Vietnamese women ages between 50 and 85 were randomly selected from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). In the second study, 419 women of the same age range were randomly selected from the Rancho Bernardo Study (San Diego, CA). In both studies, lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (QDR 4500; Hologic). PBF was derived as FM over body weight. Compared with Vietnamese women, white women had much more FM (24.8 +/- 8.1 kg vs. 18.8 +/- 4.9 kg; P or=30, 19% of US white women and 5% of Vietnamese women were classified as obese. Approximately 54% of US white women and 53% of Vietnamese women had their PBF >35% (P = 0.80). Although white women had greater BMI, body weight, and FM than Vietnamese women, their PBF was virtually identical. Further research is required to derive a more appropriate BMI threshold for defining obesity for Asian women.

  18. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  19. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  20. Moderate effects of apple juice consumption on obesity-related markers in obese men: impact of diet-gene interaction on body fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Stephan W; Koch, Tatiana C L; Watzl, Bernhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Bub, Achim

    2012-10-01

    The effect of polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice (CloA) consumption on plasma parameters related to the obesity phenotype and potential effects of interactions between CloA and allelic variants in obesity candidate genes were assessed in obese men. In this controlled, randomized, and parallel study, n = 68, non-smoking, non-diabetic men with a BMI ≥27 kg/m(2) received 750 mL/day CloA (802.5 mg polyphenols) or 750 mL/day control beverage (CB, isocaloric equivalent to CloA) for 4 weeks. Further, study participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PPARγ (rs1801282), UCP3 (rs1800849), IL-6 (rs1800795), FABP2 (rs1799883), INSIG2 (rs7566605), and PGC1 (rs8192678) genes. At the beginning and at the end of intervention plasma lipids, distinct adipokines and cytokines as well as anthropometric parameters were determined. CloA compared to CB had no significant effect on plasma lipids, plasma adipokine and cytokine levels, BMI, and waist circumference. However, CloA consumption significantly reduced percent body fat compared to CB (∆ % body fat: CloA: -1.0 ± 1.3 vs. CB: -0.2 ± 0.9, p diet-gene interaction might be a first indication for the impact of individual genetic background on CloA-mediated bioactivity on obesity-associated comorbidities.

  1. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    (percent body fat) over time. The gold standard method, hydrodensitometry, has severe limitations for the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the reliability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in detecting percent body fat changes within obese children over time. METHODS: Percent...... body fat by ADP, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured for eight obese children aged 5-12 years enrolled in a weight management program over a 12-month period. These measurements were taken at initial evaluation, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to monitor the progress...... of the subjects and detect any changes in these measures over time. Statistical analysis was used to determine the reliability of the data collected. RESULTS: The reliability estimate for percent body fat by ADP was 0.78. This was much lower than the reliability of BMI, 0.98, and weight measurements, 0...

  2. [Effects of the body fat mass and blood sugar and plasma resistin to slim exercise prescription for overweight and obesity students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Youping; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Ke; Qian, Jingjing; Nie, Liuwang

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influences of slim exercise prescription on body fat mass, blood sugar and plasma resistin for overweight and obesity students. Subjects were 9 males and 13 females for simple overweight and obesity students of freshman and junior. The function capacity (FC) were defined after examine of body shape, physical function and exercise capacity. The slim goals and exercise projects were determined according to different objects. The exercise intensity was 60%-70% of FC and 13-15 levels of RPE. Exercise with each time was 60 min, exercise frequency was 5 times perweek, energy metabolism was 500-600 kcal at a time. The relative indexes were detected after 8 weeks. Implementing programmes of slim exercise prescription for 8 weeks, before and after the experiment in the males and females group. The weight, BMI, percentage of body fat (FAT%), waist and hip circumference ratio (WHR), body surface area (BS), fat indexes, the density of body for overweight and obesity the male and female students were significantly decreased (P exercise prescription was safe and sure, and could improve weight, BMI, FAT%, FM, WHR, BS, fat indexes, the density of body, blood sugar, plasma resistin in obesity without the diet control.

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Burtscher, Martin; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Timon, Rafael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olcina, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO 2 = 17.2%; n = 13), (2) aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15), (3) sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15), and (4) sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18). Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1), after 18 training sessions (T2), 7 days after the last session (T3), and 4 weeks after the last session (T4). The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 ( p Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly ( p fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups ( p fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval training under normobaric intermittent hypoxia for 12 weeks in overweight/obese women seems to be promising for reducing body fat content with a concomitant increase in muscle mass.

  5. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Result...

  6. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mancio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS. However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. Aims To determine the association of body mass index (BMI and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Results Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05. At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.9; p = 0.021 and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1–5.8; p = 0.031 compared with obese/low VAF patients. Conclusions In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  7. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancio, Jennifer; Fonseca, Paulo; Figueiredo, Bruno; Ferreira, Wilson; Carvalho, Monica; Ferreira, Nuno; Braga, Pedro; Rodrigues, Alberto; Barros, Antonio; Falcao-Pires, Ines; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama; Bettencourt, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC) and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS). However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05). At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.9; p = 0.021) and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-5.8; p = 0.031) compared with obese/low VAF patients. In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  8. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  9. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high-fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, M.L.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Adèr, H.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; van der Veen, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    DRENT, MADELEINE L, CORRIE POPP‐SNIJDERS, HERMAN J ADER, JAN BMJ JANSEN AND EDUARD A VAN DER VEEN. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high‐fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects. Obes Res. The effect of Orlistat, a lipase

  10. Impact of 6 months of treatment with intragastric balloon on body fat and quality of life in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Erika Paniago; Madeira, Eduardo; Mafort, Thiago Thomaz; Madeira, Miguel; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Godoy-Matos, Amélio Fernando; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2017-10-24

    Obesity is a worldwide public health issue with a negative impact on quality of life. Different weight loss interventions have demonstrated improvements in quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months of treatment with an intragastric balloon (IGB) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its relation to changes in body fat in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifty obese patients with MS aged 18-50 were selected for treatment with IGB for 6 months. Body fat was assessed with anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and after removal of the IGB. HRQOL was evaluated with the short form of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) at baseline and soon after removal of the IGB. Thirty-nine patients completed the study. After 6 months, there was a significant improvement in quality of life (p = 0.0009) and health (p quality of life. The decrease in the percentage of total fat was the parameter that better correlated with improvements in quality of life perception after regression (p = 0.032). In obese individuals with MS, weight loss parameters were associated with short-term improvements in HRQOL after 6 months of treatment with IGB. However, only total fat was independently related to HRQOL perception. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01598233 .

  11. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i non-obese with good body image; (ii non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii obese with good body image; (iv obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  12. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; López-Galán, Belinda; Caputo, Vincenzina

    2016-12-21

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  13. Insulin detemir attenuates food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D

    2011-07-04

    Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  15. INDICATORS OF SUCCESS IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: WEIGHT, BODY FAT LOSS AND QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    %WL: Percentage of weight loss; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. evaluate which unit of measurement for weight loss could determine the success or failure of dietary treatment for overweight and obesity. 4,625 consultations carried out on 616 patients in the southeast of Spain from 2006 to 2012. All of the patients were over 25 years of age and suffered from overweight or obesity. The consultations were carried out every fortnight, using the Mediterranean or low-calorie diet. The patients were divided into four groups according to their %WL and %FL. most of the sample consisted of: women; participants between 25-45 years of age; attended consultations for over a month and a half; obese. 80% of the patients obtained a %FL ≥ 5% (15.5 } 12.8). The groups with a higher %FL obtained significant differences in weight loss (22.6 vs 11.2%, p = 0.000). The multinomial analysis shows significant differences between the groups with the highest %FL and the lowest %WL and %FL: sex (p = 0.006 vs p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.010 vs p = 0.003) and attendance (p = 0.000 vs p = 0.000). the patients who lost weight and fat); most of the sample lost ≥ 5% of fat. This means that the method of personalised dietary treatment results in a high fat loss; fat is an indicator of the quality loss obtained. use the measurement of fat as a complementary unit of measurement to weight loss; establish a limit of 5% to evaluate such loss; and increase this type of research in any method of weight loss. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of low-fat high-fibre diet and mitratapide on body weight reduction, blood pressure and metabolic parameters in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Cristina; Suarez, Lourdes; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Juste, M Candelaria; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with and without mitratapide. The study sample consisted of 36 obese dogs, randomly assigned to a control group (n=17), which were fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet, and an intervention group (n=19), fed on the same diet and treated with mitratapide. Variables measured included body condition score, body weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures; total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, measured both at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the weight loss program (day 85). All the studied parameters had decreased in both groups at the end of the study; these being diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase, significantly lower in dogs treated with mitratapide. The use of mitrapide in addition to low-fat high-fibre diet does not seem to offer any further useful effect in the loss of weight during the treatment of canine obesity. On the other hand, mitratapide seems to present certain beneficial effects on pathologies associated with obesity, these being mainly related to blood pressure, lipids and hepatic parameters.

  17. Effects of a community-oriented obesity prevention programme on indicators of body fatness in preschool and primary school children. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Bammann, K; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Verbestel, V; Ahrens, W

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern but evidence-based approaches to tackle this epidemic sustainably are still lacking. The Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study investigated the aetiology of childhood obesity and developed a primary prevention programme. Here, we report on the effects of the IDEFICS intervention on indicators of body fatness. The intervention modules addressed the community, school and parental level, focusing on diet, physical activity and stress-related lifestyle factors. A cohort of 16,228 children aged 2-9.9 years - about 2000 per country - was equally divided over intervention and control regions. (Participating countries were Sweden, Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Belgium.) We compared the prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean values of body mass index z-score, per cent body fat and waist-to-height ratio over 2 years of follow-up. Mixed models adjusting for age and socioeconomic status of the parents and with an additional random effect for country accounted for the clustered study design. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in both the intervention and control group from 18.0% at baseline to 22.9% at follow-up in the control group and from 19.0% to 23.6% in the intervention group. The difference in changes between control and intervention was not statistically significant. For the cohort as a whole, the changes in indicators of body fatness did not show any clinically relevant differences between the intervention and control groups. Changes in favour of intervention treatment in some indicators were counterbalanced by changes in favour of the control group in some other indicators. Over the 2-year-observation period, the IDEFICS primary prevention programme for childhood obesity has not been successful in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity nor in improving indicators of body fatness in

  18. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Müller, Manfred James; Simic-Schleicher, Gunter; Kiess, Wieland; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Oelert, Monika; Tuschy, Sabine; Berghem, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body fat (BF) percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA)-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile) were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p correlation with BMI was stronger (r = 0.22) compared to BF (r = 0.13). There were no differences between BMI and BF regarding their correlation with other cardiovascular risk factors. BF significantly predicted hypertension (AUC = 0.61), decreased HDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.58), elevated LDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.59), elevated liver enzymes (AUC = 0.61) (all p < 0.0001), and elevated triglycerides (AUC = 0.57, p < 0.05), but not abnormal carbohydrate metabolism (AUC = 0.54, p = 0.15). For the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors, no significant differences between BMI and BF were observed. Conclusion BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents. PMID:26087841

  19. Body fat indices and biomarkers of inflammation: a cross-sectional study with implications for obesity and peri-implant oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Brogden, Kim A; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek; Pagan-Rivera, Keyla; Stanford, Clark M; Johnson, Georgia K; Recker, Erica; Bowers, Rob; Haynes, William G; Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationships between three measures of body fat-body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat percent-and markers of inflammation around dental implants in stable periodontal maintenance patients. Seventy-three subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional assessment. The study visit consisted of a physical examination that included anthropologic measurements of body composition (BMI, WC, body fat %); intraoral assessments were performed (full-mouth plaque index, periodontal and peri-implant comprehensive examinations) and peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) was collected on the study implants. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, leptin, and adiponectin in the PISF were measured using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. Correlation analysis with body fat measures was then performed using appropriate statistical methods. After adjustments for covariates, regression analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between IL-1β in PISF and WC (R = 0.33; P = .0047). In this study in stable periodontal maintenance patients, a modest but statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the levels of IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine in PISF, and WC, a reliable measure of central obesity.

  20. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  1. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  2. Diet and diet combined with chronic aerobic exercise decreases body fat mass and alters plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic exercise and diet alone or in combination on markers of inflammation (MOI) in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Thirty obese subjects were randomized into a 24-week intervention: (1) exercise (EX), (2) diet (DI), and (3) exercise and diet (EXD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 weeks. In the EXD and DI groups, the fat loss was after 12 weeks was -13.74 and -7.8 % (P exercise was found to have no effects on circulating and AT MOI despite an increased VO2max. Rather important body composition modifications were found to have beneficial effects on circulating and AT MOI in these obese women.

  3. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α -glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  4. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  5. Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D; Muldowney, James A; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E; Niswender, Kevin D

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5±2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5±2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CONSUMING A BALANCED HIGH FAT DIET FOR 16 WEEKS IMPROVES BODY COMPOSITION, INFLAMMATION AND VASCULAR FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN OBESE PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J.; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D.; Muldowney, James A.; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. PMID:24559846

  7. Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-04-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20-50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21-48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m(2) [range, 28.9-50.9 kg/m(2)]) were assigned to the treatment group (8 women, 4 men) or the placebo

  8. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  9. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    )max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P......Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2...... is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications...

  10. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  11. Effects of obesity and body fat distribution on lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V

    2000-09-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All

  12. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  13. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  14. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  15. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Lotta K; Lehtinen, Markus J; Meland, Nils; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Yeung, Nicolas; Saarinen, Markku T; Courtney, Michael; Burcelin, Rémy; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Linros, Jüri; Apter, Dan; Scheinin, Mika; Kloster Smerud, Hilde; Rissanen, Aila; Lahtinen, Sampo

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters. 225 healthy volunteers (healthy, BMI 28-34.9) were randomized into four groups (1:1:1:1), using a computer-generated sequence, for 6months of double-blind, parallel treatment: 1) Placebo, microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 2) LU, 12g/d; 3) B420, 10 10 CFU/d in microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 4) LU+B420, 12g+10 10 CFU/d. Body composition was monitored with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the primary outcome was relative change in body fat mass, comparing treatment groups to Placebo. Other outcomes included anthropometric measurements, food intake and blood and fecal biomarkers. The study was registered in Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01978691). There were marked differences in the results of the Intention-To-Treat (ITT; n=209) and Per Protocol (PP; n=134) study populations. The PP analysis included only those participants who completed the intervention with >80% product compliance and no antibiotic use. In addition, three participants were excluded from DXA analyses for PP due to a long delay between the end of intervention and the last DXA measurement. There were no significant differences between groups in body fat mass in the ITT population. However, LU+B420 and B420 seemed to improve weight management in the PP population. For relative change in body fat mass, LU+B420 showed a-4.5% (-1.4kg, P=0.02, N=37) difference to the Placebo group, whereas LU (+0.3%, P=1.00, N=35) and B420 (-3.0%, P=0.28, N=24) alone had no effect (overall ANOVA P=0.095, Placebo N=35). A post-hoc factorial analysis was significant for B420 (-4.0%, P=0.002 vs. Placebo). Changes in fat mass were most pronounced in the abdominal region, and were reflected by similar

  16. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  17. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  18. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children.

  19. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  20. Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Prendergast, Luke A; Dupuis, Philippe; Raval, Manjri; Strauss, Boyd J; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-10-07

    Whether testosterone treatment has benefits on body composition over and above caloric restriction in men is unknown. We hypothesised that testosterone treatment augments diet-induced loss of fat mass and prevents loss of muscle mass. We conducted a randomised double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. A total of 100 obese men (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) with a total testosterone level of or below 12 nmol/L and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very low energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of 10-weekly intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 49, cases) or matching placebo (n = 51, controls). The main outcome measures were the between-group difference in fat and lean mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and visceral fat area (computed tomography). A total of 82 men completed the study. At study end, compared to controls, cases had greater reductions in fat mass, with a mean adjusted between-group difference (MAD) of -2.9 kg (-5.7 to -0.2; P = 0.04), and in visceral fat (MAD -2678 mm 2 ; -5180 to -176; P = 0.04). Although both groups lost the same lean mass following VLED (cases -3.9 kg (-5.3 to -2.6); controls -4.8 kg (-6.2 to -3.5), P = 0.36), cases regained lean mass (3.3 kg (1.9 to 4.7), P dieting men receiving placebo lost both fat and lean mass, the weight loss with testosterone treatment was almost exclusively due to loss of body fat. clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01616732 , registration date: June 8, 2012.

  1. Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk: meta-analysis of individual participant data of seven prospective cohorts in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Arnold, Melina; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Bamia, Christina; Kampman, Ellen; Leitzmann, Michael; Romieu, Isabelle; Kee, Frank; Tsilidis, Konstantinos; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Benetou, Vassiliki; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Huerta, José María; Brenner, Hermann; Wilsgaard, Tom; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect metabolic

  2. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  3. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia Garcia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women. Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose). Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic

  4. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonjic, M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pasman, W.J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the

  5. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: Towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Mela, D.J.; Macdonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136

  6. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymańska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Mela, D.J.; Macdonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid

  7. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: Towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymańska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Mela, D.J.; MacDonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid

  8. Obesity Management: What Should We Do If Fat Gain Is Necessary to Maintain Body Homeostasis in a Modern World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Tremblay

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight has substantially increased over the last decades despite the intent of health professionals and the general population to prevent this trend. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been attributed to unhealthy dietary macronutrient composition and/or to the decrease in physical activity participation. Beyond the influence of these factors, it is more than likely that other factors have influenced energy balance in a context of modernity. These include inadequate sleep, demanding cognitive effort, chemical pollution, and probably others which also have the potential to promote a positive energy balance but which are also part of the reality of success and productivity in a globalized world. As discussed in this paper, many individuals may become conflicted with themselves if they wish to prevent weight gain while influencing factors which are determinants of their socioeconomic success. In this regard, this paper reminds us of the contribution of adipose tissue gain in body homeostasis which is essential to permit energy balance, especially under lifestyle conditions promoting overfeeding. From a clinical standpoint, this imposes the consideration of a weight loss program as a search for compromise between what can be changed to promote a negative energy balance and what can be tolerated by the body in terms of fat loss. Furthermore, if we also consider the impact of pollution on energy balance for which we currently do not hold solutions of reversibility, we probably must accept that the mankind of today will have to be more corpulent than its ancestors. In this pessimistic environment, there are still possibilities to do better; however, this will probably require the revisiting of lifestyle practices according to what the human body and planet can tolerate as deviation from optimal functioning.

  9. Obesity Management: What Should We Do If Fat Gain Is Necessary to Maintain Body Homeostasis in a Modern World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight has substantially increased over the last decades despite the intent of health professionals and the general population to prevent this trend. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been attributed to unhealthy dietary macronutrient composition and/or to the decrease in physical activity participation. Beyond the influence of these factors, it is more than likely that other factors have influenced energy balance in a context of modernity. These include inadequate sleep, demanding cognitive effort, chemical pollution, and probably others which also have the potential to promote a positive energy balance but which are also part of the reality of success and productivity in a globalized world. As discussed in this paper, many individuals may become conflicted with themselves if they wish to prevent weight gain while influencing factors which are determinants of their socioeconomic success. In this regard, this paper reminds us of the contribution of adipose tissue gain in body homeostasis which is essential to permit energy balance, especially under lifestyle conditions promoting overfeeding. From a clinical standpoint, this imposes the consideration of a weight loss program as a search for compromise between what can be changed to promote a negative energy balance and what can be tolerated by the body in terms of fat loss. Furthermore, if we also consider the impact of pollution on energy balance for which we currently do not hold solutions of reversibility, we probably must accept that the mankind of today will have to be more corpulent than its ancestors. In this pessimistic environment, there are still possibilities to do better; however, this will probably require the revisiting of lifestyle practices according to what the human body and planet can tolerate as deviation from optimal functioning.

  10. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...... and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI >= 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI >= 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Conclusion: Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban...... residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation....

  11. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. de Melo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  12. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  13. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (%BF or waist circumference (WC has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese, with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese

  14. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated and retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) regulator-interacting protein-1 like polymorphisms with body mass index in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boyu; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jianhua; Ji, Jue; Shen, Jingyi; Xu, Yufeng; Zhao, Yingying; Liu, Danping; Shen, Yinhuan; Zhang, Weijie; Shen, Jiawei; Wang, Yonggang; Shi, Yongyong

    2018-04-14

    Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI. A quantitative traits study with 6,102 Chinese female samples, adjusted for age, was performed during our project. Among the twelve SNPs, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs7202296, rs56137030, rs9930506 and rs12149832 in the FTO gene were significantly associated with BMI after Bonferroni correction. Meanwhile, rs9934800 in the RPGRIP1L gene showed significance with BMI before Bonferroni correction, but this association was eliminated after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggested that genetic variants in the FTO gene were strongly associated with BMI in Chinese women, which may serve as targets of pharmaceutical research and development concerning BMI. Meanwhile, we didn't found the significant association between RPGRIP1L and BMI in Chinese women.

  15. Role of baseline leptin and ghrelin levels on body weight and fat mass changes after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women: effects on energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lasa, Arrate; Simón, Edurne; Margareto, Javier

    2011-06-01

    Hormones related to energy balance control may play an important role on weight loss resistance after low-caloric diet (LCD) intervention. To investigate the predictive value of baseline leptin and ghrelin on body fat mass (FM) loss after 12 wk of LCD intervention and to study whether these associations could be related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR). The study comprised a total of 78 obese women (age 36.7 ± 7 yr). We measured, before and after the LCD intervention, FM (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and RMR (kilojoules per kilogram body weight per day, indirect calorimetry). We also analyzed fasting serum leptin and ghrelin, and leptin to ghrelin ratio was calculated. FM and RMR changes (data at baseline - data after the intervention) were assessed. Baseline serum leptin (r = -0.301; age- and baseline FM-adjusted P = 0.009) and ghrelin (r = 0.314, adjusted P = 0.014) levels as well as leptin to ghrelin levels (r = -0.331; adjusted P = 0.009) were significantly correlated with FM changes. Leptin to ghrelin ratio was significantly correlated with RMR at baseline and after the LCD (both P Baseline leptin to ghrelin ratio significantly predicted changes in RMR after the LCD (r = 0.298; P = 0.019) regardless of age, baseline RMR, and total body weight (r = 0.307; P = 0.016) or FM loss (r = 0.312; P = 0.015). Obese women with higher leptin and lower ghrelin levels at baseline seem to be more resistant to FM loss. The leptin to ghrelin ratio could be proposed as a biomarker for predicting metabolic adaptations to energy restriction treatment and, if confirmed in future studies, as a predictor of treatment success/failure.

  16. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  17. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate (low-glycaemic index) diet induces weight loss and preserves lean body mass in obese healthy subjects: results of a 24-week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, B; Yazdani-Biuki, B; Krippl, P; Brath, H; Uitz, E; Wascher, T C

    2005-05-01

    The traditional treatment for obesity which is based on a reduced caloric diet has only been partially successful. Contributing factors are not only a poor long-term dietary adherence but also a significant loss of lean body mass and subsequent reduction in energy expenditure. Both low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and diets using low-glycaemic index (GI) foods are capable of inducing modest weight loss without specific caloric restriction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and medium-term effect of a low-fat diet with high (low GI) carbohydrates on weight loss, body composition changes and dietary compliance. Obese patients were recruited from two obesity outpatient clinics. Subjects were given advise by a dietician, then they attended biweekly for 1-hour group meetings. Bodyweight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 24 weeks. One hundred and nine (91%) patients completed the study; after 24 weeks the average weight loss was 8.9 kg (98.6 vs. 89.7 kg; p fat mass (42.5 vs. 36.4 kg; p vs. 53.3 kg; p low-fat, low-GI diet led to a significant reduction of fat mass; adherence to the diet was very good. Our results suggest that such a diet is feasible and should be evaluated in randomized controlled trials.

  18. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  19. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  20. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  1. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  2. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables.

  3. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  4. Curcumin and piperine supplementation of obese mice under caloric restriction modulates body fat and interleukin-1beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary bioactive compounds capable of improving metabolic profiles would be of great value, especially for overweight individuals undergoing a caloric restriction (CR) regimen. Curcumin (Cur), a possible anti-obesity compound, and piperine (Pip), a plausible enhancer of Cur's bioavailab...

  5. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  6. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  7. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  8. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Harbron, Janetta; Merwe, Lize van der; Zaahl, Monique; Kotze, Maritha; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed ...

  9. Sibutramine reduces feeding, body fat and improves insulin resistance in dietary-obese male Wistar rats independently of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bing, Chen; King, Peter; Pickavance, Lucy; Heal, David; Wilding, John

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the novel noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine on feeding and body weight in a rat model of dietary obesity, and whether it interacts with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones.Chow-fed and dietary-obese (DIO) male Wistar rats were given sibutramine (3 mg kg−1 day−1 p.o.) or deionized water for 21 days.Sibutramine decreased food intake throughout the treatment period in both dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine-treated dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine treatment (Psibutramine compared to untreated controls.The hypophagic and anti-obesity effects of sibutramine in dietary-obese Wistar rats appear not to be mediated by inhibition of ARC NPY neurones. PMID:11309262

  10. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  11. Obesity paradox in cancer: new insights provided by body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Pastore, Carla A; Orlandi, Silvana P; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2014-05-01

    Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), appears to have a paradoxical protective effect in several chronic diseases. We investigated the obesity paradox in cancer patients by using body composition. The study was an observational study of 175 cancer patients assessed before chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 or fat mass index (FMI; fat mass divided by the square of height) ≥5.2 (men) and ≥8.2 (women) measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) was defined as fat-free mass index (fat-free mass divided by the square of height) cancer patients only when obesity is defined by BMI. Patients with sarcopenic obesity had the poorest prognosis. Cancer patients with high mortality risk can be identified by a body-composition assessment.

  12. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  13. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  14. Evaluation of body fat composition after linagliptin treatment in a rat model of diet-induced obesity: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in comparison with sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T; Niessen, H G; Ittrich, C; Mayoux, E; Mueller, H-P; Cheetham, S; Stiller, D; Kassubek, J; Mark, M

    2012-11-01

    The effects of linagliptin on fat content in diet-induced obese rats were compared with those of the appetite suppressant sibutramine. Female Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months received vehicle, linagliptin (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (5 mg/kg) treatment orally, once daily for 6 additional weeks, while continuing the HFD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of fat content was performed at baseline and at the end of the 6-week treatment period. Linagliptin treatment profoundly reduced hepatic fat compared with vehicle, with an effect comparable to that of sibutramine. The vehicle-corrected mean change (95% CI) from baseline in hepatic fat and intramyocellular lipid was -59.0% (-104.3%, -13.6%; p = 0.015) and -62.1% (-131.6%, 7.4%; p = 0.073), respectively, for linagliptin compared with -54.3% (-101.5%, -7.1%; p = 0.027) and -72.4% (-142.4%, -2.4%; p = 0.044), respectively, for sibutramine. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms in SOD (rs2070424, rs7880) and CAT (rs7943316, rs1001179) Enzymes Are Associated with Increased Body Fat Percentage and Visceral Fat in an Obese Population from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Hernández-Chávez, Paulina; Romo-Palafox, Inés; Blanco-Melo, Grecia; Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative disturbance is an important factor involved in the etiology of comorbidities associated with obesity. Genetic polymorphisms such as SOD1 -251A>G, SOD2 47 C>T, CAT -21A>T and CAT -262 C>T have been described to alter the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of the present work was to analyze the association of the mentioned SNPs with obesity and their relationship with anthropometric and clinical variables in this group. The study included 416 Mexican women (208 normal weight, NW and 208 subjects with obesity, OB). Dietary intake, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical features were evaluated and then analyzed in function of the genotypes. The mutated carriers (GA+GG) of SOD -251 were significantly higher in the OB group (0.24) compared to the NW group (0.08). The other SNPs showed no differences compared with control group. When comparing carrier mutated subjects with obesity vs. wild-type obese participants with the SNPs SOD1 -251, SOD2 47 and CAT -262, the carriers showed a significantly (p G is associated with obesity independent of the presence of diabetes or dyslipidemia. Mutated obese carries of SOD1 -251, SOD2 47 and CAT -262 are associated with a higher distribution of fat in comparison with obese wild-type carriers. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin fold thickness (SFT) at selected areas offers a simple method of subcutaneous fat assessment and provides a good estimate of obesity and body fat distribution. The triceps SFT has been shown to be one of the best and most popular sites for SFT measurement in children. Objective: To assess the body fat ...

  18. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  19. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  20. Kefir prevented excess fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye Won; Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2017-05-01

    Excessive body fat accumulation can result in obesity, which is a serious health concern. Kefir, a probiotic, has recently shown possible health benefits in fighting obesity. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of 0.1 and 0.2% kefir powder on fat accumulation in adipose and liver tissues of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Kefir reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight and decreased adipocyte diameters in HFD-induced obese mice. This was supported by decreased expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis as well as reduced proinflammatory marker levels in epididymal fat. Along with reduced hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations and serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities, genes related to lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in liver tissue. Kefir also decreased serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Overall, kefir has the potential to prevent obesity.

  1. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults—Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta K. Stenman

    2016-11-01

    Discussion: This clinical trial demonstrates that a probiotic product with or without dietary fiber controls body fat mass. B420 and LU + B420 also reduced waist circumference and food intake, whereas LU alone had no effect on the measured outcomes.

  2. Diagnosing obesity by body mass index in chronic kidney disease: an explanation for the "obesity paradox?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Bills, Jennifer E; Light, Robert P

    2010-11-01

    Although obesity is associated with poor outcomes, among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity is related to improved survival. These results may be related to poor diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI) in assessing body fat content. Accordingly, among 77 patients with CKD and 20 controls, body fat percentage was estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP), skinfold thickness, and body impedance analysis. Defined by BMI ≥30 kg/m(2), the prevalence of obesity was 20% in controls and 65% in patients with CKD. Defined by ADP, the prevalence increased to 60% among controls and to 90% among patients with CKD. Although sensitivity and positive predictive value of BMI to diagnose obesity were 100%, specificity was 72%, but the negative predictive value was only 30%. BMI correctly classified adiposity in 75%. Regardless of the presence or absence of CKD, subclinical obesity (defined as BMI value of BMI for obesity, our study may provide an explanation of the "obesity paradox."

  3. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  4. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents? A German/Austrian/Swiss Multicenter APV Analysis of 3,327 Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Müller, Manfred James; Simic-Schleicher, Gunter; Kiess, Wieland; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Oelert, Monika; Tuschy, Sabine; Berghem, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-01-01

    Body fat (BF) percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile) were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p risk factors. BF significantly predicted hypertension (AUC = 0.61), decreased HDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.58), elevated LDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.59), elevated liver enzymes (AUC = 0.61) (all p risk factors, no significant differences between BMI and BF were observed. BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  5. [Obesity, fat and bones: friends or foes ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Emmanuel

    2017-04-19

    Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat. Thus, fat mass and its distribution should be taken into account beyond BMD and classical clinical risk factors in the assessment of fracture risk.

  6. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Astrup, Arne; Skovgaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI....... The majority of men with BMI 25–27 kg m-2 and women with BMI 24–26 kg m-2 were misclassified. Using multiple scan data (189 men, 311 women) and calculating the patient-specific constant C = (1 - %FM/100)3/2 ¥ BMI from baseline BMI and %FM, misclassification rates were halved for both genders when a personal...... threshold, BMIT, was used ([BMIT = C/(0.75)3/2] for men and [BMIT = C/(0.65)3/2] for women). We conclude that simple formulae allow evaluation of fatness of individual patients more accurately than BMI, with the use of one baseline DXA scan, and enable the establishment of patient-specific obesity treatment...

  7. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Faria Santar?m, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aur?lio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D?Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of S?o Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was ...

  8. The role of dietary fat in obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Denise E; Lazaro, Raul G; Li, Pingping; Johnson, Andrew; Hernandez-Carretero, Angelina; Weber, Natalie; Vorobyova, Ivetta; Tsukomoto, Hidekazu; Osborn, Olivia

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of excess calories results in obesity and insulin resistance and has been intensively studied in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the specific contribution of dietary fat rather than total caloric intake to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We used an intragastric feeding method to overfeed excess calories from a low-fat diet (and an isocalorically matched high-fat diet) through a surgically implanted gastric feeding tube to generate obesity in wild-type mice followed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies to assess the development of insulin resistance. We show that overfeeding a low-fat diet results in levels of obesity similar to high-fat diet feeding in mice. However, despite a similar body weight, obese high-fat diet-fed mice are more insulin resistant than mice fed an isocaloric low-fat diet. Therefore, increased proportion of calories from dietary fat further potentiates insulin resistance in the obese state. Furthermore, crossover diet studies revealed that reduction in dietary fat composition improves glucose tolerance in obesity. In the context of the current obesity and diabetes epidemic, it is particularly important to fully understand the role of dietary macronutrients in the potentiation and amelioration of disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  10. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  11. Mechanism of fat taste perception: Association with diet and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongli; Archer, Nicholas; Duesing, Konsta; Hannan, Garry; Keast, Russell

    2016-07-01

    Energy homeostasis plays a significant role in food consumption and body weight regulation with fat intake being an area of particular interest due to its palatability and high energy density. Increasing evidence from humans and animal studies indicate the existence of a taste modality responsive to fat via its breakdown product fatty acids. These studies implicate multiple candidate receptors and ion channels for fatty acid taste detection, indicating a complex peripheral physiology that is currently not well understood. Additionally, a limited number of studies suggest a reduced ability to detect fatty acids is associated with obesity and a diet high in fat reduces an individual's ability to detect fatty acids. To support this, genetic variants within candidate fatty acid receptors are also associated with obesity reduced ability to detect fatty acids. Understanding oral peripheral fatty acid transduction mechanisms and the association with fat consumption may provide the basis of novel approaches to control development of obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The subcutaneous abdominal fat and not the intraabdominal fat compartment is associated with anovulation in women with obesity and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; Zijlstra, Tineke M; Bolster, Johanna H T; Slart, Riemer H J; van der Jagt, Erik J; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)) participated. Body fat distribution was measured by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which fat compartments significantly contributed to anovulation. Anovulatory women had a higher waist circumference (113 +/- 11 vs. 104 +/- 9 cm; P fat (23.0 +/- 5.3 vs. 19.1 +/- 4.2 kg; P abdominal fat (4.4 +/- 1.3 kg vs. 3.5 +/- 0.9 kg; P fat on single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan was not significantly different between the two groups (203 +/- 56 vs. 195 +/- 71 cm(3); P = 0.65), but anovulatory women had significantly more sc abdominal fat (SAF) (992 +/- 198 vs. 864 +/- 146 cm(3); P fat, abdominal fat, and SAF were associated with anovulation. Abdominal fat is increased in anovulatory women due to a significant increase in SAF and not in intraabdominal fat. SAF and especially abdominal and trunk fat accumulation are associated with anovulation.

  13. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  14. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, P D; Anderson, K D; Sleeman, M W; Wong, V; Tan, J; Hijarunguru, A; Corcoran, T L; Murray, J D; Thabet, K E; Yancopoulos, G D; Wiegand, S J

    2001-04-10

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain.

  15. Fat phobia of university students: attitudes toward obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayran, Osman; Akan, Hülya; Özkan, Azru D; Kocaoglu, Bike

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitudes about obesity among a sample of university students from the departments of Health Sciences and Fine Arts. This cross-sectional study was carried out among first- and second-year students of Health Sciences and Fine Arts Yeditepe between April and May 2011. The questionnaire surveyed sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, and a short form of the "Fat Phobia" scale. A pilot study revealed that the test-retest reliability was r=0.71 and internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was 0.8783. The mean and SD were computed for descriptive purposes, and a t-test was used for hypothesis testing; significance was considered for pstudents (86 men, 219 women) were included in the study. The mean score on the fat phobia scale was 3.57±0.69 among the whole group. Fat phobia of women was higher than of men (pstudents than in obese students, there was no statistically significant differences according to body structure (p>0.05). The adjectives about which the whole group was phobic were "likes food" (4.50), "overeats" (4.20), "slow" (3.90), "inactive" (3.82), "no will power" (3.71), and "shapeless" (3.66). Female students were more phobic than men in adjectives (overeats,) (no will power,) (shapeless.) Fat phobia is common among university students, and women are more fat phobic than men. Fat phobia and attitudes toward obesity should be examined and followed, and methods and messages directed to change negative attitudes should be included during training.

  16. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  17. [Relationship between eating behavior and distribution of body fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagnano, M T; Blasioli, A; Del Ponte, A; Sensi, S

    1990-01-01

    In these recent few years the study of the pathogenesis of obesity include the observation of the difference in eating behaviour between obese and non obese subjects. Therefore, current therapies now take into account, among others, also a program of behavioural therapy. On the other hand, recent studies have revealed the role of different body fat distribution on the obesity prognosis, especially considering cardiovascular risk factors. To this purpose much attention has been focused on the measurement of waist and hips circumferences and their ratio (WHR) considered important predictors of risk associated with obesity. Aim of this study was the observation of some differences in eating habits and psychological status during a 24-hr period in relationship with the android or gynecoid type of obesity. 102 outpatients were divided in two groups: 1) with WHR less than 0.85; 2) with WHR greater than or equal to 0.85. All subjects were given a questionnaire in which by a scale from 0 to 3 they expressed their appetite sensation during different hours of the day. In addition, they indicated their motivation to loose body weight. Our results demonstrated that subjects with WHR greater than or equal to 0.85 showed higher appetite sensation, during the whole day, with a peak at lunch, in comparison with subjects with WHR less than 0.85. Subjects with gynecoid type of obesity seemed to pay much attention to their body image than subjects with android type of obesity and complained less physical disorders than subjects of the second group. These preliminary data seem to suggest a non-secondary role of behavioural pattern in obesity also by affecting the different regional fat distribution.

  18. Dissociated incretin hormone response to protein versus fat ingestion in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, O; Carr, RD; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    kcal/kg) fat (olive oil) or protein (whey protein) was ingested by non-diabetic obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) ; n = 12] and plasma GIP and GLP-1 were determined. We found no difference in the early GIP or GLP-1 responses to fat versus protein. However, the total 300-min GIP...

  19. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  20. [The effects of a low-fat versus a low carbohydrate diet in obese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; González Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2009-02-21

    The aim of our study was to compare the effect of a high fat and a high protein diet vs a fat restricted diet on weight loss in obese patients. A population of 74 obesity non diabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat diet: 1500kcal/day, 52% carbohydrates, 20% proteins, 27% fats) with a distribution of fats and b) diet II (high fat and high protein diet: 1507kcal/day, 38% carbohydrates, 26% proteins, 36% fats). After three months with diet, weight, blood pressure, glucose, C reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated. There were randomized 35 patients (4 males and 31 females) in the group I and 39 patients (6 males and 33 females) in diet group II. In group I, systolic pressure, BMI, weight, fat free mass, fat mass total body water, intracellular body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. In group II, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, systolic blood, BMI, weight, fat mass, total body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. Differences among averages of parameters before treatment with both diets were not detected. No differences were detected on weight loss between a fat-restricted diet and a high fat and high protein enhanced diet.

  1. Comparison of visceral fat with computed tomography and other obesity diagnosis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yoshiyuki; Takada, Koichiro; Shinozaki, Kumiko; Sukegawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuhiko; Imura, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is closely associated with coronary artery disease, and the syndrome is suggested to be based on visceral fat accumulation. Therefore, estimating the amount of visceral fat is important. There is such a background, and institutions enforcing measurement system for visceral fat with computed tomography increase. However, many institutions are diagnosing the obesity in body mass index or %FAT. Therefore, we compared it with visceral fat about other obesity diagnosis methods. We have developed this time a software program that allows automated analysis of computed tomography (CT) image as well as measurement of area of visceral fat, area of subcutaneous fat and abdominal circumference. With this software, we examined 7369 patients who analyzed it in February 2005 from September 2003. An examination item is a coefficient of correlation, sensitivity, specificity, cut-off value. As a result, it was waist that visceral fat and correlation were high. Visceral fat correlation were high in body mass index (BMI) and %FAT, but were not able to satisfy sensitivity and specificity. It is reported that the measurement of visceral fat is effective for a diagnosis of obesity. However, we want to recommend the measurement of waist in such an institution because cannot do it in all institutions. (author)

  2. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2000-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  3. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2002-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  4. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Post Manopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2001-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  5. Kefir Peptides Prevent Hyperlipidemia and Obesity in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats via Lipid Metabolism Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Shan; Ho, Mei-Hsuan; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder that is linked to numerous serious health complications with high morbidity. The present study evaluated the effects of kefir peptides on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. Kefir peptides markedly improved obesity, including body weight gain, inflammatory reactions and the formation of adipose tissue fat deposits around the epididymis and kidney, and adipocyte size. Treating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats with kefir peptides significantly reduced the fatty acid synthase protein and increased the p-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein to block lipogenesis in the livers. Kefir peptides also increased fatty acid oxidation by increasing the protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in the livers. In addition, administration of kefir peptides significantly decreased the inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β) to modulate oxidative damage. These results demonstrate that kefir peptides treatment improves obesity via inhibition of lipogenesis, modulation of oxidative damage, and stimulation of lipid oxidation. Therefore, kefir peptides may act as an anti-obesity agent to prevent body fat accumulation and obesity-related metabolic diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. FAT-FREE MASS, METABOLICALLY HEALTHY OBESITY, AND TYPE 2 DIABETES IN SEVERELY OBESE ASIAN ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Limpattanachart, Vichol; Dawilai, Suwitcha; Sarasak, Rungnapha; Sukaruttanawong, Chariya; Chaiyasoot, Kusuma; Keawtanom, Songsri; Yamwong, Preyanuj

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether fat free mass (FFM) is independently associated with the metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) phenotype, the metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese Asian adults. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m 2 ) seeking weight management at an academic medical center from 2007 to 2016 were included. FFM was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Of the 552 patients (67.0% female, median age 40.5 years, median BMI 38.3 kg/m 2 ), MHO was present in 19%, MS in 55.4%, and T2D in 32.6%. In multivariate models, higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) was independently associated with the metabolically abnormal obesity (MAO) phenotype, (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.37), and increased risk of MS (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.22) in women but not in men. Older age was independently associated with the MAO phenotype (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.09 in women; OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09 in men), MS (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 in women; OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07 in men), and T2D (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09 in women; OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.09 in men). Waist-hip ratio was independently associated with the MAO phenotype in men (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15), while waist circumference was associated with T2D in women (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05). Older age, central fat distribution, and-in contrast to previous findings-an increase in FFMI among women were independent predictors of adverse metabolic health in this cohort of middle-aged obese Asian adults. Further studies are required to elucidate underlying mechanisms and therapeutic implications of these findings. BIA = bioelectrical impedance analysis BMI = body mass index CI = confidence interval DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry FFM = fat-free mass FFMI = fat-free mass index FM = fat mass HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin A1c MAO = metabolically abnormal obesity MHO = metabolically healthy obesity MS = metabolic syndrome OR = odds ratio T2D = type 2 diabetes WC = waist circumference

  7. Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ibrahim; Schulze, Josefa; Martakis, KyriakoS; Stark, Christina; Schoenau, Eckhard

    2018-03-07

    To assess the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI) cut-off values according to recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Obesity Federation (WOF), and the German Society for Adiposity (DAG) to identify excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The present study was a monocentric retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among children and adolescents with CP participating in a rehabilitation programme. Excess body fat was defined as a body fat percentage above the 85th centile assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In total, 329 children (181 males, 148 females) with CP were eligible for analysis. The mean age was 12 years 4 months (standard deviation 2y 9mo). The BMI cut-off values for 'overweight' according to the WHO, WOF, and DAG showed the following sensitivities and specificities for the prediction of excess body fat in our population: WHO: sensitivity 0.768 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.636-0.870), specificity 0.894 (95% CI 0.851-0.928); WOF: sensitivity 0.696 (95% CI 0.559-0.812), specificity 0.934 (95% CI 0.898-0.960); DAG: sensitivity 0.411 (95% CI 0.281-0.550), specificity 0.993 (95% CI 0.974-0.999). Body mass index showed high specificity, but low sensitivity in children with CP. Thus, 'normal-weight obese' children with CP were overlooked, when assessing excess body fat only using BMI. Excess body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is less common than previously reported. Body mass index (BMI) had high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting excess body fat in children with CP. BMI evaluation criteria of the German Society for Adiposity could be improved in children with CP. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Harbron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire, psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire. The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores, a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  9. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    obese (≥P 95 ) according to body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  11. Evaluation of obesity in hemodialysis patients-relationship between visceral fat obesity and lipometabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Megumi; Terayama, Yuriko; Fukuhara, Youko; Yamaya, Kanemitsu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Hisao; Mikuni, Tsuneyasu; Momose, Akishi; Funyu, Tomihisa

    2006-01-01

    Due to various metabolic disorders, especially dyslipidemia, in patients undergoing dialysis, the prevailing reference values of indices for determining obesity may differ from those used in the general population. To clarify visceral fat levels indicating obesity in dialysis patients, we analyzed indices for determining obesity and lipid profiles, and compared the data between dialysis patients and control subjects with normal renal function. This study was conduced in 75 hemodialysis patients (HD group) aged 61.0 y on average and 58 control subjects (control group) aged 44.5 y on average. We calculated body mass index (BMI), waist circumference at the umbilical level (W), waist-height ratio (W/Ht) and evaluated visceral and subcutaneous fat areas using computed tomography (CT) at the level of the umbilicus. In addition, we measured postprandial total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum and calculated the ratios, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC. Visceral fat area, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC in HD group were 58.1 cm 2 , 2.31 and 0.74, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (37.4 cm 2 , 1.95 and 0.52), respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between visceral fat area and BMI, W, and W/Ht in both groups. In control subjects, visceral fat area was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.532, p less than 0.0001), and with TG/TC (r=0.286, p=0.0296). In contrast, visceral fat area in hemodialysis patients was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.397, p=0.0004), and with TG/TC (r=0.568, p less than 0.0001). Our study demonstrated that visceral fat accumulation in hemodialysis patients increased irrespective of BMI, and the standard criteria for obesity using BMI would be unsuitable. Furthermore, we identified a novel indicator, non-fasting TG/TC, which seems to indicate visceral fat obesity in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  12. Evaluation of obesity in hemodialysis patients-relationship between visceral fat obesity and lipometabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Megumi; Terayama, Yuriko; Fukuhara, Youko; Yamaya, Kanemitsu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Hisao; Mikuni, Tsuneyasu; Momose, Akishi; Funyu, Tomihisa [Oyokyo Kidney Research Inst., Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Due to various metabolic disorders, especially dyslipidemia, in patients undergoing dialysis, the prevailing reference values of indices for determining obesity may differ from those used in the general population. To clarify visceral fat levels indicating obesity in dialysis patients, we analyzed indices for determining obesity and lipid profiles, and compared the data between dialysis patients and control subjects with normal renal function. This study was conduced in 75 hemodialysis patients (HD group) aged 61.0 y on average and 58 control subjects (control group) aged 44.5 y on average. We calculated body mass index (BMI), waist circumference at the umbilical level (W), waist-height ratio (W/Ht) and evaluated visceral and subcutaneous fat areas using computed tomography (CT) at the level of the umbilicus. In addition, we measured postprandial total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum and calculated the ratios, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC. Visceral fat area, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC in HD group were 58.1 cm{sup 2}, 2.31 and 0.74, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (37.4 cm{sup 2}, 1.95 and 0.52), respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between visceral fat area and BMI, W, and W/Ht in both groups. In control subjects, visceral fat area was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.532, p less than 0.0001), and with TG/TC (r=0.286, p=0.0296). In contrast, visceral fat area in hemodialysis patients was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.397, p=0.0004), and with TG/TC (r=0.568, p less than 0.0001). Our study demonstrated that visceral fat accumulation in hemodialysis patients increased irrespective of BMI, and the standard criteria for obesity using BMI would be unsuitable. Furthermore, we identified a novel indicator, non-fasting TG/TC, which seems to indicate visceral fat obesity in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  13. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  14. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  15. Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Engeli, Stefan; Kast, Petra; Böhnke, Jana; Utz, Wolfgang; Haas, Verena; Hermsdorf, Mario; Mähler, Anja; Wiesner, Susanne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Sell, Henrike; Otto, Christoph; Mehling, Heidrun; Luft, Friedrich C; Eckel, Juergen; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Obesity-related hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Fat reduced hypocaloric diets are able to relieve the liver from ectopically stored lipids. We hypothesized that the widely used low carbohydrate hypocaloric diets are similarly effective in this regard. A total of 170 overweight and obese, otherwise healthy subjects were randomized to either reduced carbohydrate (n = 84) or reduced fat (n = 86), total energy restricted diet (-30% of energy intake before diet) for 6 months. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analyses and abdominal fat distribution by magnetic resonance tomography. Subjects were also submitted to fat spectroscopy of liver and oral glucose tolerance testing. In all, 102 subjects completed the diet intervention with measurements of intrahepatic lipid content. Both hypocaloric diets decreased body weight, total body fat, visceral fat, and intrahepatic lipid content. Subjects with high baseline intrahepatic lipids (>5.56%) lost ≈7-fold more intrahepatic lipids compared with those with low baseline values (diet composition. In contrast, changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity were similar between subgroups, with low and high baseline intrahepatic lipids. A prolonged hypocaloric diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat has the same beneficial effects on intrahepatic lipid accumulation as the traditional low-fat hypocaloric diet. The decrease in intrahepatic lipids appears to be independent of visceral fat loss and is not tightly coupled with changes in whole body insulin sensitivity during 6 months of an energy restricted diet. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (Passociation between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage had...

  17. Obesity discrimination: the role of physical appearance, personal ideology, and anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K S; Latner, J D; Ebneter, D; Hunter, J A

    2013-03-01

    Self-report measures of anti-fat prejudice are regularly used by the field, however, there is no research showing a relationship between explicit measures of anti-fat prejudice and the behavioral manifestation of them; obesity discrimination. The present study examined whether a recently developed measure of anti-fat prejudice, the universal measure of bias (UMB), along with other correlates of prejudicial attitudes and beliefs (that is, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation; SDO, physical appearance investment) predict obesity discrimination. Under the guise of a personnel selection task, participants (n=102) gave assessments of obese and non-obese females applying for a managerial position across a number of selection criteria (for example, starting salary, likelihood of selecting). Participants viewed resumes that had attached either a photo of a pre-bariatric surgery obese female (body mass index (BMI)=38-41) or a photo of the same female post-bariatric surgery (BMI=22-24). Participants also completed measures of anti-fat prejudice (UMB) authoritarianism, SDO, physical appearance evaluation and orientation. Obesity discrimination was displayed across all selection criteria. Higher UMB subscale scores (distance and negative judgement), authoritarianism, physical appearance evaluation and orientation were associated with greater obesity discrimination. In regression models, UMB 'distance' was a predictor of obesity discrimination for perceived leadership potential, starting salary, and overall employability. UMB 'negative judgement' predicted discrimination for starting salary; and authoritarianism predicted likelihood of selecting an obese applicant and candidate ranking. Finally, physical appearance evaluation and appearance orientation predicted obesity discrimination for predicted career success and leadership potential, respectively. Self-report measures of prejudice act as surrogates for discrimination, but there has been no empirical support for

  18. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  19. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  20. Obesity, Body Mass Index, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    The body mass indexes (BMIs) of 100 randomly selected homicide cases from the files of Forensic Science SA were compared to the Australian and South Australian populations. There were 70 males and 30 females (M:F = 2.3:1; age range 18-84 years; mean 42.3 years). There was a substantially lower proportion of obese individuals in the homicide population compared to the general Australian and South Australian populations (19% [vs.] 27.9% and 30%, respectively). A second group of 144 randomly selected autopsy cases where the BMI was ≥40 kg/m 2 was analyzed. There were 77 males and 67 females (M:F = 1.2:1; age range 23-78 years; mean 46.7 years). The majority of deaths were natural (N = 108), with no homicides. A negative association between obesity and homicide has, therefore, been demonstrated. Reasons for the lower numbers of obese/morbidly obese individuals among homicide victims are unclear, but may include physical protection afforded by fat padding from sharp force injuries, and relative sociodemographic isolation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva AO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,2 Margô Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Marina Morato Stival,3 Ricardo Moreno Lima,3 Jéssica Cardoso de Souza,1 James Wilfred Navalta,4 Jonato Prestes11Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 4University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and its association with obesity and sarcopenia in elderly Brazilian women. Two hundred and seventy-two sedentary women with a mean age of 66.75 ± 5.38 years were recruited for participation in this study. Obesity was determined by both body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA evaluations. Sarcopenic obesity diagnosis was established from the ratio between fat-free mass and body surface area as obtained by DXA. There was no association of obesity with sarcopenic obesity (P = 0.424. In contrast, sarcopenia was significantly related to sarcopenic obesity (P < 0.001, although most of the elderly women with sarcopenia (n = 171 did not exhibit sarcopenic obesity. These results highlight the importance of diagnosing sarcopenic obesity as elderly women exhibiting sarcopenia could be either eutrophic or obese.Keywords: sarcopenic obesity, aging, obesity, sarcopenia, health

  2. Detrimental and protective fat: body fat distribution and its relation to metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrea; Magnuson, Aaron; Foster, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous comorbidities that include, but are not limited to, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests, however, obesity itself is not an exclusive predictor of metabolic dysregulation but rather adipose tissue distribution. Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat accumulation, the detrimental distribution, commonly associated with visceral obesity. Increased lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue, however, is associated with a reduced risk of obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation and even enhanced insulin sensitivity, thus, storage in this region is considered protective. The proposed mechanisms that causally relate the differential outcomes of adipose tissue distribution are often attributed to location and/or adipocyte regulation. Visceral adipose tissue effluent to the portal vein drains into the liver where hepatocytes are directly exposed to its metabolites and secretory products, whereas the subcutaneous adipose tissue drains systemically. Adipose depots are also inherently different in numerous ways such as adipokine release, immunity response and regulation, lipid turnover, rate of cell growth and death, and response to stress and sex hormones. Proximal extrinsic factors also play a role in the differential drive between adipose tissue depots. This review focuses on the deleterious mechanisms postulated to drive the differential metabolic response between central and lower body adipose tissue distribution.

  3. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  4. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  5. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  6. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  7. Body fat and blood pressure: comparison of blood pressure measurements in Chinese children with different body fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Bin; Song, Yi; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-14

    Children in China are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with hypertension. To compare the effect of body fat on blood pressure (BP) with that of the normal physical growth, we compared BP levels in Chinese children with different body fat levels. In the present population-based study, 13 972 children in the highest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group were individually matched to 13 972 children in the lowest-skinfold-thickness-quartile group by height and weight. Similarly, 5103 children in the highest-waist-circumference-quartile group were matched to the same number of children in the lowest-waist-circumference-quartile group. The high- and low-fat groups had similar height and weight but the high-fat group had significantly higher skinfold and waist circumference measurements. The differences in systolic BP (SBP) between the high- and low-skinfold-thickness groups were small: 0·01 (95 % CI -0·41, 0·44) mmHg in boys and 0·20 (95 % CI -0·15, 0·54) mmHg in girls. The differences in diastolic BP (DBP) were also small (0·39 and 0·38 mmHg for boys and girls, respectively) but were statistically significant. The differences in both SBP and DBP between the high- and low-waist-circumference groups were small but not statistically significant. For a given body size as measured by height and weight, relative body fat had little impact on BP levels in these children. Fat mass and lean mass may have a similar quantitative impact on BP in healthy-weight children.

  8. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  9. Toddlers' bias to look at average versus obese figures relates to maternal anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical......OBJECTIVE: Three independent studies have shown that variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associates with BMI and obesity. In the present study, the effect of FTO variation on metabolic traits including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related quantitative phenotypes...

  11. Intraventricular administration of Tenebrio molitor larvae extract regulates food intake and body weight in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary D-psicose reduced visceral fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Mee; Hyun Lee, Joo; Youl Kim, Deuk; Hwang, Se-Hee; Hong, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Bo; Jin Lee, Song; Hye Park, Chi

    2012-02-01

    D-Psicose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, has shown promise in reducing body fat accumulation in normal rats and plasma glucose level in genetic diabetic mice. Effects of D-psicose on diet-induced obesity are not clearly elucidated, and we investigated food intake, body weight, and fat accumulation in rats fed high-fat (HF) diet. Sprague-Dawley rats became obese by feeding HF diet for 4 wk, and were assigned either to normal or HF diet supplemented with or without D-psicose, sucrose, or erythritol for 8 wk. Changing HF to normal diet gained less body weight and adipose tissue due to different energy intake. D-psicose-fed rats exhibited lower weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and fat accumulation than erythritol- and sucrose-fed rats. This effect was more prominent in D-psicose-fed rats with normal diet than with HF diet, suggesting combination of psicose and calorie restriction further reduced obesity. There was no difference in serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C/HDL-C ratios between D-psicose group and other groups. Liver weight in 5% psicose group with normal diet was higher than in other groups, but histopathological examination did not reveal any psicose-related change. D-Psicose inhibited the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to adipose tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that D-psicose produces a marked decrease, greater than erythritol, in weight gain and visceral fat in an established obesity model by inhibiting MSC differentiation to adipocyte. Thus, D-psicose can be useful in preventing and reducing obesity as a sugar substitute and food ingredient. We can develop D-psicose as a sugar substitute and food ingredient since it can prevent obesity in normal people, but also suppress adiposity as a sugar substitute or food ingredients with antiobesity effect in obese people. D-psicose can be unique functional sweetener because of its function of reducing visceral

  13. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2008-01-01

    , independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained...

  14. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M. L.; Bennink, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of

  15. Accuracy of Body Mass Index-defined Obesity Status in US Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Day, Rena S.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem affecting United States (US) firefighters. While body mass index (BMI) is widely used to diagnose obesity, its use for this occupational group has raised concerns about validity. We examined rates and types of misclassification of BMI-based obesity status compared to body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC). Male career firefighters (N = 994) from 20 US departments completed all three body composition assessments. Mean BMI, BF%, and WC were 29 kg...

  16. Obesity and fat quantification in lean tissues using three-point Dixon MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mittelman, Steven D.; Ward, Andrette; Geffner, Mitchell E. [Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dorey, Frederick [Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-06-01

    It has been suggested that increased hepatic and intramuscular fat is associated with insulin resistance, and that increased pancreatic fat is related to impaired insulin secretion. We postulated that in obese nondiabetic teenagers insulin levels would be directly related to increases in intramuscular and hepatic fat and inversely related to increases in pancreatic fat. MRI was used to assess the percentage of fat in the liver, muscle and pancreas in 15 healthy Mexican-American girls, 14-17 years old, with body mass indexes (BMIs) ranging from 17.7 kg/m{sup 2} to 46 kg/m{sup 2}. Strong correlations were observed between BMI and fat content in the liver, muscle, and pancreas (r{sup 2}s between 0.50 and 0.89; P<0.003). Serum insulin levels were closely associated with fat measures in the muscle and liver (r{sup 2s}P=0.001 and P=0.023, respectively). In contrast to our hypothesis, fat content in the pancreas was also directly related to insulin secretion (r{sup 2}=0.74; P=0.001). Summary: We conclude that in nondiabetic teenagers, obesity is associated with an increased accumulation of fat in the pancreas without impairment of insulin secretion. (orig.)

  17. Low salt and low calorie diet does not reduce more body fat than same calorie diet: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Jang, Eun Chul; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2018-02-02

    Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie. Visceral fat was measured with abdominal computer tomography, while body fat mass and total body water was measured with bio-impedance. Reductions in body weight (-6.3% vs. -5.0%, p = 0.05) and BMI (-6.6% vs. -5.1%, p = 0.03) were greater in the low salt group than in the control group. Extracellular water and total body water were significantly reduced in the low salt group compared to the control group. However, changes in body fat mass, visceral fat area, and skeletal muscle mass did not differ between the two groups. Changes in lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR did not differ between the two groups. A two-month low salt diet was accompanied by reduction of body mass index. However, the observed decrease of body weight was caused by reduction of total body water, not by reduction of body fat mass or visceral fat mass.

  18. Imaging body composition in cancer patients: visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may impact on clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Connie; Dinkel, Charlotte; Mahajan, Abhishek; Siddique, Musib; Cook, Gary J. R.; Goh, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the influence of body composition on oncological patient outcomes. Visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have been identified as adverse factors in cancer patients. Imaging quantification of body composition such as lean muscle mass and fat distribution is a potentially valuable tool. This review describes the following imaging techniques that may be used to assess body composition: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  19. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  20. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pchildren. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Central and peripheral fat body mass have a protective effect on osteopenia or osteoporosis in adults and elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P M S S; Garcia Rosa, M L; Gomes, A M; Wahrlich, V; Di Luca, D G; da Cruz Filho, R A; da Silva Correia, D M; Faria, C A; Yokoo, E M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study involves randomly selected men aged 50 to 99 years and postmenopausal women. Either central fat mass or peripheral fat mass were associated to osteoporosis or osteopenia independently from fat-free body mass and other confounding factors. Obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems that probably share common pathophysiological mechanisms. The question if body fat mass, central or peripheral, is protective or harmful for osteoporosis or osteopenia is not completely resolved. This study aims to investigate the association between osteoporosis or osteopenia, and fat body mass (central and peripheral) independently from fat-free body mass, in men aged 50 to 99 years old and postmenopausal women randomly selected in the community. This is a cross-sectional investigation with a random sample of registered population in Niterói Family Doctor Program (FDP), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There was statistically significant bivariate association between bone loss with gender, age, skin color, alcohol consumption at risk dose, use of thiazide, fat-free body mass, and fat body mass (central and peripheral). In the multiple analysis of fat-free body mass, central and peripheral fat body mass showed an independent and protective effect on the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (p value obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems worldwide, strategies aimed at preventing both conditions should be encouraged during aging.

  3. Allomyrina Dichotoma Larvae Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through mTOR and Mapk Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress.

  4. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  5. Neonatal anthropometrics and body composition in obese children investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Thagaard, Ida Näslund

    2014-01-01

    index (BFMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) in obese children and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight, birth length, and birth weight for gestational age. The study cohort consisted of 776 obese Danish children (median age 11.6 years, range 3.6-17.9) with a mean Body Mass Index......UNLABELLED: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an effect of the intrauterine milieu upon the development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry expressed as body fat percent, body fat mass...... Standard Deviation Score (BMI SDS) of 2.86 (range 1.64-5.48) treated in our national referral centre. In a linear general regression model adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and duration of breastfeeding, we found the body fat percent, FFMI, and BFMI at the time of enrolment in childhood...

  6. Obesity and fat quantification in lean tissues using three-point Dixon MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Gilsanz, Vicente; Mittelman, Steven D.; Ward, Andrette; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Dorey, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that increased hepatic and intramuscular fat is associated with insulin resistance, and that increased pancreatic fat is related to impaired insulin secretion. We postulated that in obese nondiabetic teenagers insulin levels would be directly related to increases in intramuscular and hepatic fat and inversely related to increases in pancreatic fat. MRI was used to assess the percentage of fat in the liver, muscle and pancreas in 15 healthy Mexican-American girls, 14-17 years old, with body mass indexes (BMIs) ranging from 17.7 kg/m 2 to 46 kg/m 2 . Strong correlations were observed between BMI and fat content in the liver, muscle, and pancreas (r 2 s between 0.50 and 0.89; P 2s P=0.001 and P=0.023, respectively). In contrast to our hypothesis, fat content in the pancreas was also directly related to insulin secretion (r 2 =0.74; P=0.001). Summary: We conclude that in nondiabetic teenagers, obesity is associated with an increased accumulation of fat in the pancreas without impairment of insulin secretion. (orig.)

  7. Impact of Genetic Variants on the Individual Potential for Body Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed the discovery of obesity-related genetic variants and their functions through genome-wide association studies. Combinations of risk alleles can influence obesity phenotypes with different degrees of effectiveness across various individuals by interacting with environmental factors. We examined the interaction between genetic variation and changes in dietary habits or exercise that influences body fat loss from a large Korean cohort (n = 8840. Out of 673 obesity-related SNPs, a total of 100 SNPs (37 for carbohydrate intake; 19 for fat intake; 44 for total calories intake; 25 for exercise onset identified to have gene-environment interaction effect in generalized linear model were used to calculate genetic risk scores (GRS. Based on the GRS distribution, we divided the population into four levels, namely, “very insensitive”, “insensitive”, “sensitive”, and “very sensitive” for each of the four categories, “carbohydrate intake”, “fat intake”, “total calories intake”, and “exercise”. Overall, the mean body fat loss became larger when the sensitivity level was increased. In conclusion, genetic variants influence the effectiveness of dietary regimes for body fat loss. Based on our findings, we suggest a platform for personalized body fat management by providing the most suitable and effective nutrition or activity plan specific to an individual.

  8. Distribution of subcutaneous fat and the relationship with blood pressure in obese children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-xiu; Wang, Shu-rong

    2015-03-01

    The association between elevated blood pressure (BP) and childhood obesity has been documented in several studies. However, the association between BP and body fat distribution in obese children remains poorly understood. We examined the distribution of subcutaneous fat and its association with BP in obese children and adolescents. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of school children. A total of 38,873 students (19,485 boys and 19,388 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, BP, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses (SFT) of all subjects were measured. Obesity was defined by using body mass index (BMI) criteria recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China. A total of 3,579 obese children and adolescents (2,367 boys and 1,212 girls) were examined. Most of the obese children and adolescents had high subcutaneous fat. However, a small number of the obese individuals had a lower SFT levels. Obese children and adolescents with high SFT and central distribution had higher BP levels than those with low SFT and peripheral distribution. Obese children and adolescents assessed by BMI might not necessarily have a high SFT level. The BP level of obese individuals is associated with the level and distribution pattern of SFT. Additional measurement of SFT is better than BMI alone to help identify high BP risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Obesity-related polymorphisms and their associations with the ability to regulate fat oxidation in obese europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus

    2010-01-01

    for fat oxidation, insulin resistance, and obesity, including FTO. Energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation were measured with indirect calorimetry during fasting and 3 h after a high fat load containing 95 energy% of fat (60% saturated fat, energy content 50% of estimated resting EE) in 722 obese......Both obesity and insulin resistance have been related to low fat oxidation rates, which may be genetically determined. The association between variation in fat oxidation rates among obese subjects and genotype was studied for 42 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes.......01) was related to increased fat oxidation in the fasting state. The ability to increase fat oxidation after a high fat load was increased in subjects with -174 G>C IL6 (rs1800795) (P = 0.01). Effect sizes range from 1.1 to 3.1% differences in fat oxidation (expressed as % of EE). FTO rs9939609 was not related...

  10. Obesity: listening beyond the fat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia de Vilhena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available What relation does obesity have with mental suffering? The authors investigated the relationship between traumas, melancholia, and loss, and show that obesity represents an attempt to fill in a void that goes beyond food. Based on the recognition of mental suffering, the authors underscore the need for a new type of therapeutic listening that promotes new ways of dealing with the emptiness of one's existence.

  11. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFA) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the interrelationships between body fat, sex and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, non-diabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0–56.0 % body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: 1) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass and total FFA Ra (µmol·min−1); 2) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=−0.806; P<0.001); 4) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; 5) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects. PMID:19629053

  12. Global transcript profiles of fat in monozygotic twins discordant for BMI: pathways behind acquired obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi H Pietiläinen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquired component of complex traits is difficult to dissect in humans. Obesity represents such a trait, in which the metabolic and molecular consequences emerge from complex interactions of genes and environment. With the substantial morbidity associated with obesity, a deeper understanding of the concurrent metabolic changes is of considerable importance. The goal of this study was to investigate this important acquired component and expose obesity-induced changes in biological pathways in an identical genetic background.We used a special study design of "clonal controls," rare monozygotic twins discordant for obesity identified through a national registry of 2,453 young, healthy twin pairs. A total of 14 pairs were studied (eight male, six female; white, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD age 25.8 +/- 1.4 y and a body mass index (BMI difference 5.2 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2. Sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in subcutaneous fat and peripheral leukocytes revealed no aberrant heteroplasmy between the co-twins. However, mtDNA copy number was reduced by 47% in the obese co-twin's fat. In addition, novel pathway analyses of the adipose tissue transcription profiles exposed significant down-regulation of mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid (BCAA catabolism (p < 0.0001. In line with this finding, serum levels of insulin secretion-enhancing BCAAs were increased in obese male co-twins (9% increase, p = 0.025. Lending clinical relevance to the findings, in both sexes the observed aberrations in mitochondrial amino acid metabolism pathways in fat correlated closely with liver fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia, early aberrations of acquired obesity in these healthy young adults.Our findings emphasize a substantial role of mitochondrial energy- and amino acid metabolism in obesity and development of insulin resistance.

  13. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  14. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia de Faria Santarém, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  15. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  16. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP, homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence.

  17. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of equine body fat content is important for nutritional and clinical purposes. However, our understanding of total body fat and its regional distribution in the body is sparse. Currently, body fat evaluation relies on the subjective assessment of body condition score (BCS), which has never been validated against 'gold standard' chemical analysis or dissection measurements in ponies. To define the relationships between subjective (BCS), objective (morphometric) indices of body fat and 'gold standard' measurements of actual body composition. BCS and morphometry offer valid, noninvasive methods for determination of body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, BCS 1.25-7/9), Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes), were used. For all ponies, body mass (BM), BCS and various morphometric measurements were recorded. Following euthanasia, all ponies were systematically dissected. Discrete white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were independently described. Gross, body chemical composition was determined by proximate analyses. Total somatic soft tissues increased linearly (r(2) = 1.00), whereas body WAT content (1-26% live BM) increased exponentially (r(2) = 0.96), with BCS. WAT was equally distributed between internal and external sites in all animals irrespective of BCS. Nuchal fat was a poor predictor of total WAT (r(2) = 0.66). Periorbital WAT did not alter with BCS (r(2) = 0.01). Heart girth:withers height and ultrasonic retroperitoneal fat depth were closely associated with total, chemically-extracted lipid which comprised 1-29% live BM (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). The exponential relationship between BCS and total body WAT/lipid suggests that BCS is unlikely to be a sensitive index of body fat for animals in moderate-obese states. Morphometric measurements (body girths and retroperitonel fat depth) may be useful to augment subjective BCS systems. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  18. The investigation of the some body parameters of obese and (obese+diabetes) patients with using bioelectrical impedance analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Emrah; Karageçili, Hasan; Aydin, Ruken Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a key risk for the development of hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and is totally referred to as the metabolic disorders. Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is related with hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. The minimum defining characteristic feature to identify diabetes mellitus is chronic and substantiated elevation of circulating glucose concentration. In this study, it is aimed to determine the body composition analyze of obese and (obese+diabetes) patients.We studied the datas taken from three independent groups with the body composition analyzer instrument. The body composition analyzer calculates body parameters, such as body fat ratio, body fat mass, fat free mass, estimated muscle mass, and base metabolic rate on the basis of data obtained by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. All patients and healthy subjects applied to Siirt University Medico and their datas were taken. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for descriptive data analysis. When we compared and analyzed three groups datas, we found statistically significant difference between obese, (obese+diabetes) and control groups values. Anova test and tukey test are used to analyze the difference between groups and to do multiple comparisons. T test is also used to analyze the difference between genders. We observed the statistically significant difference in age and mineral amount p<0.00 between (diabetes+obese) and obese groups. Besides, when these patient groups and control group were analyzed, there were significant difference between most parameters. In terms of education level among the illiterate and university graduates; fat mass kg, fat percentage, internal lubrication, body mass index, water percentage, protein mass percentage, mineral percentage p<0.05, significant statistically difference were observed. This difference especially may result

  19. Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L. Beck; Melvin Heyman; Cewin Chao; Janet Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determin...

  20. Interleukin-6 levels in the central nervous system are negatively correlated with fat mass in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlöf, Kaj; Wernstedt, Ingrid; Fjällman, Ted; Wallenius, Ville; Wallenius, Kristina; Jansson, John-Olov

    2003-09-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of IL-6 increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat in rodents. Therefore, IL-6 may play a role in appetite and body weight control in the central nervous system. In the present study we evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum IL-6 levels in humans in relation to body fat content and to CSF and serum levels of leptin. Thirty-two healthy overweight/obese male subjects with a body mass index range of 29.3-36.0 kg/m(2) were studied. Total and sc body fat were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. CSF IL-6 levels were in some individuals higher than serum IL-6 levels and correlated negatively with total body weight, sc and total body fat. In contrast, CSF leptin levels were 30-60 times lower than serum leptin levels and correlated positively with serum leptin, body weight, sc and total body fat. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and leptin. In conclusion, CSF IL-6 differs in many ways from CSF leptin. CSF IL-6 may be locally produced rather than serum derived, and body fat-regulating regions in the central nervous system may be exposed to insufficient IL-6 levels in more severe obesity.

  1. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  2. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  3. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  4. Estimation of body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Davis, C E; Stewart, D; Houtkooper, L; Going, S B; Hunsberger, S; Weber, J L; Reid, R; Stephenson, L

    2000-08-01

    Obesity, as measured by body mass index, is highly prevalent in Native American children, yet there are no valid equations to estimate total body fatness for this population. This study was designed to develop equations to estimate percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance as a critical part of Pathways, a multi-site study of primary prevention of obesity in Native American children. Percentage fat was estimated from deuterium oxide dilution in 98 Native American children (Pima/Maricopa, Tohono O'odham and White Mountain Apache tribes) between 8 and 11 y of age. The mean fat content (38.4%+/-8. 1%) was calculated assuming the water content of the fat-free body was 76%. Initial independent variables were height, weight, waist circumference, six skinfolds and whole-body resistance and reactance from bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Using all-possible-subsets regressions with the Mallows C (p) criterion, and with age and sex included in each regression model, waist circumference, calf and biceps skinfolds contributed least to the multiple regression analysis. The combination of weight, two skinfolds (any two out of the four best: triceps, suprailiac, subscapular and abdomen) and bioelectrical impedance variables provided excellent predictability. Equations without BIA variables yielded r2 almost as high as those with BIA variables. The recommended equation predicts percentage fat with a root mean square error=3.2% fat and an adjusted r2=0.840. The combination of anthropometry and BIA variables can be used to estimate total body fat in field studies of Native American children. The derived equation yields considerably higher percentage fat values than other skinfold equations in children.

  5. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal

  6. Blood plasma lipidomic signature of epicardial fat in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Max; Montoliu, Ivan; Qanadli, Salah D; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kussmann, Martin; Giusti, Vittorio; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    A lipidomic approach was employed in a clinically well-defined cohort of healthy obese women to explore blood lipidome phenotype ascribed to body fat deposition, with emphasis on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The present investigation delivered a lipidomics signature of epicardial adiposity under healthy clinical conditions using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 years, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2) ) not showing any metabolic disease traits. Lipidomics analysis of blood plasma was employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of mediastinal fat depots by computerized tomography. All cardiac fat depots correlated to indicators of hepatic dysfunctions (ALAT and ASAT), which describe physiological connections between hepatic and cardiac steatosis. Plasma lipidomics encompassed overall levels of lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and individual lipid species. EAT and visceral fat associated with diacylglycerols (DAG), triglycerides, and distinct phospholipid and sphingolipid species. A pattern of DAG and phosphoglycerols was specific to EAT. Human blood plasma lipidomics appears to be a promising clinical and potentially diagnostic readout for patient stratification and monitoring. Association of blood lipidomics signature to regio-specific mediastinal and visceral adiposity under healthy clinical conditions may help provide more biological insights into obese patient stratification for cardiovascular disease risks. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Effects of resveratrol on gut microbiota and fat storage in a mouse model with high-fat-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xia, Shufang; Tang, Xue; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have investigated the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol, but the pathways through which resveratrol resists obesity are not clear. In the present study, we hypothesize that resveratrol exerts anti-obesity effects that are likely mediated by mechanisms of regulating gut microbes, and in turn, improving fat storage and metabolism. Gut microbes, glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HF) mice in vivo are investigated after resveratrol treatment. Several biochemical markers are measured. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry are used to monitor and quantify the changes in gut microbiota. The key genes related to fat storage and metabolism in the liver and visceral adipose tissues are measured by real-time PCR. The results show that resveratrol (200 mg per kg per day) significantly lowers both body and visceral adipose weights, and reduces blood glucose and lipid levels in HF mice. Resveratrol improves the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by the HF diet, including increasing the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratios, significantly inhibiting the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, and increasing the growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increases the fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf, a key gene negatively regulated by intestinal microbes) expression in the intestine. Resveratrol significantly decreases mRNA expression of Lpl, Scd1, Ppar-γ, Acc1, and Fas related to fatty acids synthesis, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, which may be driven by increased Fiaf expression. The Pearson's correlation coefficient shows that there is a negative correlation between the body weight and the ratios of Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes. Therefore, resveratrol mediates the composition of gut microbes, and in turn, through the Fiaf signaling pathway, accelerates the development of obesity.

  8. Phloretin Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Metabolic Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, Sary; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects of phloretin treatment on body weight and composition, fat content in the liver, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance were monitored and compared to the control animals. Phloretin treatment significantly blocks high-fat diet-induced weight gain but did not induce weight loss in obese animals. Phloretin improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation. RT-PCR analysis showed that phloretin treatment suppresses expression of macrophage markers (F4/80 and Cd68) and pro-inflammatory genes (Mcp-1 and Ccr2) and enhances adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue. In addition, phloretin treatment elevated the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and 1b (Cpt1a and Cpt1b) and reduced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1), de novo lipogenesis transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2), and its target monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (Mgat-1) genes. These results provide direct evidence to support a possible use of phloretin for mitigation of obesity and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.

  9. Effects of high-fat diet and/or body weight on mammary tumor leptin and apoptosis signaling pathways in MMTV-TGF-α mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Maihle, Nita J; Grande, Joseph P; Cleary, Margot P

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with shortened mammary tumor (MT) latency in MMTV-TGF-α mice with dietary-induced obesity. One link between obesity and breast cancer is the adipokine, leptin. Here, the focus is on diet-induced obesity and MT and mammary fat pad (MFP) leptin and apoptotic signaling proteins. Methods MMTV-TGF-α mice were fed low-fat or high-fat diets from 10 to 85 weeks of age. High-Fat mice were divided into Obesity-Prone and Obesity-Resistant groups based on final body weights. Mice were followed to assess MT development and obtain serum, MFP, and MT. Results Incidence of palpable MTs was significantly different: Obesity-Prone > Obesity-Resistant > Low-Fat. Serum leptin was significantly higher in Obesity-Prone compared with Obesity-Resistant and Low-Fat mice. Low-Fat mice had higher MFP and MT ObRb (leptin receptor) protein and Jak2 (Janus kinase 2) protein and mRNA levels in comparison with High-Fat mice regardless of body weight. Leptin (mRNA) and pSTAT3 (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) (mRNA and protein) also were higher in MTs from Low-Fat versus High-Fat mice. Expression of MT and MFP pro-apoptotic proteins was higher in Low-Fat versus High-Fat mice. Conclusion These results confirm a connection between body weight and MT development and between body weight and serum leptin levels. However, diet impacts MT and MFP leptin and apoptosis signaling proteins independently of body weight. PMID:18162139

  10. Programming Body Composition in Offspring by Maternal Obesity Is Associated with Increased Adipogenesis and Decreased WNT/ Beta-Catenin Signaling in the Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy significantly influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. We recently demonstrated that maternal obesity at conception programs obesity in the offspring. Obese dam offspring when weaned on high-fat diets gain significantly greater body weight/adiposity (via NMR...

  11. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  12. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Madeline Rose; Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes.

  13. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M. Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes. PMID:29447215

  14. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  15. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  16. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohan, T. E.; Heo, M.; Kamensky, V.; Kabat, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist-: hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to define an excess of body fat: evaluation in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, M; Talamonti, M; Perino, F; Servoli, S; Giordano, D; Chimenti, S; De Simone, C; Peris, K

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that obesity is closely associated with psoriasis. However, data on body composition are lacking in psoriasis. The purpose of this study were to investigate the body composition in psoriasis patients using bioelectrical impedance analysis and to correlate the bioelectrical impedance data with disease severity and laboratory parameters. Anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed on patients with psoriasis, naïve to any systemic treatment, who attended the outpatient clinics of two University centers. Data of 164 adult patients were analyzed. Compared to men, women had several significantly higher bioelectrical impedance parameters including reactance, fat mass% and adipose tissue%. The values of adipose tissue were positively correlated only with patients age (p = .021) and age at disease onset (p = .0006), but not with disease severity. In addition, we observed that the use of BMI cutoffs allowed to categorize 36.7% of women and 19.2% of men as obese, while fat mass% showed that 53.3% of women and 48.1% of men were obese. In our study, psoriasis is been associated with a high fat mass%. We suggest that screening for body fat distribution in psoriatic patients might be useful to identify early obesity-related disease.

  18. Panax ginseng Leaf Extracts Exert Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul-Gi; Lee, Yoon-Jeong; Jang, Myeong-Hwan; Kwon, Tae-Ryong; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2017-09-10

    Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-obesity effects of green leaf and dried leaf extracts (GL and DL, respectively) of ginseng in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The administration of GL and DL to HFD-induced obese rats significantly decreased body weight (by 96.5% and 96.7%, respectively), and epididymal and abdominal adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, DL inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through regulation of the expression of key adipogenic regulators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α. In contrast, GL had little effect on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but greatly increased the protein expression of PPARγ compared with that in untreated cells. These results were not consistent with an anti-obesity effect in the animal model, which suggested that the anti-obesity effect of GL in vivo resulted from specific factors released by other organs, or from increased energy expenditure. To our knowledge, these findings are the first evidence for the anti-obesity effects of the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng in vivo.

  19. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation...

  20. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  1. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  4. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  5. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  6. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  7. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  8. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam; Skovborg, Camilla; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-04-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fat Max ) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal-weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of Fat Max in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (age: 28 (26-29) years; body mass index: 36 (35-38) kg·m -2 ; 95% confidence interval) on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which Fat Max was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10 min of continuous exercise at 35%, 50%, and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between the protocols were 0.75 and 0.72 and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) was 5 (3-7)%. A Bland-Altman plot revealed a bias of -3% points of maximal oxygen uptake (limits of agreement: -12 to 7). A tendency towards a systematic difference (p = 0.06) was observed, where Fat Max occurred at 42 (40-44)% and 45 (43-47)% of maximal oxygen uptake with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the 2 protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend towards systematic difference between the protocols reveal that further optimization of the graded exercise protocol is needed to improve validity.

  9. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total

  10. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Core body temperature in obesity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C

    2011-01-01

    Background: A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. Design: In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) <30] and obese (BMI ≥30) adults swallowed wireless core temperature–sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18–25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Results: Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Obesity is not generally associated with a reduced core body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature–regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500. PMID:21367952

  12. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future.

  14. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  15. Treating the binge or the (fat) body? Representations of fatness in a gold standard psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; Ward, Ashley; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention. We recommend that psychology as a discipline abandons the weight loss imperative associated with binge eating disorder and fat bodies. We recommend that practitioners locate the problem of fat shame in society as opposed to the individual person's body and provide individuals with tools to identify and resist fat stigma and oppression, rather than provide them with tools to reshape their bodies.

  16. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  17. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  18. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  20. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis. (author)

  1. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  2. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  3. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  5. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  6. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  8. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  9. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, E; Galgani, J; Morales, I; Salazar, G; Uauy, R [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile (Chile)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  10. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.; Galgani, J.; Morales, I.; Salazar, G.; Uauy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  11. Postpartum maternal fat distribution and its association with offspring body fat through the first year of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity is known to increase the risk of offspring obesity. Despite the evidence supporting the impact of maternal obesity on infant health, there are no studies examining the effects of maternal fat distribution on the programming of offspring obesity. We hypothesized that increased matern...

  12. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-12-30

    Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk, Denmark. The participants were assessed by anthropometry, fasting blood samples (HbA1c, glucose, insulin, lipids, and biochemical variables of liver function), and liver and muscle fat content assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy at enrollment and following an average of 12.2 months of care. Univariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, treatment duration, baseline degree of obesity, and pubertal developmental stage were used for investigating possible associations. The standard deviation score (SDS) of baseline median body mass index (BMI) was 2.80 (range: 1.49-3.85) and the median age was 14 years (10-17). At the end of the observational period, the 40 children and adolescents (21 girls) significantly decreased their BMI SDS, liver fat, muscle fat, and visceral adipose tissue volume. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis changed from 28 to 20 % (p = 0.26) and the prevalence of muscular steatosis decreased from 75 to 45 % (p = 0.007). Changes in liver and muscle fat were independent of changes in BMI SDS, baseline degree of obesity, duration of treatment, age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage. A 1-year multidisciplinary intervention program in the setting of a childhood obesity outpatient clinic confers a biologically important reduction in liver and muscle fat; metabolic improvements that are independent of the magnitude of concurrent weight loss

  14. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  15. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  16. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  17. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  18. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  19. Visceral fat accumulation in relation to sex hormones in obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Koppeschaar, H.P.

    In 70 healthy obese subjects (37 men and 33 premenopausal women; aged 27-51 yr; body mass index, 28-38 kg/m2), associations between the initial amount of visceral fat and sex hormone levels were studied as well as between changes that occurred in response to a 4.2 mJ/day deficit diet for 13 weeks.

  20. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  1. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  3. The anti diabetic and anti obesity effect of Memecylon umbellatum extract in high fat diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, V; Shree, Nitya; Venkataranganna, M V; Bhonde, Ramesh R; Majumdar, Mala

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, obesity and diabetes have become the epidemic mainly due to fast food and lifestyle changes. Several herbs have been claimed to control diabetes and obesity. However, there are a few which control both. Our aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activity of methanolic extract of Memecylon umbellatum (MU) in alleviation of insulin resistance (IR). Diet induced obese (DIO) mice model was developed by feeding the mice on high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks resulting in hyperglycemia, obesity and IR. 250mg/kg body weight of extract was administered orally daily for 8 weeks. Fasting glucose and body weight were monitored throughout the experiment. At the end of the study, serum parameters, histological examinations and gene expression pattern were analyzed. There was a significant reduction in fasting glucose levels, body weight and triglycerides. Improvement in the glucose tolerance and amelioration of insulin resistance was observed as revealed by reduction in serum IL6, serum oxidised LDL, histological sections of liver and subcutaneous adipose. Gene expression studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract by down regulating IL6, PAI1 and ApoB gene expression as compared to the untreated HFD control. Our results demonstrate for the first time that oral administration of methanolic extract of MU in DIO mice leads to reduction in hyperglycemia, body weight, triglycerides and ameliorates insulin resistance. Further, mechanism of action of the extract needs to be investigated by purifying the extract and analyzing the active ingredient playing the major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of Acupuncture Therapy on Body Compositions in Patients with Obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Wu, Xue-Liang; Jiang, Chao; Shi, Rong-Xing

    2017-04-25

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture intervention in weight reduction by modulating body compositions in obesity patients. A total of 71 obesity patients during weight-loss procedure were allocated to acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group ( n =40) and simple nutrition-consultation group ( n =31). The patients of the acupuncture +nutrition-consultation group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc. for 30 min, once every other day, 3 times per week, 12 times altogether, and also given with weekly nutrition consultation (including subjective query, objective measurement, analysis, program for nutrition support) at the same time. The patients of the simple nutrition-consultation group were treated by only weekly nutrition consultation for 4 weeks. Before and after the treatment, the patients' body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of body fat, muscle mass, protein quality, water quality and bone mass were measured by using a composition analyzer. After 4 weeks' treatment, the body mass, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage in both acupuncture+nutrition-consultation and simple nutrition-consultation groups were significantly decreased ( P 0.05). The therapeutic effect of acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group was markedly superior to that of the simple nutrition-consultation group in increasing the improved degrees of body weight, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage ( P Acupuncture plus nutrition consultation is effective in reducing body mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat in obesity patients.

  5. Quantification of hepatic and visceral fat by CT and MR imaging: relevance to the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffy, Peter M; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-06-01

    Trends in obesity have continued to increase in the developed world over the past few decades, along with related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, which is strongly associated with this epidemic. Novel and innovative methods to assess relevant obesity-related biomarkers are needed to determine the clinical significance, allow for surveillance and intervene if appropriate. Aggregations of specific types of fat, specifically hepatic and visceral adiposity, are now known to be correlated with these conditions, and there are a variety of imaging techniques to identify and quantify their distributions and provide diagnostic information. These methods are particularly salient for metabolic syndrome, which is related to both hepatic and visceral adiposity but currently not defined by it. Simpler non-specific fat measurements, such as body weight, abdominal circumference and body mass index are more frequently used but lack the ability to characterize fat location. In addition, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a related condition that carries relevance not only for obesity-related diseases but also for the progression of the liver-specific disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, albeit at a much lower frequency. Recent CT and MRI techniques have emerged to potentially optimize diagnosing metabolic syndrome and NAFLD through non-invasive quantification of visceral fat and hepatic steatosis with high accuracy. These imaging modalities should aid us in further understanding the relationship of hepatic and visceral fat to the obesity-related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, NAFLD and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  7. [The role of epicardial fat and obesity parameters in the prediction of coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prídavková, Dana; Kantárová, Daniela; Lišková, Renáta; Červeň, Peter; Kovář, František; Mokáň, Marián

    2016-04-01

    To assess the relationship of parameters of obesity in relationship to coronary angiography findings with correlation of epicardial fat (EF) thickness in uppermentioned context. There were 80 patients examined (43 males, 37 postmenopausal females) undergoing elective coronary angiography. We examined the regular obesity parameters - BMI, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (NC), total body fat (TBF), and visceral fat (VF) using bioimpedance. We assessed the echocardiographically measured EF thickness. We added examination of lipidogram, glycaemia, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and AIP (aterogenic index of plasma). The set was divided into group with coronarographically proved stenosis or stenoses (withCS), and a group without finding of quantifiable stenosis or stenoses (withoutCS). The average thickness of EF in withCS group was 6.3 vs 5.6 mm in group withoutCS (p obesity parameters in assessment of pre-clinical stages of coronary atherosclerosis and prediction of risk of coronary heart disease. In adipose parameters, EF thickness was correlated the most by WC. Risk stratification of coronary artery disease is supplemented by increased HOMA-IR and AIP.

  8. Effects of dietary fat on appetite and energy intake in health and obesity--oral and gastrointestinal sensory contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2011-09-26

    While epidemiological studies have revealed a strong positive relationship between the intake of dietary fat with total energy intake and body weight, laboratory-based studies investigating physiological effects of fat have demonstrated that the direct exposure of receptors in the oral cavity and small intestine to fat, specifically fatty acids (FAs), induces potent effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and gut peptide secretion that favor the suppression of appetite and energy intake. Recent studies in humans have demonstrated an association between a decreased ability to detect the presence of FAs in the oral cavity with increased energy intake and body mass index suggesting that impairment of oral fat sensing mechanisms may contribute to overeating and obesity. Furthermore, while sensing of the presence of FAs in the small intestine results in the modulation of GI motility, stimulation of GI hormone release, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY), and suppression of subsequent energy intake, recent data indicate that these effects of fat are attenuated in individuals with reduced oral sensitivity to fat, and following consumption of a high-fat diet. This review will focus on emerging knowledge about the physiological mechanisms that sense the presence of fat in both the oral cavity and the small intestine, and environmental factors, such as high-fat diet exposure and energy restriction, that may modulate sensitivity to nutrients, and thereby contribute to the regulation of appetite and body weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of octreotide on fatty infiltration of the pancreas in high-fat diet induced obesity rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Liu, Rui; Li, Mao; Li, Xian; Qiang, Ou; Huang, Wei; Tang, Chengwei

    2014-03-01

    To investigate effects of octreotide on fatty infiltration of the pancreas in high-fat diet induced obesity rats. SD rats were divided into control group (n = 14) and high-fat diet group (n = 36). Obese rats from the high-fat diet group were further divided into 2 groups: the obese group (n = 14) and the octreotide-treated group (n = 16). Rats in the octreotide-treated group were subcutaneously injected with octreotide per 12 h (40 mg/kg BW) for 8 days. Body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, pancreatic TG and FFA content were measured. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index was calculated. Somatostatin (SST) and the expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) in pancrea were measured. Pathological changes of pancreas were examined with light microscopy. Body weight, Lee's index, FPG, fasting serum insulin, TG, TC levels and HOMA index in the obese group were higher than those in the control group (P pancreas, and lowering the levels of plasma glucose and lipid in the high-fat diet induced obesity rats.

  10. Ephedra-Treated Donor-Derived Gut Microbiota Transplantation Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Kim, Bong-Soo; Han, Kyungsun; Kim, Hojun

    2017-05-23

    Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks. High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese rats transplanted with EsM lost significant body weight, epididymal fat, and perirenal fat weight, but no remarkable changes were observed in abdominal fat, liver, cecum weight and food efficiency ratio. In addition, treatment with EsM also significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, and insulin resistance index. Meanwhile, EsM transplantation significantly reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Rats treated with EsM also showed changed GM composition, especially blautia, roseburia and clostridium, significantly reduced the level of endotoxin and markedly increased the acetic acid in feces. Overall, our results demonstrated that EsM ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders, like hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and is strongly associated with modulating the distribution of GM, enterogenous endotoxin and enteral acetic acid.

  11. Impact of metformin treatment and swimming exercise on visfatin levels in high-fat-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Changjiang; Pan, Tianrong; Luo, Li

    2014-02-01

    Visfatin is a recently discovered adipocytokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. Until now, its responses to the insulin-sensitizing agent metformin and to exercise are largely unknown. We aim to investigate the impact of metformin treatment and/or swimming exercise on serum visfatin and visfatin levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), peri-renal adipose tissue (PAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) of high-fat-induced obesity rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks to develop obesity model. The high-fat-induced obesity model rats were then randomized to metformin (MET), swimming exercise (SWI), or adjunctive therapy of metformin and swimming exercise (MAS), besides high-fat obesity control group and a normal control group, all with 10 rats per group. Zoometric and glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and serum visfatin levels were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of therapy. Visfatin levels in SAT, PAT and SM were determined by Western Blot. Metformin and swimming exercise improved lipid profile, and increased insulin sensitivity and body weight reduction were observed. Both metformin and swimming exercise down-regulated visfatin levels in SAT and PAT, while the adjunctive therapy conferred greater benefits, but no changes of visfatin levels were observed in SM. Our results indicate that visfatin down-regulation in SAT and PAT may be one of the mechanisms by which metformin and swimming exercise inhibit obesity.

  12. Obesity, Fat Mass and Immune System: Role for Leptin

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    Vera Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation associated with a dysfunctional fat mass. Adipose tissue is now considered an extremely active endocrine organ that secretes cytokine-like hormones, called adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging metabolism to the immune system. Leptin is historically one of most relevant adipokines, with important physiological roles in the central control of energy metabolism and in the regulation of metabolism-immune system interplay, being a cornerstone of the emerging field of immunometabolism. Indeed, leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and leptin has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review discusses the latest data regarding the role of leptin as a mediator of immune system and metabolism, with particular emphasis on its effects on obesity-associated metabolic disorders and autoimmune and/or inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  13. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

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    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  14. First national epidemiological survey on the prevalence of obesity and abdominal fat distribution in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantais, E; Tzotzas, T; Ioannidis, I; Mortoglou, A; Bakatselos, S; Kaklamanou, M; Lanaras, L; Kaklamanos, I

    2006-01-01

    To provide estimates of the prevalence of obesity, overweight and body fat distribution among the adult population of Greece. Epidemiological, cross-sectional nationwide survey providing self-reported data. A total of 17,341 men and women aged from 20 to 70 years and classified into five 10-year age groups participated. The selection was conducted by stratified sampling through household family members of Greek children attending school. The participants reported data on weight, height, waist and hip circumference. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference > or = 102 cm in men and > or = 88 cm in women. In the total population, the mean BMI was 26.5 kg/m2, (27.3 in men, 25.7 in women). The overall prevalence of obesity was 22.5%, (26% in men, 18.2% in women) while that of overweight was 35.2% (41.1% in men, 29.9% in women). The percentages of obesity and overweight in men were similar in almost all age groups, while in women they progressively increased with age. Abdominal obesity was more frequent among women than men (35.8 vs. 26.6%, respectively), especially after the age of 50. Excess body weight is reaching epidemic proportions in Greece and obesity rates are among the highest, if not the highest, in Western society. The problem affects particularly men, and women after menopause. Interestingly, more women than men present with abdominal obesity. Preventive and treatment strategies are urgently needed to stop the obesity epidemic in this Mediterranean European country. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  16. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  17. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Increased Creatinine Clearance by a Mechanism Independent of Body Fat Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Fernando; Tong, Jenny; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Zraika, Sakeneh; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; McNeely, Marguerite J.; Carr, Darcy B.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Young, Bessie A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Boyko, Edward J.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although obesity has been, in general, associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, visceral adiposity has been suggested to be associated with reduced glomerular filtration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of obesity and body fat distribution on glomerular filtration. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Japanese-American community in Seattle, Washington. Participants: We studied a representative sample of second-generation Japanese-American men and women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 124) and impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) (n = 144) residing in King County, Washington. Main Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, body size by body mass index (BMI), and intra-abdominal fat (IAF), sc fat (SCF), and lean thigh areas by CT scan. Results: Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.429; P creatinine clearance and BMI remained significant after adjustments for IAF, SCF areas, and fasting insulin levels (r = 0.337; P creatinine clearance after adjusting for BMI. Creatinine clearance increased with increasing BMI after adjusting for fasting insulin, fasting glucose, IAF and SCF areas in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (r = 0.432; P metabolism (r = 0.471; P creatinine clearance in nondiabetic subjects. Lean body mass, rather than adiposity, may explain this association. PMID:19584179

  18. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Beall, Marie; Lane, Robert H; Ross, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    We determined the potential programming effects of maternal obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring metabolic syndrome. A rat model of maternal obesity was created using an HF diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, thereby generating 4 paradigms of maternal diets during pregnancy/lactation: (1) control (Con) diet during pregnancy and lactation (Con/Con), (2) HF during pregnancy and lactation (HF/HF), (3) HF during pregnancy alone (HF/Con), and (4) HF during lactation alone (Con/HF). Maternal phenotype during pregnancy and the end of lactation evidenced markedly elevated body fat and plasma corticosterone levels in HF dams. In the offspring, the maternal HF diet during pregnancy alone programmed increased offspring adiposity, although with normal body weight, whereas the maternal HF diet during lactation increased both body weight and adiposity. Metabolic disturbances, particularly that of hyperglycemia, were apparent in all groups exposed to the maternal HF diet (during pregnancy and/or lactation), although differences were apparent in the manifestation of insulin resistant vs insulin-deficient phenotypes. Elevated systolic blood pressure was manifest in all groups, implying that exposure to an obese/HF environment is disadvantageous for offspring health, regardless of pregnancy or lactation periods. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism may differ because offspring that experienced in utero HF exposure had increased corticosterone levels. Maternal obesity/HF diet has a marked impact on offspring body composition and the risk of metabolic syndrome was dependent on the period of exposure during pregnancy and/or lactation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fat-free mass prediction equations for bioelectric impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese adolescents: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofsteenge, G.H.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, patient friendly methods to assess body composition in obese adolescents are needed. Therefore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) related fat-free mass (FFM) prediction equations (FFM-BIA) were evaluated in obese adolescents (age 11-18 years) compared to

  20. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  1. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  2. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  3. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

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    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  4. Association between inaccurate estimation of body size and obesity in schoolchildren

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    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of inaccurate estimation of own body size among Brazilian schoolchildren of both sexes aged 7-10 years, and to test whether overweight/obesity; excess body fat and central obesity are associated with inaccuracy. Methods: Accuracy of body size estimation was assessed using the Figure Rating Scale for Brazilian Children. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations. Results: The overall prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation was 76%, with 34% of the children underestimating their body size and 42% overestimating their body size. Obesity measured by body mass index was associated with underestimation of body size in both sexes, while central obesity was only associated with overestimation of body size among girls. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest there is a high prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation and that inaccurate estimation is associated with obesity. Accurate estimation of own body size is important among obese schoolchildren because it may be the first step towards adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  5. A Prospective Investigation of Body Size, Body Fat Composition and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luisa Saldana; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Morris, Jessica S; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil

    2017-12-19

    Obesity has been consistently associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk, but this relationship is weaker among women. In the UK Biobank, we investigated the associations between body size (body mass index [BMI], height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and body fat composition (total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage) measurements with colorectal cancer risk among 472,526 men and women followed for 5.6 years on average. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for developing colorectal cancer (2,636 incident cases) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among men, when the highest and lowest fifths were compared, BMI (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.13-1.61; P trend  body fat percentage (HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P trend  = 0.002), and trunk fat percentage (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.58; P trend  = 0.002) were associated with greater colorectal cancer risk. For women, only waist-to-hip ratio (HR for highest versus lowest fifth = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.08-1.65; P trend  = 0.005) was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. Greater body size (overall and abdominal adiposity) was positively associated with colorectal cancer development in men. For women, abdominal adiposity, rather than overall body size, was associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk.

  6. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

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    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available There are two independent serotonin (5-HT systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  7. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Ryo; Akasaka, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Minashima, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Inoue, Nao; Ikeda, Ikuo; Chen, Xiangning; Miyake, Masato; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Kan; Tahara, Kohji; Nagasawa, Yuya; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    There are two independent serotonin (5-HT) systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR) 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  8. Dietary coconut water vinegar for improvement of obesity-associated inflammation in high-fat-diet-treated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ky, Huynh; Ho, Wan Yong; Boo, Sook Yee; Chua, Joelle; Beh, Boon-Kee; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has become a serious health problem worldwide. Various types of healthy food, including vinegar, have been proposed to manage obesity. However, different types of vinegar may have different bioactivities. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut water vinegar on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Changes in the gut microbiota of the mice were also evaluated. To induce obesity, C57/BL mice were continuously fed an HFD for 33 weeks. Coconut water vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg body weight) was fed to the obese mice from early in week 24 to the end of week 33. Changes in the body weight, fat-pad weight, serum lipid profile, expression of adipogenesis-related genes and adipokines in the fat pad, expression of inflammatory-related genes, and nitric oxide levels in the livers of the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice were evaluated. Faecal samples from the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice (2 ml/kg body weight) were subjected to 16S metagenomic analysis to compare their gut microbiota. The oral intake of coconut water vinegar significantly (p coconut water vinegar also reduced HFD-induced inflammation by down-regulating nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, which consequently reduced the nitric oxide level in the liver. Alterations in the gut microbiota due to an increase in the populations of the Bacteroides and Akkermansia genera by the coconut water vinegar may have helped to overcome the obesity and inflammation caused by the HFD. These results provide valuable insights into coconut water vinegar as a potential food ingredient with anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:29056887

  9. Modulatory effects of dietary supplementation by Vernonia amygdalina on high-fat-diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ijeh, Ifeoma I; Okafor, Polycarp N

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem arising from energy imbalance. The effect of 10% dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves into high-fat diets on some biological markers of adiposity and dyslipidaemia was investigated. Experimental diets consisted of the following – CD (control diet); HFD (high-fat diet); and HFD- VA (HFD containing 10% Vernonia amygdalina leaves) supplementation. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of five animals each. After twelve weeks of feeding, serum lipid profile, blood glucose concentrations, body weight, adiposity index, feed intake, fecal loss and relative organ weight were investigated. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adiposity in rats. HFD-induced obese rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum TG and TC compared to rats on a normal diet. However, the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL-C in HFDVA rats reduced significantly relative to the levels in HFD rats. Our results indicate that HFDVA reversed fatty infiltration leading to decreased body weight and fat tissue mass in the rats. These results suggested that incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina into high-fat diets may have therapeutic potentials for obesity and related metabolic disorders. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted.

  10. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsiv...

  11. Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Beck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determine child intake in San Francisco based cohort recruited in 2006–7. Mother-child dyads were weighed and measured. The 24-hour recall data was analyzed to determine participants' consumption of whole milk, 2% milk, and 1% milk. The milk consumption data was used to calculate grams of milk fat consumed. The cross-sectional association between milk fat intake and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 99th percentile was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Data were available for 145 children, of whom 17% were severely obese. Severely obese children had a lower mean intake of milk fat (5.3 g vs. 8.9 g and fewer drank any milk (79% versus 95% for not severely obese children (p < 0.01. Among the potential confounders assessed, maternal BMI and maternal marital status were associated with severe obesity and were included in a multivariate model. In the multivariate model, higher milk fat consumption was associated with lower odds of severe obesity (OR 0.88 CI 0.80–0.97. Higher milk fat consumption is associated with lower odds of severe obesity among Latino preschoolers. These results call into question recommendations that promote consumption of lower fat milk. Keywords: Preschoolers, Dairy products, Latinos, Nutrition policy, Health disparities

  12. Lack of association of ghrelin precursor gene variants and percentage body fat or serum lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Glynn R; Loredo, J C; Sun, Guang

    2008-04-01

    Ghrelin has been recognized for its involvement in food intake, control of energy homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. However, the roles of genetic variations in the ghrelin precursor gene (GHRL) on body compositions and serum lipids are not clear in humans. Our study investigated five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GHRL to determine their relationship with body fat percentage (BF), trunk fat percentage (TF), lower body (legs) fat percentage (LF), and serum lipids in 1,464 subjects, which were recruited from the genetically homogeneous population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Five SNPs are rs35684 (A/G: a transition substitution in exon 1), rs4684677 (A/T: a missense mutation), rs2075356 (C/T: intron), rs26802 (G/T: intron), and rs26311 (A/G: near the 3' untranslated region) of GHRL were genotyped using TaqMan validated or functionally tested SNP genotyping assays. Our study found no significant evidence of an allele or genotype association between any of the variant sites and body compositions or serum lipids. Furthermore, haplotype frequencies were not found to be significantly different between lean and obese subjects. In summary, the results of our study do not support a significant role for genetic variations in GHRL in the differences of body fat and serum lipid profiles in the NL population.

  13. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6‐9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.

  14. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  15. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K

    2014-01-01

    obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p

  16. Television watching, videogames, and excess of body fat in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, J Pablo; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Moreno, Luis A; Wärnberg, Julia; Redondo, Carlos; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado, Manuel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel; Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the individual association of sedentary behaviors with the risk of overweight and excess body fat (overfat) in adolescents. A representative sample (1960 subjects, 1012 males, age 13-18.5 y) of Spanish adolescents was studied within the framework of the Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional de los Adolescentes (AVENA) study. Television (TV) watching, videogame and computer usage, doing homework, and the way students got to school, physical activity, and socioeconomic status were analyzed. Anthropometrics were measured to describe overweight (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for body mass index) and overfat (body fat percentage >85th percentile). When all subjects were considered as an entire group, the overweight risk increased by 15.8% (P videogame usage, respectively (both Ps videogame usage (P videogames during the weekend.

  17. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  18. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  19. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  20. Semi-physiological model of postprandial triglyceride response in lean, obese and very obese individuals after a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leohr, Jennifer; Heathman, Michael; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2018-03-01

    To quantify the postprandial triglyceride (TG) response of chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoprotein-V6 (VLDL-V6) after a high-fat meal in lean, obese and very obese healthy individuals, using a mechanistic population lipokinetic modelling approach. Healthy individuals from three body mass index population categories: lean (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ), obese (30-33 kg/m 2 ), and very obese (34-40 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled in a clinical study to assess the TG response after a high-fat meal, containing 60% fat. Non-linear mixed-effect modelling was used to analyse the TG concentrations of chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles. The TGs in chylomicrons and VLDL-V6 particles had a prominent postprandial peak and represented the majority of the postprandial response; only the VLDL-V6 showed a difference across the populations. A turn-over model successfully described the TG concentration-time profiles of both chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles after the high-fat meal. This model consisted of four compartments: two transit compartments for the lag between meal consumption and appearance of TGs in the blood, and one compartment each for the chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles. The rate constants for the production of chylomicrons and elimination of large VLDL-V6 particles, along with the conversion rate of chylomicrons to large VLDL-V6 particles were well defined. This is the first lipokinetic model to describe the absorption of TGs from dietary fats into the blood stream and compares the dynamics of TGs in chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles among lean, obese and very obese people. Such a model can be used to identify where pharmacological therapies act, thereby improving the determination of efficacy, and identifying complementary mechanisms for combinational drug therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity.

  2. Maternal obesity and offspring body composition by indirect methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Castillo-Laura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conducted through random-effects models. 20 studies were included, most of which reported a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring body fat. Standardized mean differences in body fat percent, fat mass and fat-free mass between infants of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and those of overweight/obese women were 0.31 percent points (95%CI: 0.19; 0.42, 0.38kg (95%CI: 0.26; 0.50, and 0.18kg (95%CI: -0.07; 0.42, respectively. Evidence so far suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight is associated with higher offspring adiposity.

  3. Obesity, fat topography and risk of carcinoma breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Rafique, K.; Khan, K.; Farooq, U.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carcinoma breast is most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women, with a multifactorial aetiology. This case control study was aimed at studying the possible link of body fat with the pathogenesis of carcinoma breast. Methods: A case control study extending over a period of two years (2015-2016) was conducted in which the body size and shape of 56 carcinoma breast cases was studied against 168 controls who had no breast disease. Results: Fifty-six women suffering from carcinoma breast had a higher BMI and fat distributed in the abdominal area A high BMI was found to be protective in pre-menopausal women (OR= 0.14 by; 95% CI: 0.02–0.77) while it was a risk factor in post-menopausal women (OR=2.39 by; 95% CI: 1.02–5.55). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of ≥0.9 was associated with an increased risk of carcinoma breast compared to WHR ≤0.8 (OR=3.857 by; 95% CI: 0.875–17.05). Conclusion: the results show there is an increased risk of carcinoma breast in women having more fat cantered around the abdomen. (author)

  4. Short term and dosage influences of palm based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on body fat and blood parameters in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Ab Karim, Nur Azwani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Structured lipid medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) are claimed to be able to manage obesity. The present study investigated the body fat influence of enzymatically interesterifed palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (P-MLCT) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice compared with commercial MLCT oil (C-MLCT) and a control, which was the non enzymatically modified palm kernel and palm oil blend (PKO-PO blend). It also investigated the low fat and high fat effects of P-MLCT. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with low fat (7%) and high fat (30%) experimental diets for 8 weeks before being sacrificed to obtain blood serum for analysis. From the results, there is a trend that P-MLCT fed mice were found to have the lowest body weight, body weight gain, total fat pad accumulation (perirenal, retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric), total triglyceride levels and efficiency in controlling blood glucose level, compared with C-MLCT and the PKO-PO blend in both low fat and high fat diets. Nevertheless, the PKO-PO blend and P-MLCT caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher total cholesterol levels compared to C-MLCT. P-MLCT present in low fat and high fat dosage were shown to be able to suppress body fat accumulation. This effect is more prominent with the low fat dosage.

  5. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  6. Anti obese potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil: effect on lipid profile and histoarchitecture in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A; Sathibabu Uddandrao, V V; Brahmanaidu, P; Saravanan, Ganapathy; Nivedha, P R; Tamilmani, P; Swapna, K; Vadivukkarasi, Sasikumar

    2017-10-19

    In this study, we made an attempt to evaluate the potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil (CSO) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. We investigated the effect of CSO (100 mg/kg body weight) supplementation over 30 days on the changes of HFD-induced obese rats in body weight, biochemical parameters and lipid profile as well as investigated the effects of CSO on the histopathological changes. Oral administration with CSO revealed significant diminution in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, which altered the activity of lipid profile and restored the pathological alterations. It demonstrated that CSO had considerably altered these parameters when evaluated with HFD control rats. In conclusion, this study established that CSO prevents the HFD-induced obesity by altering the markers important to lipid metabolism.

  7. Impact of body fat distribution on neoadjuvant chemotherapy outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Sangai, Takafumi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Junta; Hayama, Shouko; Ishigami, Emi; Masuda, Takahito; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is known to decrease the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) against breast cancer; however, the relationship between actual body composition and NAC outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of body composition on NAC outcomes. A total of 172 advanced breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition parameters including abdominal circumference (AC), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle area (SMA) were calculated using computed tomography volume-analyzing software. VFA/SFA ratio was used to evaluate visceral obesity. The associations of body composition parameters with pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival were analyzed. AC, SFA, and VFA were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (all P < 0.05; r = 0.82, r = 0.71, and r = 0.78, respectively). AC, SFA, and VFA increased significantly and SMA decreased significantly after menopause (all P < 0.05). VFA/SFA ratio increased significantly after menopause, even though BMI remained unchanged. Body composition parameters were not associated with pCR. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was significantly worse in the high VFA group than in the low VFA group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the high VFA group, postmenopausal patients had significantly shorter DDFS than premenopausal patients (P < 0.05). VFA was independently associated with DDFS in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High visceral fat is associated with worse NAC outcomes in breast cancer patients, especially postmenopausal patients. Interventions targeting visceral fat accumulation will likely improve NAC outcomes

  8. Anti-Obesity Effect of 6,8-Diprenylgenistein, an Isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata Fruits in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hee Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG, a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD-induced obese mice at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg for six week. The body weight of the DPG-treated groups was significantly lower compared to the HFD-treated group. In addition, fat accumulation in epididymal adipose tissue and liver was dramatically decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. The food efficiency ratios of the HFD + DPG groups were also lower compared to the HFD group with the same food intake. Metabolic parameters that had increased in the HFD group were decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. Further studies demonstrate that DPG efficiently reduces lipogenic genes by regulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, and hormones, such as leptin and adiponection. DPG also regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation. Taken together, DPG is beneficial for the regulation of obesity, especially resulting from high fat intake.

  9. Pancreatic fat and β-cell function in overweight/obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Di Martino, Michele; Anania, Caterina; Andreoli, Gian Marco; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo; Chiesa, Claudio

    2015-04-21

    To analyze the associations of pancreatic fat with other fat depots and β-cell function in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined 158 overweight/obese children and adolescents, 80 with NAFLD [hepatic fat fraction (HFF) ≥ 5%] and 78 without fatty liver. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and HFF were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Estimates of insulin sensitivity were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), defined by fasting insulin and fasting glucose and whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI), based on mean values of insulin and glucose obtained from oral glucose tolerance test and the corresponding fasting values. Patients were considered to have prediabetes if they had either: (1) impaired fasting glucose, defined as a fasting glucose level ≥ 100 mg/dL to Children with prediabetes had higher PFF and HFF than those without. PFF and HFF were significantly associated with prediabetes after adjustment for clinical variables. When all fat depots where included in the same model, only HFF remained significantly associated with prediabetes (OR = 3.38; 95%CI: 1.10-10.4; P = 0.034). In overweight/obese children with NAFLD, pancreatic fat is increased compared with those without liver involvement. However, only liver fat is independently related to prediabetes.

  10. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance.

  11. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Excessive body fat linked to blunted somatosensory cortex response to general reward in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, J F; Barrós-Loscertales, A; Costumero-Ramos, V; Verdejo-Román, J; Vilar-López, R; Verdejo-García, A

    2018-01-01

    The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age (s.d.)= 16.56 (1.35)) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. The MID task reliably elicits brain activations associated with two fundamental aspects of reward processing: anticipation and feedback. We conducted regression analyses to examine the association between body fat and brain reward system responsivity during reward anticipation and feedback, while controlling for sex, age and socioeconomic status. We also analysed the moderating impact of sex on the relationship between fat levels and brain responsivity measures. Brain imaging analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons, with a cluster-defining threshold of Preward feedback after controlling for key sociodemographic variables. Although we did not find significant associations between body fat and brain activations during reward anticipation, S1/supramarginal gyrus activation during feedback was linked to increased negative prediction error, that is, less reward than expected, in illustrative post hoc analyses. Sex did not significantly moderate the association between body fat and brain activation in the MID task. In adolescents, higher adiposity is linked to hypo-responsivity of somatosensory regions during general (monetary) reward feedback. Findings suggest that adolescents with excess weight have blunted activation in somatosensory regions involved in reward feedback learning.

  13. Ultrasonography is not more reliable than anthropometry for assessing visceral fat in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, B. G. P.; Westerhout, R.; Bohte, A. E.; Vinke, S.; Pels Rijcken, T. H.; Nederveen, A. J.; Caan, M. W. A.; van der Baan-Slootweg, O. H.; Merkus, M. P.; Stoker, J.; Benninga, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is a risk factor for obesity-related complications. Waist circumference is used in clinical practice to assess visceral adiposity. Ultrasound is not superior to waist circumference for assessing visceral obesity in obese children. The optimal site for measuring waist

  14. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J; Cortes, Dina; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-12-01

    Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked to subsequent metabolic disease. The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 participating in a randomized controlled trial. Diet was assessed at gestational weeks 11-14 and 36-37 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Body composition in the offspring was assessed at birth by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relative fat mass (%) was the primary outcome. Absolute measures (total fat, abdominal fat, and lean body mass) were secondary outcomes. Mean ± SD weight and absolute and relative fat mass in the offspring at birth were 3769 ± 542 g, 436 ± 214 g, and 11% ± 4%, respectively. Maternal intake of digestible carbohydrates was associated with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat mass of 2.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 3.7%), which corresponded in absolute terms to a 103-g (95% CI: 27, 179-g) higher fat mass. Abdominal fat mass was also higher. In a strata of women with well-controlled glucose (2-h glucose values ≤6.6 mmol/L), no association between carbohydrate intake and offspring fat mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). In obese women, even those

  15. Longitudinal body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Hull, Holly R; Shankar, Kartik; Casey, Patrick H; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal prepregnancy BMI and offspring body composition trajectories during the first 6 years of life. Healthy infants (N = 325) were assessed longitudinally (at ages 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mixed-effects regression for repeated measures was used to model each continuous outcome as a function of maternal BMI and covariates (race, gestational age, birth weight, and mode of infant feeding). Maternal obesity differentially impacted body fat, but not bone mineral content or density, of girls and boys. Boys born to mothers with obesity have higher body fat from ages 2-6 years compared to boys born to normal-weight and overweight mothers (P obesity was not different across groups during the first 6 years of life (P > 0.05). This clinical observational study demonstrates a sexual dimorphism in offspring body composition until age 6 years based on maternal BMI, with a greater effect of maternal adiposity seen in boys than in girls. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  17. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  18. [Evaluate the Efficacy of Electroacupuncture Therapy on Abdominal Fat in Obese Women by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Dong-Gang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Feng, Li-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Li, Fang

    2016-10-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on abdominal fat in obese women by using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Thirty abdominal obesity women patients were randomly divided into control group ( n =15) and EA group ( n =15). The obesity patients of the control group did not receive any treatment for weight reduction, and those of the EA group were treated by EA stimulation of bilateral Neiting (ST 44), Fenglong (ST 40), Zusanli (ST 36), Huaroumen (ST 24), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Shuidao (ST 28), Fujie (SP 14), Daheng (SP 13), etc. for 25 min, once every other day, 3 times per week for 3 months. The patient's body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) were mea-sured with different devices, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 and S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the total abdominal fat volume between the L 4 and S 3 levels were detected using MRI systems before and after the treatment. The effects of the EA group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering difference values (between pre- and post-treatment) of BMI, WC and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 , S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis(all P abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 (all P abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 ( P abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 in the control group ( P >0.05). EA intervention can effectively reduce abdominal fat in obese women based on the evaluation of MRI.

  19. The flavonoid compound apigenin prevents colonic inflammation and motor dysfunctions associated with high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Daniela; Fornai, Matteo; Colucci, Rocchina; Pellegrini, Carolina; Tirotta, Erika; Benvenuti, Laura; Segnani, Cristina; Ippolito, Chiara; Duranti, Emiliano; Virdis, Agostino; Carpi, Sara; Nieri, Paola; Németh, Zoltán H; Pistelli, Laura; Bernardini, Nunzia; Blandizzi, Corrado; Antonioli, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Apigenin can exert beneficial actions in the prevention of obesity. However, its putative action on obesity-associated bowel motor dysfunctions is unknown. This study examined the effects of apigenin on colonic inflammatory and motor abnormalities in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD). SD or HFD mice were treated with apigenin (10 mg/Kg/day). After 8 weeks, body and epididymal fat weight, as well as cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were evaluated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β and IL-6 levels, and let-7f expression were also examined. Colonic infiltration by eosinophils, as well as substance P (SP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were evaluated. Motor responses elicited under blockade of NOS and tachykininergic contractions were recorded in vitro from colonic longitudinal muscle preparations. When compared to SD mice, HFD animals displayed increased body weight, epididymal fat weight and metabolic indexes. HFD mice showed increments in colonic MDA, IL-1β and IL-6 levels, as well as a decrease in let-7f expression in both colonic and epididymal tissues. HFD mice displayed an increase in colonic eosinophil infiltration. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase in SP and iNOS expression in myenteric ganglia of HFD mice. In preparations from HFD mice, electrically evoked contractions upon NOS blockade or mediated by tachykininergic stimulation were enhanced. In HFD mice, Apigenin counteracted the increase in body and epididymal fat weight, as well as the alterations of metabolic indexes. Apigenin reduced also MDA, IL-1β and IL-6 colonic levels as well as eosinophil infiltration, SP and iNOS expression, along with a normalization of electrically evoked tachykininergic and nitrergic contractions. In addition, apigenin normalized let-7f expression in epididymal fat tissues, but not in colonic specimens. Apigenin prevents systemic metabolic alterations

  20. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  1. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  2. Effect of Herbal Acupuncture with Sang-hwang(Phellinus linteus on High Fat Diet-induced Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has fairly good weight-reducing effect in treating simple obesity due to the neuroendocrine regulation. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of herbal acupuncture (HA with Sang-hwang (Phellinus linteus at Fuai (SP16 were investigated in the rat fed on high-fat (HF diet. Sang-hwang mushroom has been proven to have anti-carcinogenic effects and Sang-hwang extracts are highly effective in treatment and preventive treatment of AIDS, diabetes and high blood-pressure. To determine whether the Sang-hwang herbal acupuncture may have the anti-obesity effect, male Sprague-Dawley (4-wk-old rats were fed a HF diet for 5 wk, which produced significant weight gain compared to rats were fed a normal diet, and then herbal acupuncture were treated for 3 wk in HF diet group. The body weight, food consumption, food effeciency ratio (FER, body fat mass, plasma nitric oxide (NO were investigated in rats fed on normal diet, HF diet, and HF diet with HA (HF-diet-HA groups. NO has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of food intake. In addition, the expression of appetite peptides such as orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY and the anorectic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK were observed in the hypothalamus. HF-HA group reduced body weight gain, FER, body fat contents and NO concentration compared to HF diet group. The expression of NPY was reduced in arcuate nucleus (ARC, and CCK was increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN after treatment of HA. In conclusion, Sang-hwang HA reduced adipocity, plasma NO and hypothalamic NPY, but increased CCK expression in the HF diet-induced obesity rat, therefore HA may have anti-obesity action through regulating body weight and appetite peptide of the central nervous system.

  3. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  4. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  5. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  6. Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, F; Klaus, S; Petzke, K J; Loddenkemper, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Weickert, M O

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to high vs. low glycemic index (GI) diets increases fat mass and insulin resistance in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. However, the longer-term effects and potentially involved mechanisms are largely unknown. We exposed four groups of male C57BL/6J mice (n = 10 per group) to long-term (20 wk) or short-term (6 wk) isoenergetic and macronutrient matched diets only differing in starch type and as such GI. Body composition, liver fat, molecular factors of lipid metabolism, and markers of insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility were investigated in all four groups of mice. Mice fed the high GI diet showed a rapid-onset (from week 5) marked increase in body fat mass and liver fat, a gene expression profile in liver consistent with elevated lipogenesis, and, after long-term exposure, significantly reduced glucose clearance following a glucose load. The long-term high-GI diet also led to a delayed switch to both carbohydrate and fat oxidation in the postprandial state, indicating reduced metabolic flexibility. In contrast, no difference in carbohydrate oxidation was observed after short-term high- vs. low-GI exposure. However, fatty acid oxidation was significantly blunted as early as 3 wk after beginning of the high-GI intervention, at a time where most measured phenotypic markers including body fat mass were comparable between groups. Thus long-term high-GI feeding resulted in an obese, insulin-resistant, and metabolically inflexible phenotype in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Early onset and significantly impaired fatty acid oxidation preceded these changes, thereby indicating a potentially causal involvement.

  7. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  8. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  9. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  10. Anti-obesity effect of a novel caffeine-loaded dissolving microneedle patch in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangol, Manita; Kim, Suyong; Li, Cheng Guo; Fakhraei Lahiji, Shayan; Jang, Mingyu; Ma, Yonghao; Huh, Inyoung; Jung, Hyungil

    2017-11-10

    Natural products such as caffeine have been found to be effective in reducing body weight through lipolysis. Here, we report the successful loading of caffeine onto dissolving microneedle following inhibition of its crystal growth by hyaluronic acid (HA), the matrix material of the dissolving microneedle (DMN). Further, the anti-obesity activity of caffeine was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. After 6weeks of caffeine loaded dissolving microneedle patch (CMP) administration, lipolysis improved significantly as shown by leptin and adiponectin activity, which resulted in considerable weight loss of about 12.8±0.75% in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Comparison of the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol after CMP administration with the initial levels in obese mice indicated significant anti-obesity activity of CMP. These findings suggested that a novel CMP with an increased amount of caffeine loaded onto DMN has therapeutic activity against obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  12. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking....... The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...

  13. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  14. The body experience and stigmatizing experiences of two obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Holen, Helene H.

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 This thesis addresses the themes body experiences in obese women and stigmatization of obesity. Both the prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of stigmatization of obesity is increasing. Also the amount of conducted bariatric surgeries is increasing. It has been shown in previous studies that stigmatization may affect obese people in negative manners. The objective of this thesis, is therefore to obtain an increased understandi...

  15. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult. PMID:28123436

  16. Near infrared reactance for the estimation of body fatness in regularly exercising individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Lambert, M I; Micklesfield, L K; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C L; Savides, L; Claassen, A; Lambert, E V

    2013-07-01

    Near infrared reactance (NIR) is used to measure body fat percentage (BF%), but there is little data on its use in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the limits of agreement between NIR compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the measurement of BF% in 2 cohorts of regularly exercising individuals. BF% was measured using DXA and NIR in a regular exercising (≥3 sessions/week), healthy active cohort (HA; n=57), and in a regularly exercising and resistance trained (≥2 sessions/week) cohort (RT; n=59). The RT cohort had lower BF% than the HA cohort (15.3±5.5% and 25.8±7.1%, Pexercising individuals. However, the rather broad LOA of NIR need to be considered when using NIR to screen for overweight and obesity, or measure and track changes in body composition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease and 2% are due to Diabetes mellitus, 9% ... study was to examine the relationship between body fat content, ..... A meta-analysis of prospective studies. ... A.A.1., Esterhuizen, T., Gouws, E.,. Pirie, F.J., Omar, M.A. (2008). Diabetes.

  18. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  19. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis ... pathogenesis and risk factors which predispose to the .... of subjects in both 9roups fell within the 15 - 85th percentiles. .... findings are in any way influenced by anatomical posture changes ...

  20. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three body mass index classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel

    2017-11-22

    Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification systems for Indigenous youth. We estimated overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three BMI classification systems, assessed the level of agreement between them, and evaluated their accuracy through body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors. Data on 288 youth (aged 8-17 years) were collected. Overweight and obesity prevalence were estimated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Agreement was measured with weighted kappa (κw). Associations with body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated by analysis of variance. Obesity prevalence was 42.7% with IOTF, 47.2% with CDC, and 49.3% with WHO criteria. Agreement was almost perfect between IOTF and CDC (κw = 0.93), IOTF and WHO (κw = 0.91), and WHO and CDC (κw = 0.94). Means of body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly higher (P trend  obesity, regardless of the system used. Youth considered overweight by IOTF but obese by CDC or WHO exhibited less severe clinical obesity. IOTF seems to be more accurate in identifying obesity in Cree youth.

  1. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5{+-}3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.).

  2. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Fumie

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5±3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.)

  3. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, K M; Nørgaard, K; Nilas, L; Jensen, J E B; Hyldstrup, L; Michaelsen, K F; Cortes, D; Pryds, O

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. We recruited 231 obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p gestational age (15.3%) than small for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p < 0.001). Lower birthweight z-score was associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight was associated with a lower crude abdominal fat mass, but a higher proportion of total fat mass placed abdominally. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Value of body mass index in the diagnosis of obesity according to DEXA in well-controlled RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Winniczuk, Nina; Vega-Morales, David; García-Hernandez, Pedro A; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Arana-Guajardo, Ana C

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an indirect effect on body composition. Body mass index (BMI) is not a valid predictor of body fat in RA patients. To evaluate the accuracy of BMI in identifying obesity diagnosed according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in well-controlled RA patients. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. We used 3 different cutoffs for obesity as determined by DXA: >35% total fat, >40% total fat, and >35% central fat mass (central obesity). One hundred one patients were included. We found that 35% total fat corresponded to a BMI of 24kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.917); 40% total fat to a BMI of 25kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 39% (AUC 0.822); and 35% central fat mass to a BMI of 22kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 84% (AUC 0.951). Obesity according to DXA was underdiagnosed when the classic BMI cutoffs were used in well-controlled RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Ablation of PPP1R3G reduces glycogen deposition and mitigates high-fat diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxian; Gu, Jin; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Zilong; Pan, Yi; Chen, Yan

    2017-01-05

    Glycogen and triglyceride are two major forms of energy storage in the body and provide the fuel during different phases of food deprivation. However, how glycogen metabolism is linked to fat deposition in adipose tissue has not been clearly characterized. We generated a mouse model with whole-body deletion of PPP1R3G, a glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase-1 required for glycogen synthesis. Upon feeding with high-fat diet, the body weight and fat composition are significantly reduced in the PPP1R3G -/- mice compared to the wild type controls. The metabolic rate of the mice as measured by O 2 consumption and CO 2 production is accelerated by PPP1R3G deletion. The high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis is also slightly relieved by PPP1R3G deletion. The glycogen level in adipose tissue is reduced by PPP1R3G deletion. In 3T3L1 cells, overexpression of PPP1R3G leads to increases of both glycogen and triglyceride levels. In conclusion, our study indicates that glycogen is actively involved in fat accumulation in adipose tissue and obesity development upon high-fat diet. Our study also suggests that PPP1R3G is an important player that links glycogen metabolism to lipid metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during a submaximal incremental test in lean and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Salvadori, Alberto; Brunani, Amelia; Malatesta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during exercise in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Sixteen L and 16 O men [Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.9 ± 0.3 and 39.0 ± 1.4 kg · m(-2)] performed a submaximal incremental test (Incr) on a cycle-ergometer. Fat oxidation rates (FORs) were determined using indirect calorimetry. A sinusoidal model, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, translation), was used to describe fat oxidation kinetics and determine the intensity (Fat(max)) eliciting maximal fat oxidation. Blood samples were drawn for the hormonal and plasma metabolite determination at each step of Incr. FORs (mg · FFM(-1) · min(-1)) were significantly higher from 20 to 30% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in O than in L and from 65 to 85% VO2peak in L than in O (p ≤ 0.05). FORs were similar in O and in L from 35 to 60% VO2peak. Fat max was 17% significantly lower in O than in L (poxidation kinetics were characterized by similar translation, significantly lower dilatation and left-shift symmetry in O compared with L (poxidation at high exercise intensities suggest that the difference in the fat oxidation kinetics is likely linked to impaired muscular capacity to oxidize NEFA in O. These results may have important implications for the appropriate exercise intensity prescription in training programs designed to optimize fat oxidation in O.

  7. Temporal divergence of percent body fat and body mass index in pre-teenage children: the LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Abhayaratna, W P

    2014-12-01

    The index of body mass related to stature, (body mass index, BMI, kgm(-2) ), is widely used as a proxy for percent body fat (%BF) in cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. BMI does not distinguish between lean and fat mass and in children, the cross-sectional relationship between %BF and BMI changes with age and sex. While BMI increases linearly with age from age 8 to 12 years in both boys and girls, %BF plateaus off between 10 and 12 years. Repeated measures in children show a systematic decrease in %BF for any given BMI from age 8 to 10 to 12 years. Because changes in BMI misrepresent changes in %BF, its use as a proxy of %BF should be avoided in longitudinal studies in this age group. Body mass index (BMI, kgm(-2) ) is commonly used as an indicator of pediatric adiposity, but with its inability to distinguish changes in lean and fat mass, its use in longitudinal studies of children requires careful consideration. To investigate the suitability of BMI as a surrogate of percent body fat (%BF) in pediatric longitudinal investigations. In this longitudinal study, healthy Australian children (256 girls and 278 boys) were measured at ages 8.0 (standard deviation 0.3), 10.0 and 12.0 years for height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of change in the means of %BF and BMI were different (P < 0.001). While mean BMI increased linearly from 8 to 12 years of age, %BF did not change between 10 and 12 years. Relationships between %BF and BMI in boys and girls were curvilinear and varied with age (P < 0.001) and gender (P < 0.001); any given BMI corresponding with a lower %BF as a child became older. Considering the divergence of temporal patterns of %BF and BMI between 10 and 12 years of age, employment of BMI as a proxy for %BF in absolute or age and sex standardized forms in pediatric longitudinal investigations is problematical. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association

  8. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Maffetone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world’s most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.

  9. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Leidig, Michael M; Feldman, Henry A; Lovesky, Margaret M; Ludwig, David S

    2007-05-16

    The results of clinical trials involving diet in the treatment of obesity have been inconsistent, possibly due to inherent physiological differences among study participants. To determine whether insulin secretion affects weight loss with 2 popular diets. Randomized trial of obese young adults (aged 18-35 years; n = 73) conducted from September 2004 to December 2006 in Boston, Mass, and consisting of a 6-month intensive intervention period and a 12-month follow-up period. Serum insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a 75-g dose of oral glucose was determined at baseline as a measure of insulin secretion. Outcomes were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Missing data were imputed conservatively. A low-glycemic load (40% carbohydrate and 35% fat) vs low-fat (55% carbohydrate and 20% fat) diet. Body weight, body fat percentage determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Change in body weight and body fat percentage did not differ between the diet groups overall. However, insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was an effect modifier (group x time x insulin concentration at 30 minutes: P = .02 for body weight and P = .01 for body fat percentage). For those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes above the median (57.5 microIU/mL; n = 28), the low-glycemic load diet produced a greater decrease in weight (-5.8 vs -1.2 kg; P = .004) and body fat percentage (-2.6% vs -0.9%; P = .03) than the low-fat diet at 18 months. There were no significant differences in these end points between diet groups for those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes below the median level (n = 28). Insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was not a significant effect modifier for cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the full cohort, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations improved more on the low-glycemic load diet, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  11. Validating Body Fat Assessment by Bioelectric Impedance Spectroscopy in Taiwanese Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Paik Seong; Chen, Chang Hsu; Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter; Jeng, Yachung; Hu, Chun Yu; Chiu, Li Shu; Chang, Hui-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is becoming increasingly common in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with inflammation and increased mortality. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and variability of the bioimpedance device in measuring body fat in Taiwanese dialysis patients. Cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-two adult patients receiving HD in a single hospital in Taiwan. We compared the results of fat mass (FM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy device (Body composition monitor, BCM). FM measured by BCM was calculated by subtracting fat-free mass (FFM) from body mass assuming fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73 or the proprietary prediction equations from the BCM model. Assessment of whole-body composition showed that percentage FM measured using the 2 techniques was highly correlated when using the BCM model or estimating from total body water using constant (0.73) hydration (r = 0.87, P < .001). There was no evident difference in measurement between patients gender. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement of percentage of FM (t = 3.82; P < .001). In female patients, it was found that BCM significantly underestimated mean FM as compared to DEXA. However, the mean differences of the estimates between the methods were small (0.35 ± 3.00 kg) and with Bland-Altman plot the limits of agreements were -5.5 to 6.2 kg (P = .40) for FM in female patients. Using DEXA as the reference test, BCM is a valid tool for the assessment of total body fat in HD patients. Hence, it may provide a more accessible tool for early detection of changes in body composition in these high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Sun Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  13. Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, J S; Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, M B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise is recommended for weight management but energy balance is often less negative than predicted from exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity...... is an alternative to leisure-time exercise in the management of overweight and obesity. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01962259 (main trial) and NCT01973686 (energy metabolism sub-study).International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 5 December 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.253........ METHODS: We randomized 130 younger, physically inactive women and men with overweight and obesity (body mass index: 25-35 kg m-2) to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (control; CON, n=18), active commuting (BIKE, n=35) or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2peak reserve, n=39) or vigorous...

  14. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMost type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsFor 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 µg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 µg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV, body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment.ResultsAfter 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively, while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289. In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively.ConclusionEffects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  15. Classification of obesity by means of the body mass index and verification by measurement of the body composition using the tritium dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.; Fischer, S.; Weck, M.; Hanefeld, M.

    1988-01-01

    65 female and 142 male patients have been classified according to their body mass index (BMI) into the categories underweight (BMI 20 or less), normal weight (BMI over 20 - 25), overweight (BMI over 25 - 30), obesity (BMI over 30 - 40), and morbid obesity (BMI over 40). Body composition was measured in all patients using the tritium dilution method. Total body fat was calculated from the total body water values. Relative fat values increased from 17.1% (women) and 14.5% (men) resp. in underweight to 46.2% (women) and 43.3% (men) in morbid obesity. In all classes of BMI men exhibited higher values of body weight, body height and body water and lower values of absolute and relative fat as compared to women. However, the relative fat and water values, relative to 1 in the normal weight class, were equal for both sexes. The results demonstrate that the BMI is very well suited for the classification of obesity. (author)

  16. BODY COMPOSITION OF A MILITARY POPULATION FT. CARSON 1963. I. BODY DENSITY, FAT, AND POTASSIUM 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body volumes were measured on 97 soldiers between the ages of 17 - 52 years by water displacement volumetry and corrected for respiratory gas by a...Effective ranking of body fat burden of populations was demonstrated by body volumetry and age differences were noted from potassium 40 counting. A

  17. Galantamine Alleviates Inflammation and Other Obesity-Associated Complications in High-Fat Diet–Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Sanjaya K; Ochani, Mahendar; Dancho, Meghan; Hudson, LaQueta K; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Valdes-Ferrer, Sergio I; Olofsson, Peder S; Harris, Yael Tobi; Roth, Jesse; Chavan, Sangeeta; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, a serious and growing health threat, is associated with low-grade inflammation that plays a role in mediating its adverse consequences. Previously, we have discovered a role for neural cholinergic signaling in controlling inflammation, and demonstrated that the cholinergic agent galantamine suppresses excessive proinflammatory cytokine release. The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically-approved drug, in alleviating obesity-related inflammation and associated complications. After 8 wks on a high-fat diet, C57BL/6J mice were treated with either galantamine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or saline for 4 wks in parallel with mice on a low-fat diet and treated with saline. Galantamine treatment of obese mice significantly reduced body weight, food intake, abdominal adiposity, plasma cytokine and adipokine levels, and significantly improved blood glucose, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. In addition, galantamine alleviated impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance significantly. These results indicate a previously unrecognized potential of galantamine in alleviating obesity, inflammation and other obesity-related complications in mice. These findings are of interest for studying the efficacy of this clinically-approved drug in the context of human obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:21738953

  18. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three body mass index classification systems

    OpenAIRE

    St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the suitability of three commonly used body mass index (BMI) classification systems for Indigenous youth. We estimated overweight and obesity prevalence among Cree youth of Eeyou Istchee according to three BMI classification systems, assessed the level of agreement between them, and evaluated their accuracy through body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods Data on 288 youth (aged 8–17 years) were collected. Overweight and obesity prevalence were estim...

  19. Accuracy of Body Mass Index-defined Obesity Status in US Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattinee Jitnarin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant problem affecting United States (US firefighters. While body mass index (BMI is widely used to diagnose obesity, its use for this occupational group has raised concerns about validity. We examined rates and types of misclassification of BMI-based obesity status compared to body fat percentage (BF% and waist circumference (WC. Male career firefighters (N = 994 from 20 US departments completed all three body composition assessments. Mean BMI, BF%, and WC were 29 kg/m2, 23%, and 97 cm, respectively. Approximately 33% and 15% of BF%- and WC-defined obese participants were misclassified as non-obese (false negatives using BMI, while 8% and 9% of non-obese participants defined by BF% and WC standards were identified as obese (false positives using BMI. When stratified by race/ethnicity, Pacific Islanders showed high rates of false positive misclassification. Precision in obesity classification would be improved by using WC along with BMI to determine firefighters' weight status.

  20. The relationship of body fatness and body fat distribution with microvascular recruitment : The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnstok, N.J.; Hoekstra, T.; Eringa, E.C.; Smulders, Y.M.; Twisk, J.W.; Serne, E.H.

    INTRODUCTION: Microvascular function has been proposed to link body fatness to CVD and DM2. Current knowledge of these relationships is mainly based on studies in selected populations of extreme phenotypes. Whether these findings can be translated to the general population remains to be

  1. [Relation between leptin serun with weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Ospino, Yubire; Díaz, N; Meertens, L; Naddaf, G; Solano, L; Fernández, M; Flores, A; González, M

    2010-01-01

    Leptin is a peptidic hormone secreted by the fat tissue and plays an important role in body weight regulation. After menopause, weight gain increases as well as android-like obesity. Previous studies suggest a relationship between leptin level, body mass index (BMI) and fat distribution. To establish the relationships between serum leptin, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist/hip ratio (WHR). 48 women under the age of 60 years and with amenorrhea for longer than one year were assessed. Leptin and estradiol (ELISA) levels were determined; normal values: 3.63-11.09 ng/mL and 0-65 pg/Ml. BMI (WHO), WC > 88 cm, and WHR > 0.80 were considered as indicators of cardiometabolic risk. Mean age for the group was 54 +/- 3.9 years; leptin: 8.4 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, and estradiol: 17.6 +/- 10.0 pg/mL; BMI: 27.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m(2); WC: 86.2 +/- 8.6 cm; and WHR: 0.84 +/- 0.06. Twenty percent of the women had hyperleptinemia, 58.4% malnourishment due to excessive intake, 35% presented WC cardiovascular risk. The highest leptin value was found in obese women. There was no association between serum leptin levels and anthropometrical variables. There was a significantly positive correlation between weight, height, BMI, WC, hip circumference, and estradiol. Postmenopausal women presented a high prevalence of overweight/obesity, android-like body fat distribution and normal serum leptin levels. The group assessed is considered to be at risk for cardiometabolic diseases according to anthropometrical indicators.

  2. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Komiya

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis.

  3. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary fat and gut microbiota interactions determine diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübeck, Raphaela; Bonet-Ripoll, Catalina; Hoffmann, Christina; Walker, Alesia; Müller, Veronika Maria; Schüppel, Valentina Luise; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Scholz, Birgit; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Daniel, Hannelore; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas; Klingenspor, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Gut microbiota may promote positive energy balance; however, germfree mice can be either resistant or susceptible to diet-induced obesity (DIO) depending on the type of dietary intervention. We here sought to identify the dietary constituents that determine the susceptibility to body fat accretion in germfree (GF) mice. GF and specific pathogen free (SPF) male C57BL/6N mice were fed high-fat diets either based on lard or palm oil for 4 wks. Mice were metabolically characterized at the end of the feeding trial. FT-ICR-MS and UPLC-TOF-MS were used for cecal as well as hepatic metabolite profiling and cecal bile acids quantification, respectively. Hepatic gene expression was examined by qRT-PCR and cecal gut microbiota of SPF mice was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GF mice, but not SPF mice, were completely DIO resistant when fed a cholesterol-rich lard-based high-fat diet, whereas on a cholesterol-free palm oil-based high-fat diet, DIO was independent of gut microbiota. In GF lard-fed mice, DIO resistance was conveyed by increased energy expenditure, preferential carbohydrate oxidation, and increased fecal fat and energy excretion. Cecal metabolite profiling revealed a shift in bile acid and steroid metabolites in these lean mice, with a significant rise in 17β-estradiol, which is known to stimulate energy expenditure and interfere with bile acid metabolism. Decreased cecal bile acid levels were associated with decreased hepatic expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis. These metabolic adaptations were largely attenuated in GF mice fed the palm-oil based high-fat diet. We propose that an interaction of gut microbiota and cholesterol metabolism is essential for fat accretion in normal SPF mice fed cholesterol-rich lard as the main dietary fat source. This is supported by a positive correlation between bile acid levels and specific bacteria of the order Clostridiales (phylum Firmicutes ) as a characteristic feature of normal SPF mice

  5. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum L. stem extract on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhye; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son

    2013-08-30

    This study was designed to examine the potential health benefits of Allium sativum L. (garlic) stem extract (ASSE) on obesity and related disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obese mice were orally administered ASSE at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 4 weeks. Consumption of ASSE significantly suppressed body weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight regardless of daily food intake. Obese mice fed ASSE also exhibited a significant decrease in WAT cell size. The decreased level of adiponectin and increased level of leptin in obese mice reverted to near normal mice levels in ASSE-treated mice. ASSE administration significantly improved lipid parameters of the serum and liver and inhibited fat accumulation in the liver by modulating the activities of hepatic lipid-regulating enzymes in obese mice. Administration of ASSE also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzymes and suppressed glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue. These results suggest that ASSE may ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative damage in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kamal A; Nagy, Mohamed A

    2009-10-16

    Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice) on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr), 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD), the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments) for 4 weeks.Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine) ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB) the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile.Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and high insulin resistance (IR

  7. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. Aim To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. Method White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr, 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD, the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments for 4 weeks. Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH, and Malondialdehyde (MDA catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile. Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia

  8. High-fat diet-induced plasma protein and liver changes in obese rats can be attenuated by melatonin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Klosen, Paul; Pannengpetch, Supitcha; Kitidee, Kuntida; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm

    2017-06-01

    Obesity triggers changes in protein expression in various organs that might participate in the pathogenesis of obesity. Melatonin has been reported to prevent or attenuate such pathological protein changes in several chronic diseases. However, such melatonin effects on plasma proteins have not yet been studied in an obesity model. Using a proteomic approach, we investigated the effect of melatonin on plasma protein profiles after rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We hypothesized that melatonin would attenuate abnormal protein expression in obese rats. After 10weeks of the HFD, animals displayed increased body weight and fat accumulation as well as increased glucose levels, indicating an obesity-induced prediabetes mellitus-like state. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry revealed 12 proteins whose expression was altered in response to the HFD and the melatonin treatment. The altered proteins are related to the development of liver pathology, such as cirrhosis (α1-antiproteinase), thrombosis (fibrinogen, plasminogen), and inflammation (mannose-binding protein A, complement C4, complement factor B), contributing to liver steatosis or hepatic cell death. Melatonin treatment most probably reduced the severity of the HFD-induced obesity by reducing the amplitude of HFD-induced plasma protein changes. In conclusion, we identified several potential biomarkers associated with the progression of obesity and its complications, such as liver damage. Furthermore, our findings reveal melatonin's beneficial effect of attenuating plasma protein changes and liver pathogenesis in obese rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women.......Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  10. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  11. Fat free mass and obesity in relation to educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Nuijten, Elina; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu; Knekt, Paul; Rissanen, Harri; Aromaa, Arpo; Heliövaara, Markku

    2009-12-04

    The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM) can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5%) were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview. The mean FFM varied by education in older (>or= 65 y.) men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y.), highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93) compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR. The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.

  12. Body size and obesity patterns in Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton; Padez, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    In many developing countries overweight, obesity and obesity-related morbidity are becoming a problem of increasing public health importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in body size and body composition with age in adults of the Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon as well as to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 20-75 years, taking into account recent trends for the whole country. Caboclo are genetically and culturally admixed rural peasant groups that live along the Amazon River and its tributaries in Brazil, and there are few previous studies of their health and lifestyle. A total of 304 subjects (149 males and 155 females) from two socioecologically different areas were studied. Height, weight and skinfolds (tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured; international intervals (WHO) for overweight and obesity were used. Women showed significantly lower values than men for height, weight, upper arm circumference and fat-free mass and higher values for triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds and body fat (%). In the overall sample combined overweight and obesity was 47.8% in men and 50.8% in women. When compared to recent values published for the Northern region and for the whole of Brazil, 20.5% of Caboclo women aged 20-75 years were obese, which is higher than all other populations, including other rural samples. Caboclo men showed the highest rates of obesity (9.1%) and overweight (39.1%) of any rural population from the country, including Northern Brazil. The results suggest an effect of increased Western lifestyle influence on the body composition of these Caboclo populations. Considering that these are rural populations with limited access to education and health care, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity associated with low socio-economic status makes them a vulnerable group that deserves a higher level of attention by the country's public health authorities.

  13. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    a very-high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet and measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL x diet interaction effects. Here we describe development...... of the F(2) population (n = 615) which resulted from a cross between the polygenic obesity model M16i and FVB/NJ-TgN (MMTV-PyMT)(634Mul), effects of diet on growth and body composition, and QTL and QTL x diet and/or gender interaction effects for growth and obesity-related phenotypes. We identified 38 QTL...... for body composition traits that were significant at the genome-wide 0.05 level, likely representing nine distinct loci after accounting for pleiotropic effects. QTL x diet and/or gender interactions were present at 15 of these QTL, indicating that such interactions play a significant role in defining...

  14. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Costa Bila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O dilution as a reference. METHODS: Percentage of total body water (%TBW, fat free mass (%FFM, and body fat (%BF were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST, body mass index (BMI, conicity index (CI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and waist-to-hip (WHR ratio were also used. RESULTS: Mean values for body composition were 38.4% ± 8.4% BF, 44.9% ± 6.1% TBW and 61.6% ± 8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM, TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p < 0.05. BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p < 0.05. The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (s= 0.679, CI (r = 0.634, and WHtR (r = 0.666. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.

  15. Predicting hepatic steatosis and liver fat content in obese children based on biochemical parameters and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-X; Xu, X-Q; Fu, J-F; Lai, C; Chen, X-F

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of quantitative evaluation of hepatic steatosis and liver fat content (LFC) using clinical and laboratory variables available in the general practice in the obese children are poorly identified. To build predictive models of hepatic steatosis and LFC in obese children based on biochemical parameters and anthropometry. Hepatic steatosis and LFC were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 171 obese children aged 5.5-18.0 years. Routine clinical and laboratory parameters were also measured in all subjects. Group analysis, univariable correlation analysis, and multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis were used to develop a liver fat score to identify hepatic steatosis and a liver fat equation to predict LFC in each subject. The predictive model of hepatic steatosis in our participants based on waist circumference and alanine aminotransferase had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.959 (95% confidence interval: 0.927-0.990). The optimal cut-off value of 0.525 for determining hepatic steatosis had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 90%. A liver fat equation was also developed based on the same parameters of hepatic steatosis liver fat score, which would be used to calculate the LFC in each individual. The liver fat score and liver fat equation, consisting of routinely available variables, may help paediatricians to accurately determine hepatic steatosis and LFC in clinical practice, but external validation is needed before it can be employed for this purpose. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  16. [Effect of Acupuncture Therapy on Visceral Fat Thickness in Simple Central Obesity Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-yan; Yang, Li

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture therapy in decreasing visceral fat thickness(VFT) in patients with simple central obesity. Sixty patients with simple central obesity (syndrome of stomach and intestinal excessive heat) were randomly divided into control and acupuncture groups. Patients of the control group were treated with diet control and physical exercise procedure (basic treatment) for 6 months, and those of the acupuncture group treated with basic treatment combined with acupuncture stimulation of main acupoints Shuifen (CV 9), Yinjiao (CV 7), and bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Huaroumen (ST 24) and bilateral Wailing (ST 26), etc., in combination with electroacupuncture (EA, 50- 100 Hz, 1- 5 mA) of bilateral ST 25, CV 9 and CV 7 for 30 min, once every other day for 3 months. The VFT (1 cm above the umbilicus) was detected by using an ultrasonic diagnosis instrument, and the body mass index (BMI, body weight/height(2)), and waist circumfe-rence (WC) were measured before treatment, 3 and 6 months after the treatment, respectively. Following 3 and 6 months' treatment, the VFT, BMI and WC of both groups were significantly decreased (Pacupuncture group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering VFT [(51.5 ± 6.5) mm vs (48.3 ± 4.7) mm)] and WC [(88.2 ± 3.6)cm vs (85.9 ± 4.3)cm] 6 months' after the treatment (Pacupuncture groups in BMI fowllowing 6 months' treatment [(31.0 ± 4.3) vs (30.1 ± 3.2), P>0.05]. Acupuncture intervention combined with diet control and physical exercise can effectively decrease VFT and WC in simple central obesity patients. VFT is a sensitive and better parameter for evaluating the effect of obesity treatment.

  17. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Ronald L; E Wilkes, Samuel; R Rogers, Theodore; Khanal, Ramesh C; Wu, Xianli; Howard, Luke R

    2010-04-14

    Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed either a low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat) (LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) (HF45) for a period of 72 days. Blueberry juice or purified blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 or 1.0 mg/mL) in the drinking water were included in LF or HF45 treatments. Sucrose was added to the drinking water of one treatment to test if the sugars in blueberry juice would affect development of obesity. Total body weights (g) and body fat (%) were higher and body lean tissue (%) was lower in the HF45 fed mice compared to the LF fed mice after 72 days, but in mice fed HF45 diet plus blueberry juice or blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 mg/mL), body fat (%) was not different from those mice fed the LF diet. Anthocyanins (ACNs) decreased retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights. Fasting serum glucose concentrations were higher in mice fed the HF45 diet. However, it was reduced to LF levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus 0.2 mg of ACNs/mL in the drinking water, but not with blueberry juice. beta cell function (HOMA-BCF) score was lowered with HF45 feeding but returned to normal levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL). Serum leptin was elevated in mice fed HF45 diet, and feeding either blueberry juice or purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL) decreased serum leptin levels relative to HF45 control. Sucrose in drinking water, when consumption was restricted to the volume of juice consumed, produced lower serum leptin and insulin levels, leptin/fat, and retroperitoneal and total fat (% BW). Blueberry juice was not as effective as the low dose of anthocyanins in the drinking water in preventing obesity. Additional studies are needed to determine factors responsible for the differing responses of blueberry juice and whole blueberry in preventing the development of obesity.

  18. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. High fat diet drives obesity regardless the composition of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabot, Sylvie; Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Berger, Bernard; Moine, Déborah; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruneau, Aurélia; Gérard, Philippe; Siddharth, Jay; Lauber, Christian L; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2016-08-31

    The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1(st) week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not change obesity development or feed efficiency of recipients regardless whether the microbiota was taken before or after 10 weeks high fat (HF) feeding. Interestingly, HF-induced glucose intolerance was influenced by microbiota inoculation and improved glucose tolerance was associated with a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Transplantation of Bacteroidetes rich microbiota compared to a control microbiota ameliorated glucose intolerance caused by HF feeding. Altogether, our results demonstrate that gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the abundance of Bacteroidetes significantly modulates HF-induced glucose intolerance but has limited impact on obesity in mice. Our results suggest that gut microbiota is a part of complex aetiology of insulin resistance syndrome, individual microbiota composition may cause phenotypic variation associated with HF feeding in mice.

  20. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  1. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  2. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  3. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  4. A comparison of effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable shortening on the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubant, R; Poon, A N; Sánchez-Hernández, D; Domenichiello, A F; Huot, P S P; Pannia, E; Cho, C E; Hunschede, S; Bazinet, R P; Anderson, G H

    2015-12-14

    Obesity is associated with increased consumption and preference for dietary fat. Experimental models of fat-induced obesity use either lard or vegetable shortening. Yet, there are no direct comparisons of these commonly used fat sources, or the influence of their fatty acid composition, on the development of diet-induced obesity. To compare the effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets, which differ in their fatty acid composition, on weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 14 weeks high-fat diets containing either (1) high vegetable fat (HVF, 60 kcal% from vegetable shortening) or (2) high lard fat (HLF, 60 kcal% from lard). Rats fed normal-fat (NF, 16 kcal% from vegetable shortening) diet served as control. Body weight, food intake, adipose tissue mass, serum 25[OH]D3, glucose, insulin and fatty acid composition of diets were measured. Rats fed either of the two high-fat diets had higher energy intake, weight gain and fat accretion than rats fed normal-fat diet. However, rats fed the HLF diet consumed more calories and gained more weight and body fat with greater increases of 32% in total (158.5±8.2 vs 120.2±6.6 g, P<0.05), 30% in visceral (104.4±5.2 vs 80.3±4.2 g, P<0.05) and 36% in subcutaneous fat mass (54.1±3.6 vs 39.9±3.1 g, P<0.05), compared with rats fed the HVF diet. Higher visceral adiposity was positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.376, P<0.05) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=0.391, P<0.05). We conclude that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets. These results further point to the importance of standardizing fatty acid composition and type of fat used in determining outcomes of consuming high-fat diets.

  5. Carbenoxolone treatment ameliorated metabolic syndrome in WNIN/Ob obese rats, but induced severe fat loss and glucose intolerance in lean rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment. Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions.

  6. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Frederick F; Iqbal, Nayyar; Seshadri, Prakash; Chicano, Kathryn L; Daily, Denise A; McGrory, Joyce; Williams, Terrence; Williams, Monica; Gracely, Edward J; Stern, Linda

    2003-05-22

    The effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on weight loss and risk factors for atherosclerosis have been incompletely assessed. We randomly assigned 132 severely obese subjects (including 77 blacks and 23 women) with a mean body-mass index of 43 and a high prevalence of diabetes (39 percent) or the metabolic syndrome (43 percent) to a carbohydrate-restricted (low-carbohydrate) diet or a calorie- and fat-restricted (low-fat) diet. Seventy-nine subjects completed the six-month study. An analysis including all subjects, with the last observation carried forward for those who dropped out, showed that subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight than those on the low-fat diet (mean [+/-SD], -5.8+/-8.6 kg vs. -1.9+/-4.2 kg; P=0.002) and had greater decreases in triglyceride levels (mean, -20+/-43 percent vs. -4+/-31 percent; P=0.001), irrespective of the use or nonuse of hypoglycemic or lipid-lowering medications. Insulin sensitivity, measured only in subjects without diabetes, also improved more among subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet (6+/-9 percent vs. -3+/-8 percent, P=0.01). The amount of weight lost (Plow-carbohydrate diet (P=0.01) were independent predictors of improvement in triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity. Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost. This finding should be interpreted with caution, given the small magnitude of overall and between-group differences in weight loss in these markedly obese subjects and the short duration of the study. Future studies evaluating long-term cardiovascular outcomes are needed before a carbohydrate-restricted diet can be endorsed. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

  7. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher

  8. The Fat of the Matter: Obesity and Visceral Adiposity in Treated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jordan E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize knowledge of the prevalence, relevant physiology, and consequences of obesity and visceral adiposity in HIV-infected adults, including highlighting gaps in current knowledge and future research directions. Similar to the general population, obesity prevalence is increasing among HIV-infected persons, and obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory sequelae. However, HIV- and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-specific factors may contribute to fat gain and fat quality in treated HIV infection, particularly to the development of visceral adiposity, and sex differences may exist. Obesity and visceral adiposity commonly occur in HIV-infected persons and have significant implications for morbidity and mortality. Future research should aim to better elucidate the HIV- and ART-specific contributors to obesity and visceral adiposity in treated HIV infection, with the goal of developing targeted therapies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and visceral adiposity in the modern ART era.

  9. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  10. Ablation of NG2 proteoglycan leads to deficits in brown fat function and to adult onset obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchao Chang

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. We are studying the causes and effects of obesity in C57Bl/6 mice following genetic ablation of NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan widely expressed in progenitor cells and also in adipocytes. Although global NG2 ablation delays early postnatal adipogenesis in mouse skin, adult NG2 null mice are paradoxically heavier than wild-type mice, exhibiting larger white fat deposits. This adult onset obesity is not due to NG2-dependent effects on CNS function, since specific ablation of NG2 in oligodendrocyte progenitors yields the opposite phenotype; i.e. abnormally lean mice. Metabolic analysis reveals that, while activity and food intake are unchanged in global NG2 null mice, O(2 consumption and CO(2 production are decreased, suggesting a decrease in energy expenditure. Since brown fat plays important roles in regulating energy expenditure, we have investigated brown fat function via cold challenge and high fat diet feeding, both of which induce the adaptive thermogenesis that normally occurs in brown fat. In both tests, body temperatures in NG2 null mice are reduced compared to wild-type mice, indicating a deficit in brown fat function in the absence of NG2. In addition, adipogenesis in NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes is dramatically impaired compared to wild-type counterparts. Moreover, mRNA levels for PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC1-α, proteins important for brown adipocyte differentiation, are decreased in NG2 null brown fat deposits in vivo and NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate that brown fat dysfunction in NG2 null mice results from deficits in the recruitment and/or development of brown pre-adipocytes. As a consequence, obesity in NG2 null mice may occur due to disruptions in brown fat-dependent energy homeostasis, with resulting effects on lipid storage in white adipocytes.

  11. Interleukin-6 deficiency facilitates myocardial dysfunction during high fat diet-induced obesity by promoting lipotoxicity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Dandan; Zhao, Xinmei; Yang, Shuai; Li, Zhe; Sanchis, Daniel; Jin, Liang; Qiang, Xizhe; Wang, Kaiye; Xu, Yitao; Zhang, Yubin; Ye, Junmei

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic disorder and chronic inflammation that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. IL-6 is involved in regulating obesity-related lipid metabolism and inflammation. In this study, we sought to determine the role of IL-6 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiomyopathy and explore the signaling pathway. Female, 5-week-old IL-6 knockout (KO) and littermate mice were fed a normal diet (ND, 10% fat) or HFD (45% fat) for 14 weeks. At the end of treatment, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Adipose tissues and plasma were collected for further measurement. Immunohistology of CD68 was performed to detect inflammation in the heart. Masson's trichrome staining and Oil Red O staining was applied to evaluated cardiac fibrosis and lipid accumulation. Real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting analyses on heart tissue were used to explore the underlying mechanism. IL-6 KO mice displayed increased insulin resistance compared to WT mice at baseline. When fed HFD, IL-6 KO mice showed decreased gains in body weight and fat mass, increased insulin resistance relative to IL-6 KO mice feed ND. Furthermore, IL-6 KO mice developed cardiac dysfunction during HFD-induced obesity. Histological analysis suggested increased lipid accumulation, fibrosis and inflammation without affecting cardiac morphology during HFD treatment in the heart of IL-6 KO mice. Finally, IL-6 deficiency increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in the heart during HFD-induced obesity. Our results suggest that IL-6 contributes to limit lipid metabolic disorder, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and myocardium lipotoxicity during HFD-induced obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The obese adolescent coping: dissatisfaction with the body image and bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sylvia Scutti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine body dissatisfaction in obese adolescents 10-15 years and possible associations or correlations between body image and discrimination by bullying. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study with 20 obese adolescents of both genders, aged between 10 and 15 years, undergoing treatment at the clinic of endocrinology at Children's Hospital Complex of Sorocaba. Individual interview was conducted according to a pre-determined script of questions and to assess the magnitude of body dissatisfaction was applied to Scale Silhouettes of Stunkard. The interviews we applied the technique of thematic analysis, Minayo. Results: of the 20 adolescents who participated in the study, 11 (55% of males and 9 (45% females and the prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 95%. Most respondents (60% defines obesity as fat, 40% feel different from the other 65% considered normal and feel bad about their body image. Regarding bulliyng, 50% admit they have suffered, and of these, 20% the nickname bothers enough. Conclusion: the occurrence of body dissatisfaction was significant, by suffer bullying and feel uncomfortable with this practice. This study emphasizes the importance that should be given to adolescents obese, the need for an effective food and nutrition education, with actions aimed at changing eating behavior, as well as implement public health policies with intersectoral and multidisciplinary teams to combat the obesity and bullying, which can cause many psychological damage, affecting mental health in adolescence and consequences for life.

  13. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pdevelopment of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  14. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C-reactive protein (CRP and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Methods Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA, and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Results Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l compared to non-obese (body fat  Conclusions Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival.

  15. Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Goni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3 gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet.

  16. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  18. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  20. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  1. Body fat and risk of cardiovascular diseases among the Tamil school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total body fat, Body Mass Index (BMI) and abdominal fat were measured using Omron Karada Scanner, meanwhile PACER test was used to measure cardiovascular endurance. The descriptive analysis showed, 71.67% Tamil school teachers from Kuala Selangor were found to be in the category of excessive body fat ...

  2. Relationship between Psychosocial Functioning and Body Fat in Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether 132 preschool children who varied in levels of body fat differed on psychosocial functioning. Children did not differ in self-esteem and family functioning as function of body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly but significantly correlated with body fat at one and two years; father's perception of family functioning…

  3. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajnik, C S [Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune (India); Yudkin, J S [Whittington Hospital, University College of London, London (United Kingdom); Shetty, P S [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kurpad, A [St. John' s Medical College, Bangalore (India)

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- {alpha}); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in

  4. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Yudkin, J.S.; Shetty, P.S.; Kurpad, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- α); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in the 3

  5. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) knockout preserves cardiac homeostasis through alleviating Akt-mediated myocardial autophagy suppression in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ren, J

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has a role in the development of obesity and diabetes. However, whether MIF has a role in fat diet-induced obesity and associated cardiac anomalies still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of MIF knockout on high-fat diet-induced obesity, obesity-associated cardiac anomalies and the underlying mechanisms involved with a focus on Akt-mediated autophagy. Adult male wild-type (WT) and MIF knockout (MIF(-/-)) mice were placed on 45% high-fat diet for 5 months. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, respiratory exchange ratio, locomotor activity and heat generation were measured using energy calorimeter. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed. Apoptosis was examined using terminal dUTP nick end labeling staining and western blot analysis. Akt signaling pathway and autophagy markers were evaluated. Cardiomyocytes isolated from WT and MIF(-/-) mice were treated with recombinant mouse MIF (rmMIF). High-fat diet feeding elicited increased body weight gain, insulin resistance and caloric disturbance in WT and MIF(-/-) mice. High-fat diet induced unfavorable geometric, contractile and histological changes in the heart, the effects of which were alleviated by MIF knockout. In addition, fat diet-induced cardiac anomalies were associated with Akt activation and autophagy suppression, which were nullified by MIF deficiency. In cardiomyocytes from WT mice, autophagy was inhibited by exogenous rmMIF through Akt activation. In addition, MIF knockout rescued palmitic acid-induced suppression of cardiomyocyte autophagy, the effect of which was nullified by rmMIF. These results indicate that MIF knockout preserved obesity-associated cardiac anomalies without affecting fat diet-induced obesity, probably through restoring myocardial autophagy in an Akt-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insights for the role of MIF in obesity and associated cardiac

  6. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A; Gerweck, Anu V; Barber, Lauren A; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21-45 y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (pbone formation. A six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor of P1NP. GH replacement in abdominally obese premenopausal women for 6 months increased bone turnover and bone marrow fat. Reductions in abdominal fat, and inflammation, and increases in IGF-1, lean mass and vitamin D were associated with increased bone formation. The increase in bone marrow fat may

  7. High fat diet and in utero exposure to maternal obesity disrupts circadian rhythm and leads to metabolic programming of liver in rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Borengasser

    Full Text Available The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and lipogenic gene expression in the liver at weaning. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remains unclear. Using a rat model of overfeeding-induced obesity, we previously demonstrated that exposure to maternal obesity from pre-conception to birth, is sufficient to program increased obesity risk in the offspring. Offspring of obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed high fat diet (HFD as compared to lean dam. Since, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver, we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity leads to perturbations of core clock components and thus energy metabolism in offspring liver. Offspring from lean and obese dams were examined at post-natal day 35, following a short (2 wk HFD challenge. Hepatic mRNA expression of circadian (CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, CRY, PER and metabolic (PPARα, SIRT1 genes were strongly suppressed in offspring exposed to both maternal obesity and HFD. Using a mathematical model, we identified two distinct biological mechanisms that modulate PPARα mRNA expression: i decreased mRNA synthesis rates; and ii increased non-specific mRNA degradation rate. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that changes in PPARα transcription were associated with epigenomic alterations in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone marks near the PPARα transcription start site. Our findings indicated that offspring from obese rat dams have detrimental alternations to circadian machinery that may contribute to impaired liver metabolism in response to HFD, specifically via reduced PPAR

  8. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  9. Visceral fat loss measured by magnetic resonance imaging in relation to changes in serum lipid levels of obese men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Droop, A.; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Weststrate, J A; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    The effect of weight reduction on serum lipids in relation to visceral fat accumulation was studied in 78 healthy obese subjects (40 premenopausal women and 38 men) aged 27-51 years and with an initial body mass index of 30.7 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 (mean +/- SD). The subjects received a 4.2 MJ/day

  10. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  11. Excess fat in the abdomen but not general obesity is associated with poorer metabolic and cardiovascular health in premenopausal and postmenopausal Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor Hng Hang; Hart, William George

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations of various metabolites and hormones and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with obesity. This is a cross-sectional study of 1326 Singaporean women. A DXA-derived percent body fat (PBF) of ≥35% and percent abdominal fat (PAbdF) of >21.8% were used, respectively, to define women with general (GOb) and abdominal (AbdOb) obesity. Higher levels of insulin and glucose, lower levels of HDL, higher levels of TC/HDL and HOMA values, and different levels of some hormones were noted only in the women with abdominal, and not general obesity. The incidence of general and abdominal obesity was higher in postmenopausal women with or without HRT, except that those who were on conjugated estradiol-only HRT had no increase in the incidence of general obesity compared with premenopausal women. Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and with higher risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, whereas general obesity is not. Abdominal obesity may predispose to a higher risk of diabetes. The onset of the menopause tends to increase the incidence of general and abdominal obesity, except that postmenopausal women on conjugated estradiol HRT appear to be relatively protected from general obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ryu, Ho Kyung

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism.

  13. The obesity and fatty liver are reduced by plant-derived Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingrong Zhao

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of an oral administration of a plant-derived lactic acid bacterium, Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 (LP28, on metabolic syndrome by using high fat diet-induced obese mice. The obese mice were divided into 2 groups and fed either a high fat or regular diet for 8 weeks. Each group was further divided into 3 groups, which took LP28, another plant-derived Lactobacillus plantarum SN13T (SN13T or no lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The lean control mice were fed a regular diet without inducing obesity prior to the experiment. LP28 reduced body weight gain and liver lipid contents (triglyceride and cholesterol, in mice fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks (40%, 54%, and 70% less than those of the control group without LAB, and P = 0.018, P<0.001, and P = 0.021, respectively, whereas SN13T and the heat treated LP28 at 121°C for 15 min were ineffective. Abdominal visceral fat in the high fat diet mice fed with LP28 was also lower than that without LAB by 44%, although it was not significant but borderline (P = 0.076. The sizes of the adipocytes and the lipid droplets in the livers were obviously decreased. A real-time PCR analyses showed that lipid metabolism-related genes, such as CD36 (P = 0.013, SCD1 encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (not significant but borderline, P = 0.066, and PPARγ encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P = 0.039, were down-regulated by taking LP28 continuously, when compared with those of the control group. In conclusion, LP28 may be a useful LAB strain for the prevention and reduction of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  15. Physical activity and calorie intake mediate the relationship from depression to body fat mass among female Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Amado D; Macías-Waldman, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge; Swigart, Tessa; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia

    2017-11-17

    Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011). We explored the interrelation between body fat, diet, leisure time, physical activity, and depression using a cross-lagged effects model fitted to longitudinal data. We also fitted a structural equations model to cross-sectional data with body fat as the main outcome, and dietary intake and physical activity from leisure time as mediators between depression and body fat. Baseline depression was significantly related to higher depression, higher calorie intake, and lower leisure time physical activity at follow-up. From our cross-sectional model, each standard deviation increase in the depression score was associated with an average increase of 751 ± 259 g (± standard error) in body fat through the mediating effects of calorie intake and physical activity. The results of this study show how depression may influence energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, resulting in higher body fat among those with a greater depression score. Evaluating the role of mental conditions like depression in dietary and physical activity behaviors should be positioned as a key research goal for better designed and targeted public health interventions. The HealthWorkers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional IRB. Number: 2005-785-012.

  16. Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (pZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway.

  17. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  18. Hyperphagia, lower body temperature, and reduced running wheel activity precede development of morbid obesity in New Zealand obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2006-04-13

    Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.

  19. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health......: Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs...

  20. The fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO functions in the brain to regulate postnatal growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Gao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available FTO (fat mass and obesity associated was identified as an obesity-susceptibility gene by several independent large-scale genome association studies. A cluster of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism located in the first intron of FTO was found to be significantly associated with obesity-related traits, such as body mass index, hip circumference, and body weight. FTO encodes a protein with a novel C-terminal α-helical domain and an N-terminal double-strand β-helix domain which is conserved in Fe(II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase family. In vitro, FTO protein can demethylate single-stranded DNA or RNA with a preference for 3-methylthymine or 3-methyluracil. Its physiological substrates and function, however, remain to be defined. Here we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying a conditional deletion allele of Fto. Our results demonstrate that Fto plays an essential role in postnatal growth. The mice lacking Fto completely display immediate postnatal growth retardation with shorter body length, lower body weight, and lower bone mineral density than control mice, but their body compositions are relatively normal. Consistent with the growth retardation, the Fto mutant mice have reduced serum levels of IGF-1. Moreover, despite the ubiquitous expression of Fto, its specific deletion in the nervous system results in similar phenotypes as the whole body deletion, indicating that Fto functions in the central nerve system to regulate postnatal growth.

  1. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  2. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D associated with indicators of body fat and insulin resistance in prepubertal chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, G; Corvalán, C; Aguirre, C; de Romaña, D L; Uauy, R

    2016-01-01

    Consistent data on the relation between vitamin D, body fat and insulin resistance (IR) in children are lacking. (1) To evaluate the association between serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and key indicators of: adiposity (total and central), IR, and (2) to estimate serum 25(OH)D cut-offs that best reflect IR and total and central adiposity in children. Prepubertal children (n=435, ~53% girls; ~age 7 years) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated for potential associations between serum 25(OH)D and indicators of: (1) total adiposity (body mass index by age (BAZ), body fat (including three-component model)), central adiposity (waist circumference and trunk fatness); (2) IR (homeostasis model assessment of IR) and insulin sensitive (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) using standardized multiple regression models with standardized coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall, mean serum 25(OH)D was 32.1±9.2 ng ml(-1), while 19.4% of children were obese (BAZ⩾2 s.d.). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with indicators of total and central adiposity and with IR indicators. Effect sizes were moderate in girls (~0.3 for adiposity and IR indicators), while, weaker values were found in boys. Serum 25(OH)D estimated cut-offs that best predicted total, central adiposity and IR were~30 ng ml(-1). Children with suboptimal serum 25(OH)D (risk (two to three times) of being obese (high BAZ, body fat percent and/or central adiposity); and three to four times greater risk for IR. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with adiposity (total and central) and IR indicators in prepubertal Chilean children. The conventional cut-off of vitamin D sufficiency (⩾30 ng ml(-1)) was adequate to assess obesity and IR risk in this age group.

  3. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant ( P E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly ( P E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.

  4. Lean body mass and creatine kinase are associated with reduced inflammation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkelund, Svein I; Jorde, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation, but the role of lean mass and creatine kinase (CK) on the inflammatory process is less known. We investigated the associations between lean mass, CK and fat mass upon inflammatory parameters in an overweight and obese adult population. Body composition examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), CK and supplementary clinical parameters were measured in 454 overweight and obese individuals. This is a secondary analysis from a cohort of obese individuals treated with Vitamin D. Mean age was 47·6 ± 11·4 years and mean body mass index 34·6 ± 3·9 kg/m 2 . Lean mass correlated negatively with hs-CRP (r = -0·127, P = 0·042) and ESR (r = -0·381, P lean mass in the lower ESR quartile was significantly higher than in the upper quartile (P lean mass and CK in an overweight and obese population. Hypothetically, lean mass has a favourable effect on obesity-related inflammation, and CK may play a role as an inhibitor of inflammation in obesity. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  5. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  6. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  7. Nutritional interventions or exposures in infants and children aged up to 3 years and their effects on subsequent risk of overweight, obesity and body fat: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patro-Gołąb, B.; Zalewski, B. M.; Kołodziej, M.; Kouwenhoven, S.; Poston, L.; Godfrey, K. M.; Koletzko, B.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Szajewska, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (http://www.project-earlynutrition.eu), provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity,

  8. Body weight gain in rats by a high-fat diet produces chronodisruption in activity/inactivity circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Cubero, Javier; Franco, Lourdes; Mesa, Mónica; Galán, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ana Beatriz; Jarne, Carlos; Barriga, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    In the last few decades, obesity has become one of the most important public health problems. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine tissue which follows a rhythmic pattern in its functions and may produce alterations in certain circadian rhythms. Our aim was to evaluate whether the locomotor activity circadian rhythm could be modified by a hypercaloric diet in rodents. Two groups were considered in the experiment: 16 rats were used as a control group and were fed standard chow; the other group comprised 16 rats fed a high-fat diet (35.8% fat, 35% glucides). The trial lasted 16 weeks. Body weight was measured every week, and a blood sample was extracted every two weeks to quantify triglyceride levels. The activity/inactivity circadian rhythm was logged through actimetry throughout the trial, and analysed using the DAS 24© software package. At the end of the experiment, the high-fat fed rats had obese-like body weights and high plasma triglyceride levels, and, compared with the control group, increased diurnal activity, decreased nocturnal activity, reductions in amplitude, midline estimating statistic of rhythm, acrophase and interdaily stability, and increases in intradaily variability of their activity rhythms. The results thus show how obesity can lead to symptoms of chronodisruption in the body similar to those of ageing.

  9. Effect of Raised Body Fat on Vitamin D, Leptin and Bone Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S. S.; Alam, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate leptin, vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in individuals with high fat mass, and to assess any correlation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Aga Khan University, Karachi, from August 2012 to July 2014, and comprised healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18-60 years. Body fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the participants were classified as: Group A (15-21.9); Group B (22-27.9); and Group C (>28). Bone mineral density was calculated by ultrasound bone densitometer (T-score between +1 and -1 considered normal). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the levels of vitamin D and leptin. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 male subjects participated in this study, with each of the 3 groups having 44(33.3 percent). Despite all groups having low Vitamin D, a marked decrease was observed in group C compared to groups A and B (p <0.018). Bone mineral density T-score was <-1; total calcium was within normal range in all three groups. Serum leptin was raised in Group C compared to group A and B (p=0.03). Body fat percentage was negatively associated with vitamin D (p=0.004; r = -0.351), while it was positively correlated with leptin (p =0.038; r = 0.256). Conclusion: Excess of body fat percentage led to decreased vitamin D and raised leptin. However, bone mineral density and calcium levels were within normal range, suggesting that other factors might have played a role in maintaining bone mass in obese individuals, such as leptin. (author)

  10. Total homocysteine is positively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and fat mass among overweight reproductive women: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Hamadneh, Jehan; Hailat, Rae'd; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2017-12-01

    Conflicting associations between total homocysteine (tHcy), body mass index (BMI) lean body mass, and fat mass in the general population have been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated tHcy levels are associated with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat mass percent. In Jordan, obesity and overweight are prevalent among reproductive women and hyperhomocysteinemia, along with obesity and overweight, are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The participants used in this cross-sectional study were 325 overweight Jordanian women aged between 18 and 49 years old. The main outcome measures were tHcy, BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. Serum tHcy was analyzed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS) complete kit. The body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Study participants were stratified according to their tHcy level into two groups, ≤10 μmol/L and >10 μmol/L, and the difference between mean values of body compositions was evaluated. The tHcy was significantly and negatively correlated with age, fat-free mass, and total body water, and significantly and positively correlated with BMI, hip circumference, WHR, fat mass, and dry lean weight. The chi-square and the independent sample t-tests showed statistically significant (P ≤ .05) differences between tHcy and BMI, WHR, fat and fat-free mass, and total body water percentages. In conclusion, BMI, WHR and body fat mass were found to be associated with elevated tHcy levels among overweight reproductive women, and they might be used as independent predictors of the tHcy level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body fat distribution, metabolic and inflammatory markers and retinal microvasculature in school-age children. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, O; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Wong, T Y; Ikram, M K; Gaillard, R

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations of body fatness, metabolic and inflammatory markers with retinal vessel calibers among children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 4145 school-age children. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.8, 8.0 years), we measured body mass index, total and abdominal fat mass, metabolic and inflammatory markers (blood levels of lipids, insulin and C-peptide and C-reactive protein) and retinal vascular calibers from retinal photographs. We observed that compared with normal weight children, obese children had narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (difference -0.21 s.d. score (SDS; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35, -0.06)), but not venular caliber. Continuous analyses showed that higher body mass index and total body fat mass, but not android/gynoid fat mass ratio and pre-peritoneal fat mass, were associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (Pfat mass), but not with retinal venular caliber. Lipid and insulin levels were not associated with retinal vessel calibers. Higher C-reactive protein was associated with only wider retinal venular caliber (difference 0.10 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.14) per SDS increase in C-reactive protein). This latter association was not influenced by body mass index. Higher body fatness is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber, whereas increased C-reactive protein levels are associated with wider retinal venular caliber. Increased fat mass and inflammation correlate with microvascular development from school-age onwards.

  12. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children. Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  13. Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... always easy to know when a child has obesity or is overweight. Ask your health care provider ...

  14. Protective potentials of wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the protective potentials of wild rice against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. In addition to the rats of low-fat diet group, others animals were exposed to a high-fat/cholesterol diet condition for 8 weeks. The city diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by urban residents in modern China, which is rich in fat/cholesterol and high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The chief source of dietary carbohydrates of wild rice diet (WRD) is from Chinese wild rice and other compositions are the same with CD. Rats fed CD showed elevated body and liver organ weights, lipid profiles, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin comparable with rats fed high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia in this species. However, rats consuming WRD suppressed the increase of lipid droplets accumulation, FFA, and leptin, and the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. Meanwhile, WRD prevented high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced elevation in protein expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c, and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These findings indicate that wild rice as a natural food has the potentials of preventing obesity and liver lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI allows for longitudinal quantitative analysis of body fat composition in rats: an analysis of sibutramine-associated changes at the group level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan; Stiller, Detlef

    2013-09-01

    Body fat distribution changes are associated with multiple alterations in metabolism. Therefore, the assessment of body fat compartments by MRI in animal models is a promising approach to obesity research. Standard T1-weighted (T1w) whole body MRI was used here to quantify different effects in the subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments in rats under treatment with an anorexiant. Twenty rats on a high caloric diet were investigated by the identical MRI protocol at baseline and after seven weeks. Ten rats received a treatment with sibutramine, 10 rats served as vehicle control group. To longitudinally assess body fat components, MRI analysis was used with two approaches: 2D slicewise graphic analysis (SGA) was compared with an automated 3D analysis algorithm (3DA). At the group level, fat volume differences showed a longitudinal increase of subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes for the control group, whereas the sibutramine group showed stable subcutaneous fat volumes and decrease in visceral fat volumes. SGA and 3DA volume determination showed significant correlations for subcutaneous fat volume (C=0.85, psibutramine separate on the fat compartments in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  17. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  18. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odd