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Sample records for nwm caracteristicas solido-fluido

  1. Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Barbes, M. A.; Barbes, M. F.; Marinas, E.; Ayala, N.; Mochon, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Garcia, F.

    2009-01-01

    The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs

  2. Solitary pulmonary nodule: radiologic features and diagnostic approach; Nodulo pulmonar solitario: caracteristicas radiologicas y abordaje diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cambronero, Luis Enrique

    2012-07-01

    A literature review is conducted on the solitary pulmonary nodule, to determine the diagnostic methods and specific characteristics. The diagnostic methods used have been: chest radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiological features are defined: location, size, definition of contours or edges (margins), densitometric and attenuation characteristics, cavitation, air bronchogram, growth, doubling time, satellite nodules, nutrient vessels [Spanish] Una revision bibliografica es realizada sobre el nodulo pulmonar solitario, para determinar los metodos de diagnostico y caracteristicas especificas. Los metodos de diagnostico utilizados han sido: la radiografia de torax, tomografia computarizada, tomografia por emision de positrones y resonancia magnetica. Las caracteristicas radiologicas son definidas: localizacion, tamano, definicion de los bordes o contornos (margenes), caracteristicas densitometricas y de atenuacion, cavitacion, broncograma aereo, crecimiento, tiempo de duplicacion, nodulos satelite, vasos nutrientes.

  3. Hodoscope performance and design; Construction et comportement d'un odoscope; Demonstratsiya i konstruktsiya godoskopa; Diseno y caracteristicas de funcionamiento de un hodoscopio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarski, A; Ritson, D [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    The performance and circuitry of a hodoscoped array of 200 counters used on an experiment at Brookhaven is described. The circuitry, transistors, and phototubes all showed remarkable long-term stability. The lifetime of the transistors was 0.5 x 10{sup 8} h, and only one out of the 200 phototubes deteriorated after six months use. A simple set of diagnostic routines checked performance of the apparatus in half an hour. The data was recorded on film, and the film was read with a ''programmed spot'' scanner into the M.I.T. TXO computer. One hour is required to read a 400-ft roll of film by this system. A simple modification has been made to the apparatus whereby the data is stored in parallel into a shift register and then read out serially onto magnetic tape. Such a system writes a 300-bit event on to tape in 1 ms and obviates the necessity for buffer storage. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent le comportement et le circuit d'un odoscope de 200 compteurs utilise a l'echelon du laboratoire a Brookhaven. Le circuit, les transistors et les phototubes se sont reveles extremement stables sur une longue periode. Les transistors ont fonctionne 0,5 {center_dot} 10{sup 8} heures et un seul des 200 phototubes a ete endommage apres six mois d'usage. Grace a un programme de controle systematique, on a pu verifier le comportement de l'appareil en une demi-heure. Les donnees ont ete enregistrees sur films et le film a l'aide d'un teledecteur a spot programme dans un calculateur M.I.T. TXO. Ce systeme permet de lire plus de 1,20 m de pellicule en une heure. On a modifie l'appareil d'une maniere simple qui permet de stocker les donnees en parallele dans un registre a decalage et de les lire, par series, sur une bande magnetique. Ce systeme permet d'ecrire un evenement de 300 chiffres binaires sur la bande en un millieme de seconde et d'eviter de recourir a la memoire intermediaire. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe las caracteristicas de funcionamiento y los

  4. Linear capacity storage devices; Memoires lineaires a condensateurs; Linejnye kondensatornye nakopitel'nye ustrojstva; Dispositivos de almacenamiento de condensador, con caracteristicas lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovchenko, V G [Ordena Lenina Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Imeni I.V. Kurchatova AN, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1962-04-15

    reste pratiquement constant lorsque la tension du condensateur varie. La penthode a une forte resistance interne; il s'ensuit qu'apres le passage de l'impulsion incidente le courant qui traverse la penthode est presque egal a la valeur initiale, et la charge accumulee par le condensateur se trouve maintenue. La duree de la memoire est limitee par les valeurs de la resistance a la sortie de la generatrice et de la penthode haute frequence. Pour augmenter la duree de la memoire, on peut placer une diode devant le condensateur. (author) [Spanish] En esta memoria se examina el problema de la linealidad del almacenamiento de datos en circuitos de almacenamiento con condensador. Se describen dos circuitos de almacenamiento de respuesta lineal dentro de una amplia gama de amplitudes de las senales de salida. En uno de los circuitos la senal de error se mide con un amplificador diferencial. Gracias al elevado factor de amplificacion, el aparato funciona con caracteristicas sensiblemente lineales. El otro circuito esta disenado para trabajar con impulsos de una duracion del orden del nanosegundo. Los impulsos de entrada de anchura normal cierran el circuito de un pentodo en cuyo anodo se halla el condensador que actua como ''memoria''. Como el condensador se carga desde el anodo por medio de un generador, la intensidad de corriente de carga permanece casi constante aunque la tension del condensador varie durante la medicion. El pentodo tiene una gran resistencia interna, de modo que al terminar el impulso de entrada, la corriente que atraviesa el pentodo tiene casi la misma intensidad que al principio, quedando asi almacenada la carga acumulada por el condensador. La duracion de la ''memoria'' esta limitada por los valores de la resistencia de salida del generador de corriente y por la resistencia interna R{sub i} del pentodo. Para prolongar la duracion de la ''memoria'' se puede colocar un diodo delante del condensador. (author) [Russian] Rassmatrivayutsya voprosy linejnosti

  5. Voltage stability analysis considering the load dynamic characteristics and the voltage control devices; Analisis de estabilidad de voltaje considerando las caracteristicas dinamicas de la carga y dispositivos de control de voltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Alvarez, Enrique

    2001-09-15

    improvement of the voltage stability. Finally, the application of the proposed methods of study to the analysis of voltage stability in an electrical network derived from the Mexican Peninsular system is presented. The influence of voltage control devices in the stability phenomenon is discussed and a comparison with the results obtained by means of other analysis techniques are presented, specifically, the study of the Q-V curves and the modal analysis of the power flow equations. [Spanish] El trabajo de investigacion que se presenta en esta tesis se centra en el analisis de la estabilidad de voltaje de mediano plazo considerando el efecto de las caracteristicas de la carga y su interaccion con los modelos de dispositivos de control de voltaje en la red de transmision. Mas concretamente, se define y estudia un tipo de modelo de carga con caracteristicas deseables para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje; los modelos genericos de carga derivados de pruebas de campo o de la aplicacion de tecnicas de identificacion y se analiza la influencia de la aplicacion de dispositivos de control para mejorar los margenes de estabilidad del sistema. Se estudian, asimismo, alternativas al modelado de sistemas de potencia para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje en sistemas complejos. Se presenta, en primer lugar, un analisis fundamental de las caracteristicas de estabilidad de voltaje en un sistema simplificado de potencia y se introduce el metodo de analisis adoptado. Se muestra que el fenomeno de inestabilidad se manifiesta como una bifurcacion tipo singular inducida del modo critico de voltaje cuando se opera el sistema bajo condiciones de estres. A continuacion, se analiza la contribucion de la accion de dispositivos de control al margen de estabilidad y se deducen criterios de analisis de estabilidad basados en el estudio de dicho modo. Se propone, a continuacion, un modelo lineal del sistema de potencia con caracteristicas deseables para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje

  6. Electrical characteristics of sphere-plane type spark counters; Caracteristiques electriques de compteurs a etincelles du type sphere-plan; Ehlektricheskie kharakteristiki iskrovykh schetchikov tipa shar-ploskost'; Caracteristicas electricas de los contadores de chispas del tipo esfera-plano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborie, P; Blanc, D [Centre de Physique Nucleaire, Faculte des Sciences de Toulouse (France)

    1962-04-15

    quelques millimetres cubes, est tres bien defini, ce qui permet la construction de telescopes precis. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen los detalles mecanicos y las caracteristicas de funcionamiento de unos detectores de chispas en que se utiliza como anodo una esfera de pequeno diametro (0,30 mm), dispuesta frente a un catodo plano y que funcionan en regimen de efecto , en aire a presion atmosferica. Las caracteristicas de contaje son semejantes a las de los detectores de anodo de alambre, de tipo Rosenblum. No obstante, el contador de esfera presenta, con respecto a dicho contador Rosenblum, cierto numero de ventajas derivadas de su geometria: a) la corriente residual (ruido de fondo) es debil y el desprendimiento de ozono y de oxidos de nitrogeno, con las chispas, es poco considerable; b) como su capacidad propia es muy pequena, el detector ofrece una respuesta mas rapida; c) la eficiencia es independiente de la direccion de incidencia de la particula, al reves de lo que ocurre con los contadores de alambre; d) el volumen sensible de revolucion en torno del eje de simetria del detector es de algunos milimetros cubicos y esta muy bien definido, lo que permite la construccion de telescopios de gran precision. (author) [Russian] Avtory opisyvayut mekhanicheskuyu konstruktsiyu i rabochie kharakteristiki iskrovykh schetchikov, v kotorykh v kachestve anoda ispol'zuetsya shar malogo diametra (0,30 mm), raspolozhennyj protiv ploskogo katoda. Ehti schetchiki rabotayut v rezhime ''kol'tsevogo'' yavleniya (''korony'') v vozdukhe pri atmosfernom davlenii. Schetnye kharakteristiki blizki k kharakteristikam schetchikov Rozenblyuma s anodnym provodom. Sharovoj schetchik imeet, odnako, nekotorye preimushchestva po sravneniyu so schetchikom Rozenblyuma, chto svyazano s ego geometriej: 1. ostatochnyj tok (fon) slabyj, a vydelenie ozona i okisi azota vo vremya iskreniya neznachitel'no. 2. Poskol'ku ego sobstvennaya emkost' ochen' mala, schetchik daet bolee bystryj otvet. 3

  7. Evaluation of the energy potential, biogenesis and essential characteristics of the geothermal submarine systems in Mexico; Evaluacion del potencial, biogenesis y caracteristicas esenciales de los sistemas geotermicos submarinos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    profundidad, hasta los recursos geotermicos profundos, a mas de 3000 metros de profundidad. Las fuentes geotermicas no tradicionales incluyen las partes profundas y los limites de los reservorios hidrotermales tradicionales, los sistemas en roca seca o humeda caliente, los yacimientos geopresurizados del Golfo de Mexico y los sistemas submarinos hidrotermales observados principalmente en la costa norte mexicana del Oceano Pacifico. La energia geotermica submarina surge por la existencia de rupturas profundas en el fondo marino, a lo largo de los centros de dispersion oceanicos entre las placas tectonicas. Estos sistemas tienen una longitud total aproximada de 65,000 Km. en la corteza oceanica. Hay dos tipos basicos de sistemas marinos existentes en el Golfo de California: los recursos profundos, localizados a lo largo de las cordilleras entre las placas de la corteza oceanica a mas de 2000 m bajo el nivel del mar, y los recursos poco profundos cerca de las plataformas continentales, entre 20 y 50 metros de profundidad. El calor submarino poco profundo tambien se relaciona con fallas y fracturas en el fondo del mar cerca de algunas costas. Este subsistema se encuentra tambien en la costa de Punta Banda en Ensenada, Baja California. El potencial preliminar de la energia contenida en tales reservorios se estima, en promedio, en 1120 MWt por cada km3 de roca submarina. Las caracteristicas quimicas especificas de las aguas hidrotermales encontradas en esos sistemas oceanicos indican que las interacciones agua-roca, ocurren bajo condiciones de presion y temperatura altas. La energia geotermica submarina soporta ricas variedades de comunidades biologicas a profundidades donde las plantas no tienen acceso a la luz solar para realizar la fotosintesis. Hay indicios de que las posibles condiciones para la sintesis de sustancias y elementos quimicos necesaria para el origen de la vida primitiva, pudieron ser los sistemas hidrotermales submarinos.

  8. Efficient and compact mobile equipment based on the new RADEON-NWM technology to process liquid radioactive wastes resulted from the accidents of the nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoyan, Gagik; Nalbandyan, Garik; Gagiyan, Lavrenti; Karamyan, Gagik; Brutyan, Gagik

    2013-01-01

    During the operation of nuclear reactors important volume of liquid and solid radioactive wastes are generated, which, in normal conditions, becomes processed by stationary equipment by different methods to minimize their volume and then sent to specially constructed storages. The cases of accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima showed that the localization of rejected big quantity of radioactive wastes is a prior problem for their further processing by stationary equipment. In this regard it is very important the processing of radioactive wastes on the contaminated areas to localize them by mobile equipment based on the efficient technologies. RADEONNWM new technology allows resolving this problem. This technology is compact, completely automated, which makes possible to assemble it on a standard 40-ft by 7-ft trailer driven by heavy-duty truck. The new technology is fully elaborated, the necessary tests are conducted. (authors)

  9. Characteristics of the Biological Effects and the RBE of High Energy Protons; Caracteristiques des Effets Biologiques et EBR des Protons de Haute Energie; Osobennosti biologicheskogo dejstviya i obeh protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Caracteristicas de los Efectos Biologicos y de la EBR de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, Ju. G.; Darenskaja, N. G.; Domshlak, M. M.; Lebedinskij, A. V.; Nefedov, Ju. G.; Ryzhov, N. I.

    1964-03-15

    The characteristics of the biological effects of high-energy protons (120, 240 and 510 MeV) were studied in experiments on mice, rats and dogs. It was shown that together with a certain resemblance or identity in radiation damage due to the effects of X-rays and protons, there were certain differences in the case of proton irradiation. In the proton irradiation of dogs the haemorrhagic syndrome was more pronounced. Haemorrhage appeared earlier in the animals and was more abundant. A difference was found in proton RBE levels for small animals (rats, mice) and large animals (dogs). This difference is quite large and equals respectively 0.7 and 1.0 * 1.15. Some considerations are presented in the report on the cause of these differences. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les caracteristiques des effets biologiques des protons de haute energie (120, 240 et 510 MeV) au cours d'experiences sur des souris, des rats et des chiens. Ils montrent que si les dommages causes par les rayons X et les protons presentent une certaine ressemblance ou des caracteres identiques, on observe des differences dans le cas de l'irradiation par les protons. Chez les chiens exposes aux protons, le syndrome hemorragique etait plus prononce. L'hemorragie s'est manifestee plus tot chez ces animaux et etait plus abondante. Les auteurs ont decele une difference dans l*EBRdes protons pour les petits animaux (rats, souris) et pour les grands animaux (chiens). Cette difference etait importante: 0,7 dans le premier cas et de 1,0 a 1,15 dans le second cas. On trouve dans le memoire quelques considerations sur la cause de ces differences. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estudiaron las caracteristicas de los efectos biologicos de los protones de elevada energia (120, 240 y 510 MeV) mediante experimentos con ratones, ratas y perros. Comprobaron que a pesar de ciertas semejanzas en las radiolesiones causadas por los rayos X y los protones, los efectos de estos ultimos acusan algunas diferencias. El

  10. Caracteristicas distintivas en la gestion del servicio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio V. Barreda Tamayo

    2007-01-01

    La gestión de la producción del Servicio Educativo, -que incluye la Educación Superior- es um proceso muy complejo. Tiene características muy particulares, que invalidan cualquier intento de aplicación directa de los modelos y teorías de gestión empresarial vigentes. Para una real gestión educativa, todavía no existe una definición clara sobre el perfil de competencias de los egresados. Que vienen a ser los “productos esperados”, después del “proceso de producción” del servicio educativo univ...

  11. Caracteristicas distintivas en la gestion del servicio educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio V. Barreda Tamayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de la producción del Servicio Educativo, -que incluye la Educación Superior- es um proceso muy complejo. Tiene características muy particulares, que invalidan cualquier intento de aplicación directa de los modelos y teorías de gestión empresarial vigentes. Para una real gestión educativa, todavía no existe una definición clara sobre el perfil de competencias de los egresados. Que vienen a ser los “productos esperados”, después del “proceso de producción” del servicio educativo universitario. Por otro lado, hay varios modelos de gestión educativa. Pero no existe un modelo propio para la gestión del servicio educativo; que es básicamente um Servicio Profesional. Además, se cuenta con diferentes enfoques pedagógicos, últimamente correlacionados al avance de las TIC’s y los nuevos descubrimientos sobre el sistema cognitivo de las personas. Casi la totalidad de Proyectos y Planes Educativos, contienen objetivos, metas y “resultados” totalmente cualitativos. Que sólo reflejan los buenos deseos de lo que se quiere en nuestros egresados, pero que no se pueden medir objetivamente en cuanto a su consecución. Como decía J. Harrington: “Si usted no puede medir lo que hace, no puede controlarlo. Si no puede controlarlo, no puede dirigirlo. Si no puede dirigirlo, no puede mejorarlo”. En el presente artículo, queremos resaltar algunas características y requisitos para la “gestión de la producción” del servicio educativo. Los cuales debemos tener presentes, cuando pretendemos mejorar los resultados de la Educación.

  12. Envelhecimento ativo e caracteristicas de personalidade em idosos portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Inês Soreano dos

    2013-01-01

    Os estudos sobre idade adulta, a velhice e o processo de envelhecimento, têm vindo a adquirir um relevo e pertinência neste início do século vinte e um, devido à evolução demográfica que se assiste no mundo ocidental (Fonseca, 2006). Em Portugal, os Censos 2011 (INE, 2011) refletem um perfil demográfico caracterizado por um aumento da população mais idosa e pela diminuição da população mais jovem, motivada sobretudo pela diminuição da natalidade. Este presente estudo pretendeu testar empirica...

  13. Change of I-V characteristics of SiC diodes upon reactor irradiation; Modification des caracteristiques I-V de jonctions p-n au SiC du fait d'une irradiation dans un reacteur; Izmeneniya kharakteristik I-V vyrashchennogo v SiC perekhoda tipa p-n posle oblucheniya ego v reaktore; Modificaciones que sufren por irradiacion en un reactor las caracteristicas I-V de uniones p-n en SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerschap, M; De Coninck, R [Solid State Physics Dept., SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1962-04-15

    distintas procedencias. Las uniones se obtuvieron en el horno de Lely. Midieron las caracteristicas directa e inversa durante la irradiacion, y despues de esta, hasta la temperatura de 150{sup o}C. Se estan realizando mediciones hasta 500{sup o}C. Han encontrado que uno de los tipos de diodo es resistente a los neutrones del BR-1 hasta un flujo integrado de 10{sup 15} neutrones/cm{sup 2}, mientras que el otro soporta hasta 10{sup 17} neutrones/cm{sup 2}. La memoria indica los cambios de las caracteristicas, asi como los resultados de algunos experimentos de recocido. (author) [Russian] V poiskakh poluprovodnikov, kotorye mogli by byt' ispol'zovany v reaktorakh s vysokoj plotnost'yu nejtronnogo potoka dlya izmereniya raspredeleniya potokov, my obluchali v bel'gijskom reaktore BR-1 perekhody tipa p-n v SiC. Byli oblucheny dva tipa diodov SiC razlichnogo proiskhozhdeniya. EHti perekhody vyrashchivayutsya v pechi Loli. Izmeneniya pryamoj i obratnoj kharakteristik byli izmereny posle i vo vremya oblucheniya vplot' do temperatury 150{sup o}C; v nastoyashchee vremya proizvodyatsya izmereniya vplot' do temperatury 500{sup o}C. Bylo ustanovleno, chto odin tip dioda vyderzhivaet nejtronnoe obluchenie reaktora BR-1 vplot' do integrirovannogo potoka 10{sup 15} nejtronov na kv. sm, togda kak drugoj tip vyderzhivaet obluchenie vplot' do potoka 10{sup 17} nejtronov na kv. sm. Dayutsya izmeneniya kharakteristik, a takzhe rezul'taty nekotorykh ehksperimentov otzhiga. (author)

  14. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  15. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  16. The Hydrographical Features of the Baltic Sea and the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; L'Hydrographie de la Mer Baltique et l'Evacuation des Dechets Radioactifs; 0413 0418 0414 0420 041e 0413 0420 0414 ; Caracteristicas Hidrograficas del Mar Baltico en Relacion con la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hela, Ilmo [Institute of Marine Research Helsinki (Finland)

    1960-07-01

    'une verification approfondie au moyen d'etudes hydrographiques plus poussees, etant donne que: 1) Toute la Baltique est, en un sens, un estuaire, avec une profondeur de seuil qui ne depasse pas 18 metres dans les Detroits. 2) Le brassage y est beaucoup plus reduit que dans les oceans, pour diverses raisons: nombreuses iles, eau saumatre, stratification marquee, pratiquement pas de marees, mer partiellement recouverte de glace en hiver, peu de parcours pour les vents, faible vitesse des courants permanents. Le memoire mentionne tous ces facteurs qui diminuent la dispersion par turbulence, tant verticale qu'horizontale. Pour evaluer la dispersion par advection et par turbulence, tant dans les couches superieures qu'au fond de la mer, il faudrait faire des observations synoptiques de la vitesse des courants et de la concentration saline en un certain nombre de points' situes dans plusieurs regions de la Baltique et dans diverses conditions atmospheriques. (author) [Spanish] La memoria tiene por finalidad describir algunas caracteristicas hidrograficas del Mar Baltico que hacen que este mar, para la evacuacion de desechos radiactivos, sea diferente de las demas regiones oceanicas. Para la evacuacion de radionuclidos pueden distinguirse, en la practica, las siguientes zonas maritimas: 1) puertos; 2) vias de acceso a los puertos; 3) plataforma continental exterior, y 4) alta mar. En este sentido, no existe alta mar en el Baltico. Ademas, la validez de las normas recomendadas para estas cuatro zonas debe verificarse cuidadosamente con nuevos estudios hidrograficos, ya que: 1) Todo el Baltico es, en cierto modo, un estuario, cuya profundidad es de solo 18 metros en los estrechos daneses; 2) La velocidad de mezcla en este Mar es mucho menor que en los oceanos, pues el Baltico: tiene muchas islas; es de escasa salinidad; es muy estratificado; carece practicamente de mareas; en invierno queda parcialmente cubierto de hielo; solo registra vientos debiles; no tiene corrientes continuas mas que

  17. Experimental studies of some of the physical features of beryllium-moderated intermediate reactors; Etude experimentale de quelques particularites physiques des reacteurs a neutrons intermediaires, ralentis au beryllium; Ehksperimental'ny e issledovaniya nekotorykh fizicheskikh osobennostej promezhutochnykh reaktorov s berillievym zamedlitelem; Estudios experimentales de algunas caracteristicas fisicas de los reactores intermedios moderados con berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A I; Kuznetsov, V A; Artyukhov, G Ya; Mogil' ner, A I; Prokhorov, Yu A; Steklovski, V M; Chernov, L A [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    dans les reacteurs a neutrons intermediaires. U est demontre que pour une reacteur dans lequel {partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}{sup 235}U = 30 a 40, diverses epaisseurs d'uranium fortement enrichi, allant de 0,023 a 32 g/cm{sup 2}, exercent une action egale sur la reactivite du systeme. Les auteurs analysent les causes qui donnent lieu a une compensation de l'effet d'ecran du flux de neutrons par des couches epaisses d'uranium. Le memoire signale comme fait interessant l'augmentation de l'efficacite de l'uranium a proximite des barreaux absorbants, qui a ete constatee experimentalemen t dans un ensemble ou {partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}{sup 235}U{approx_equal}200. On explique ce fait par une diminution brusque de la quantite de neutrons absorbee par l'uranium. Pour la meme installation, le memoire cite des donnees relatives a l'efficacite de barreaux composes de diverses matieres absorbantes. Il indique la distribution, mesuree experimentalement, de la densite des neutrons de differentes energies a proximite d'un barreau en carbure de bore, ainsi que la densite de capture des neutrons par un detecteur 1/v, place a l'interieur du barreau. Le memoire expose egalement les methodes appliquees et les resultats obtenus dans des experiences destinees a evaluer l'efficacite des cylindres de compensation installes a la limite du coeur et du reflecteur. (author) [Spanish] Los autores examinan algunos resultados experimentale s obtenidos en el conjunto critico PF-4, que se destina al estudio detallado de las caracteristicas fisicas de los reactores de neutrones intermedios. Los cuerpos y los reflectores de los diversos conjuntos criticos estan formados por un denso haz de tubos de acero o de aluminio, que contienen discos de distintos materiales. La combinacion de discos de uranio (enriquecido al 90 por ciento) y de materiales moderadores en proporcion variable, asi como la introduccion de capas moderadoras de distintos espesores en el reflector, permiten

  18. Efficiency of the Shut-Down and Safety Equipment and the Kinetic Characteristics of the G2 and G3 Reactors; Efficacite des dispositifs de secours et de securite et caracteristiques cinetiques des piles G2 et G3; Ehffektivnost' sistem avarijnoj zashchity reaktorov G.2 i G.3 i kineticheskie kharakteristiki ehtikh sistem; Caracteristicas cineticas y eficacia de los dispositivos de auxilio y de seguridad de los reactores G2 y G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henri, C.; Plisson, J.; Teste duBailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-10-15

    securite. Les performances et les ameliorations successives apportees a ces installations sont mentionnees. Les caracteristiques intrinseques de securite de ces piles sont mises en evidence par l'etude experimentale de leur comportement en regime transitoire. Ces etudes permettent de s'assurer de la validite de modeles de calcul. Ces programmes de calcul machine peuvent ensuite etre utilises pour l'etude des consequences des accidents possibles. L'accident de depressurisation est particulierement etudie en tenant compte des performances des dispositifs de surete installes. (author) [Spanish] La experiencia adquirida durante varios afios de explotacion de los reactores G2 y G3 permite confirmar el alto grado de seguridad de funcionamiento de los reactores del tipo uranio natural-grafito-anhidrido carbonico. La memoria describe por una parte, las instalaciones fijas de auxilio y de seguridad que permiten superar incidentes tales como falta de alimentacion de la red de distribucion, paro de los sopladores, interrupcion del suministro de agua, etc., y por otra, accidentes com o la ruptura de una vaina, sobrecalentamientos locales, escape del fluido intercambiador de calor, etc.; asimismo, explica su functionamiento por medio de esquemas, examinando principalmente: a) la distribucion ''potencia'' y ''control'' de las instalaciones con sistemas de auxilio, b) la distribucion de agua por sistemas de auxilio; c) la cadena de seguridad. La memoria menciona los rendimientos y las mejoras introducidas sucesivamente en estas instalaciones. El estudio experimental de su comportamiento en regimen transitorio pone en evidencia las caracteristicas de seguridad intrinseca de estos reactores. Estos estudios permiten comprobar la validez del modelo utilizado para el calculo. Los programas para las calculadores pueden servir despues para el estudio de las consecuencias de los posibles accidentes. Estudia en particular la caida de presion accidental, teniendo en cuenta la eficacia de los

  19. The Main Technological Characteristics of Apparatus for Industrial Radiochemical Processes, in Particular Ethylene Polymerization; Caracteristique techniques fondamentals des appareils pour l'application industrielle de reactions chimiques sous rayonnement (notamment la polymerisation de l'ethylene ); Osnovnye tekhnologicheskie kharakteristiki apparatov dlya provedeniya radiatsionno-khimi-cheskikh protsessov (v chastnosti, dlya polimerizatsii ehtilena) v promyshlennom masshtabe; Principales caracteristicas tecnologicas de los aparatos para la aplicacion industrial de reacciones radioquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrkus, N P; Breger, A K; Weinstein, B I [Karpov Physicochemical Institute, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    , Q {approx} W{sub 0}{sup 0'5}. (author) [Spanish] Se propone un metodo de evaluacion de la efectividad de los aparatos, cualquiera que sea su construccion, comparandola con la productividad de un aparato infinitamente grande que tenga la misma fuente de radiaciones. Se indican las caracteristicas tecnologicas de un aparato destinado a la polimerizacion del etileno mediante radiaciones (a presion de 200 atmosferas y temperatura de 25{sup o} C{sup 4} empleando como fuente principal radiaciones gamma de cobalto-60 a distintas actividades. Se pueden calcular los datos tecnicos de tal aparato segun el valor medio de la intensidad de las dosis, fijado segun la magnitud del coeficiente de rendimiento energetico del aparato. Se indica en el trabajo que, siendo las demas condiciones iguales, la productividad (Q) del aparato es funcion exponencial de la intensidad (W{sub 0}) de las radiaciones gamma del mismo. Para el aparato que se estudia en el trabajo la formula es: Q{approx}W{sub 0}{sup 0'5}. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmotreny v obshchem vide otdel'nye naibolee vazhnye tekhnologicheskie kharakteristiki apparatov (na primere sfericheskogo apparata) dlya provedeniya radiatsionno-khimicheskikh protsessov v promyshlennom masshtabe. Predlozhen metod otsenki ehffektivnosti apparata lyuboj konstruktsii putem sravneniya s proizvoditel'nost' yu beskonechno bol'shogo apparata, imeyushchego tot zhe istochnik izlucheniya. Priveden raschet tekhnologicheskoj kharakteristiki apparata dlya radiatsionnoj polimerizatsii ehtilena (davlenie 200 atm, temperatura 25{sup o} C{sup 3} so sterzhnevym istochnikom gamma-izlucheni ya Co{sup 60} razlichnoj aktivnosti. Takoj apparat mozhno rasschityvat' po srednim znacheniyam moshchnostej doz, opredelyaemym po velichine ehnergeticheskogo KPD apparata. Pokazano, chto proizvoditel'nost'apparata (Q), pri prochikh ravnykh usloviyakh, yavlyaetsya stepennoj funktsiej moshchnosti (W{sub 0}) gamma-izlucheniya apparata. Dlya rassmotrennogo apparata : Q

  20. Adaptacao transcultural e confiabilidade de medidas de caracteristicas autorreferidas de vizinhanca no ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o processo de adaptação de escalas de medida de características de vizinhança para o português brasileiro. MÉTODOS: As dimensões abordadas foram coesão social, ambiente propício para atividade física, disponibilidade de alimentos saudáveis, segurança em relação a crimes, violência percebida e vitimização. No processo de adaptação foram avaliados aspectos de equivalência entre as escalas originais e respectivas versões para o português. A confiabilidade teste-reteste foi avaliada em submostra de 261 participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil que responderam ao mesmo questionário em dois momentos distintos em um intervalo de tempo de sete a 14 dias entre as duas aplicações. RESULTADOS: Os aspectos de equivalência avaliados mostraram-se adequados. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse variou entre 0,83 (IC95% 0,78;0,87 para Coesão Social e 0,90 (IC95% 0,87;0,92 para Ambiente para Atividade Física. As escalas apresentaram consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach que variaram entre 0,60 e 0,84. CONCLUSÕES: As medidas autorreferidas de características de vizinhança tiveram reprodutibilidade muito boa e boa consistência interna. Os resultados sugerem que essas escalas podem ser utilizadas em estudos com população brasileira que apresente características similares àquelas do ELSA-Brasil.

  1. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation; Caracteristicas de la legislacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E. [Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria (MIEM), Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion Nacional de Tecnologia Nuclear

    2001-07-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  2. Caracteristicas morfologicas y cristalograficas del grafito de Osumita, Venezuela, y su uso como geotermometro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A morphologic, petrographic and crystallographic study was performed in some representative samples of disseminated graphite of the Cerro Osumita, Cojedes State, Venezuela with the aim of establishing the degree of mineral crystallinity (graphitization and the highest temperature reached by the rock. From the original rock (La Aguadita quartz-feldespatic-graphitic Gneiss, fractions enriched in graphite were obtained by means of leaching with HCI-HF and physical procedures (flotation and accumulation in liquid interfaces. The isolated graphite was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction, whereas morphology was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. The mineralogical association exhibited by the gneiss (quartz- oligoclase- hornblende (green- microcline - chlorite- biotite- epidote allows establishing the metamorphism of the rock in the upper zone of the green schist facies, in the biotite zone. Graphite grains present aspect of flakes, with a concentration oscillating between 7 and 10% in weight. The used enrichment process allowed obtaining fractions with more than 92% in graphi- te. Under Scanning Electronic Microscopy, graphite samples showed morphology dominantly as sheets, very well defined and ordered. The crystallinity index (measured by XRD is around 58 and 60, with a mean graphitization degree of 60, suggesting a high order in the crystalline net. The higher temperature reached by the rock, according to the graphitization degree, is of 472 f 27 "C.Muestras representativas del grafito diseminado del Cerro Osumita, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, fueron objeto de un estudio morfológico, petrográfico y cristalográfico, con el fin de establecer el grado de cristalinidad del mineral y la temperatura máxima alcanzada por la roca. A partir de la roca original (gneis cuarzo feldespático grafitoso de La Aguadita se obtuvieron las fracciones enriquecidas en grafito mediante una combinación de ataque químico (HCI-HF y físico (flotación y acumulación en interfases líquidas. El grafito obtenido mediante el procedimiento descrito, fue analizado mediante difracción de rayos X. Adicionalmente se estudió la morfología del grafito obtenido haciendo uso de Microscopia Electrónica de Barrido (SEM. La asociación mineralógica presentada por el gneis (cuarzo - oligoclasa - hornblenda (verde - microclino - clorita- biotita- epidota ubica al metamorfismo alcanzado por la roca en la región superior de la facies de los esquistos verdes, en la zona de la biotita. El grafito presenta aspecto de escamas, en una concentración que oscila entre 7 y 10% en peso. El proceso de concentración utilizado permitió obtener fracciones mayores al 92% en grafito. Bajo el microscopio electrónico de barrido, los granos de grafito presentan una morfología determinada por láminas muy bien definidas y ordenadas. El índice de cristalinidad alcanzado oscila entre 68-70, con un rado de grafitización promedio de 60, y un valor del parámetro d002, del cristal de 3,35 f,lo que sugiere un alto ordenamiento de la red cristalina. La temperatura máxima alcanzada por la roca, de acuerdo al grado de grafitización, es de 472 I 27 "C.

  3. Electrical characteristics of the hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications; Caracteristicas electricas de la hidroxiapatita para aplicaciones biomedicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Buisan N, M.G.; Mendez G, M.M. [Laboratorio de Corrosion, ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The electric characteristics of hydroxyapatite films were studied (HAP) deposited on metallic substrates oxidized naturally. The substrates was made of steel 316L and of titanium. These materials are used in reconstructive surgery for prosthesis and osseous implants. The studies were carried out with the techniques of potentiostatic polarization and faraday impedance. The potentiostatic polarization reveals that the very well-known piezoelectricity of the HAp subsists after the coating processes (it captures thermal and spray-pyrolysis). Its also revealed a semiconductor behavior of the HAp that until now had not been reported. This characteristic is important, by its relationship with the stability of the HAp coating in front of corrosion processes in the alive tissues. The results of the impedance tests were mathematically analyzed starting from the Nyquist diagrams, of Bode and of power. The physical interpretation is presented under the form of equivalent circuits (CE). In the case of the HAp on a steel 316L substrate, the CE is a Rancles-Voigt module that corresponds to the behavior of a dielectric with flights. In the case of the titanium substrate an element of constant phase appears to high frequencies (CPE), in series with the Rancles-Voigt module. The CPE reveals the presence of a rectifier of the metal/SC-n type that only it could be located in the interface among the titanium and its natural oxide (TiO{sub 2}). The absence of the CPE in the case of the steel 316L substrate indicates that the natural oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) it doesn't form with the steel a Schottky diode, possibly because the chromite is as a SC-n degenerate. On the interface Ti/TiO{sub 2} exists results qualitatively identical by other researchers that have worked with the same impedance technique, but applied by humid via (EIS). The CE that have proposed are based on the anodic processes of accretion/dissolution of the film at low pH. This proposal is questioned by our results, obtained under non electrochemical conditions. In accordance with our interpretation, the answer in frequencies of the system Ti/TiO{sub 2}/HAp can separate in two well differentiated ranges: that of low frequency, where operates the CE Rancles-Voigt that contains the information on the HAp; and that of high frequency, where operates the CPE that contain the information on the union Ti/TiO{sub 2}. This spectral resolution is, in principle, very convenient. However, when it is sought to characterize the HAp and the study should be carried out at low frequencies, the necessity to obtain an acceptable statistics implies a great lost of time. This unfavorable circumstance cannot be obviated by means of the Kramers-Kronig transformations, clearly inapplicable in these systems. (Author)

  4. Efecto del fraccionamento sobre las caracteristicas del germen de maiz desgrasado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁNDEZ Blanca D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El germen de maíz desgrasado (GMD es un subproducto que se obtiene al elaborar harina cruda o precocida y extraer el aceite de maíz. Este subproducto se usa exclusivamente en la alimentación animal, debido a que es un material heterogéneo con alto contenido de salvado. El principal obstáculo para usarlo en la formulación de alimentos es que los fragmentos de fibra de la cáscara, modifican las características sensoriales y funcionales de los productos. Para evitar esta limitante, en este trabajo, se trató de eliminar los fragmentos de fibra y de incrementar la concentración de proteína. Para esto, el material extraíble (ME rico en grasa y el germen industrial desgrasado (GD fueron sometidos a fraccionamientos mediante separación en tamices, aspirado y molienda. El rendimiento en fracciones de GMD obtenidas a nivel de laboratorio GD1 e industrial GD2 respectivamente, fue de 44,76% y 78,02%. La fibra se redujo en un 18,45% y en un 41,61% y se aumentó la proteína en 7,40% y en 19,56% para las fracciones GD1 y GD2 respectivamente. La calidad de la proteína medida por la eficiencia proteica (PER varió de 2,57 a 2,84 lo que resultó ser 16 veces superior a la de la harina de endospermo de maíz blanco (PER 0,16 y la digestibilidad aparente de las fracciones GD1 y GD2 dio valores superiores al 86%, lo que indica que el fraccionamiento es una tecnología sencilla que mejora considerablemente la calidad de las proteínas del germen, el color y los índices de solubilidad y absorción de agua.

  5. A pedagogia libertaria de Carl Rogers : um estudo de suas caracteristicas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Jales Costa

    1980-01-01

    Resumo: A partir do levantamento dos diversos movimentos pedagogia libertária do sáculo XX, o presente trabalho tenta caracterizar a pedagogia libertária de Carl Rogers. No intuito de atingir este objetivo, intentou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica, através da qual pudesse emergir o posicionamento libertário de Rogers em pedagogia e em educação. Para isto foram consultados os virios escritos de Rogers: livros, conferências, artigos de jornais, autobiografias, entrevistas. Em todos eles transpare...

  6. Efeito do pH sobre as caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do cream cheese.

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Rossi Monteiro

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Os objetivos deste trabalho foram padronizar uma condição de teste para avaliar a capacidade de derretimento do Cream cheese e avaliar o efeito do pH sobre a capacidade de derretimento, firmeza, equilíbrio físico-químico entre a matriz protéica e a fase aquosa do queijo e sobre a microestrutura do Cream cheese. Os queijos foram fabricados segundo metódo tradicional e a alteração do pH foi feita pós-processamento, através da exposição das amostras em atmosfera de hidróxido de amônio ou...

  7. Plastic solar collector: feature and applications; Colector solar de plastico: Caracteristicas y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistoni, Silvia; Iriarte, Adolfo [Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina); Saravia, Luis [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The Argentinean northwest (NOA) is an exceptional zone to use solar energy, because of its climate and its solar radiation levels. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of low temperature solar heating system by mean of a plastic collector. The system proposed includes: a) Solar collectors built with plastic bags, welded in such a way that water, introduced at the top, falls by gravity through a zigzag long path. Each collector is fed by drip feed irrigations. b) Hot water storage and c) Water pump, hydraulic circuit and electronic controls. Two ways of use are proposed: as a water solar heating and as a system to heat greenhouses. In this second case, if during the day the air temperature inside the greenhouse is higher than the water storage temperature, the water will be heated in the bags. During the night the bags work as heat exchanger. When the temperature inside the greenhouse needs to be maintained at a constant value, the heating system is combined with a gas water heating. The equipment is described, performances are compared for both uses and the global heat exchange coefficient is calculated. The system's behavior inside a greenhouse is analyzed in two different situations. The utilization of plastic solar collectors has demonstrate to be a valid alternative for low temperature solar energy uses, specially in heating agricultural spaces. [Spanish] La region del Noreste Argentino (NOA), por su clima y muy en particular por los niveles de radiacion solar que posee, es una zona excepcional para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el uso de la energia solar a baja temperatura mediante un colector de plastico. El sistema propuesto incluye: a) Colector solar construido con una bolsa de plastico soldada en forma tal, que el agua que se introduce por la parte superior cae por la gravedad siguiendo un camino en zigzag. Cada colector se alimenta mediante goteros de riego autocompensados. b) Almacenamiento del agua caliente y c) Bomba, circuito hidraulico y controles electronicos. Se plantean dos condiciones de uso: como calentador solar de agua y como sistema para calentar invernaderos. En este segundo caso si durante el dia la temperatura interior del invernadero es mayor que la temperatura del agua en el almacenamiento el funcionamiento del sistema preve que el agua circule a traves de las bolsas colectando energia; durante la noche las mismas bolsas actuan como intercambiadores de calor. Cuando es indispensable mantener la temperatura en el interior del invernadero dentro de cierto rango, el sistema de calentamiento se combina con un calentador de agua a gas natural. Se describen las instalaciones, se comparan rendimientos instantaneos y globales de los colectores solares para las dos situaciones analizadas y se calcula el coeficiente global de transferencia de calor cuando las bolsas actuan como intercambiadores de calor. Se analiza tambien el comportamiento integral del sistema dentro del invernadero para dos situaciones diferentes. El empleo de los colectores solares de plastico ha demostrado ser una alternativa valida para el uso de energia a baja temperatura, especialmente para la calefaccion de locales agricolas.

  8. Modelizacion del secado de madera de #Pinus pseudostrobus# utilizando el metodo de la curva caracteristica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Bautista, Emilio; Sandoval Torres, Sadoth; Rodriguez Ramirez, Juan; Velasco Cruz, Omar Ali

    2010-01-01

    Actuellement il existe une augmentation de la demande en produits forestiers au niveau mondial. Le séchage est une étape importante à l'intérieur du processus de transformation du bois, une opération qui bonifie sa qualité et accroît sa valeur. L'article présente l'analyse des expérimentations de séchage du bois Pinus pseudostrobus par convection d'air chaud, avec l'objectif de modéliser les cinétiques de séchage en utilisant la méthode de la courbe caractéristique de séchage. Les expérimenta...

  9. Neutron sources and its dosimetric characteristics; Fuentes de neutrones y sus caracteristicas dosimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Mercado S, G.A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego D, E.; Lorente F, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    By means of Monte Carlo methods the spectra of the produced neutrons {sup 252} Cf, {sup 252} Cf/D{sub 2}O, {sup 241} Am Be, {sup 239} Pu Be, {sup 140} La Be, {sup 239} Pu{sup 18}O{sub 2} and {sup 226} Ra Be have been calculated. With the information of the spectrum it was calculated the average energy of the neutrons of each source. By means of the fluence coefficients to dose it was determined, for each one of the studied sources, the fluence factors to dose. The calculated doses were H, H{sup *}(10), H{sub p,sIab} (10, 0{sup 0}), E{sub AP} and E{sub ISO}. During the phase of the calculations the sources were modeled as punctual and their characteristics were determined to 100 cm in the hole. Also, for the case of the sources of {sup 239} Pu Be and {sup 241} Am Be, were carried out calculations modeling the sources with their respective characteristics and the dosimetric properties were determined in a space full with air. The results of this last phase of the calculations were compared with the experimental results obtained for both sources. (Author)

  10. Hydraulics characteristics of a diaphragm pump; Caracteristicas hidraulicas de uma moto-bomba de diafragma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolling, Evandro M. [Uniao Pan-Americana de Ensino (UNIPAN) Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Sampaio, Silvio C.; Coldebella, Anderson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Schoenwald, Celso

    2006-07-01

    The selection of a pump model that is not the most appropriate, carts consequences as: excessive consumption of energy, overload in the motor and cavity flow occurrence with consequent decrease in the revenue and in the useful life of the pump.The work extends in the study and evaluation of a diaphragm pump, it marks SHURFLO model 2088, that now has few available data for its knowledge and employment. The measured parameters were: the height (Hm), tension (v) and the current (A), and discharge (Q). The results of the they showed that the maximum values obtained for H m, revenue (h), potency (Pot), and Q was of 19 mca, 36%, 50 W, and 0,68 m3/h, respectively. The behavior observed in the characteristic curves was exponential, lineal, and polynomial for Hm x Q, Pot x Q, h x Q, respectively. (author)

  11. O estudo mineralógico das cinzas volantes brasileiras: origem, caracteristicas e qualidade

    OpenAIRE

    Yushiro Kihara

    1983-01-01

    As cinzas volantes são resíduos fundamentalmente sílico-aluminosos, finamente divididos, provenientes da combustão do carvão mineral pulverizado, utilizado em usinas termelétricas. São considerados materiais pozolânicos, à semelhança das cinzas vulcânicas ácidas, por apresentarem capacidade de reação com a cal, em presença de água, originando a formação de compostos novos com propriedades aglomerantes. Estudaram-se 31 amostras de cinzas volantes das cinco principais termelétricas brasileiras ...

  12. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities; Caracteristicas dosimetricas de un dosimetro TLD de extremidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, CPHR, Apdo.Postal 6195, Habana 6, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm{sup 3} covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  13. Women and entrepreneurial challenge in Spain, characteristics and determinants; Mujer y desafio emprendedor en Espana. Caracteristicas y determinantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Navarro, J.; Camelo Ordaz, M. C.; Coduras Martinez, A.

    2012-11-01

    This article contextualizes the discrete level of female entrepreneur ship in Spain and its differential aspects. It includes an analysis of the general characteristics of female entrepreneur ship, grouping them into contextual, demographic and perceptual factors. In addition, it considers in more depth those that promote or hinder the development of female entrepreneur ship: social networks, access to finance and the institutional framework supporting entrepreneurial activity. Finally, it makes a number of specific recommendations in order to correct the major weaknesses in this area and exploit female entrepreneur ship opportunities in Spain. (Author) 49 refs.

  14. Characteristics of liver tissue for attenuate the gamma radiation; Caracteristicas del tejido hepatico para atenuar la radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    It was determined the lineal attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue before gamma radiation of a source of {sup 137} Cs. When exposing organic material before X or gamma radiation fields, part of the energy of the photons is absorbed by the material, while another part crosses it without producing any effect. The quantity of energy that is absorbed is a measure of the dose that receives the material. The three main mechanisms by means of which the gamma rays interacting with the matter are: The Photoelectric Effect, the Compton dispersion and the Even production; the sum of these three processes is translated in the attenuation coefficient of the radiation. In this work we have used hepatic tissue of bovine, as substitute of the human hepatic tissue, and we have measured the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons of 0.662 MeV. Through a series of calculations we have determined the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5} MeV and the measured coefficient was compared with the one calculated. (Author)

  15. Synthesis of amorphous zirconium oxide with luminescent characteristics; Sintesis de oxido de circonio amorfo con caracteristicas luminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera S, M; Chavez G, M; Soto E, A M; Velasquez O, C; Garcia S, M A; Olvera T, L; Rivera M, T [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was prepared zirconium oxide, ZrO{sub 2}, by means of hydrolysis-condensation reactions (sol-gel method), using zirconium propoxide, Zr(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O){sub 4}, as precursor and nitric acid, HNO{sub 3}, as catalyst of the hydrolysis reaction. In this synthesis it was used a molar ratio water-alkoxide, r=n{sub H2O}/n{sub Zr}(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}0){sub 4}, high, similar to 200, so that the hydrolysis happens quickly and the nucleation and growth are completed in very little time. The solid was characterized with Ftir spectrophotometry, Differential thermal analysis (Dta), Thermal gravimetric analysis (T G), X-ray diffraction of powders, Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and X-ray Dispersion energy (EDX). The ZrO{sub 2} obtained by this way is amorphous even to 300 C and it consists of big aggregates. The amorphous ZrO{sub 2}, presents thermoluminescent behavior, after it was irradiated with UV radiation and beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and it was thermally stimulated. (Author)

  16. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  17. Caracteristicas clínicas, resistência e fatores de virulência em Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Peçanha Muzy Dias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available S. aureus está presente em cerca de 30% dos humanos de maneira assintomática e os sítios de maior prevalência são as fossas nasais, axilas e períneo.Este microrganismo pode causar diversos processos patológicos desde os mais simples como furúnculo e acne até mais os mais complexos como pneumonias, meningite, síndrome de choque tóxico, endocardites, infecções no trato urinário, infecções associadas com dispositivos intravasculares e corpos estranhos e sepse. Diversos estudos têm sido realizados a fim de aprimorar o entendimento dos mecanismos de transmissão e controle da disseminação deste patógeno, descrevendo as cepas encontradas em diferentes ambientes. Dentre os diversos fatores de virulência responsáveis pelas infecções, destacam-se a α-hemolisina, β-toxina, PSM-α, proteína A e a leucocidina Panton-Valentine, demonstrando um importante papel na patogênese por S. aureus. O uso racional de antimicrobianos para MRSA deve ser feito sabendo-se a terapia correta para o tratamento desta infecção de grande importância na comunidade científica. Uma rápida avaliação da etiologia da infecção é também relevante para a aplicação do tratamento adequado, pois nos casos de MRSA é fundamental no tratamento empírico, não começar somente com antibióticos betalactâmicos. Cada vez mais, os governos de todo o mundo estão começando a prestar atenção a um problema tão grave que ameaça as conquistas da medicina moderna. A era pós-antibiótico, em que infecções comuns e lesões menores podem matar, longe de ser uma fantasia, pode se tornar uma possibilidade muito real para o século 21.

  18. Characteristics of the Institute of Technology 'Prof. Jorge A. Sabato'; Caracteristicas del Instituto de Tecnologia 'Prof. Jorga A. Sabato'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvele, Jose R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    2001-07-01

    A historical survey is made of the educational and training activities in metallurgy and material sciences carried out by the CNEA since 1962, that were the origin of the 'Prof. Jorge A. Sabato' Institute. Today the Institute, created by the CNEA in association with the National University of General San Martin, is preparing Engineers in Material Sciences and Masters and Ph. D. in Material Sciences and Technology (Mention in Physics and Material). The curricula of the studies are described in detail. The Information Center annexed to the Institute is also described.

  19. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Electrofiltration of fly ashes extremely strong and special characteristics; Electrofiltracion de Cenizas de Alta Resistividad y Caracteristicas Especiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of CARE project was to improve the utilization of electrostatic precipitator technology for control of particle emission to the atmosphere, specially from coal-fired power stations burning coal with fly ash characteristics exhibiting extremely strong particle cohesion. (Author)

  1. Thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the JEN-1 Reactor; Caracteristicas hidraulicas y termicas del Reactor JEN-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otra Otra, F; Leira Rey, G

    1971-07-01

    In this report an analysis is made of the thermal and hydraulic performances of the JEN-1 reactor operating steadily at 3 Mw of thermal power. The analysis is made separately for the core, main heat exchanger and cooling tower. A portion of the report is devoted to predict the performances of these three main components when and if the reactor was going to operate at a power higher than the maximum 3 Mw attainable today. Finally an study is made of the unsteady operation of the reactor, focusing the attention towards the pumping characteristics and the temperatures obtained in the fuel elements. Reference is made to several digital calculation programmes that nave been developed for such purpose. (Author) 21 refs.

  2. Characteristics of organoclays obtained from Paraibas's smectites; Caracteristicas de argilas organofilicas obtidas de esmectitas da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Cortes, G.R.; Almeida, A.; Esper, F.J.; Alves Junior, P.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R., E-mail: germac@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PMT/EP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Meralurgica e de Materiais; Hennies, W.T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PMT/EP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Minas e de Petroleo

    2011-07-01

    Organoclay (AO) applies in the industry due to its particular technical characteristics. They are used as rheological additives in drilling fluids for oil, by adding viscosity solutions in which it participates: in paints, adhesives, lubricants, cosmetics and others. Recently grows its use as reinforcing filler in structuring polymer nanocomposites. The organoclays are obtained by the modification with quaternary ammonium of smectites. This paper presents the characteristics of a organoclay product of modified smectite from the State of Paraiba by quaternary ammonium. These studies were done in the PMT-EPUSP - Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept. of the Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo. The paper presents the results of studies through the techniques of X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy Foster swelling in oils and organic solvents tests and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. (author)

  3. Study on radiographic and minerals characteristics of renal calculus; Estudo das caracteristicas radiograficas e minerais de calculos renais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: mfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Goldberg, Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Urologia; Sakate, Makoto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Louzada, Mario J.Q. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria; Fernandes, Marco F.S. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia Geral

    2010-07-01

    Radiological Images of kidneys stones were analyzed, quantifying the optical density (D.O.) and the blackening degree in the radiographic film of the samples. Studies of the literature, analyses of samples and interviews with specialists of the Center of Sciences and Technologies of Materials (CCTM) of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Researches (IPEN/CNEN-SP), after crystallographic analysis for absorption techniques and diffraction of ray-X, showed that D.O. of the stones it is more directly dependent of their dimensions of what of their contents concentration. It is the researchers' consensus that as larger D.O. of the radiographic image of the calculation renal, larger her density (g/cm{sup 3}) and therefore larger the importance of the application of an appropriate energy for the fragmentation of the calculation. This energy, supplied by the equipment extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) it depends on several parameters inside the ones which the anatomy and the patient's position and of the own limitations of the lithotripsy equipment. This interpretation, at least for the analyzed samples, it disappoints a simplistic correlation among the parameters of the shock waves used in the lithotripsy procedures and the measures of D.O. and characteristics minerals. Another restriction factor is the discrepancy of the radiological image the kidneys stones camped in the patient, surrounded by the organs and interposed bone structures, and gotten her through the analysis of the fragments expelled after the accomplishment of ESWL, which present great variety of granulations. (author)

  4. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1997-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Estudo das caracteristicas de inflamabilidade de polimeros utilizados na construção civil e industria de transportes

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Santos Cavani

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Os materiais poliméricos vêem sendo empregados em diversas aplicações. A versatilidade de monômeros existentes, além da possibilidade de síntese de copolímeros, formulação de blendas poliméricas e confecção de compósitos e nanocompósitos favorecem a obtenção de um amplo número de materiais, cada qual com propriedades específicas e de interesse para diferentes áreas de aplicação. No entanto, apesar da reconhecida possibilidade de uso, a grande maioria dos polímeros apresenta caráter in...

  6. A comunicação das marcas no Facebook : caracteristicas visuais e de interação

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Ana Rita Felizardo, 1992-

    2016-01-01

    The following study addresses the key features and purposes of the way brands communicate on Facebook, namely those who concern visual communication, such as profile and cover images, as well as advertisements. This essay is divided in two main sections: in the first part some relevant concepts to the topic under study are framed within a literature review; in the latter section an exploratory study is undertaken based on a sample of six brands from three different sectors. This study a...

  7. Characteristics and properties of sugar cane trash; Caracteristicas e propriedades do palhico de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocente, Andreia F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saglietti, Jose R. C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane processing wastes (bagasse and trash) became an important energy source which may be used in the electrical energy co-generation. This work is aimed to determine the trash physical properties, define its energetic value and ideal combination of bagasse + trash to use in conventional boilers. The trash productivity (20 t/ha), green (14.9%) and dry (71.3%) leaves, and remaining material (8.3%) was found one day after the cane crop. The trash moisture content was measured for each component and the final average value was 28.7%. The bagasse showed a 49.81% moisture average content. The higher heating value (HHV) was found for the bagasse (19.27 MJ/kg), trash (17.90 MJ/kg) and bagasse + trash mixtures in different proportions. For the lower heating value (LHV), we observed that the released energy in the trash (12.11 MJ/kg) was higher than the one in the bagasse (8.55 MJ/kg). This result was expected due to the higher bagasse moisture content. From the analysed mixtures, the 50%-50% one had the highest LHV (10.08 MJ/kg), showing that the trash left in the field after the crop may be efficient for the energy production mixed to the bagasse in 50% proportion. (author)

  8. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  9. Spanish firms patenting in the European office. characteristics compared with non-applicant; Las empresas espanolas que patentan en la oficina Europea. Caracteristicas comparadas con las no solicitantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas, A.; Huergo, E.; Moreno, L.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide evidence about the features of Spanish firms applying for patents to the European Patent Office between 1998 and 2008. We compare these firms with a control sample of non-applicants during the same period and focus especially on firms that have been awarded public aid for R and D projects by the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology. (Author) 14 refs.

  10. Caracteristicas de las personas que acuden a las consultas de demanda del centro de salud sin citación previa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomar Carlos Isanta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El tiempo de espera para acceder a la consulta está considerado un indicador de satisfacción. Las visitas no urgentes, realizadas sin cita previa, provocan un incremento del tiempo de espera de los pacientes citados, con la consiguiente insatisfacción de los mismos. El objetivo del estudio persigue la valoración cuantitativa de este tipo de visitas y conocer las características de las mismas, para introducir las medidas destinadas a su corrección y racionalización. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo. Se realizó un registro que recogiera las características de los pacientes que originan las consultas sin cita previa, como la edad y el sexo y las relativas a la consulta: motivo, modalidad, jornada laboral y si era realizada de forma directa o indirecta. RESULTADOS: El 14,19% de consultas a demanda no urgentes son sin citación previa. Con el análisis factorial de correspondencias múltiple se identifican dos perfiles de consultas: las directas, solicitadas por pacientes jóvenes, por enfermedad o tareas burocráticas, al final de la consulta de la mañana, estando ellos presentes, y las consultas indirectas, ocasionadas durante las consultas con cita previa por pacientes que solicitan recetas. CONCLUSIONES: Hay un elevado número de visitas sin cita previa. Son precisas medidas que puedan conducir a la utilización del sistema de organización de las consultas y a la mejora de aquellas situaciones que impliquen una falta de accesibilidad, con la finalidad última de mejorar la satisfacción de los usuarios de los servicios sanitarios públicos.

  11. Influence of electrical discharge machining on the tribological characteristics of WC-Co alloys; Influencia de la electroerosion sobre las caracteristicas tribologicas de materiales compuestos WC-Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, B.; Martinez, E.; Esteve, J.; Anglada, M.; Llanes, L.

    2001-07-01

    The influence of electrical discharge machining (EDM) on the abrasive wear resistance of two WC-10 %{sub w}tCo cemented carbides with different carbide grain size has been studied. Different surface finish conditions were evaluated corresponding to sequential EDM as well as grinding and polishing with diamond. The abrasive wear resistance was determined through microscratch measurements using a nano indentation system. Contrary to the results obtained from hardness measurements, this techniques allows to discern tribological differences among the distinct surface finish conditions studied. Finally, the abrasive wear resistance degradation associated with sequential EDM is discussed as a function of microstructure in terms of a damage parameters. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Digital systems to acquire radiological imaging. Characteristics and quality control; Sistemas digitales de adquisicion de imagenes radiograficas. Caracteristicas y Control de Calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Cabrera, R.; Hernando Gonzalez, I.

    2006-07-01

    Due to its special characteristics, quality control in digital radiographic systems is very important, even more than in conventional film-screen systems. Differences between digital and analogical images,a in terms of dynamics range, spatial and contrast resolution, and the flexibility of data post-processing require some actions to maintain clinical images in an optimum quality level. Revision 1 of the Spanish Protocol of Quality Control in Diagnostic Radiology includes a chapter dedicated to the quality control of these digital systems for the acquisition of radiographic images. In this paper the different parameters for quality control procedures are described. Also some difficulties to be concerned about (absence of levels of tolerance, access to the raw-data images and related information, availability of use anthropomorphic phantoms, etc, etc) are noted, as well as the most significant aspects of the differences in relation to the ana logical systems. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. Hydrocarbons storage in oil stations in urban areas and its environmental aspects; Almacenamiento de hidrocarburos en estaciones de servicio en zonas urbanas caracteristicas y afeccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Pamo, J.

    1997-09-01

    The oil stations have been surrounded by the cities. Most of them are too near from the houses. because of the product (oil) sold by them, the oil stations can produce an important soil pollution. (Author)

  14. Influence of heavy crude oil refining about the mains characteristics of jet fuel; Influencia do refino de petroleos pesados sobre as principais caracteristicas do combustivel de aviacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Om, Neyda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavado, Alberto; Reyes, Yordanka [Centro de Pesquisas do Petroleo, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Salazar, Rodolfo [Centro de Eletromagnetismo Aplicado, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Dominguez, Zulema [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The aviation technology in the world, is to use gas turbines engines feted for fuel type Jet A1. The main exigency of quality for this products is concentrated in extreme security and secure answer during the functioning. The conductivity and thermal stability to oxidation are the principals characteristics to assure these quality exigencies. The use of additives is the methods most used for establish the quality for international specification. The incorporation of heavy crude oils in mixtures to produce fuels has caused a diminution of the quality of the derivatives produced. High viscosity, density and high sulfur content in the heavy crude oils affect some of properties of the jet fuel, influencing in its composition, increasing the mercaptanes and total sulfur content, getting a jet fuel unstable, with low conductivity and highly corrosive. So, for obtain the quality required internationally is necessary use additives. This paper study how the heavy crude oils affect the conductivity and the thermal stability of the jets fuels type Jet A1. Also analyze of the use of dissipater electrostatic and antioxidants additives, to improve these properties in the jet fuel. (author)

  15. Study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters for grid-connected photovoltaic systems; Estudo de caracteristicas eletricas e termicas de inversores para sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampinelli, Giuliano Arns

    2010-12-15

    Grid-connected photovoltaic systems directly convert solar energy into electrical energy delivering to the distribution grid a clean and renewable energy. These systems are basically formed by an array of photovoltaic modules and inverters. The inverters are responsible for converting direct current to alternating current. A study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters used in grid-connected photovoltaic systems from a theoretical and experimental analysis. The inverters tests were carried out in two stages: the first stage was performed at Solar Energy Lab. of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil, where it was used a 4,8 kW{sub p} grid-connected photovoltaic system and ten inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters electrical characteristics measured and analyzed were: direct current to alternating current conversion efficiency, maximum power point tracker efficiency, power factor and harmonic distortion in current and voltage. Inverters thermal testing was also conducted and its results are presented ana analyzed. The second stage of the experimental tests was performed at Photovoltaic Solar Energy Lab. at CIEMAT in Spain. It was used 3 kW{sub p} photovoltaic system and seven inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters are single-phase, up to 5 kW and different topologies (high frequency transformer, low frequency transformer and transformerless). The influence of DC voltage input in the behavior of DC to AC conversion efficiency and power factor was analyzed. The results of the tests allowed the development of mathematical models that describe the electrical and thermal behavior of the inverters. The proposed mathematical models were inserted into computer simulation software developed at UFRGS named FVConect. The evolution of the simulation results compared to the experimental results validates the proposed models. The analysis of the behavior of the inverters improves the understanding of the operating os such equipment and their dynamic interaction with other grid-connected photovoltaic system components. (author)

  16. Characteristics and economy of the European reactor of pressurized water (EPR); Caracteristicas y economia del reactor europeo de agua a presion (EPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz V, J.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Palacios H, J.C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jov@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The high current costs of the fossil fuels, have propitiated that the industries of electric power generation in the world reconsider the nuclear option as medium of generation. In Europe, the more recently contracted nuclear power plant is that of Olkiluoto-III in Finland that waits it enters in operation at the end of 2009. The reactor that will be installed in this power plant will be a prototype of pressurized water reactor of the companies AREVA and EDF. In this work they are described the reactor EPR and the major components of the nuclear power plant as well as the main characteristics of safety and the flexibility of the operation of the EPR. The supposed costs reported in different sources of information are also described and calculated with information provided by the manufacturer company. (Author)

  17. Compositional and physical characteristics of porcelain tile bodies with clays from Teruel; Caracteristicas fisicas y composicionales de pastas de gres porcelanico con arcillas de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, A.; Garcia Portillo, C.; Torre, J. de la; Bastida, J.

    2012-11-01

    Stoneware pots were produced in the temperature range 1120-1220 using as raw materials ball clays from the mining area of Teruel (Spain) with additions of feldspars and without quartz additions. Data about water absorption, shrinkage, flexural strength and colour space (L a* b*) are provided, as well as semiquantitative estimations of the crystalline phases in the bodies using the reference intensity method. The results fulfil the norm ISO-13006 regarding water absorption and mechanical strength at 1185 degree centigrade. In addition, it is shown that the intensity reference method was a good alternative to more advanced quantitative methods.

  18. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  19. Colorectal cancer clinical epidemiological characteristics in patients attended at Oncology service; Caracteristicas clinicas epidemiologicas del cancer colorrectal en un grupo de enfermos atendidos en consulta de Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Area Abreu, Daniel; Borrego Pino, Luis; Borrego Diaz, Luis; Abreu Rivera, Pedro; Garrote, Tillan; Aurora, [Hospital Provincial ' Vladimir Ilich Lenin' , Holguin (Cuba)

    2009-07-01

    A study of series of cases from January 2006 to December 2007 was carried out in 195 patients with colorectal cancer. They were attended at Oncology Service at Lenin Hospital, and were diagnosed at different health areas of the province. 63% and 37% of them had tumors in rectum and colon respectively. The age group between 40 and 69 years old was the most affected one (81.0%) and 56.9% of them were males. The main risk factors were the family history of the illness, chronic constipation, bleeding polyps and vesicular lithiasis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were rectal hemorrhage and anemia. (author)

  20. Demand characteristics and load factor in a sugar cane brandy distillery; Caracteristica de demanda e fator de carga numa destilaria de aguardente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, C R [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Souza, L L.G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1987-12-31

    The actual and calculated load factor values were also confronted for both harvests studied, looking for a polynomial equation that could represent the relationships among the variables. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Primoinfección por virus del herpes simp le tipo 1. Manejo farmacológico y caracteristicas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Francisco Sariego Santana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo reporta un caso clínico de gingivoestomatitis herpética primaria y una breve revisión de los medicamentos usados para tratar la infección por virus del herpes simple (HSV. Se presenta un paciente con múltiples ulceraciones confluentes tanto en la cara ventral como en la dorsal de la lengua y en los labios, compatible con gingivoestomatitis herpética primaria. Esta forma de presentarse las ulceraciones y la edad del paciente son frecuentes en pacientes VIH positivo (Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, esto no pudo ser comprobado en el caso ya que el paciente dejo de asistir a consulta luego de recibido el tratamiento. El tratamiento instaurado fue aciclovir tabletas 200 mg cada 6 horas vía oral por 10 días. Cabe mencionar que los tratamientos para el virus del herpes simple con aciclovir no están aprobados por la Administración de Alimentos y Drogas de los Estados Unidos (FDA siglas en inglés pero si son aceptados por el Centro de Control de Enfermedades (CDC siglas en ingles, también se utilizó gel de polivinilpirrolidona, hialuronato de sodio para facilitar la deglución del paciente. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 199 - 205AbstractThis article reports a case of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis and a brief review of drugs used to treat infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV. We present a patient with multiple confluent ulcers in both the ventral and the dorsal tongue and lips, compatible with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. This way of presenting ulceration and patient age are common in HIV positive patients (human immunodeficiency virus, this could not be found in the case because the patient stopped coming to see after the treatment. Acyclovir treatment was introduced 200 mg tablets orally every 6 hours for 10 days. It is noteworthy that the treatments for herpes simplex virus with acyclovir are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA but if accepted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC was also used gel of polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium hyaluronate to facilitate swallowing of the patient.Keywords: virus; herpes; herpetic; stomatitis; acyclovir. (MesH Database.

  2. ABORDAGEM PARA DISTINGUIR OS EFEITOS DO USO E OCUPAÇÃO DO SOLO NAS CARACTERISTICAS DE BACIAS HIDROGRÁFICAS - UM ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Maria Schneider

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two heterogeneous hidrological basin, located in Maringá-PR, were evaluated in relation to the use and occupation of its land. The basin of Mandacaru creek owns area with high degree of urbanization (85%; the basin of Romeira creek owns agricultural use and occupation. For evaluation, were used the method pins and performed the measure of flow channels under study. As result, it has been found that the presence of urbanization interfers significantly on the structure of the channel, given by the erosion of its margins. During the monitoring period (21 months, erosion of the urban channel presented in the order of centimeters, while the rural channel, 50 Colloquium Exactarum, v. 6, n.4, Nov-Dez. 2014, p.49 –58. DOI: 10.5747/ce.2014.v06.n4.e099 the erosion was in the order of millimeters. Erosive processes presented by the channel were related to high flows that occurred during precipitation. The waterproofing area was responsible for the concentration of rainwater and thus by the energy that promoted the measure erosion.

  3. Caracteristicas da poeira do processo de fabricação de materiais ceramicos para revestimento : estudo no polo de Santa Gertrudes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Margarida Teixeira Moreira-Lima

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A poeira gerada no processo de fabricação de materiais cerâmicos pode ser um agente de risco à saúde dos trabalhadores, em especial quando em sua composição houver a presença de polimorfos da sílica nas formas cristalinas do ?-quartzo e da cristobalita. A exposição ocupacional à poeira respirável desses polimorfos pode ocasionar o aparecimento da silicose e de outras doenças associadas. Na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos as informações sobre as características da poeira gerada no...

  4. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  5. Heat transfer characteristics in the channel of a finned absorber solar collector; Caracteristicas da transferencia de calor no canal de um coletor solar de absorvedor aletado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboya, Sergio Mourao [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Saboya, Francisco Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: saboya@mec.ita.cta.br; fsaboya@mec.uff.br

    2000-07-01

    Finned absorber solar collectors are devices in which plates (fins) are fixed perpendicularly to the absorber plate. The purpose of these fins is to cause the so called 'cavity effect', lowering the collector losses. This paper studies the heat transfer that occurs in the collector channel. This analysis is done using the efficiency of the collector, which is calculated solving the system of equations that govern the collector thermal behavior, and the computation of the convection heat transfer between the fluid flowing in the channel and the absorber plate. This analysis allows the calculation of design parameters such as mass flow rate and exit bulk temperature of the fluid. (author)

  6. Study of metrologic characteristics in activimeters used in Nuclear Medicine Centers in Colombia; Estudio de caracteristicas metrologicas en activimetros utilizados en centros de Medicina Nuclear de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, Hernan Olaya; Flores, Guillermo, E-mail: holayadavila@gmail.com [Instituto Colombiano de Geologia y Mineria (INGEOMINAS), Bogota, D.C. (Colombia). Laboratorio de Metrologia de las Radiaciones del Servicio Geologico Colombiano; Cantillo, Juliana I.P., E-mail: julianacantillo5@gmail.com [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Boyaca (Colombia)

    2013-07-01

    In our country currently there is a legislation that regulated de Nuclear Medicine practice, that establish the criteria about quality assurance in Nuclear Medicine and the justification to imparted to medical exposures. In this work includes some tests to the clinical approval in this type of instruments before to be used. The type of tests are linearity, geometric dependence and the energetic response and moreover to evaluate the total uncertainty during the work the physician using this equipment with radioactive sources. (author)

  7. Temperature and final characteristics of composting process of the Municipal solid wastes; Evolucion de la temperatura y caracteristicas finales del co-compostaje de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, O.; Leon, J.J. de; Revilla, J.; Dobao, M.M.; Ruiz, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Agricola y Edafologia, Universidad de Cordoba, cordoba (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    In this paper it has been studied the evolution of temperature in two depth of three piles during the composting process using the organic matter of the Municipal Solid Waste from Cordoba (Spain) from the selective harvest. The cited mixtures were composed of organic matter (<50 mm), sludge from the water treatment plant, pruning garden and bark of pine (bunking). Almost it has been obtained the yield of the composting piles and the agronomic quality of the compost obtained. The mixture organic matter <50 mm+pruning arden+bunking (M.P.B.) shoved the best index. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. Assessment of low density polyethylene characteristics for hazardous waste immobilization; Avaliacao das caracteristicas do polietileno de baixa densidade visando a imobilizacao de rejeitos perigosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela; Carvalho, Larissa Lara de; Pacheco, Graziella Rajao Cota; Oliveira, Tania Valeria de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Pacheco, Raquel R. Janot [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyses the properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) to allow choosing the more suitable to be used as matrices for radioactive and hazardous waste immobilization. Four virgin and recycled LDPE, with different melting index, were evaluated by extrusion and compressive strength tests. A preliminary immobilization test has been carried out using a simulated waste and one of the evaluated polymers and the homogeneity of the final waste product was determinate by the analysis of the material density. (author)

  9. BeOSL system for personal dosimetry : dosimetric characteristics and practical application; Sistema BeOSL para dosimetria personal : caracteristicas dosimetricas y la aplicacion practica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, E. [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Working Group Engineering, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: BeOSL system of Dosimetric s is very easy to use, assimilate and maintain. Our dosimeter defines a milestone in the supervision of personal equivalent dose of Hp (10) and Hp (0.07) it covers the range of total energy of 16 KeV to 10 MeV. For this energy range is exceptional in its energy dependence for official personal dosimetry. The BeOSL system consists of two modules, one of them is the BeOSL reader that measures the radiation exposure using the latest technology, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The reading is extremely fast; it does not require consumables such as nitrogen or other. The detector material is beryllium oxide (Be O); this is an OSL material tissue equivalent and therefore is ideal for personal dosimetry. The BeOSL technology allows multiple readings of the dosimeter (re-read) to verify the dose or archive the dosimeter. One of the biggest advantages of BeOSL system is its modular concept allows the system to run as a manual solution or as a complete automated robotic system, which can be filled with up to 5,000 dosimeters as bulk cargo. (Author)

  10. Structural and morphological characteristics of composite: polyamide 6/ferrite nickel; Caracteristicas morfologicas e estruturais do composito: poliamida 6/ferrita de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, P.C.; Santos, P.T.A.; Silva, T.R.G.; Araujo, E.M.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: patricia.fernandes24@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the structural and morphological characteristics of a composite polyamide 6 with 50% loading of nickel ferrite. The ferrite was obtained by combustion synthesis and calcined in muffle furnace at 700 deg C. The polymer matrix was previously dried in vacuum oven at 80 deg C / 48 h to eliminate moisture. The composites were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD results show the incorporation of cargo in the matrix, and that increasing temperature led to a considerable increase in crystallinity. The particle size of the load in the matrix was changed by increasing temperature. (author)

  11. Effect of the ionizing radiation in the sensorial characteristics of the pineapple; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas sensoriais do abacaxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda Maria da, E-mail: jmnilda@yahoo.com.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Silva, Juliana Pizarro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    The post-harvest quality of the pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne was evaluated after the fruit was irradiated with doses of 100 and 150 Gy and stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 deg C ( +-1) and relative humidity of 85% (+- 5). The controls were untreated fruits. Sensorial analyses were made for each storage period to obtain information about the effects of ionizing radiation on the quality of the fruit. The ionizing radiation dosage had little effect on the sensorial characteristics of the pineapple, although the best results were obtained with fruit irradiated with 100 Gy. The 20-day storage period resulted in the highest consumer acceptability, while the 30-day storage period impaired the fruit's external and internal appearance. (author)

  12. Mineralogical and micro-thermometric features of the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Pue., Mexico; Caracteristicas mineralogicas y microtermometricas del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Arellano, Victor M; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx

    2008-07-15

    Studies on many topics have been undertaken during the exploratory and exploitation stages of the development of Los Humeros geothermal field. From a geochemical and mineralogical view-including hydrothermal mineralogy and fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry, features have been reported differing from those observed in other geothermal fields. Sometimes this has led to ambiguous conclusions. Studies of fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry have shown low-salinity and high-temperature fluids, suggesting a slight temperature decrease in the deepest portion associated with a boiling process rather than a cooling process. In 1998, Arellano et al. performed a multi-disciplinary study and proposed the existence of at least two, distinct reservoirs at depth. Mineralogical data from wells drilled at the Colapso Central zone tend to support this idea. However wells drilled in the zone known as Corredor Mastaloya seemingly show evidence of a single reservoir. [Spanish] Durante las etapas de exploracion y explotacion del campo geotermico de Los Humeros se han realizado diversos estudios cubriendo distintos topicos. Desde el punto de vista geoquimico y mineralogico (mineralogia hidrotermal y microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas) se han reportado comportamientos diferentes a los observados en otros campos del mundo, los que en ocasiones han llevado a conclusiones imprecisas. La microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas ha mostrado fluidos poco salinos de alta temperatura, asi como una ligera disminucion de temperatura en la parte profunda la cual se asocia a un proceso de ebullicion mas que a un enfriamiento del sistema. En 1998 Arellano et al realizaron un estudio multidisciplinario proponiendo la existencia de al menos dos reservorios. La informacion mineralogica de pozos perforados en la zona del Colapso Central fortalece esta propuesta. Sin embargo, para pozos localizados en la zona conocida como Corredor Mastaloya se tiene evidencia de lo que parece ser un solo yacimiento.

  13. The Proportional Counter. Some Aspects of Operation; Le compteur proportionnel. Ses caracteristiques de fonctionnement; Proportsional'nyj schetchik. Nekotorye aspekty raboty; El contador proportional. Sus caracteristicas de funcionamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, S C [Awre, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1960-06-15

    1. Work on a counter system designed for electron capture studies has shown that the diameter of the anode wire in a high-pressure proportional counter can have an important influence on the energy resolution obtained in measurements of low-energy radiations. In a counter working at a pressure of 12 atmospheres the width of the pulse distribution due to 13.5 keV K-capture radiations could be changed from 65% to 17% by changing the wire diameter from 0.0076 mm to 0.0025 mm. This phenomenon is interpreted as an effect of positive ion space charge in the avalanche. For a given gas gain and primary radiation the density of positive ions in the avalanche increases rapidly with pressure of the filling gas, and when the accompanying electric fields are large enough to affect the last stages of the multiplication process the energy resolution of the counter deteriorates. Decrease in diameter of the anode wire increases the externally applied field in the region where multiplication takes place, thus tending to counteract the effect of space charge. Use of 0.0025 mm anode wires has proved satisfactory in new measurements of L/K capture ratios made with a multiwire counter system working at pressures up to 12 atmospheres. The results obtained for L/K capture ratios of Ge{sup 71} and Kr{sup 79} are 0.115 and 0.112 respectively. The same counting system has also been used in a search for M capture in these two isotopes. The low energy of the M capture radiation, 180 eV in Ge{sup 71} and 260 eV in Kr{sup 79}, and its low intensity relative to that of K capture, makes accurate measurement difficult; but peaks attributable to M capture were observed in pulse spectra of both sources. 2. Low-Background Counting - Recent observations made on a combination of proportional counter and scintillation counters (operating as shields) show that there are some real difficulties in devising a relatively simple system of this kind. The performance is inherently very satisfactory but practical matters such as long-term gas purity are difficult to overcome. 3. Studies of Electron Attachment - An approach to systematic observations in gases and mixtures of moment in proportional counting is described. It is hoped that such measurements as are effected with this arrangement will be valuable in enlarging the field of application of the counters. (author) [French] 1. Les travaux consacres a la mise au point d'un dispositif de comptage destine a l'etude de la capture electronique ont montre que le diametre du, fil constituant l'anode dans un compteur proportionnel a haute pression peut avoir une influence importante sur le pouvoir de resolution en energie obtenu dans les mesures de rayonnements de faible energie. Dans un compteur travaillant sous une pression de 12 atmospheres, l'amplitude de la repartition des impulsions dues aux rayonnements de capture K de 13,5 keV a pu etre ramenee de 65% a 17%. en reduisant de 0,0076 mm a 0,0025 mm le diametre du fil. Ce phenomene est interprete comme constituant un effet de la charge spatiale en ions positifs dans l'avalanche. Pour un gain et un rayonnement primaire donnes, la densite des ions positifs dans l'avalanche s'accroit rapidement avec la pression du gaz de remplissage, et lorsque les champs electriques d'accompagnement sont assez grands pour affecter les derniers stades du processus de multiplication, le pouvoir de resolution en energie du compteur diminue. Toute diminution du diametre de l'anode entraine un accroissement du champ applique exterieurement, dans la region ou se produit la multiplication, ce qui tend a contrecarrer l'effet de la charge spatiale. L'emploi de fils d'un diametre de 0,0025 mm a donne des resultats satisfaisants lors de nouvelles mesures des rapports de capture L/K effectuees au moyen d'un dispositif de comptage a fils multiples, travaillant sous des pressions pouvant atteindre 12 atmospheres. Les resultats obtenus pour les rapports de capture L/K du Ge{sup 71} et du Kr{sup 79} sont de 0,115 et 0,112 respectivement. On a utilise le meme dispositif de comptage pour etudier la capture M dans ces deux isotopes. La faible energie du rayonne- ment de capture M, soit 180 eV pour le Ge{sup 71} et 260 eV pour le Kr79, ainsi que sa faible intensite comparee a celle de la capture K, rendent difficiles les mesures precises; cependant, des pics imputables a la capture M ont ete observes dans les spectres d'impulsions des deux sources. 2. Comptage d'une activite de fond peu elevee - Des observations recentes faites avec un dispositif comprenant un compteur proportionnel et des compteurs a scintillateurs (ces derniers agissant comme ecrans protecteurs) montrent que la mise au point d'un dispositif relativement simple de ce genre presente de serieuses difficultes. Le fonctionnement est tres satisfaisant en soi, mais certains problemes pratiques, tels que le maintien d'un gaz a l'etat pur pendant une longue periode, sont difficiles a resoudre. 3. Etudes sur l'accumulation d'electrons - On decrit une methode d'observation systematique portant sur les gaz et melanges importants pour le comptage proportionnel. On espere que les mesures effectuees grace au dispositif correspondant s'avereront utiles en permettant d'elargir le champ d'application des compteurs. (author) [Spanish] 1. Los trabajos de perfeccionamient o de un dispositivo de recuento destinado al estudio de la captura electronica demuestran que el diametro del alambre anodico de un contador proporcional de elevada presion puede ejercer una influencia considerable sobre el poder de resolucion energetica obtenido en la medicion de radiaciones de baja energia. En un contador que trabaje a la presion de 12 atmosferas, la amplitud de la distribucion de los impulsos debidos a radiaciones de captura K de 13,5 keV, puede reducirse de 65 a 17% sustituyendo el alambre de 0,0076 mm de diametro por otro de 0,0025 mm. Este fenomeno se interpreta como un efecto de la carga espacial de los iones positivos en la avalancha. Para una amplificacion gaseosa y una radiacion pri- maria determinadas, la densidad de los iones positivos en la avalancha aumenta rapidamente con la presion del gas contenido en el contador, y cuando los campos electricos concomitantes tienen suficiente intensidad para afectar las ultimas fases del proceso de multiplicacion, el poder de resolucion del contador disminuye. La reduccion del diametro del alambre anodico trae aparejado un aumento de la intensidad del campo externo en la zona donde se verifica la multiplicacion, tendiendo asi a contrarrestar el efecto de la carga espacial, pero el empleo de alambres anodicos de 0,0025 mm ha dado resultados satisfactorios en nuevas mediciones de las razones de captura L/K efectuadas con un contador de hilos multiples funcionando a presiones de hasta 12 atmosferas. Los resul- tados obtenidos para la razon de captura L/K del Ge{sup 71} y del Kr{sup 79} son 0,115 y 0,112 respectivamente . El mismo sistema de recuento se ha empleado para investigar una posible captura M en estos dos isotopos. La baja energia de la radiacion emitida por captura M, a saber 180 eV en el Ge{sup 71} y 260 eV en el Kr{sup 79}, asi como su reducida intensidad en relacion con la correspondiente a la captura K, dificultan una medicion exacta; sin embargo, en los espectros de impulsos de ambas fuentes se han observado maximos que pueden atribuirse a la captura M. 2. Recuento de bajas actividades de fondo. - Observaciones recientes efectuadas con un dispositivo formado por un contador proporcional y contadores de centelleo (que funcionan como pantalla protectora) revelan que la construccion de un dispositivo relativamente sencillo de este tipo ofrece ciertas dificultades. El funcionamiento es de por si muy satisfactorio, pero algunos problemas practicos, tales como el mantenimiento del gas al estado puro durante uen tiempo largo, son dificiles de resolver. 3. Estudios sobre acumulacion de electrones. - El autor describe un procedimiento de observacion sistematica de las propriedades de los gases y mezclas utilizadas en el recuento proporcional. Cabe esperar que las mediciones efectuadas con este dispositivo permitan ampliar el campo de aplicacion de los contadores. (author) [Russian] I. Rabota nad schetnoj sistemoj, prednaznachenno j dlya izucheniya zakhvata ehlektronov, pokazala, chto diametr anoidnogo provoda v proportsional'no m schetchike s vysokim' davleniem mozhet okazyvat' bol'shoe vliyanie na razreshenie po ehnergii, poluchaemoe pri izmereniyakh radiatsii nizkoj ehnergii. V schetchike, rabotayushchem pri davlenii v 12 atmosfer, shirina raspredeleniya impul'sov pri radiatsii v 13,5 kehv K-zakhvata mozhet byt' izmenena ot 65% do 17% posredstvom izmeneniya diametra provoda ot 0,0076 do 0,0025 millimetra. EHto yavlenie ob{sup y}asnyaetsya kak dejstvie polozhitel'nogo prostranstvennog o zaryada iona v lavine. Dlya opredelennogo usileniya gaza i osnovnoj radiatsii plotnost' polozhitel'ny kh ionov v lavine bystro uvelichivaetsya vmeste s davleniem napolnyayushchego gaza, i kogda soputstvuyushchie ehlektricheskie polya stanovyatsya dostatochno bol'shimi, chtoby povliyat' na poslednie stadii protsessa umnozheniya, razreshenie po ehnergii schetchika ukhudshaetsya. Umen'shenie diametra anodnogo provoda uvelichivaet poyavlyayushcheesya izvne pole v tom meste, gde proiskhodit umnozhenie, i tem samym stremitsya protivodejstvovat ' dejstviyu prostranstvennogo zaryada. Ispol'zovanie 0,0025-millimetrovy kh anodnykh provodov okazalos' udovletvoritel'ny m pri novykh izmereniyakh koehffitsient a zakhvata L/K, provodimogo s mnogoprovodno j schetnoj sistemoj s Davleniem do 12 atmosfer. Rezul'taty, poluchennye dlya koehffitsienta zakhvata L/K s Ge{sup 71} i Kg{sup 79} ravny 0,115 i 0,112 sootvetstvenno . Tazhe schetnaya sistema ispol'zovalas' pri issledovanii M-zakhvata v ehtikh dvukh izotopakh. Nizkaya ehnergiya radiatsii M-zakhvata, 180 ehv v Ge{sup 71}, 260 ehv v Kg{sup 79} i ee nizkaya intensivnost' po po sravneniyu s intensivnost'yu K-zakhvata zatrudnyayut tochnoe izmerenie; no vysshie tochki blagodarya M-zakhvatu nablyudalis' v impul'snykh spektrakh oboikh istochnikov. II. Schetchik s nizkim fonom. - Poslednie nablyudeniya, provedennye na kombinatsii proportsional'nog o i stsintillyatsionnog o schetchikov (dejstvuyushchikh v kachestve ehkranov), pokazyvayut, chto imeyutsya nekotorye real'nye trudnosti v sozdanii prostoj sistemy takogo roda. Dejstvie ee v printsipe ves'ma udovletvoritel'no , no trudno razreshit' takie prakticheskie voprosy, kak dolgovremenno e sokhranenie chistoty gaza. III. Izuchenie ehlektronnogo prisposobleniya . - Opisyvaetsya podkhod k probleme sistematicheski kh nablyudenij momenta v proportsional'no m ischislenii v gazakh i smesyakh. Nadeyutsya, chto takie izmereniya, na kotorye okazyvaet vozdejstvie ehto ustrojstvo, budut polezny dlya rasshireniya predelov primeneniya schetchikov. (author)

  14. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part 1: physical characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte 1: caracteristicas fisicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (UO/CEEFE), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Fine materials or particles are often encountered in many industrial processes and in our daily life. Some examples are: salt or sugar; sand; cleaning products; fertilizer; cement; calcium hydroxide; some residues of energy biomass, for instance, sugar cane bagasse, straw of sugar cane, saw dust, straw of rice, and even, other types of particulates as aerosols, and residual ash from combustion processes of conventional solids. During the preparation and handling of these materials and also for design and optimization of some multiphase processes and equipment associated with them, as classifying, transport and pneumatic drying, and thermo chemical conversion systems, in general, it is indispensable knowing the principal physical and fluid dynamic characteristics or properties, which not always are available or well established. In this paper the Ergun Method is employed, which is based on theoretical equations established for a fixed bed of porous particles when it is crossed by a gas flow. From this expression and measurements of pressure loss for a given flow of gas crossing the bed at different heights, it is possible to determine some physical characteristics, as bulk density, real density, porosity, sphericity, and specific surface of the bed particles. The technique used for obtaining experimental data is simple but rigorous and it is possible to reproduce these data. Were tested several fractions of bagasse obtained by the conventional sieving process. Finally it was statistically processed all experimental results obtaining the corresponding mathematical models for the desired properties as a function of the mean diameter of the particles. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  15. Análise das caracteristicas quantitativas e qualitativas da microbacia do córrego barreiro, afluente do Rio Uberaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Rodrigues Torres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A associação de métodos qualitativos e quantitativos no estudo das microbacias hidrográficas é fundamental para investigar os fatores que influenciam as diversas formas de relevo e identificação das homogeneidades na área. Com os objetivos de realizar a morfometria e avaliar a qualidade da água da microbacia do córrego do Barreiro, fez-se a caracterização morfométrica da área, que foi realizada sobre uma carta topográfica do IBGE (Folha Uberaba na escala 1:100.000, com o auxílio de curvímetros, planímetros e programa computacional AutocadMap2000i. Observou-se que a microbacia possui área total de 10,97 km², perímetro de 14,33 km, com comprimento do canal principal de 6,11 km e rede de drenagem de 3ª ordem, com padrão dendrítico; o Kc de 1,21; Ic de 0,76; e Kf de 0,23 indicam o formato alongado da microbacia, o que determina a não propensão a enchentes na área; a área tem aptidão para a pecuária; a água do córrego estava imprópria para consumo humano e animal devido estar contaminada com coliformes fecais no período avaliado.

  16. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  17. CARACTERISTICA STĂRII FUNCŢIONALE A GLANDELOR ENDOCRINE ÎN DIABETUL EXPERIMENTAL PE FONDUL ADMINISTRĂRII EXTRASELOR DIN PRODUSE APICOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PARA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetul este o boală cronică metabolică având drept cauză deficitul primar de insulină absolută sau relativă şi se caracterizează prin perturbarea metabolismului predominant de carbohidraţi, toleranţă redusă la glucide, prezenţa glucozei în urină, fiind afectate şi alte tipuri de metabolism lipidic şi proteic.FEATURE FUNCTIONAL STATUS ENDOCRINE GLANDS IN DIABETES MANAGEMENT FUND EXTRACTS FROM THE EXPERIMENTAL BEE PRODUCTSDiabetes is a disease metabolic chronic what is due to the primary deficit absolute or relative insulin and is characterized by disturbing the predominant carbohydrate metabolism, reduced tolerance to carbohydrates, the presence of glucose in urine, along with impairment and other metabolisms: Lipid and protein. 

  18. Physico-chemistry characteristics of compost from urban solid wastes in Valencia (Spain); Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de los composts de residuos solidos urbanos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiach, M. R.; Canet, R.; Pomares, F.; Tarazona, F.; Chaves, C.; Ferrer, E.

    2004-07-01

    For nearly twenty years samples of MSW compost produced in the Valencia region. have been analysed in our laboratories. Their main characteristics are summarised and discussed in this article, which reveals their compliance with current regulations, but also the problems which may arise if stricter requirements are eventually applied by the European Commission. (Author)

  19. Quality characteristics of chemicals for the radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and thyrotropin.; Caracteristicas de calidad de reactivos para el radioinmunoanalisis de tiroxina y tirotropina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdeja I, C E

    1994-12-31

    Radioimmunoassay is a form of saturation analysis in which the test material competes with labelled antigen for a limited amount of antibody, the amount of label displaced being a measure of the antigen in the test sample. In this country, the kits for Radioimmunoassay (RIA) are imported, and this increase the cost of it. Because this lack of production, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has developed RIA`s kits for the thyroxine (T{sub 4}), Thyrotropin (TSH) and Triyodotironine (T{sub 3}) hormones. This work presents the conclusions of the test recommended by the WHO. The quality test were: recuperation, cross reactions, basic parameters, intra and inter assay variations, sensibility and others. The results show that the RIA`s kits of the ININ have a good behavior and can be use in the clinical laboratory. (Author).

  20. Obtaining high-resolution stage forecasts by coupling large-scale hydrologic models with sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, K. J.; Kerkez, B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how "big" quantities of distributed sensor data can be coupled with a large-scale hydrologic model, in particular the National Water Model (NWM), to obtain hyper-resolution forecasts. The recent launch of the NWM provides a great example of how growing computational capacity is enabling a new generation of massive hydrologic models. While the NWM spans an unprecedented spatial extent, there remain many questions about how to improve forecast at the street-level, the resolution at which many stakeholders make critical decisions. Further, the NWM runs on supercomputers, so water managers who may have access to their own high-resolution measurements may not readily be able to assimilate them into the model. To that end, we ask the question: how can the advances of the large-scale NWM be coupled with new local observations to enable hyper-resolution hydrologic forecasts? A methodology is proposed whereby the flow forecasts of the NWM are directly mapped to high-resolution stream levels using Dynamical System Identification. We apply the methodology across a sensor network of 182 gages in Iowa. Of these sites, approximately one third have shown to perform well in high-resolution flood forecasting when coupled with the outputs of the NWM. The quality of these forecasts is characterized using Principal Component Analysis and Random Forests to identify where the NWM may benefit from new sources of local observations. We also discuss how this approach can help municipalities identify where they should place low-cost sensors to most benefit from flood forecasts of the NWM.

  1. {sup 222} Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley; Determinacion de {sup 222} Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, A

    1998-10-01

    Concentration levels of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The {sup 222} Rn source is the decay of {sup 226} Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. {sup 222} Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, {sup 226} Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for {sup 226} Rn, the average {sup 222} Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and fertilizers and detritus. Most of the studied water samples were potable, however at Lodos Prietos 2 borehole the fluorine concentration was higher than the established norm. (Author)

  2. Comparison of characteristics of LiF:Mg,Ti e LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosemeters; Comparacao das caracteristicas dos dosimetros termoluminescentes LiF:Mg,Ti e LiF:Mg,Cu,P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M.S.; Filipov, D., E-mail: dfilipov@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR/DAFIS), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academicao de Fisica; Schelin, H.R. [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the thermoluminescent dosimeters LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP) data, which were acquired by the Federal Technological University - Parana. Tests were realized, for this purpose, such as: sensitivity (only one MCP TLD did not present results within the limit range), linearity (whose MCP result was better than the TLD-100 one), energy dependence (TLD-100 presented lower variation than MCP TLD) and reproducibility (whose TLD-100 results were better than the MCP ones). The results from both dosimeters show that these TLDs attend radiodiagnostic dosimetry criteria, however MCP had more satisfactory results. (author)

  3. Caracteristicas de crescimento de uma linhagem selvagem de Streptococcus thermophilus, sua adesão em superficie de aço inoxidavel e comportamento frente a detergencia e sanificação

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lourdes Neves Gandara

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Microrganismo selvagem isolado de leite pasteurizado, obtido de processo contínuo de pasteurização HTST com 4 h de operação foi identificado como Streptococcus thermophilus, formando a maior densidade celular em caldo M11 a 45°C em 6h. O número de células viáveis desse microrganismo foi avaliado em meios de cultura PCA, APT, MRS e Ml1 sendo os meios M11 e MRS os que permitiram melhor crescimento. Menores contagens do microrganismo foram observadas no meio APT em relação aos meios ante...

  4. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley; Determinacion de {sup 222}Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of {sup 222} Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  5. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  6. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  7. Multiple sclerosis outcome and morbi-mortality of a Brazilian cohort patients Caracteristicas clínico-evolutivas e morbi-mortalidade de uma coorte de pacientes brasileiros com esclerose múltipla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical and evolution characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS patients followed since the onset of HUCFF/UFRJ in 1978. The diagnosis of MS was based on Poser's et al. and MC Donald's et al. criteria. From 188 patients, 122 were included. Eighty-five were females. The mean age onset was 32.2 years-old (range 6.0 to 61.0±10.3, mainly Caucasians (82/67%. The relapsing-remitting course (MSRR was more frequent (106/86.8%. Monosymptomatic onset was significantly more frequent in Caucasians than in Afro-Brazilians (pEstudamos as características clínico-evolutivas de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM acompanhados no HUCFF-UFRJ desde 1978. Foram usados critérios de Poser et al. e MC Donald et al. para o diagnóstico de EM. De 188, 122 foram incluídos. Oitenta e cinco eram mulheres. A média de idade de início foi 32,2 anos (6,0-61,0±10,3, predominando caucasianos (n=82/67%. A forma recorrente-remitente (EMRR foi mais freqüente (n=106/86,8%. Formas mono-sintomáticas no primeiro surto foram significativamente mais freqüentes em caucasianos do que em afro-brasileiros (p<0,05. Dezessete pacientes apresentavam a forma benigna (13,9% e 43 a grave (35,2%. A forma benigna foi associada com a EMRR (p=0,01. A taxa de letalidade 2,12% (4 óbitos. Nossos resultados são semelhantes aos de outras séries brasileiras no que se refere ao sexo e idade, e falta de correlação entre EDSS e número de surtos; confirmamos gradiente sul-sudeste de distribuição afro-descendente, associação significativa entre primeiro surto mono-sintomático e caucasianos e menor freqüência de formas benignas.

  8. Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas e microbiológicas de ovos de codorna conservados na forma de picles
    Physico-chemical and microbiology of quail eggs preserved in the form of pickles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. FARIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Visando aumentar o tempo de conservação, com salga e acidificação do ovo de codorna cozido na forma de picles, foram testados sete tipos de soluções: A (60% vinagre, 8% NaCl; B (40% vinagre, 8% NaCl; C (20% vinagre, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 8% NaCl; D (20% vinagre, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl; E (2% ácido acético, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl,; F (2% ácido acético, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl, 0,02% benzoato de sódio e G (0,4% ácido acético, 0,3% ácido cítrico, 5% NaCl. Foram realizados análises de pH, acidez titulável, cloretos totais e perda de peso dos ovos, nos intervalos de 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 dias. Todos os resultados foram infl uenciados significativamente a partir do segundo dia do início do experimento. Para acidez titulável as soluções A, E e F mostraram maior acidez (p<0,05. No produto, o pH inicial foi reduzido a partir do segundo dia e somente a solução G apresentou valores de pH acima de 4,5. Para cloretos totais, as soluções A, B e C mostraram maior percentual (p<0,01 do que os demais. As conservas promoveram mudanças significativas a partir do segundo dia, as soluções com maiores porcentagens de acidez e menor valores de pH proporcionaram melhor estabilidade e menor desenvolvimento de microrganismos mesófilos. As soluções D, E e F apresentaram em geral melhores características físico-químicas e microbiológicas para conservação de ovos de codorna na forma de picles.

  9. Physiochemical, energy characteristics and performance of coconut fiber in the sorption of diesel and bio diesel oils; Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, energetica e desempenho da fibra de coco na sorcao de oleos diesel e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriana Ferla de [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: adrianaferla@ufpr.br; Leao, Alcides Lopes [Dept. de Recursos Naturais, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Caraschi, Jose Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Itapeva, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carachi@itapeva.unesp.br; Oliveira, Luciano Caetano de [Curso de Agronomia, Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR, Palotina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: lucianocaetano@ufpr.br; Goncalves, Jose Evaristo [Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura, Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: evaristto@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil spills and its derivatives on the soil and in hydric bodies are common and worrying once they endanger the quality of the ecosystem. An economical and efficient way of combating oil spills is the use of the sorption method using sorbent materials. There is a range of sorbent materials, however, the natural ones like biomass and vegetable fibers demonstrate interest due to the low cost and good sorbent capacity. There are works concerning the sorption of crude oil, however for diesel and bio diesel, which had their production increased, there is a little or even nothing exists in the literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the sorption capacity of coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera) confronting to the fuels, diesel and biodiesel and to compare them with the peat commercially used. The bio sorbents were also submitted to the physiochemical and energy characterization. Most of the tests were performed on the granulometric size range of {<=}180 {mu}m 180-425 {mu}m; 425-850 {mu}m e 850-3350 {mu}m. The coir fiber presented capacity of diesel and bio diesel sorption similar to the commercial sorbent made of peat. The determination of the calorific power of the bio sorbents shows that they can be used for energy generation before and after they are used as sorbents. This way, those materials can be used after studies of economical viability in this sector and still to increase the economy of the areas where they are abundant. (author)

  10. The influence of aquatic humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using ferric chloride; Influencia das caracteristicas das substancias humicas aquaticas na eficiencia da coagulacao com o cloreto ferrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloboda, Eliane; Vieira, Eny Maria [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: elisloboda@hotmail.com; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Bernardo, Luiz Di [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on the effectiveness of coagulation with ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out on samples of water with true color of approximately 100 Hazen units, prepared with aquatic humic substances of different molecular sizes (F{sub 1}: < 0.45 {mu}m, F{sub 2}: 100 kDa - 0.45 {mu}m, F{sub 3}: 30 - 100 kDa and F{sub 4}{sup '} : < 30 kDa). For the water samples with lower apparent molecular size fractions, greater dosages of coagulant was needed to remove the color around 5.0 Hanzen units, mainly because these water samples contain higher concentrations of fulvic acids, which exhibited a larger number of negatively-charged groups. (author)

  11. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo, los fluidos que los alimentan son una mezcla bifasica con diferentes proporciones liquido/vapor. Los resultados indican tambien que es probable la existencia de fase vapor en CP IV que, dependiendo de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos, se anade al fluido de alimentacion. El origen de esta fase vapor puede ser la ebullicion del liquido debido a una disminucion de presion.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of water from the reservoir of the hydrothermal system of Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Caracteristicas geoquimicas de las aguas del reservorio del sistema hidrotermal actual de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field is a liquid dominated system. The separated produced by the wells are sodium-chloride type, which is a characteristic of totally equilibrated geothermal brine. The temperature of water-rock interaction in the reservoir is 280 Celsius degrees. the chemical composition of gases corresponds to the one expected in a geothermal environment. The CO{sub 2} is the predominating gas and it is superior in 90% in weight to the total of existing gases. The gas contents is less than 1% in weight, in the case of the wells LV-1 and LV-3. It is also possible to conclude that the gases are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at a temperature of 280 Celsius degrees. With respect to water quality, it is saline, from high to very high and the contents of exchangeable sodium is also very high, resulting in waters not fit for agricultural usage. [Spanish] El yacimiento geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, en Baja California Sur, Mexico, es un sistema de liquido dominante, en donde el agua separada producida por los pozos presenta un caracter clorurado-sodico caracteristico de una salmuera de origen geotermico totalmente equilibrada. El sistema agua-roca se encuentra en equilibrio a una temperatura de 280 grados centigrados , dicha temperatura son congruentes con las estimadas para las fases gaseosas y liquidas. La composicion quimica de los gases corresponde a la esperada en un ambiente geotermico. El CO{sub 2} es el predominante y es superior a 90% en peso del total de los gases presentes. El contenido de gas es menor de 1% en peso en el caso de los pozos LV-1 y LV-3. Tambien se puede concluir que los gases estan en equilibrio en las fases liquidas a una temperatura de 280 grados centigrados. Con respecto a la calidad del agua, presenta una salinidad de alta a muy alta y el contenido de sodio intercambiable tambien es muy alto, por lo que dichas aguas no son muy aptas para el cultivo.

  13. Efecto de la naturaleza del precursor sobre las caracteristicas de las nanoparticulas de SnO2 sintetizadas Effect of the precursor's nature on characteristics of synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Ararat-Ibarguen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2 is widely used in industry as raw material for electronic devices, plating of different types of materials, for dyes and pigments, for electroplating, heterogeneous catalysis, etc. In this work SnO2 was obtained by a controlled precipitation method with special attention to the effects the tin precursor has on the microstructure of the final product. The most appropriate pH for obtaining SnO2 with the rutile structure as the main phase is 6.25 for SnCl2 and 6.40 for SnSO4. After heat treatment at 600 °C, particles of nanometric order (~10 - 30 nm approx were obtained. The characterization of the solid phase was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal analysis (DTA/TG, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  14. Detection of alpha particles by means of zinc sulphide screens. Study of their characteristics; Deteccion de particulas alfa por medio de pantallas de sulfuro de cinc: estudio de sus caracteristicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, R; Manero, F

    1959-07-01

    A method of SZn(Ag) screens preparation in order to detect alpha particles is described. The behaviour of the luminophore in a scintillometer is primarily studied and followed by experimental methods in the preparation of screens with the specific qualities required. A sedimentation technic of SZn(Ag) deposition has been employed, and followed by pressing in hot. The variation of impulse size with the massif thickness of luminophore has been studied, and found a maximum value for 6,5 mg/cm{sup 2} in unpressed screens and 6 mg/cm{sup 2} in the pressed ones. The plateau curves present flat areas till 450 volts. The background in source absence is below 0.5 impulse/minute. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Comparison among the mineralogic characteristics of Corumbatai formation and a mass for via humidity ceramic coating; Comparacao das caracteristicas mineralogicas da formacao Corumbatai com uma massa para revestimentos ceramicos via umida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, R R; Zanardo, A; Moreno, M M.T., [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia; Souza, E M [Colorminas Colorificio e Mineracao S.A., Icara, SC (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mineralogy of the raw materials used in the production of ceramic tiles is a matter of great importance considering the constant necessity of finding alternatives to reduce costs and to improve the product quality. The ceramic industry of Santa Gertrudes could see a dramatic growth due to reasons that include the natural characteristics of the raw materials found in the region which are suitable for the production of ceramic tiles through the dry grinding process. In order to understand the ease of use of such clays which are sedimentary rocks of Corumbatai Formation, their plastic components made up primarily of clay minerals such as illite and smectite, and non-plastic components, including quartz (inert), feldspars (fluxe) and some contaminants, were identified with the use of X-ray diffraction. When comparing the properties of the formulation made with clays from Corumbatai Formation with that made with raw materials for the wet process, it was possible to note the ease of use and the relative characteristics of both processes. (author)

  16. Influence of coprecipitation and mechanical mixture methods on the characteristics of nickel oxide-alumina composites; Influencia dos metodos de coprecipitacao e mistura mecanica nas caracteristicas de compositos oxido de niquel-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, G.L.; Yoshito, W.K.; Ussui, V.; Lima, N.B. de; Lazar, D.R.R., E-mail: gcordeiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Alumina-supported nickel catalysts are currently used in the reforming process due to low cost and high activity for hydrogen production from alcohols. In this work, the effect of preparation methods on nickel oxide-alumina based materials has been investigated. Nickel content was fixed at 15 wt%. Ceramic powders were obtained by coprecipitation in ammonia medium and mechanical mixture. Coprecipitated materials were calcined in air at 750 deg C to obtain the corresponding oxides. Materials obtained by mechanical mixture were prepared by wet milling of nickel oxide and alumina powders, both synthesized by precipitation and calcination in air at 450 and 750 deg C, respectively. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption by applying the BET method, laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoretic mobility measurements for zeta potential determination and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that coprecipitation method allowed the production of mixed oxides with high surface area (232,7 ± 3,2 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) and normal granulometric distribution while mechanical mixture led to the formation of materials constituted by gamma alumina and nickel oxide phases, with low surface area (136,2 ± 0,5 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) and bimodal granulometric distribution. (author)

  17. Characteristics of the quarry as shielding for {sup 241}AmBe neutrons and monoenergetic photons; Caracteristicas de la cantera como blindaje para los neutrones del {sup 241}AmBe y fotones monoenergeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Letechipia de L, C.; Salas L, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rodriguez R, J. A.; Juarez A, C. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Shielding is an important element in radiation protection since allows the management of radiation sources. Currently there are different materials of natural or anthropogenic origin that are used as shielding for both photons and neutrons. The quarry is a material of natural origin and abundant in our country, which is used in construction or for the manufacture of sculptures, however its characteristics as shielding have not been reported. In this paper we report some of the properties of the quarry as shielding for monoenergetic photons and for neutrons produced by an isotopic neutron source of {sup 241}AmBe. A quarry piece was used to determine its density and its chemical composition, with the XCOM code the elemental composition was determined and the mass interaction and total attenuation coefficients of the quarry were determined with photons of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5} MeV; the interaction coefficients included coherent dispersion, photoelectric absorption, Compton dispersion and the production of pairs in the nuclear and electronic field. Using the MCNP5 code, a narrow geometry attenuation experiment was modeled and the photon fluence was estimated that reaches a point detector at a distance of 42 cm from a point source, isotropic and monoenergetic photon when the source and the point detector were added quarry pieces of different thicknesses. The reduction of the number of photons as a function of the thickness of the quarry was used to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of the quarry before photons of 0.03, 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 2 and 3 MeV that were the same as those calculated with the XCOM code. With the MCNP, the K a and H(10) transmission curves were also calculated. This same model was used to determined the variation of the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum as a function of quarry thickness, as well as the E{sub ROT} and H(10) transmission curves. (Author)

  18. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico y zonas aledanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Cruz Grajales, Irma [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In 1996, a total of 99 samples were collected and 104 were collected in 1997. Of these, 19-18.26% of the total-had a negative alkalinity. The Atempan (No.5) and Campamento (No.1) stations showed the highest number of anomalous samples (31.25 and 27.8%, respectively). Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station (79.7 ppm) . Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station (34.8 ppm) and Perote (33.8 ppm) due to the presence of dust particles scattered in the air and because of the lack of pavement where the sampling stations are located. Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood. Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen-18 and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. The results show that the most enriched samples correspond to the San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) station and the minimum to the Perote Veracruz (No. 7) station. The concentration of SO{sub 4} has marine and industrial origins, with a contribution of the first source ranging between 10 and 25 percent. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla se realizo, por segundo ano consecutivo, la caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de agua de lluvia en muestras colectadas en siete estaciones, dos localizadas dentro del campo y cinco en la periferia del mismo. Durante 1996 se colectaron un total de 99 muestras y en 1997, 104 mas, de las cuales 19 presentaron una alcalinidad negativa, lo que representa el 18.26% del total de las muestras. Las estaciones de Atempan (No.5) y campamento (No.1) presentaron el mayor numero de muestras anomalas (31.25 y 27.8 % respectivamente). En la estacion de Perote no se encontro ninguna muestra anomala, lo que es atribuido a la direccion predominante del viento. Los resultados encontrados en la estacion Campamento se atribuyen a la presencia de fenomenos tipo inversion termica que se observaron durante los periodos en que se encontraron los valores de alcalinidad negativa. Las concentraciones de cationes fueron relativamente altas; el maximo contenido de calcio se midio en la estacion de Los Humeros (79.7 ppm), le siguieron otros valores significativos en las estaciones de Texcal (34.8 ppm) y Perote (33.8 ppm), lo que fue ocasionado por la presencia de particulas de polvo suspendidas en el aire, ya que en los sitios donde se ubican las estaciones de muestreo no existe pavimento, junto con otros factores tales como la presencia de fabricas de block y cal. Aunque las concentraciones anteriores pueden parecer elevadas, existen reportes con concentraciones similares en otras zonas. Se preparo una muestra de agua de lluvia por estacion, a partir de la mezcla de muestras anomalas de cada una de ellas. Se determino el contenido de oxigeno-18 y deuterio, encontrando que la mezcla mas enriquecida corresponde a la estacion de San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) y la de menor enriquecimiento a Perote, Veracruz (No. 7). La concentracion del SO{sub 4} tiene origen marino e industrial, con un aporte del primero que oscila entre el 10-25 %.

  19. Main features and possibilities of the new scale module for calculation of sensitivity and uncertainty by sampling: SAMPLER; Principlaes caracteristicas y posibilidades del nuevo modulo de SCALE 6.2 para calculo de sensibilidad e incertidumbre por muestreo: SAMPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the importance of calculating sensitivity and uncertainty in the calculation of field engineering, and especially in the nuclear world, it has been decided to present the main features of the new module present in the new version of SCALE 6.2 (currently beta 3 version) called SAMPLER. This module allows the calculation of uncertainty in a wide range of effective sections, neutron parameters, composition and physical parameters. However, the calculation of sensitivity is not present in the beta 3 release. Even so, this module can be helpful for participants of the proposed Benchmark by Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM-LWR), as well as to analysts in general. (Author)

  20. Revision of the equation Calculated Cetane Index for the characteristics of diesel commercialized in the Parana-Brazil; Revisao da equacao de Calculo do Indice de Cetano para as caracteristicas do diesel comercializado no Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tatiana Bittencourt de; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Cocco, Lilian Cristina [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Analise de Combustiveis Automotivos (LACAUTets)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the development of models for Calculated Cetane Index (CCI) determination with the purpose of tailor it to the diesel oil sold in Brazil, using optimization techniques. As the diesel is the main fuel on the Brazilian territory, their quality is of great importance. The CCI calculation is important to evaluate the diesel quality. The standard ASTM D 4737 does not take into account the presence of cetane booster additive and biodiesel, which creates the need to recast the equation of the CCI determination. About 300 representative samples were selected of diesel in Parana, during the 2006 to 2007 period, which had their physic-chemical properties determined using the methodology adopted by the ANP - the Brazilian petroleum, natural gas and biofuel agency. The Derived Cetane Number was obtained in the IQT apparatus and several models were proposed, all with better predictive capability than the equation of the standard ASTM D 4737. It is pointed out that biodiesel can act as cetane booster additive depending upon its origin, mostly in concentrations above 5%. The methodology can be expanded to generate a representative equation for the diesel sold in the whole Brazilian territory. (author)

  1. Methodology for assessment of characteristics of PV water pumping systems using a DC power supply; Metodologia de levantamento de caracteristicas de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento d'agua utilizando fonte de alimentacao CC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro; Fraidenraich, Naum [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (FAE/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Fontes Alternativas de Energia. Dept. de Energia Nuclear], Emails: ocv@ufpe.br, nf@ufpe.br; Galdino, Marco Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    This article describes a methodology which was used to reduce the time required to perform experimental assessment of characteristic curves (flowrate vs. solar irradiance) of PV water pumping systems showing different configurations. The characteristic curves are proposed to be obtained from two other types of curves: flowrate vs. DC power - measured using a DC power supply adjusted to simulate the operation of the PV panel in the system, and DC power vs. solar irradiance - obtained through outdoors measurements using PV panels. It is demonstrated how is possible to reduce the number of days of outdoor measurements necessary for obtaining these curves when the systems under test show configurations using the same pumping heights or the same PV panels. The flowrates, thus also the daily pumped volumes, calculated using the curves obtained through this methodology are considered the upper limits of system performance. (author)

  2. Methodology for determination of the operational limits in a atmospheric oven as a function of the load characteristics; Metodologia para determinacao dos limites operacionais de um forno atmosferico em funcao das caracteristicas da carga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundstock, Rene [Refinaria Alberto Pasqualini (REFAP), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Correa, Eduardo Coelho [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The necessity of increasing the crude processing with operation periods even greater, are resulting in Atmospheric Distillation Units in severe conditions, requiring even more rigorous operational procedures. The crude fired heaters are the critical equipment in this context, because they are the most susceptible to failures, if some determined limits are exceeded. This work was originated from the tube failure analysis of the fired heater F-101 of Alberto Pasqualini Refinery (REFAP), occurred in july/98, due to internal cocking, with unit emergency shut-down. During this analysis, it was verified that the operational limit of a fired heater cannot be determined only by its design thermal duty, it must be also taken into account the influence of the crude composition. This will determine, due to its film coefficient, the region of the radiation zone of the fired heater where it will begin the crude vaporization and will occur the greater temperatures. The work conclusions resulted on the revision of the Unit operational procedures and definition of new crude processing limits. The fired heater operates with no problems since then. (author)

  3. Study of the influences of the zeolites physical and chemical characteristics in the soya oil cracking; Estudo das influencias das caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de zeolitas no craqueamento do oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Frances Regiane dos

    1995-10-01

    Vegetable oils have been studied as raw materials to yield fuel hydrocarbons. The catalytic and thermal transformations of these oils have been presented as being able to generate hydrocarbons from which diesel oil and vegetable gasoline may be obtained. (author)

  4. Dimensional characteristics of welds performed on AISI 1045 steel by means of the application of high power diode laser; Caracteristicas dimensionales de soldadura formadas sobre el acero AISI 1045 mediante la aplicacion del laser diodo de alta potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Castillo, A.; Pou, J.; Lusquinos, F.; Quintero, F.; Soto, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Saavedra, M.; Perez-Amor, M.

    2004-07-01

    The named High Power diode Laser (HPDL), emits a beam of optical energy generated by diode stimulation and offers the capability of supplying levels of power up to 6 kW. The objective of this research work was to study the main welding variables and their effects on dimensional characteristics of the beads performed by means of application of this novel laser. The results obtained, show that HPDL, is an energy source able to perform welds on AISI 1045 steel plates under conduction mode, without any kind of mechanized preparation, preheating or post-weld treatment and, without filler metal application. (Author) 16 refs.

  5. Thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE irradiated with high energy electron beams; Caracteristicas termoluminiscentes del CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE irradiado con haces de electrones de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, R.; Rivera, T.; Calderon, J. A.; Jimenez, Y. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rodriguez, J. [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Oviedo, O. [Centro Medico ABC, Sur 136 No. 116, Col. Las Americas, 01120 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J., E-mail: chagua@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    In the present work thermoluminescent response of dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE) under high electron beam irradiations from linear accelerator for clinical applications was investigated. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator Varian, C linac 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained by using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions. Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electron beams irradiations. The thermoluminescent response of the pellets showed and intensity peak centered at around 235 C. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. (Author)

  6. Analysis of electrical and microstructural characteristics of a ZnO-based varistor doped with rare earth oxide; Analise das caracteristicas microestruturais e eletricas de um varistor a base de ZnO dopado com oxidos de terras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assuncao, F.C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Varistor is a semiconductor device, used in the protection of electrical systems, characterized to have a high no-linear electric resistance. Its properties are directly dependents of its chemical composition and microstructural characteristics. In this work were analyzed microstructural and electrical characteristics of a ZnO-based varistor doped with rare earth oxide, with chemical composition (mol%) 98,5.ZnO - 0,3.Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} - 0,2.Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0,9.Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0,1.Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction for phase characterization, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for microstructural analysis. Measurement of average grain size and electrical and dielectric characteristics complete the characterization. The results show the formation of biphasic microstructure and with high densification, presenting relevant varistors characteristics but that would need improvements.(author)

  7. Influence of synthesis route in structural, thermal and morphological characteristics of perovskite materials; Influencia da rota de sintese nas caracteristicas estruturais, termicas e morfologicas de materiais ceramicos do tipo perovskita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, I.A.; Araujo, E.M. de; Santos, T.L.; Viana, K.M.S.; Borges, M.M., E-mail: indianara.alves@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Ruiz, J.A.C. [Centro de Tecnologia do Gas e Energias Renovaveis (CTGAS-ER), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Oxides with perovskite structure are interesting objects of study because of their optical, magnetic, electrical properties and its possible application, for example, as automotive catalyst. Various methods have been proposed to synthesise materials with this structure in order to achieve better structural and morphological characteristics and therefore improved properties. In this study, the mixed oxide of the perovskite type La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} was synthesized by three different routes: the polymeric precursors, also known as the Pechini, method of gelatin modified rout and combustion method. Ceramic materials were evaluated thermally morphologically and structurally through thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD). The catalytic tests has been released, the material synthesized by the Pechini method had the best performance in relation to conversion and stability, two important properties for catalysts. (author)

  8. Effect of Nutrient Supply on Chemical and Energetic Characteristics of Fiber Sorghum Biomass; Influencia del Aporte de Nutrientes en las Caracteristicas Quimico-Energeticas de la Biomasa de Sorgo Forrajero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciria, P; Gonzalez, E; Negro, M J; Solano, M L [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-12-31

    The main objective of the present work, is to study the effect of the addition of different nutrients and irrigation doses on the chemical and energetical characteristics of the Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench ssp. bicolor biomass. The effect of compost addition is compared with the mineral fertilization in two different irrigation doses. The experimental parcel, is located at CIEMAT-CEDER (Soria) , at 1000 m above sea level, with a extremely weather and a loam sandy soil texture. The results obtained in the tested conditions show: a) the average biomass productivity was 9.8 t d. m./ha, and no significant differences between treatments were observed. b) Mean values of the proximate analysis were 72.6 volatile matter, 6.2% ashes and 21.2% fixed carbon. The volatile matter increases (1.1%) and the ashes decreases (1.4%) for the highest irrigation dose both in plots with no addition and in plots amended with compost. c) The N, S and Cl contents decreases for the highest irrigation dose in the same cases above mentioned. Mean values of the elemental analysis were: 45.0% C, 6.3% H, 1.4%% N, 0.15% S and 0.49%Cl. d) The average High Heating Value was 18071 kJ/kg d. m. and no significant differences between treatments were observed e) For the highest irrigation doses, a reduction in the K{sub 2} O, P{sub 2} O{sub 5}, Mg and Si content, and a increase in the Al, Fe and Ti in ashes were detected. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Megabladder in experimental Chagas disease: pathological features of the bladder wall Mega bexiga na Doença de Chagas experimental. Caracteristicas patológicas da parede vesical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Henrique Gazoni Scremin

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mega-organs, primarily in the digestive tract, are well known to occur in chronic Chagas disease. Acute experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in parasitism of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organs, including the urinary bladder. Infection of BALB/c mice with 100,000 bloodstream forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi induced acute infection with intense parasitism of all layers of the urinary bladder. Parasites were found in the mucosa, lamina propria, muscular, adventitial connective, and fat tissue. Desquamate epithelial cells with amastigotes in the bladder lumen were also found. After 60 days of infection, mice inoculated with 50 bloodstream forms developed dilated, thin-walled bladders that had inflammatory infiltrates and foci of fibrosis replacing areas of damaged muscular layer. These lesions result from direct damage to the muscle fibers by the T. cruzi, leading to myosites, muscle damage, and scarring. Direct damage of paraganglia cells secondary to parasitism, leading to dilatation, damage of muscle fibers, and scarring with replacement of muscular tissue with connective tissue, should also be considered as a cause of functional disturbance of the urinary bladder.Os "mega-órgãos" na Doença de Chagas são bem conhecidos, especialmente os desenvolvidos no sistema digestivo. A infecção aguda apresenta parasitismo de diversas células, tecidos e órgãos, dentre eles a bexiga urinária. Camundongos Balb/c infectados com 100.000 formas sanguíneas de cepa Y de T. cruzi mostraram intenso parasitismo de todas camadas da bexiga urinária na fase aguda. Os parasitas foram encontrados na mucosa, submucosa, lâmina própria, muscular, adventícia e tecido adiposo, além das células descamadas para a luz do órgão. Para produzir a fase crônica, os animais foram inoculados com a mesma cepa, porém apenas inóculo com 50 formas sangüíneas. Após sessenta dias de infecção, detectamos dilatações da parede vesical, assim como infiltrado inflamatório e focos de fibrose substituindo áreas musculares lesadas. Este achado pode ser resultado da ação direta do T. cruzi sobre as fibras musculares levando a miosite, destruição das fibras e consequente reparo. Lesão das células paraganglionares secundário ao parasitismo deve também ser considerado como causa de distúrbio urodinâmico evoluindo com dilatação, lesão das fibras musculares e substituição das mesmas por tecido conectivo.

  10. Construction and operating characteristics of flexible Geiger counters; Caracteristiques de construction et d'utilisation de compteurs Geiger flexibles; Konstruktsionnaya i operativnaya kharakteristiki gibkikh schetchikov Gejgera; Construccion y caracteristicas de funcionamiento de contadores Geiger flexibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, H G; Ballard, L F [Research Triangle Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    1962-04-15

    A method has been developed for constructing flexible Geiger counters in a wide range of lengths and diameters. The counters are quite flexible: a 3-cm diam. counter can be bent to a circle of 5 cm radius. Using Q-gas (98.3% helium, 1.7% n-butane) as the counting medium, plateaux are several hundred volts long with 3% slopes and are independent of the counter configuration. Counters are constructed from tubing having a polyvinyl-chloride formulation (PVC-744 - Alpha Wire Corp.). Short segments of the plastic tubing (length {approx} 3 times the tube diameter) are slipped over a coarsely threaded aluminium mandrel. Wire is wrapped tightly in the threads and the whole is placed in a 110{sup o}C oven for 20 min. After cooling, the corrugated plastic segment is removed from the mandrel. This corrugation prevents the collapse of the tubing when it is coiled. A polystyrene disk, perforated with relatively large holes near the periphery for gas flow and having a 0.6-mm hole in the centre for the anode, is fastened in one end of each segment. By threading the segments thus prepared on a 3-mil tungsten anode and slipping one end of each segment over the adjacent segment and securing them with an adhesive, a counter of any desired length can be built up. Glass end-pieces for attaching the anode ends and for admitting and exhausting the flow gas are attached. A bare copper wire spiralled in the grooves of the counter makes a satisfactory external cathode which operates in the manner observed by MAZE. A 3-cm diam. counter, 1 m long, either linear or coiled, has a plateau beginning at 1400 V and extending beyond 1750 V with a 2.9% slope. Counting rates in excess of 300000 counts/min with little coincidence loss have been observed. Since the counter is actually a series of short Geiger counters and the discharge does not spread beyond the polystyrene spacer disks, adjacent counter segments operate independently. Pulse heights are greater than 50 mV. (author) [French] On a mis au point une methode de construction de compteurs Geiger flexibles ayant des dimensions tres variees. Les compteurs sont tres flexibles : un compteur de 3 cm de diametre peut etre plie avec un rayon de courbure de 5 cm. En utilisant du gaz Q (98,3% d'helium et 1,7% de n-butane) comme milieu de comptage, les paliers ont une longueur de plusieurs centaines de volts avec une pente de 3% et sont independants de la configuration geometrique du compteur. Les compteurs sont construits avec des tubes en chlorure de polyvinyle (PVC-744 - Alpha Wire Corp.). De courts segments du tube (longueur egale a environ 3 fois le diametre) sont glisses sur un mandrin d'aluminium grossierement filete et entoures d'un fil fortement serre. Le tout est place dans un four a 110{sup o}C pendant 20 minutes. Apres refroidissement, le segment de matiere plastique ainsi cannele est degage du mandrin. Ce traitement du tube empeche sa rupture lorsqu'il est enroule. Un disque de polystyrene, perfore de trous relativement grands a la peripherie pour l'ecoulement du gaz et d'un trou central de 0,6 mm pour le passage de l'anode, est attache a une extremite de chaque segment. En enfilant les segments ainsi prepares sur une anode en tungstene de 3 mm, en glissant une extremite de chaque segment sur le segment adjacent et en les fixant solidement avec un adhesif, on peut construire un compteur d'une longueur quelconque. On attache aux extremites des pieces en verre pour la fixation de l'anode et pour l'admission et l'evacuation du gaz. Un fil de cuivre nu, entoure en spirale dans les cannelures du compteur, donne une cathode externe satisfaisante, qui fonctionne suivant le mode observe par Maze. Un compteur de 3 cm de diametre et de 1 metre de longueur, lineaire ou enroule, possede un palier commencant a 1400 volts et allant jusqu'a 1700 volts avec une pente de 2,9%. On a enregistre des taux de comptage de plus de 300000 coups par minute, avec peu de pertes par coincidences. Comme le compteur est en fait une seris de compteurs Geiger courts et que la decharge ne s'etend pas au-dela des disques d'espacement en polystyrene, les segments de compteur adjacents fonctionnent independamment. Les hauteurs d'impulsions depassent 50 mV. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen el metodo que han usado para construir contadores Geiger flexibles, de muy diferentes longitudes y diametros. Estos contadores son efectivamente muy flexibles: un contador de 3 cm de diametro puede doblarse hasta formar un circulo de 5 cm de radio. Utilizando gas Q (98,3% de helio y 1,7% de n-butano) se obtienen de varios centenares de voltios con pendientes de 3%, que son independientes de la configuracion del contador. Estos contadores estan hechos de tubos de material plastico a base de cloruro de polivinilo (PVC-744 - Alpha Wire Corp.). Sobre un mandril de aluminio de rosca gruesa se enchufan segmentos cortos de tubo de dicho material plastico (de una longitud aproximadamente 3 veces mayor que el diametro del tubo). Los filetes de la rosca se envuelven con alambre bien apretado y la pieza entera se coloca en un horno a 110{sup o}C durante 20 minutos. Despues de enfriar, el segmento de material plastico asi ondulado se retira del mandtil. Esta ondulacion evita que el tubo se aplaste cuando se le enrolla. En un extremo de cada segmento va sujeto un disco de poliestireno, en el que se han practicado orificios relativamente grandes proximos a la periferia, para permitir la circulacion del gas; el disco lleva ademas un orificio de 0,6 mm en el centro, para el anodo. Roscando los segmentos preparados en esta forma sobre un anodo de tungsteno de 3 milesimas de pulgada (75 micrones), enchufando el extremo de cada segmento sobre el segmento siguiente y sujetandolos con un material adhesivo, se puede dar al contador la longitud que se desee. Se adjuntan piezas terminales de vidrio para sujetar los extremos del anodo y para dar entrada y salida a la corriente de gas. Un alambre de cobre desnudo encajado en espiral en las ranuras del contador constituye un catodo externo satisfactorio que funciona en la forma observada por Maze. Un contador de 3 cm de diametro y 1 m de largo, por ejemplo, sea extendido o enrollado, presenta un que comienza a los 1400 V y se extiende a mas de 1750 V con una pendiente del 2,9%. Se ha contado a mas de 300000 impulsos por minuto, con escasa perdida por coincidencia : como el contador consiste practicamente en una serie de contadores Geiger cortos y la descarga no se extiende mas alla de los discos espaciadores de poliestireno, los segmentos de contador adyacentes trabajan independientemente. Las amplitudes de los impulsos superan a los 50 mV. (author) [Russian] Byl razrabotan metod izgotovleniya gibkikh schetchikov Gejgera razlichnoj dliny i diametra. Schetchiki yavlyayutsya sovershenno gibkimi; schetchik diametrom 3 cm mozhno sognut' v krug radiusom 5 cm. Pri ispol'zovanii Q-gaza (98,3% geliya i 1,7% n-butana) v kachestve schetnoj sredy, plato imeyut neskol'ko sot vol't napryazheniya s 3-protsentnym skatom i ne zavisyat ot konfiguratsii schetchika. Schetchiki izgotovleny iz plastmassovoj polivinil-khloridnoj trubki (PVC-744-Al'fa Uajr Korp.). Korotkie segmenty plastmassovoj trubki (dlina sostavlyaet primerno 3 diametra trubki) prokhodyat cherez grubo narezannyj alyuminievyj serdechnik. Provod plotno obertyvaetsya v narezkakh i vse vmeste pomeshchaetsya na 20 minut v pech' s temperaturoj 110{sup o}C. Posle okhlazhdeniya riflenyj plastmassovyj segment snimaetsya s narezki. Ehto riflenie predokhranyaet trubku ot razrusheniya pri namatyvanii. Polistirolovyj disk, perforirovannyj otnositel'no bol'shimi otverstiyami okolo okruzhnosti dlya perekhoda gaza i imeyushchij otverstie 0,6 mm v tsentre dlya anoda, krepitsya na odnom kontse kazhdogo segmenta. Natyagivaya podgotovlennye takim obrazom segmenty na vol'framovyj anod v 3 mm i propuskaya odin konets kazhdogo segmenta poverkh sosednego segmenta s odnovremennym krepleniem, mozhno sozdat' schetchik lyuboj zhelaemoj dliny. Dlya prisoedineniya kontsov anoda i dlya vpuska i vypuska potoka gaza pridayutsya steklyannye nakonechniki. Ogolennyj mednyj provod, prokhodyashchij zmeevikom v vyrezakh schetchika, predstavlyaet soboj udovletvoritel'nyj vneshnij katod, dejstvuyushchij po printsipu Mejza. Schetchik diametrom 3 cm i dlinoyu 1 m (linejnogo ili katushechnogo tipa) imeet plato, nachinaya s 1400 vol't i konchaya bolee 1750 vol't s 2,9-protsentnym skatom. Schetchik registriruet svyshe 300000 otschetov v minutu s neznachitel'noj poterej pri sovpadenii. Poskol'ku schetchik otnositsya fakticheski k serii korotkikh schetchikov Gejgera, a razryad ne vykhodit za predely polistirolovykh razdelitel'nykh diskov, to primykayushchie segmenty schetchika rabotayut nezavisimo. Amplitudy impul'sov prevyshayut 50 millivol't. (author)

  11. MAMOGRAFIA DE RASTREAMENTO PARA CÂNCER DE MAMA PELO SUS NA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DO VALE DO PARAÍBA E LITORAL NORTE: TENDÊNCIA E CARACTERISTICAS SOCIAIS DE MULHERES SUBMETIDAS AO EXAME, ENTRE 2010 E 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Almeida Silva; Paula Vilhena Carnevale Vianna; Paulo Roxo Barja

    2017-01-01

    Análises da vulnerabilidade das mulheres para o câncer de mama revelam que, no Brasil, mulheres negras e menos instruídas têm menor acesso à mamografia de rastreamento, exame que permite a detecção precoce do câncer. Desde 2006, o controle do câncer de mama é política prioritária no SUS. Este estudo analisa a série histórica de exames de mamografia de rastreamento realizados pelo SUS no período de 2010 a 2014, na Região Metropolitana do Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte – RMVale, para investiga...

  12. The Influence of Industrial Processing on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Lipid and Antioxidant Contents of Rice Bran; Influencia del procesado industrial sobre las caracteristicas quimico-fisicas y contenido en lipidos y antioxidantes del salvado de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, V. R.; Zambiazi, R.; Mendonca, C. R. B.; Bruscatto, M. H.; Ramis-Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    A comparative study of the physico-chemical characteristics of rice bran during the successive steps of its industrial processing was carried out and included white and parboiled rice brans and pelletized and defatted rice brans. Moisture, acidity and peroxide index were determined. Using extracts in petroleum ether and gas chromatography, the total fat contents and the profiles of the fatty acids were established. The tocopherols and {gamma}-oryzanol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The bran of parboiled rice showed the largest fat content and the lowest acidity, indicating that parboiling is the most effective process for bran stabilization. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in all the samples. Pelletization did not produce a loss in lipids, tocopherols or {gamma}-oryzanol. All the samples showed higher contents of {alpha}-tocopherol, intermediate contents of {gamma}-tocopherol and much lower concentrations of {delta}-tocopherol. Nine components of {gamma}- oryzanol were detected, with a major proportion of the component that eluted in the fourth position, probably ferulate of 24-methylene cycloartenol. Pelletized rice bran showed the highest tocopherol content, whereas parboiled rice bran yielded the largest {gamma}-oryzanol content. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. Effects on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of honey bee samples submitted to gamma radiation; Efeitos nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, microbiologicas e sensoriais em amostras de mel de abelhas submetidas a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    Honey production in Brazil has increased considerably and gaining pro eminence on the international market, as a result many demands have become part of the productive honey chain. In addition to the analyses provided for the Brazilian legislation, international market demand products that meet the most stringent quality standards. Honey has interesting characteristics due to its constitution, but even so there are problems that can change some how your identity and quality. The application of gamma radiation is a viable proposal which promotes the reduction of bio burden without changing the constitution and most importantly the physicochemical properties, with smaller nutritional losses when compared to other treatments used in foods. This study beyond the physicochemical parameters required by Brazilian regulation also included other relevant analyses, including FT-IR ATR. Microbiological analyses were carried out on samples of pure honeys and subsequently inoculated microbial known loads to assess the action of gamma radiation in doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The triangular test was used to differentiate the irradiated and not irradiated. samples The major changes that have occurred in samples of honeys were mainly in concentrations of HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) and diastase activity occurring a significant decrease in all analyzed samples. There was a reduction microbiological from the application of the 5 kGy, reaching absence with 10 kGy dose except Paenibacillus larvae. The sensory analysis conducted on samples of honey and honey irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 kGy doses, pointed out that there is no significant difference (5%) between irradiated and control samples. The application of gamma radiation in honeys proved a very useful method in microbiological decontamination, featuring few changes in the product at doses up to 10 kGy. (author)

  14. Preliminary analysis in a clayey mass aimed at ceramic blocks production: physical and mineralogical characteristics; Analise preliminar em uma massa argilosa visando a producao de blocos ceramicos: caracteristicas fisicas e mineralogicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.J.M.D. da; Apolonio, T.G.; Salviano, A.F.; Taveira, S.K.A.; Garcia, T.G.C.; Silva, J; Luna, P.A.; Macedo, R.S., E-mail: reginaldo.severo@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of the clayey mass are important in determining its properties, allowing a better knowledge of the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic products. This work aims to characterize the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic sealing blocks in a ceramic industry. Thus, it was evaluated by laboratory tests the raw material used in the production of ceramic blocks in a ceramics industry in the region of Carnauba dos Dantas, RN. The methodology used in the tests is the same as the IPT, which consists in carrying out the plasticity testing, particle size, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the sample studied by the physical and mineralogical characteristics, has the potential to be applied in the manufacture of red ceramic products for use in construction. (author)

  15. Effect of Nutrient Supply on Chemical and Energetic Characteristics of Fiber Sorghum Biomass; Influencia del Aporte de Nutrientes en las Caracteristicas Quimico-Energeticas de la Biomasa de Sorgo Forrajero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciria, P.; Gonzalez, E.; Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of the present work, is to study the effect of the addition of different nutrients and irrigation doses on the chemical and energetical characteristics of the Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench ssp. bicolor biomass. The effect of compost addition is compared with the mineral fertilization in two different irrigation doses. The experimental parcel, is located at CIEMAT-CEDER (Soria) , at 1000 m above sea level, with a extremely weather and a loam sandy soil texture. The results obtained in the tested conditions show: a) the average biomass productivity was 9.8 t d. m./ha, and no significant differences between treatments were observed. b) Mean values of the proximate analysis were 72.6 volatile matter, 6.2% ashes and 21.2% fixed carbon. The volatile matter increases (1.1%) and the ashes decreases (1.4%) for the highest irrigation dose both in plots with no addition and in plots amended with compost. c) The N, S and Cl contents decreases for the highest irrigation dose in the same cases above mentioned. Mean values of the elemental analysis were: 45.0% C, 6.3% H, 1.4%% N, 0.15% S and 0.49%Cl. d) The average High Heating Value was 18071 kJ/kg d. m. and no significant differences between treatments were observed e) For the highest irrigation doses, a reduction in the K{sub 2} O, P{sub 2} O{sub 5}, Mg and Si content, and a increase in the Al, Fe and Ti in ashes were detected. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Characteristics of the potential crop of raw materials for biodiesel and its adoption by family farms; Caracteristicas das potenciais culturas materias-primas do biodiesel e sua adocao pela agricultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronegocios], Email: thaisy@terra.com.br; Machado, Joao Armando Dessimon [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGDR/CEPAN/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios], Email: joao.dessimon@ufrgs.br

    2006-07-01

    Beyond the economic advantages and the ambient benefits, the production of bio diesel in wide scale will be important instrument of generation of income in the agricultural way, with significant impact on familiar agriculture. One of the biggest motivations for the production of this alternative fuel was given by the federal government by means of the 'Social Combustible Stamp', that it foresees that producing industries buy deriving raw materials of bio diesel of familiar agriculture. Several are the viable cultures for the small property, thus being, in this article become an analysis of the potentialities of each culture raw material of biodiesel, to be produced for familiar agriculture in small properties, in the different Brazilian regions. The exploration research was used that it aimed at to provide to more familiarity with the question biodiesel x familiar agriculture and involved bibliographical survey and interviews the specialists. Several are the alternatives of cultivates with positive agronomic potential that can promote the inclusion of familiar agriculture in the chain productive of biodiesel, taking in consideration the characteristics of each Brazilian region, being the oil plants of bigger prominence: dende, coconut, babacu, sunflower, canola, castor, tame nut and sesame. (author)

  17. Determination and analysis of the physical chemical characteristics of witness coupons of boral for the CNLV; Determinacion y analisis de las caracteristicas fisico quimicas de cupones testigo de boral para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Aguilar H, F.; Rivero G, T.; Carrillo M, R. [ININ, Apdo. Post 18-1027, Col Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlgm@nuclear.inin.mx; fah@nuclear.inin.mx; trg@nuclear.inin.mx; racm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The burnt fuel elements that are extracted in each charging of the Units 1 and 2 of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, are deposited in shelves placed in the storage reservoir designed for this end. Each cell or storage shelf has a structure type cage. Among the cells neutron absorber material is placed, (Boral), what allows to avoid the possible criticality that could settle down when accumulating in the storage the irradiated fuel elements. This boral has been designed to maintain its characteristics of thermal neutron absorber during a lifetime of the plant. To check that the wings and the Boral have not suffered some degradation or some change due to the environmental conditions in the warehouse, it is necessary to watch over their physical and chemical characteristics periodically, what is carried out by a surveillance program based on Badges or manufactured witness coupons of the same material that the wings. The badges witness are embedded in a special wing, which is placed in the place with more radiation in the pool. In this work the laboratory tests carried out in the ININ to the coupon witness 03 of the Unit 2, (II-03) are described, being presented the results and obtained conclusions. (Author)

  18. Preparation and determination of the luminescent characteristics of ZrO{sub 2} in powder; Preparacion y determinacion de las caracteristicas luminiscentes del ZrO{sub 2} en polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [ESIME-IPN Unidad Culhuacan Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Soto E, A.M.; Velazquez O, C.; Campero C, A. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work the luminescent characteristics of the ZrO{sub 2} are presented using the method of Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL), also called thermoluminescence (Tl). The powders of ZrO{sub 2} were obtained by two preparation methods: for precipitation and for evaporation of Sol-gel. The luminescent characteristics of the ZrO{sub 2} are determined using a lamp of radiation of UV light and a radiation source of beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Using the method of thermal stimulation the curve representative thermoluminescent of the previously irradiated material was obtained. The curve Tl of the ZrO{sub 2} irradiated with UV light presents a maximum in 180 C. Likewise, the spectrum of the curve Tl of the ZrO{sub 2} irradiated with particles beta presents a maximum centered in 181 C. While using gamma radiation like excitement source one has a spectrum with a peak centered in 184 C. When subjecting the materials obtained by sol-gel to a process of calcination at 1000 C for 24 hours a curved Tl it presents with two maxim in 185 and in 290 C respectively. The intensity of the response induced in the material it is a decisive factor to continue studying the dosimetric characteristics of the ZrO{sub 2} what allows to consider it as a potential material to use it in the beta particle dosimetry and of the UV light using the thermoluminescence method (Tl). (Author)

  19. Temperature of optimum generation in facilities of solar cold making use of the equation characteristic; Temperatura de generacion optima en instalaciones de frio solar haciendo uso de la ecuacion caracteristica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leucona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M. del C.; Zacarias, A.; Salgado, R.

    2008-07-01

    Absorption machines show a similar response as a function of the external temperatures, which can be approximated by a single functional dependence of the named characteristic temperature. This equation and the normalization curve of the solar thermal collector field driving the chiller and some more approximations allow determining the driving temperature that maximizes the cooling power at any time. This results in a simple equation. It is offered for the design of solar cooling facilities and their control algorithms. Some results are offered and discussed. (Author)

  20. Microstructural characteristics of the hydroxyapatite and its influence in the Tl signal induced by gamma radiation; Caracteristicas microestructurales de la hidroxiapatita y su influencia en la senal Tl inducida por la radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Hernandez A, M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Estrada G, R. [Depto. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Santa Fe, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [Centro Universitario de Vinculacion, BUAP, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The analysis carried out on different materials has shown that the quantity and type of dopants play an important role in the behaviour thermoluminescent signal induced by the ionizing radiation. More recent studies have also shown that the grain size influences strongly in the thermoluminescent signal. Plus still, the crystal growth habit and the crystalline degree have an important effect in the type and intensity thermoluminescent signal. In this sense, we present this work on the analysis of the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation in the hydroxyapatite ceramic. Depending the growth habit, a variation of the peak temperature location, signal intensity and linearity range was observed; in particular cases a lineal relationship between glow curve and radiation dose was in the range from 2 to 1000 Gray. These results are complemented with a microstructural and crystalline degree analysis through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The dose-response over the whole irradiation range opening up the possibility of employing this bio material as a dosimeter. (Author)

  1. Characteristics of a water pump system fed on photovoltaic panel connected to a battery group; Caracteristicas de um sistema de bombeamento d'agua alimentado por paineis fotovoltaicos ligado a um banco de baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, Roger N.; Gnoato, Estor; Santos, Jose A.A. dos; Oyama, Paulo T.; Pasa, Leandro A.; Fischborn, Marcos; Mayer, Giovano; Halmemann, Maria C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-MD), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], Emails: gnoatto@utfpr.edu.br, airton@utfpr.edu.br, oyama@utfpr.edu.br, pasa@utfpr.edu.br, fisch@utfpr.edu.br, giovano@utfpr.edu.br, cristhal@fca.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    The photovoltaic solar energy started to be explored intensively in the 80's when researches related to this technology received great investments because it is a clean, renewable and greatly available energy. To improve the efficiency in this form of electric energy generation it is necessary to know its characteristics in order to reach a coherent sizing and foresee in which equipment they can be installed. This project analyzes the characteristics of a water pump system fed on two batteries connected to two photovoltaic modules, with variation of the geometric height of pressure. With the increase of the geometric height of pressure, occurs the reduction of the voltage (not only in the pump but also in the battery) and of the outflow and the increase of the electric current and power. (author)

  2. Edafologic characteristics for the vulnerability of ground water by pollution under the calcaric fluvisols; Caracteristicas edaficas condicionantes de la vulnerabilidad a la contaminacion de las aguas subterraneas situadas bajo fluvisoles calcareos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Merino, L.; Gonzalez Huecas, C.; Lopez Lafuente, A. [Departamento de Edafologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-08-01

    A study of vulnerability of ground water based on an pedagogical view of the problem is presented. To do this, the study of one area with a piezo metric level close enough to the surface is selected, in such degree that the purification processes will take part in the greatest zone of the vadose zone. Profiles selected were studied under classical techniques of edafologic characterization, but the interpretation is newness, focusing always the behaviour of how ground water is protected against contaminants potentially aggressive, instead the study of genetic identification pf profiles or the study of genetic identification of profiles or the study of agricultural finess. 27 refs.

  3. Process of nourishment staggered for elimination of nitrogen. Specific characteristics of the process. Strategies of control; Proceso de alimentacion escalonada para eliminacion de nitrogeno. Caracteristicas especificas del proceso. Estrategias de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, J. C.; Cortacans, J. A. [Infilco Espanola, s.a (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This article illustrates the step fed activated sludge process advantages for biological nitrogen removal. This configuration, also known as ALP-HA (alternative phase step feed) process, reduces biological reactor volume, avoids internal sludge recycling and optimizes organic matter consumption for denitrification. Besides, it is offered the possibility to work with a calibrated specific model as a tool for the evaluation, design and operation of the process. To end up, some efficient operation strategies for the three-step ALPHA process in denitrification-nitrification reactors are proposed. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Caracteristicas demográficas e epidemiológicas de doadores aptos e inaptos clinicamente em um banco de sangue regional de Santa Cruz do Sul-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézane Priscila Reuter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Analisar o perfil de doadores (aptos clínicos e não doadores (inaptos clínicos, com relação às características demográficas e socioeconômicas, o tipo de doação predominante, bem como os principais motivos para a inaptidão clínica. O estudo, de caráter transversal, contou com 2.876 sujeitos, de ambos os sexos. De acordo com os resultados, observa-se que os homens apresentam porcentagem bastante superior (65,0% em relação às mulheres (35,0%, quanto à aptidão clínica para a doação; já, as mulheres, apresentam maior porcentagem de inaptidão clínica (53,8%. De maneira geral, o perfil dos sujeitos, tanto aptos, quanto inaptos clinicamente, demonstra que, quanto às características demográficas e sócio-econômicas, a faixa etária predominante é de 18 a 29 anos, com ensino médio completo, solteiros e de etnia branca, sendo a maior parte semi-qualificado profissionalmente; quanto ao tipo de doação, há um destaque para a voluntária e, quanto ao motivo de inaptidão clínica, observam-se diferenças entre os sexos, onde os homens apresentam maior porcentagem de hematócrito elevado e hipertensão arterial e as mulheres, hematócrito baixo, gripe e hipotensão. Assim, pode-se concluir que a determinação do perfil do doador é importante para formular estratégias especificas para a captação de doadores de sangue.

  5. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae); Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas caracteristicas biologicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: dirceu@npd.ufes.br, e-mail: hnoliveira@insecta.ufv.br; Vieira, Stella M.J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-03-15

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  7. Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Merheb , M.; Moussa , R.; Abdallah , C.; Colin , F.; Perrin , C.; Baghdadi , N.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work examines 140 hydrological studies conducted in the Mediterranean region. It identifies key characteristics of the hydrological responses of Mediterranean catchments at various time scales and compares different methods and modelling approaches used for individualcatchmentstudies. The study area is divided into the northwestern (NWM), eastern (EM) and southern (SM) Mediterranean. The analysis indicates regional discrepancies in which the NWM shows the most ext...

  8. National Water Model assessment for water management needs over the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbo, F.; Thorstensen, A.; Cifelli, R.; Hughes, M.; Johnson, L.; Gochis, D.; Wood, A.; Nowak, K.; Dahm, K.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Water Model (NWM) became operational in August 2016, providing the first ever, real-time distributed high-resolution forecasts for the continental United States. Since the model predictions occur at the CONUS scale, there is a need to evaluate the NWM in different regions to assess the wide variety and heterogeneity of hydrological processes that are included (e.g., snow melting, ice freezing, flash flooding events). In particular, to address water management needs in the western U.S., a collaborative project between the Bureau of Reclamation, NOAA, and NCAR is ongoing to assess the NWM performance for reservoir inflow forecasting needs and water management operations. In this work, the NWM is evaluated using different forecast ranges (short to medium) and retrospective historical runs forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) analysis to assess the NWM skills over key headwaters watersheds in the western U.S. that are of interest to the Bureau of Reclamation. The streamflow results are analyzed and compared with the available observations at the gauge sites, evaluating different NWM operational versions together with the already existing local River Forecast Center forecasts. The NWM uncertainty is also considered, evaluating the propagation of the precipitation forcing uncertainties in the resulting hydrograph. In addition, the possible advantages of high-resolution distributed output variables (such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration fluxes) are investigated, to determine the utility of such information for water managers in terms of watershed characteristics in areas that traditionally have not had any forecast information. The results highlight the NWM's ability to provide high-resolution forecast information in space and time. As anticipated, the performance is best in regions that are dominated by natural flows and where the model has benefited from efforts toward parameter calibration. In highly regulated basins, the

  9. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  10. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs using human multicolor banding (MCB probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA, Callithrix jacchus (CJA, Cebus apella (CAP, Saimiri sciureus (SSC, and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE, respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107 NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99 NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA and 66.3% (71/107 NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS. Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  11. A Sensor Driven Probabilistic Method for Enabling Hyper Resolution Flood Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, K. J.; Salas, F.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    A reduction in the cost of sensors and wireless communications is now enabling researchers and local governments to make flow, stage and rain measurements at locations that are not covered by existing USGS or state networks. We ask the question: how should these new sources of densified, street-level sensor measurements be used to make improved forecasts using the National Water Model (NWM)? Assimilating these data "into" the NWM can be challenging due to computational complexity, as well as heterogeneity of sensor and other input data. Instead, we introduce a machine learning and statistical framework that layers these data "on top" of the NWM outputs to improve high-resolution hydrologic and hydraulic forecasting. By generalizing our approach into a post-processing framework, a rapidly repeatable blueprint is generated for for decision makers who want to improve local forecasts by coupling sensor data with the NWM. We present preliminary results based on case studies in highly instrumented watersheds in the US. Through the use of statistical learning tools and hydrologic routing schemes, we demonstrate the ability of our approach to improve forecasts while simultaneously characterizing bias and uncertainty in the NWM.

  12. Molecular variation in AVP and AVPR1a in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini: evolution and implications for social monogamy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongren Ren

    Full Text Available The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP plays important roles in fluid regulation and vascular resistance. Differences in AVP receptor expression, particularly mediated through variation in the noncoding promoter region of the primary receptor for AVP (AVPR1a, may play a role in social phenotypes, particularly social monogamy, in rodents and humans. Among primates, social monogamy is rare, but is common among New World monkeys (NWM. AVP is a nonapeptide and generally conserved among eutherian mammals, although a recent paper demonstrated that some NWM species possess a novel form of the related neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin. We therefore characterized variation in the AVP and AVPR1a genes in 22 species representing every genus in the three major platyrrhine families (Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae. For AVP, a total of 16 synonymous substitutions were detected in 15 NWM species. No non-synonymous substitutions were noted, hence, AVP is conserved in NWM. By contrast, relative to the human AVPR1a, 66 predicted amino acids (AA substitutions were identified in NWM. The AVPR1a N-terminus (ligand binding domain, third intracellular (G-protein binding domain, and C-terminus were variable among species. Complex evolution of AVPR1a is also apparent in NWM. A molecular phylogenetic tree inferred from AVPR1a coding sequences revealed some consensus taxonomic separation by families, but also a mixed group composed of genera from all three families. The overall dN/dS ratio of AVPR1a was 0.11, but signals of positive selection in distinct AVPR1a regions were observed, including the N-terminus, in which we identified six potential positive selection sites. AA substitutions at positions 241, 319, 399 and 409 occurred uniquely in marmosets and tamarins. Our results enhance the appreciation of genetic diversity in the mammalian AVP/AVPR1a system, and set the stage for molecular modeling of the neurohypophyseal hormones and social behavior in

  13. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  14. Ensemble streamflow assimilation with the National Water Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieeinasab, A.; McCreight, J. L.; Noh, S.; Seo, D. J.; Gochis, D.

    2017-12-01

    Through case studies of flooding across the US, we compare the performance of the National Water Model (NWM) data assimilation (DA) scheme to that of a newly implemented ensemble Kalman filter approach. The NOAA National Water Model (NWM) is an operational implementation of the community WRF-Hydro modeling system. As of August 2016, the NWM forecasts of distributed hydrologic states and fluxes (including soil moisture, snowpack, ET, and ponded water) over the contiguous United States have been publicly disseminated by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) . It also provides streamflow forecasts at more than 2.7 million river reaches up to 30 days in advance. The NWM employs a nudging scheme to assimilate more than 6,000 USGS streamflow observations and provide initial conditions for its forecasts. A problem with nudging is how the forecasts relax quickly to open-loop bias in the forecast. This has been partially addressed by an experimental bias correction approach which was found to have issues with phase errors during flooding events. In this work, we present an ensemble streamflow data assimilation approach combining new channel-only capabilities of the NWM and HydroDART (a coupling of the offline WRF-Hydro model and NCAR's Data Assimilation Research Testbed; DART). Our approach focuses on the single model state of discharge and incorporates error distributions on channel-influxes (overland and groundwater) in the assimilation via an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In order to avoid filter degeneracy associated with a limited number of ensemble at large scale, DART's covariance inflation (Anderson, 2009) and localization capabilities are implemented and evaluated. The current NWM data assimilation scheme is compared to preliminary results from the EnKF application for several flooding case studies across the US.

  15. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  16. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACION DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL - CULTIVANDO ASOCIACIONES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE LAS SELECCIONES DE TECNOLOGIAS AMBIENTALES A LOS SECTORES PUBLICO Y PRIVADO EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS Y EN EL EXTERIOR (EPA/600/F-97/005A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La meta del ETV es verificar, a travs de unaevaluacin de informacin objectiva y de calidad, las caracteristicas del desempeo de tecnologascomerciales ambientales. As el ETV proporciona alos compradores y los licenciadores potenciales una valoracin imparcial y creble d...

  17. Cleaning of Livefront Electrical Switchgear Using Carbon Dioxide Pellets at Navy Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    MÄNTENIMIENTO - REPUESTOS ADX 600/- CARATTERISTICHE - CHARACTERISTICS - CARACTERISTIQUES - MERKMALE - CARACTERISTICAS Bicilindrico - Ciclo Diesel 4...Fliehkraftregler - Drehzahlregler - Kurbelgenhäuse aus Aluminium- Druckguss - Zylinder aus Perlitguss - Oelbadluftfilter. Bicilindrico - Ciclo Diesel de

  18. Relationships between soil erosion and morphometric characteristics of its hydrographic basin in areas of sugar cane culture; Relacao entre susceptibilidade a erosao de solos e caracteristicas morfometricas de suas bacias hidrograficas em area com predominio da cultura de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza e Silva, Moacir de

    1988-12-31

    This paper deals with the relationships of the quantitative aspects of soil surface detachment with the characteristics of drainage pattern and relief aspects in water heads of third-order of ramification, belonging various soil units, which are cultivated with sugar cane crops. (author). 20 figs., 48 tabs., 102 refs

  19. Frequency and clinical, hormonal and ultrasonographic characteristics suggestive of polycystic ovarian syndrome in a group of females with metabolic syndrome; Frecuencia y caracteristicas clinicas, hormonales y ultrasonograficas sugestivas de sindrome de ovarios poliquisticos en un grupo de mujeres con sindrome metabolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovies Carballo, Gisel; Dominguez Alonso, Emma; Verdeja Varela, Olga L; Zamora Recinos, Hugo [Instituto Nacional de Endocrinologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most frequent endocrine affection in females at reproductive age. Nowadays, it is known that insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinism seem to be the basis of the disorders characterizing it. That's why, it is not erroneous to think that in females with metabolic syndrome, whose physiopathological bases are insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism, there may appear clinical, humoral and ultrasonographic elements of the polycystic ovarian syndrome.

  20. Study of the characteristics of gases and condensates generated in three platforms of Garraf landfill for its energetic use; Estudio de las caracteristicas de los gases y condensados generados en tres plataformas del vertedero de Garraf (Barcelona) con objeto de comprobar la viabilidad del aprovechamiento energetico del mismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorronsoro, J L; Carreras, N

    1996-07-01

    Viability study about energetic use in biogas Garraf landfill has been carried out. For this reason, three different platforms of this landfill have been studied. Samples of biogas and condensates have been taken out of different wells of each studied platform. This paper shows the results obtained of the biogas and condensates exhaustive analysis. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Rb-Sr geochronology and geochemical characteristics of mafic dikes in the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D'Oeste region, Mato Grosso, SW Amazonian Craton; Geocronologia Rb-Sr e caracteristicas geoquimicas dos diques maficos da regiao de Nova Lacerda e Conquista D'Oeste (MT), porcao sudoeste do Craton Amazonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Cesar Correa da; Matos, Joao Batista de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Minerais; Grupo de Pesquisas em Evolucao Crustal e Metalogenia Guapore, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: pccorrea@ufmt.br, e-mail: jmatos@cpd.ufmt.br; Girardi, Vicente Antonio Vitorio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: girardi@usp.br; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia Geral; Grupo de Pesquisas em Evolucao Crustal e Metalogenia Guapore, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: asruiz@rc.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    In the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D'Oeste regions, Mato Grosso State, SW part of the Amazonian Craton, mafic dikes trending NNW intrude the Nova Lacerda Granite (1462{+-}12 Ma), within the Jauru Domain, in the Rondonia-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.3 Ga). The mafic swarm comprises diabases, metadiabases and amphibolites. Metadiabases originated from uralitization of diabases. These rocks have tholeiitic affinity and predominant basaltic composition. Some samples are andesi-basalts. The ages of diabases and metabasites are 1380 {+-} 32 Ma and 1330 {+-} 120 Ma respectively. Geochemical data indicate that the compositional variation of diabases and metadiadases is due to fractional crystallization of evolved tholeiitic magmas. The origin of the basaltic magmas is related to a heterogeneous mantle source. (author)

  2. Caracteristicas clínicas, endoscópicas, manométricas y magnitud de reflujo gastroesofágico ácido patológico en pacientes con esófago en cascanueces: Análisis prospectivo de 80 pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Csendes,Attila; Cárcamo,Carlos; Henríquez,Ana

    2004-01-01

    Background: The nutcracker esophagus, a primary motor disorder, is frequently associated with noncardic chest pain. Aim: To study the clinical, endoscopic, manometric, and pathological features and 24 h acid reflux in patients with nutcracker esophagus. Patients and methods: Eighty patients (63 females, aged 26 to 70 years) with nutcracker esophagus, defined as the presence of contraction waves of more than 180 mmHg in the esophageal manometry, were studied. All were subjected to an upper gas...

  3. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  4. Characteristics of the Beam-Plasma Discharge; Caracteristiques de la 'Decharge Faisceau-Plasma'; ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ РАЗРЯДА ПУЧКА В ПЛАЗМЕ; Caracteristicas de la Descarga Haz-Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smullin, L. D.; Getty, W. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    In this paper we summarize recent work done at M.I.T. on the study of the electron-beam/plasma interaction. When an electron beam passes through a plasma, it excites oscillations at the plasma frequency. These microwave oscillations sustain a microwave discharge, and we have named the entire process the ''beam-plasma discharge''. Ionization of the ambient gas is carried on by energetic plasma electrons that have been accelerated by the oscillatory fields. The result is the production of a hot-electron plasma inside the magnetic mirror. Since the parameters of the beam plasma discharge appear to be unfavorable for direct ion heating by a beam-plasma interaction, we have begun experiments in which additional RF energy is applied in order to excite ion cyclotron oscillations for ion heating. Results to be discussed are plasma stability, density, average energy, and peak energy of the plasma electrons; and preliminary results on ion heating. Experiments are carried out with pulsed 10 to 15-kV, 10 to 15-A electron beams injected along the axis of a magnetic mirror into a drift region containing H2 at 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -4} Torr. The electron density of the 1-liter plasma is typically 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, and the transverse energy density is typically 10{sup 15} eV cm{sup -3}, corresponding to transverse electron ''temperatures'' of 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} eV. Measured X-ray energies indicate the existence of electrons with energies of 50 to 100 keV. The decay of the plasma after beam turn-off is in two stages: a relatively rapid loss of low-energy electrons, {tau}{<=} 1000 {mu}sec, and a slow decay of high-energy electrons with {tau}= 10 to 50 msec. A second experiment is carried out with the same electron beam parameters, magnetic field configuration and pressure range. The plasma dimensions are twice as large. Remarkably different plasma energy parameters are obtained by introducing gas with a fast, pulsed gas valve, thereby establishing a pressure gradient. Gas pumping by the plasma is greatly reduced at the same plasma density and energy. Average and peak electron energies are increased tenfold over their values with uniform gas density. Occasionally an instability ''break'' is observed in the afterglow that corresponds to a loss of the low-energy plasma. (author) [French] Les auteurs donnent un apercu des travaux recemment effectues a l'Institut de technologie du Massachusetts en vue d'etudier l'interaction d'un faisceau d'electrons et d'un plasma. Lorsqu' un faisceau d'electrons traverse un plasma, il excite des oscillations a la frequence du plasma. Comme ces oscillations a micro-ondes entretiennent une decharge a microondes, les auteurs ont appele l'ensemble du processus 'decharge faisceau-plasma'. Le gaz ambiant est ionise par les electrons de haute energie du plasma, prealablement acceleres par les champs oscillants. Il en resulte la formation d'un plasma d'electrons chauds a l'interieur de la machine a miroirs. Etant donne que les parametres de la 'decharge faisceau-plasma' ne semblent pas favoriser le chauffage direct des ions par une interaction du faisceau et du plasma, les auteurs ont entrepris des experiences au cours desquelles ils appliquent une energie H.F. supplementaire en vue de provoquer des oscillations cyclotroniques des ions pour le chauffage de ceux-ci. La discussion porte sur la stabilite du plasma, la densite, l'energie moyenne et l'energie maximum des electrons du plasma ainsi que sur les resultats preliminaires relatifs au chauffage des ions. Des experiences sont en cours a l'aide de faisceaux d'electrons puises de 10 a 15 keV et de 10 a 15 A, injectes le long de l'axe d'un miroir magnetique dans la region de derive contenant H{sub 2} a une pression de 10{sup -5} a 10{sup -4} Torr. La densite des electrons d'un plasma de 1 l est normalement de 10{sup 12} a 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} et la densite d'energie transversale de 10{sup 15} eV cm{sup -3}, ce qui correspond a une energie electronique transversale de 10{sup 2} a 10{sup 3} eV. Les energies des rayons X mesurees permettent de conclure a l'existence d'electrons d'une energie de 50 a 100 keV. La decroissance du plasma apres la coupure du faisceau s'opere en deux etapes: perte relativement rapide en electrons de faible energie, {tau} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 1000 {mu}s, et decroissance lente des electrons de haute energie, {tau} = 10 a 50 ms. Les auteurs font une deuxieme experience en utilisant les memes valeurs des parametres du faisceau d'electrons et la meme configuration du champ magnetique, dans le meme intervalle de pressions; les dimensions du plasma sont doubles. Ils obtiennent, pour l'energie du plasma, des parametres qui presentent des differences remarquables en introduisant un gaz par une vanne a gaz puise et en creant ainsi un gradient de pressions. Le pompage du gaz par le plasma est sensiblement diminue, la densite et l'energie du plasma etant les memes. Les energies maximum et moyenne des electrons sont decuples par rapport aux valeurs qu'elles atteignent lorsque la densite du gaz est uniforme. On observe parfois une rupture d'instabilite dans le trainage, qui correspond a une perte du plasma a basse energie. (author) [Spanish] En esta memoria se resumen los trabajos reciente- ' mente realizados en el 041C 041B . 0422 . con miras a estudiar la interaccion de un haz electronico con un plasma. Cuando un haz de electrones atraviesa un plasma, excita oscilaciones a la frecuencia del plasma. Estas oscilaciones de micro-ondas mantienen una descarga de micro-ondas; los autores han denominado el proceso completo 'descarga haz-plasma'. La ionizacion del gas ambiental es realizada por los electrones plasmaticos . de alta energia, previamente acelerados por los campos oscilatorios. El resultado es la formacion de un plasma de electrones calientes dentro del espejo magnetico. Puesto que los parametros de la descarga haz-plasma no parecen favorecer el calentamiento directo de los iones por una interaccion haz-plasma, los autores han emprendido experimentos en los cuales se aplica energia de radiofrecuencia suplementaria con objeto de provocar oscilaciones ionico-ciclotronicas para el calentamiento de los iones. La discusion se refiere a la estabilidad del plasma, a la densidad, energia media y maxima de los electrones del plasma y a resultados preliminares sobre el calentamiento de los iones. Se estan realizando experimentos con haces electronicos pulsados, de 10 a 15 keV y de 10 a 15 A, que se inyectan a lo largo del eje de un espejo magnetico, en una region de deriva que contiene H{sub 2} a una presion de 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} Torr. El valor tipico de la densidad electronica en un plasma de 11 es 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} y la densidad de energia transversal asciende a 10{sup 15} eV cm{sup -3}, lo que corresponde a 'temperaturas' electronicas transversales de 10{sup 2} a 10{sup 3} eV. Las energias medidas de los rayos X indican la existencia de electrones con energias de 50 a 100 keV. Despues de interrumpir el haz, el plasma decrece en dos fases: una perdida relativamente rapida de electrones de pequena energia, {tau} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 1000 {mu}s, y decrecimiento lento de electrones de gran energia, {tau}= 10 a 50 ms. Se describe otro experimento ejecutado con iguales parametros de haz electronico, configuracion de campo magnetico y gama de presiones. Las dimensiones del plasma son dobles que en el caso anterior. Inyectando gas a traves de una valvula rapida pulsada, para crear un gradiente de presion, se obtienen parametros de la energia del plasma sensiblemente diferentes. El bombeo del gas por el plasma se reduce en forma considerable a la misma densidad y energia plasmaticas. Las energias electronicas medias y maximas son diez veces mayores que las observadas cuando la densidad del gas es uniforme. A veces se registra una inestabilidad 'disruptiva' en la luminiscencia residual, que corresponde a una perdida de plasma de baja energia. (author) [Russian] V dannoj annotacii my podvodim itog nedavnej raboty po izucheniju vzaimodejstvija jelektronnogo puchka s plazmoj, prodelannoj v Massachuzetskom tehnologicheskom institute. Kogda jelektronnyj puchok prohodit cherez plazmu, on vozbuzhdaet kolebanija na plazmennoj chastote. Jeti mikrovolnovye kolebanija podderzhivajut mikrovolnovyj razrjad, i my nazvali ves' process ''puchkovym razrjadom'. Ionizacija okruzhajushhego gaza osushhestvljaetsja jelektronami vysokoj jEhnergii iz plazmy, kotorye uskorjajutsja poljami kolebanij. Rezul'tatom javljaetsja obrazovanie gorjachej jelektronnoj plazmy vnutri ustanovki s magnitnymi probkami. Poskol'ku parametry razrjada puchka v plazme predstavljajutsja neblagoprijatnymi dlja neposredstvennogo ionnogo nagreva vzaimodejstviem puchka s plazmoj, my pristupili k jeksperimentam, v kotoryh dopolnitel'naja radiochastotnaja jenergija nakladyvaetsja s cel'ju vozbuzhdenija ciklotronnyh kolebanij ionov dlja ionnogo nagreva. Rassmotreniju podlezhat ustojchivost' plazmy; plotnost', srednjaja jenergija i maksimal'naja jenergija jelektronov plazmy; i predvaritel'nye rezul'taty po ionnomu nagrevu. Provodjatsja jeksperimenty s pul'sirujushhim jelektronnym puchkom v 10-15 kv i 10 - 15 A, kotoryj inzhektiruetsja vdol' osi magnitnyh probok v'oblast' drejfa, soderzhashhuju H{sub 2} np 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} torr. Plotnost' jelektronov plazmy ob{sup e}mom v 1 litr obychno sostavljaet 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} sm{sup -3} i plotnost' poperechnoj jEhnergii obychno sostavljaet 10{sup 15} jev/sm{sup 3}, chto sootvetstvuet temperature poperechnyh jelektronov v 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} jev. Izmerenie jenergij rentgenovskih luchej ukazyvaet na sushhestvovanie' jelektronov s jenergiej 50-100 kjev. Spad plazmy posle vykljuchenija puchka proishodit v dva jetapa: otnositel'no bystraja poterja jelektronov nizkoj jEhnergii, {tau} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 1000 mksek, i medlennyj spad jelektronov vysokoj jEhnergii s {tau} = 10-50 msek. Vtoroj jeksperiment provoditsja s temi zhe parametrami jelektronnogo puchka, konfiguraciej magnitnogo polja i diapazonom davlenija. Razmery plazmy okazalis' vdvoe bol'she. Putem vvedenija gaza s pomoshh'ju bystrogo pul'sirujushhego gazovogo klapana polucheny sovershenno razlichnye parametry jEhnergii plazmy, chto takim obrazom opredeljaet gradient davlenija. Gaz, nakachennyj s pomoshh'ju plazmy, sushhestvennym obrazom sokrashhen pri toj zhe samoj plotnosti i jEhnergii plazmy. Desjatikratno vozrastajut srednie i pikovye jelektronnye jEhnergii po otnosheniju k ih ob{sup e}mam pri odinakovoj gazovoj plotnosti. V otdel'nyh sluchajah v poslesvechenii nabljudaetsja ''razryv'' neustojchivosti, chto sootvetstvuet potere nizkoj jEhnergii plazmy. (author)

  5. IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE ALGUNOS CONTENIDOS PROCEDIMENTALES EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL CONTENIDO CONCEPTUAL: CÉLULA Y SUS CARACTERISTICAS, PARA EL RECONOCIMIENTO DE LOS SERES VIVOS; CON ESTUDIANTES DE GRADO SEXTO DE LA INSTITUCION EDUCATIVA TECNICO SUPERIOR DE NEIVA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Tatiana Torrente Díaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia surge durante la práctica pedagógica I, como estudiante del programa de Licenciatura en educación básica con énfasis en ciencias Naturales y educación ambiental,de la Facultad de educación, de la Universidad Surcolombiana (Neiva –Huila; con el fin de evidenciar algunas concepciones acerca de las características para el reconocimiento de los seres vivos en los estudiantes de grado sexto, de la institución educativa Técnico Superior de Neiva- Huila.   Para la recolección de los resultados, se utilizaron las siguientes herramientas: los trabajos escritos, la participación oral en clase y la argumentación escrita en forma de conclusiones.   El análisis de resultados iniciales en la practica pedagógica I, permitió encontrar algunas dificultades que tienen los estudiantes para el reconocimiento de los seres vivos estableciendo características, además algunas problemáticas de los estudiantes al tratar de apropiarse del lenguaje científico, el cual debe ser trabajado a temprana edad. Estas dificultades tienen que ver con los procesos mentales o contenidos procedimentales que los estudiantes deben desarrollar para construir el conocimiento; como la observación, la descripción, la comparación y la argumentación. En el transcurso de la práctica mejoraron sus falencias después del implemento de algunas estrategias didácticas que fortalecieron los contenidos procedimentales.Así mismo ha aumentado la motivación de los estudiantes en el estudio de las Ciencias Naturales.

  6. Design and characteristics of beta-excited X-ray sources; Caracteristiques des sources de rayons X excitees par des particules beta; Konstruktsiya i kharakteristiki beta-vozbuzhdennykh istochnikov rentgenovskikh luchej; Diseno y caracteristicas de las fuentes de rayos X excitadas por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filosofo, I; Reiffel, L; Stone, C A; Voyvodic, L [Physics Division, Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-01-15

    The paper reports on recent work on beta-excited X-ray sources. Results of detailed experimental investigation on the X-rays produced by the fission products Pm{sup 147}, Kr{sup 85} and Sr{sup 90} are described. X-ray yields and spectral distributions have been studied for target materials ranging from copper to uranium and in a variety of source-target geometries (transmission target, reflection target, sandwich target, intimate source-target mixtures). To interpret the experimental results, an analytical treatment of the processes involved in X-ray production by beta particles has been developed and is outlined. By taking into account bremsstrahlung, K-shell ionization, and fluorescent X-ray excitation, a convenient mathematical formulation may be derived for photon spectra and yields as functions of maximum {beta}-energy, target thickness and source configuration. The agreement between calculated and experimentally determined yields is excellent and confirms the merit of the analysis. It thus becomes possible to optimize the design of isotopic X-ray sources for specific applications. Kr{sup 85} and Pm{sup 147} prototype sources have been designed and 'their performance in thickness and composition-analysis measurements is discussed. A high level Pm{sup 147} source for industrial radiography has also been designed and its performance, along with the utility of image intensifiers to extend its applicability, is considered. Finally, a general review of potentialities, advantages and limitations of isotopic X-ray sources is given. (author) [French] Le memoire rend compte des recents travaux sur les sources de rayons X excitees par des particules beta. Il donne les resultats d'une etude experimentale detaillee sur les rayons X emis par les produits de fission {sup 147}Pm, {sup 85}Kr et {sup 90}Sr. Les auteurs ont etudie l'emission et la distribution spectrale des rayons X pour des cibles allant du cuivre a l'uranium, et ce dans plusieurs geometries source-cible differentes, a savoir : etude en transmission, en retrodiffusion, en , et enfin avec source et cible intimemement liees. Pour interpreter les resultats des experiences, les auteurs ont mis au point une analyse des processus qui interviennent dans la production des rayons X par les particules beta; ils en font l'expose. En tenant compte du rayonnement de freinage, de l'ionisation de la couche K et de fluorescence provoquee par les rayons X, il est possible de degager une formule mathematique commode pour les spectres et les nombres de photons emis, en fonction de l'energie beta maximum, de l'epaisseur de la cible et de la configuration de la source. En ce qui concerne les nombres de photons emis, les resultats de l'experience concordent parfaitement avec ceux des calculs theoriques, ce qui confirme la valeur de l'analyse. Il devient ainsi possible de mettre au point des sources de rayons X isotopiques repondant aux exigences des applications auxquelles elles sont destinees. On a construit des sources prototypes de {sup 85}Kr et de {sup 147}Pm; les auteurs en etudient l'efficacite pour les mesures d'epaisseur et les analyses de composition. Ils examinent aussi le comportement d'une source de {sup 147}Pm de grande intensite, mise au point pour Le memoire rend compte des recents travaux sur les sources de rayons X excitees par des particules beta. Il donne les resultats d'une etude experimentale detaillee sur les rayons X emis par les produits de fission {sup 147}Pm, {sup 85}Kr et {sup 90}Sr. Les auteurs ont etudie l'emission et la distribution spectrale des rayons X pour des cibles allant du cuivre a l'uranium, et ce dans plusieurs geometries source-cible differentes, a savoir : etude en transmission, en retrodiffusion, en , et enfin avec source et cible intimemement liees. Pour interpreter les resultats des experiences, les auteurs ont mis au point une analyse des processus qui interviennent dans la production des rayons X par les particules beta; ils en font l'expose. En tenant compte du rayonnement de freinage, de l'ionisation de la couche K et de fluorescence provoquee par les rayons X, il est possible de degager une formule mathematique commode pour les spectres et les nombres de photons emis, en fonction de l'energie beta maximum, de l'epaisseur de la cible et de la configuration de la source. En ce qui concerne les nombres de photons emis, les resultats de l'experience concordent parfaitement avec ceux des calculs theoriques, ce qui confirme la valeur de l'analyse. Il devient ainsi possible de mettre au point des sources de rayons X isotopiques repondant aux exigences des applications auxquelles elles sont destinees. On a construit des sources prototypes de {sup 85}Kr et de {sup 147}Pm; les auteurs en etudient l'efficacite pour les mesures d'epaisseur et les analyses de composition. Ils examinent aussi le comportement d'une source de {sup 147}Pm de grande intensite, mise au point pour la radiographie industrielle, ainsi que l'utilite des renforcateurs d'images, qui permettraient d'en etendre le champ d'application. Enfin, les auteurs passent en revue les possibilites, avantages et limites des sources de rayons X isotopiques. [Spanish] La memoria trata de trabajos realizados recientemente acerca de fuentes de rayos X excitadas por particulas beta. Describe los resultados de una minuciosa investigacion experimental sobre los rayos X generados por los productos de fision {sup 147}Pm, {sup 85}Kr y {sup 90}Sr. Los autores han estudiado los rendimientos en rayos X y las distribuciones espectrales correspondientes a materiales de blanco que abarcan del cobre al uranio, para diversas geometrias fuente-blanco (blancos de transmision, blancos de reflexion, blancos ''sandwich'' y mezclas intimas de la fuente y el blanco). Para interpretar los resultados experimentales, los autores idearon un metodo de analisis de los procesos que intervienen en la produccion de rayos X por excitacion mediante particulas beta; dicho metodo se describe en la memoria. Si se tienen en cuenta la radiacion de frenado (Bremsstrahlung), la ionizacion de la capa K y la fluorescencia provocada por los rayos X, puede lograrse una formulacion matematica satisfactoria para calcular los rendimientos y los espectros fotonicos en funcion de la energia {beta} maxima, del espesor del blanco y de la configuracion de la fuente. Los rendimientos calculados concuerdan perfectamente con los determinados por via experimental, lo que confirma la validez del metodo analitico. De esta forma, resulta posible disenar fuentes isotopicas de rayos X que responden optimamente a las exigencias de las aplicaciones a las que van destinadas. Los autores disenaron prototipos de fuentes de {sup 85}Kr y de {sup 147}Pm, y la memoria analiza su eficacia en las mediciones de espesores y el analisis de sustancias compuestas. Tambien disenaron una fuente de {sup 147}Pm de elevada intensidad destinada a la radiografia industrial; la memoria examina su funcionamiento, asi como la utilidad de los intensificadores de imagen que permiten ampliar el campo de aplicaciones de dicha fuente. Los autores terminan su memoria con un examen general de las posibilidades, ventajas y limitaciones de las fuentes isotopicas de rayos X. (author) [Russian] V dokumente izlagayutsya novejshie rezul'taty rabot nad beta-vozbuzhdennymi istochnikami rentgenovskikh luchej. Opisyvayutsya rezul'taty podrobnogo ehksperimental'nogo issledovaniya rentgenovskikh luchej, proizvodimykh produktami deleniya Rt-147, Kg-85 i Sr-90. Vykhod rentgenovskikh luchej i spektral'noe raspredelenie byli izucheny dlya mishenej, postroennykh iz materialov, idushchikh ot medi do urana, a takzhe dlya raznoobraznogo vzaimnogo raspolozheniya istochnika i mishenej: (propuskayushchaya mishen', otrazhayushchaya mishen', 'sloenaya'' mishen', tesnoperemeshannye istochniki i mishen'). Osobenno podrobno byla izuchena smes' iz prometiya-147 s okis'yu samariya dlya vyyasneniya perspektiv ispol'zovaniya istochnika vysokogo urovnya, v kotorom sam prometij-147 yavlyaetsya glavnoj mishen'yu rentgenovskikh luchej. Detektirovanie rentgenovskikh luchej proizvodilos' pri pomoshchi stsintillyatsionnykh i proportsional'nykh schetchikov sovmestno s 256-kanal'nym amplitudnym analizatorom impul'sov. Dlya istolkovaniya ehksperimental'nykh dannykh bylo vyrabotano i opisano analiticheskoe vyrazhenie protsessov obrazovaniya rentgenovskikh luchej beta-chastitsami. Esli uchest' tormoznoe izluchenie, obolochechnuyu K-ionizatsiyu i flyuorestsiruyushchee vozbuzhdenie rentgenovskikh luchej, to mozhno vyvesti podkhodyashchuyu matematicheskuyu formulu dlya opredeleniya spektra i vykhoda fotonov v funktsii ot maksimal'noj beta-ehnergii, tolshchiny misheni i konfiguratsii istochnika. Poluchaetsya otlichnoe sovpadenie raschetnykh rezul'tatov s ehksperimental'no poluchennymi vykhodami, chto podtverzhadaet tsennost' ehtogo sposoba analiza. Takim obrazom otkryvaetsya vozmozhnost' dlya optimizatsii konstruktsii izotopnykh istochnikov rentgenovskikh luchej v otnoshenii tekh ili inykh primenenij. Byli skonstruirovany prototipnye istochniki kriptona-85 i prometiya-147 i obsuzhdayutsya poluchennye s nimi rezul'taty izmerenij tolshchiny i analiza sostava. Byl takzhe skonstruirovan istochnik prometiya-147 vysokogo urovnya dlya promyshlennoj radiografii i obsuzhdayutsya rezul'taty ispol'zovaniya ehtogo istochnika, a takzhe tselesoobraznost' primeneniya usilitelej izobrazheniya, chto dolzhno eshche bol'she rasshirit' oblast' primeneniya ehtogo metoda. Nakonets, daetsya obshchij obzor vozmozhnostej, preimushchestv i ogranichenij izotopnykh istochnikov rentgenovskikh luchej. (author)

  7. Study of the distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum from different tropical environments in Brazil by neutron activation analysis; Estudo das caracteristicas de distribuicao de elementos terras raras em Solanum lycocarpum em diferentes ambientes tropicais do Brasil por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, Sheila Piorino

    2001-07-01

    In this work, the concentration of eight rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, was determined by neutron activation analysis (INAA), in plant leaves of Solanum lycocarpum. This species is a typical Brazilian 'cerrado' plant, widely distributed in Brazil. The analysis of the plant reference materials CRM Pine Needles (NIST 1575) and Spruce Needles (BCR 101) proved that the methodology applied was sufficiently accurate and precise for the determination of REE in plants. In order to better evaluate the uptake of the REE from the soil to the plant, the host soil was also analyzed by ESiAA. The studied areas were Salitre, MG, Serra do Cipo, MG, Lagoa da Pampulha and Mangabeiras, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and Cerrado de Emas, in Pirassununga, SP. The results were analyzed through the calculation of transfer factors soil-plant and by using diagrams normalized to chondrites. The data obtained showed different transfer factors from soil to plant as the subtract changes. Similar distribution patterns for the soil and the plant were obtained in all the studied sites, presenting an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), less absorbed. These results indicate that the light REE remain available to the plant in the more superficial soil layers. The similarity between the distribution patterns indicates a typical REE absorption by this species, in spite of the significant differences in the substratum . (author)

  8. Characteristics of charcoal fines obtained by rapid pyrolysis process of elephant grass in fluidized bed in different operation conditions; Caracteristicas dos finos de carvao vegetal obtido pelo processo de pirolise rapida de capim elefante em leito fluidizado em diferentes condicoes de operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a study about the effect of excess air and the inert fixed bed height upon the characteristics of fine charcoal particles and the main reactor parameters. The pyrolysis process is considered as a method to concentrate carbon in fine charcoal particles and a method to reduce oxygen content in the biomass.The study concludes that the operation point which gives the highest percentage if carbon fine charcoal particles and reduces the most the oxygen in biomass corresponds to a fixed bed height of 207 mm and excess air of 8%. (author)

  9. Flute Characteristics of and Microwave Emission from a Plasma in a Mirror; Instabilite en Cannelures et Emission de Micro-Ondes par un Plasma dans une Machine a Miroirs; Zhelobkovye kharakteristiki i ehmissiya mikrovoln iz plazmy v zerkale; Caracteristicas del Estriado y Emision de Microondas por un Plasma en un Espejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, F. R.; Jensen, T. H.; Wharton, C. B. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    A pulsed mirror has been constructed to study the stability of a plasma of modest energy. The 70 eV plasma is piped from a gun to the mirror by a linear octopole guide field. The mirror field is turned on in a plasma transit time. Plasma densities of 10{sup 13} electrons/cm{sup 3} are observed in the central plane of the mirror. Two distinct modes of operation are observed and depend only on conditions established in the guide field. In the first mode the plasma in the mirror appears flute stable, most of the plasma escapes axially, a slow anomalous radial diffusion is observed and microwave emission occurs at the electron cyclotron harmonics ranging from n = 1 to at least n = 19. The microwave emission is not compatible with the electron branch of the Harris instability. The stability of this mode is attributed to line tieing by cold plasma effusing from the guide field region. Densities above 10{sup 11} electrons/cm{sup 3} were observed for 200 {mu}sec in the region between the mirror and the guide field. With the addition of an axially symmetric cylinder in the guide field, this density is decreased. Measurements show plasma densities below 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} after 40 {mu}sec in this region. The resulting plasma trapped in the mirror exhibits flute instabilities, radial plasma loss, intense erratic microwave emission and rapid density decay. The m = 1 flute is identified and its phase is followed through 4{pi}. The phase velocity is in the direction of the electron B drift. The sign of this phase velocity may be explained by the theory of Krall if the electron energy exceeds the ion energy sufficiently. The addition of conducting plates in the downstream mirror region tempered the violence of the flute instability. This tempering depends only on the surface resistance of these plates. This effect was examined by measuring the frequency spectrum of signals from coated scintillator probes placed near the vacuum envelope. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont construit une machine a miroirs puisee pour etudier la stabilite d'un plasma d'energie relativement faible. Le plasma de 70 eV, forme dans un canon, est canalise ven le miroir par un champ de guidage octopolaire lineaire. La duree du champ du miroir est egale au temps de transit du plasma. Les auteurs ont mesure des densites d'electrons de 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} dans le plan central du miroir. Ils ont observe deux modes distincts de fonctionnement qui ne dependent que des conditions regnant dans le champ de guidage. Dans le premier mode, le plasma dans le miroir ne semble pas presenter d'instabilite en cannelures, la plus grande partie du plasma d'echappe le long de l'axe', on observe une diffusion radiale anormale lente, il se produit une emission de micro-ondes dont les frequences sont des harmoniques de la frequence cyclotronique des electrons dans l'intervalle entre n = 1 et n = 19 au moins. L'emission de micro-ondes n'est pas compatible avec la branche electronique de l'instabilite de Harris. Les auteurs attribuent la stabilite de ce mode a la fixation des lignes de force par le plasma froid diffusant de la region du champ de guidage. Ils ont observe des densites d'electrons superieurs a 10{sup 11} cm{sup 3} pendant 200 {mu}s dans la region situee entre le miroir et le champ de guidage. La presence d'un cylindre de symetrie axiale dans le champ de guidage a pour effet de diminuer cette densite. Des mesures faites dans cette region fournissent des densites inferieures a 10u cm{sup 3}apres 40 {mu}s. Le plasma qui en resulte, piege dans le miroir, presente des instabilites en cannelures, des pertes de plasma radiales, une emission de micro-ondes irreguliere intense, ainsi qu'une decroissance de densite rapide. Les auteurs ont identifie la cannelure m = 1, dont ils ont suivi la phase dans l'angle 4{pi}. La vitesse de phase possede la meme direction que la derive electronique sous l'influence de B. Le signe de cette vitesse de phase peut s'expliquer par la theorie de Krall, si l'energie des electrons est suffisamment superieure a celle des ions. L'addition de plaques conductrices dans la region aval du miroir a pour effet d'attenuer la violence de l'instabilite en cannelures. Cette attenuation ne depend que de la resistance surfacique de ces plaques. Les auteurs ont etudie cet effet en mesurant le spectre de frequence des signaux en provenance de sondes a sintillateur enrobe placees au voisinage de l'enceinte a vide. (author) [Spanish] Los autores construyeron un espejo pulsado para estudiar la estabilidad de un plasma de modesta energfa. El plasma de 70 eV se inyecta mediante un cation en el espejo, con ayuda de un campo de gufa octopolar de tipo lineal. El campo especular se aplica durante un lapso igual al tiempo de transito del plasma. En el plano central del espejo se alcanzan densidades de plasma iguales a 10{sup 13} electrones/cm{sup 3}. Se observan dos modos definidos de operacion, dependientes exclusivamente de las condiciones establecidas en el campo de gufa. Segun el primer modo, en el espejo el plasma no sufre estriado alguno, la mayor parte del mismo escapa en direccion axial, se observa una lenta, y anomala difusion radial y se emiten microondas en los ar- . monicos ciclotronicos de los electrones, desde n = 1 hasta por lo menos n = 19. La emision de microondas no es compatible con la rama electronica de la inestabilidad de Harris. La estabilidad de este modo se atribuye a la union lineal por el plasma frio que sale por efusion de la zona del campo de gufa. En la zona comprendida entre el espejo y el campo de gufa, se observaron densidades superiores a 10{sup 11} electrones/cm{sup 3} durante 200 {mu}s. Esta densidad disminuye al agregar al campo de gufa un cilindro de simetria axial. Al cabo de 40 us, las mediciones ponen de manifiesto en esta zona densidades de plasma inferiores 10{sup 11} electrones/cm{sup 3}. El plasma resultante, atrapado en el espejo presenta inestabilidades en forma de estrias, perdidas radiales, intensa e irregular emision de microondas y rapida disminucion de la densidad. Se identifica en la memoria la estrfa de m = 1 y se sigue su fase hasta abarcar 4{pi}. La velocidad de fase coincide con la direccion de la deriva B de los electrones. El signo de esta velocidad de fase puede explicarse mediante la teorfa de Krall si la energfa de los electrones es mucho mayor que la energfa de los iones. El agregado de placas conductoras despues del espejo, atempero la violencia de la inestabilidad en forma de.estrias. Esta atenuacion solo depende de la resistencia superficial de dichas placas. El efecto se estudio midiendo el espectro de frecuencias de las sefiales provenientes de sondas de centelleo provistas de revestimiento y colocadas en la proximidad del recipiente de vacfo. (author) [Russian] Postroen impul'snyj probkotron dlja issledovanija ustojchivosti plazmy s umerennoj jenergiej. Plazma s jenergiej 70 jev inzhektiruetsja iz plazmennoj pushki v probkotron s pomoshh'ju linejnogo vos'mipoljusnogo napravljajushhego polja. Probochnoe pole sozdaetsja v moment prohozhdenija plazmy. V central'noj ploskosti probkotrona nabljudajutsja plotnosti plazmy 10{sup 13} jelektronov cm{sup -3}. Nabljudajutsja dva razlichnyh rezhima raboty, kotorye zavisjat tol'ko ot uslovij, sozdannyh v napravljajushhem pole. Pri pervom rezhime raboty plazma v probko- trone, po-vidimomu, javljaetsja ustojchivoj k zhelobkam, bol'shaja chast' plazmy uhodit vdol' osi, nabljudaetsja medlennaja anomal'naja radial'naja diffuzija i voznikaet mikrovolnovoe izluchenie na jelektronno-ciklotronnyh garmonikah v diapazone ot p = 1 i po krajnej mere do p = 19. Mikrovolnovoe izluchenie ne soglasuetsja s jelektronnoj vetv'ju neustojchivosti Garrisa. Schitaetsja, chto ustojchivost' jetogo tipa vyzvana provodimost'ju za schet holodnoj plazmy, istekajushhej iz oblasti napravljajushhego polja. Nabljudajutsja plotnosti svyshe 10{sup 11} jelektronov cm{sup -3} v techenie 200 mksek v oblasti mezhdu probkoj i napravljajushhim polem. Pri pomeshhenii aksial'no simmetrichnogo cilindra v napravljajushhee pole jeta plotnost' umen'shaetsja. Izmerenija pokazyvajut nalichie plazmy s plotnost'ju nizhe 10{sup 11} jelektronov cm{sup -3} posle 40 mksek v jetoj oblasti. V zahvachennoj takim obrazom v probkotrone plazme, voznikaet zhelobkovaja neustojchivost', pojavljajutsja radial'nye poteri, intensivnoe mikrovolnovoe izluchenie i bystryj spad plotnosti. Obnaruzhivajutsja zhelobkovye kolebanija cm = 1, i ih faza proslezhivaetsja cherez 4{pi}. Napravlenie fazovoj skorosti sovpadaet s napravleniem drejfa jelektronov. Znak jetoj fazovoj skorosti mozhno ob{sup j}asnit' na osnove teorii Kralla, esli jenergija jelektronov sushhestvenno prevyshaet jenergiju ionov. Pomeshhenie provodjashhih plastin v oblast' probki umen'shilo zhelobkovuju neustojchivost'. Jeto umen'shenie zavisit tol'ko ot poverhnostnogo soprotivlenija jetih plastin. Jetot jeffekt issledovalsja pri pomoshhi izmerenija chastotnogo spektra signalov, postupajushhih iz jekranirovannyh scintilljaciej- nyh detektorov, nahodjashhihsja vblizi vakuumnogo sosuda. (author)

  10. Study of the resistance mechanisms to ultraviolet radiation in Escherichia Coli. II. General characteristics of the mutants resistant to ultraviolet radiation of Escherichia Coli PQ30; Estudio de los mecanismos de resistencia a UV en E. coli. II. Caracteristicas generales de los mutantes resistentes a UV de E. coli PQ30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1995-12-15

    Inside this second work the results are shown on the preliminary characterization of the 5 populations of Escherichia coli that its were subjected to the light UV, by means of 80 irradiation- growth cycles, the dose of which it was duplicated each 10 cycles. The course that the resistance to UV to those 5 populations continued along the process, that covers some 165 generations, and the level reached at the end by each one of them suggests the presence of different resistance mechanisms to the UV light. (Author)

  11. Comparative analysis of electro-mechanical characteristic of a three-phase induction motor with 1,5 CV with high performance and conventional one; Analise comparativa das caracteristicas eletromecanicas entre um motor de inducao trifasico de 1,5CV de alto-rendimento e convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, J.C.V. [Dalkia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertoleti, P.H.F.; Magalhaes Sobrinho, P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LAMOTRIZ/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Sistemas Motrizes Industriais; Souza, T.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, the electric power consumed by three-phase induction motors corresponding to approximately 55% of total electric power consumed by the industrial sector. Therefore, a thorough analysis of this type of engine under the questions of energy saving, economic viability and electro-mechanical characteristics are needed. This work deals with the comparative analysis for two motors three-phase induction, one conventional and another with high performance (manufacturer WEG and IP55 protection grade), aiming to obtain the necessary relationships to do an economical and electro-mechanical analysis.

  12. Study of the characteristic response of the pressure control system for the design parameters of the new turbine control system, MARK VI, in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant; Resultados del estudio de la respuesta caracteristica del sistema de control de presion para el Proyecto OCP-4300 Nuevo Sistema de Control de Turbina MARK VI en la C.N. Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo anaya, M. J.; Ruiz Bueno, G.; Mora, J. A.; Vaquer, J. I.; Bucho, L.; Lopez, B.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of the characteristic response of the ancient Pressure and Turbine Control System for the OCP-4300 Project in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, made by Titania Servicios Tecnologicos in collaboration with the Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety. This work was done as one of the preliminary work necessary for replacing the old control system by Mark VI.

  13. Anomalies jointing in the Laguna Blanca area (Rocha district) about of radiometric anomaly sector with thorium characteristic[Study of Uranium prospection in Uruguay]; Division de anomalias en el area de Laguna Blanca (Departamento de Rocha) sobre un sector radimetricamente anomalo de caracteristicas toriferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, P

    1986-07-01

    In the following lines are sumarized the prospection works carried out on anomalous radiometric sectors located at the Department of Rocha (Uruguay) Its toriferous feature and the likely metallogenetic model to which they are associated are also developed.

  14. Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

  15. A quick system for estimating the purification performance of waste water treatment plants based on the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of activated sludge; Sistema rapido de estimacion de los rendimientos en depuracion de una EDAR en funcion de las caracteristicas macroscopicas del fango activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Fernandez, N.; Horra de la, J. M.; Rodriguez, E.; Isac, L.; Salas, D.; Gomez, E.; Ortiz Vargas, A.; Gonzalez Carballo, J. A.

    2001-07-01

    Microbiological studies of activated sludge require time, specialized staff and the arduous task of identifying and analysing the results, which is not usually within the scope of every laboratory. This article raises the possibility of carrying out a simplified study of active sludge, based on its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, which produces a sludge index value that is directly related to the percentage reduction of solids in suspension, COD and BOD in the waste water treatment plant. In addition, this sludge index would also provide the possibility of quickly obtaining a historical record of biological quality values using a simple protocol that could be use for comparisons. (Author) 10 refs.

  16. Comparison among structural characteristics of Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanocatalysts obtained by two methods of distinct synthesis; Comparacao entre as caracteristicas estruturais dos nanocatalisadores Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} obtidos por dois metodos de sintese distintos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, L.S.; Bispo, A.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L., E-mail: lucianna@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Mascarenhas, A.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The objective this work is to synthesize nano catalysts Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} type by the synthesis methods of the combustion reaction and Pechini. The value of the concentration (x) of the element dope (Cu) varies between 0,1 and 0,5 mols. It intends evaluate that form the synthesis method influences in the physical structural characteristics of this material. nano catalysts were characterized by ray- X diffraction. The results showed nano catalysts formation with a formed structure for the most part by the phase CeO{sub 2}, as it was expected, since this is the hostess matrix of the element dope (Cu). Nano catalysts obtained by the method Pechini presents crystallinity larger deg, according with patterns of ray-X. Thus, it was concluded that synthesis employee method the kind in the methodology, as well as the value of the concentration of the element dope has influence on the final structural characteristics of the developed material. (author)

  17. Physical and Chemical Analysis of the Germinating and Nutritional Properties of Irradiated Wheat; Analyse Physico-Chimique des Caracteristiques Germinatives et Nutritives du Ble Irradie; Fizicheskie i khimicheskie analizy svojstv rosta i pitatel'nykh kachestv obluchennoj pshenitsy; Analisis Fisicoquimico de Trigo Irradiado: Estudio de sus Caracteristicas Germinativas y Nutricionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahissa Campa, J.; Gabarain, R. V.A.; De Pahissa, M. H.H. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bassa, L. [Junta Nacional de Granos, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1966-11-15

    The authors exposed wheat to radiation at various dose levels for the purpose of determining the physical and chemical effects on whole grain (its behaviour as seed) and flour (nutritional value). They used the Surena M.A.G. variety of wheat, which is cultivated in Argentina and was supplied by the National Wheat Board. A Canadian Gamma cell 220 apparatus was employed, equipped with a 13 000-Ci {sup 60}Co source and capable of delivering a dose of approximately 1 Mrad/h. Irradiation was carried out at the following dose levels: 10, 15, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 krad. The following analytical values were determined: (a) whole wheat - hectolitric weight, moisture content, percentage of proteins (nitrogen content x 13.5), Zeleny figure, ash content, ability to germinate (two and three days); (b) flour - moisture content, percentage of proteins (nitrogen content x 13.5), Zeleny figure, ash content, alcoholic acidity, maltose content, wet gluten content, dry gluten content, farinograph values (absorption of water, development time, degree of sponginess, Brabender moisture tester), alveograph values (stretch-resistance, stretch, degree and rate of deformation, ratio of stretch-resistance to stretch), extensometer values (work required to stretch dough, stretch-resistance, stretch, ratio of stretch-resistance to stretch), bread-making characteristics (weight of bread, volume of bread and specific volume). The same values were also determined for non-irradiated wheat. Sufficient quantities of wheat were irradiated to permit analyses of samples after different periods of time had elapsed. The analytical values were found to vary with dose, marked differences (with respect to the control sample) being noted in the texture, odour, colour and taste of bread made with wheat that had received the highest doses. To determine changes in nutritional value the irradiated wheat was included in the diet of rats, both immediately following irradiation and after various periods of time had elapsed. The development of the rats, in particular that of their blood picture and bone marrow, was then closely followed. (author) [French] Dans leur plan de travail, les auteurs ont prevu l'irradiation de ble a des doses diverses en vue de determiner les effets physiques et chimiques sur les grains et la farine, le comportement du ble en tant que semence et sa valeur alimentaire; Ils ont utilise la variete Surena M. A.G., qui est cultivee en Argentine et dont des echantillons avaient ete fournis par l'Office national de cereales. Pour l'irradiation, ils se sont servi d'un appareil canadien Gammacell 220, de 13 000 Ci de cobalt-60, fournissant une dose d'environ lMrad/h. Des irradiations ont ete effectuees aux doses suivantes: 10, 15, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, 1000, 1500 et 2000 krad. On a analyse les echantillons irradies pour determiner les valeurs suivantes: a) pour le ble entier: poids de l'hectolitre, humidite, proteines en pour cent (base azote multipliee par 13, 5), Zeleny, cendres, pouvoir germinatif (deux et trois jours); b) pour la farine : humidite, proteines (base azote multipliee par 13,5), Zeleny, cendres, acidite alcoolique, maltose, gluten humide, gluten sec; procedes utilises: farinographe (absorption d'eau, temps de formation de la pate, degre d'elasticite, valorimetre de Brabender); alveographe (tenacite, extensibilite, travail de deformation, rapport tenacite/extensibilite); extensimetre (force, resistance, extensibilite, rapport resistance/extensibilite); panification (poids du pain, volume du pain et volume specifique). Parallelement, il a ete procede aux memes mesures sur du ble non irradie. Etant donne les quantites irradiees, on a pu conserver des echantillons en vue de proceder a l'analyse des memes parametres apres divers laps de temps. Les diverses valeurs analysees ont accuse des variations en fonction de la dose. En ce qui concerne la texture, l'odeur, la couleur et le gout du pain, les doses les plus fortes ont engendre des differences tres sensibles par rapport a l'echantillon temoin. Pour determiner la valeur alimentaire du grain irradie, les auteurs en ont inclus dans la ration alimentaire de rats, aussitot apres l'irradiation et, par la suite, a divers intervalles. On a suivi l'evolution des animaux et plus particulierement celle de leur systeme sanguin et de leur moelle osseuse. (author) [Spanish] El plan de trabajo contemplo la irradiacion de trigo a distintos niveles de dosis, a fin de determinar los efectos fisicos y quimicos sobre grano entero y harina, su comportamiento como semilla y su valor alimenticio. Se utilizo la variedad Surena M. A.G. que se cultiva en la Republica Argentina, suministrada por la Junta Nacional de Granos. Se empleo para irradiar un Gammacell 220 (Canadiense) provisto de 13 000 Ci de cobalto-60 y que provee una dosis aproximada de 1 Mrad/h. Se han realizado irradiaciones a los siguientes niveles de dosis: 10, 15, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, 1000, 1500 y 2000 krad. Se determinaron los siguientes valores analiticos de las muestras irradiadas: a) Sobre trigo entero: peso hectolitrico, humedad, proteinas por ciento (base nitrogeno por 13, 5), Zeleny, cenizas, energia germinativa (2 y 3 dias), b) Sobre harina, humedad, proteinas (base nitrogeno por 13, 5), Zeleny, cenizas, acidez alcoholica, maltosa, gluten humedo, gluten seco, farinografo (comprende: absorcion de agua, tiempo de desarrollo de la.masa, grado de aflojamiento: valorimetro Brabender), alveografo (comprende: tenacidad, extensibilidad, trabajo de deformacion, relacion tenacidad/extensibilidad), extensografo (comprende: energia, resistencia, extensibilidad, relacion resistencia/extensibilidad), panificacion (comprende: peso del pan, volumen del pan, y volumen especifico). Paralelamente se realizaron las mismas determinaciones con trigo sin irradiar. Las cantidades irradiadas permitieron conservar muestras para realizar los analisis de los mismos parametros luego de transcurridos diversos lapsos. Se apreciaron distintas variaciones en los valores analiticos determinados, variaciones que dependian de la dosis. En cuanto a la textura, olor, color y sabor del pan, se observaron diferencias sumamente marcadas respecto al testigo, para las dosis mas elevadas. Para evaluar el valor alimenticio del grano irradiado, se emplearon ratas a las cuales se les incluyo en la dieta dicho material. La incorporacion se realizo inmediatamente despues de la irradiacion, y con posterioridad a lapsos variables. Se controlo la evolucion de los animales y fundamentalmente el cuadro hematico y medula osea. (author) [Russian] Pshenicu obluchali razlichnymi dozami s cel'ju opredelit' himicheskoe i fizicheskoe vlijanie obluchenija na celoe zerno (ego povedenie kak semeni) i muku (pishhevaja cennost'). V opyte ispol'zovali raznovidnost' pshenicy Surena M. A. G., kul'tiviruemoj v Argentine, ona byla postavlena Nacional'noj organizaciej po pshenice. Byl primenen pribor kanadskaja gamma-kamera 220 s istochnikom kobal't-60 moshhnost'ju 13 000 kjuri, sposobnym davat' dozu priblizitel'no 1 mrad/chas. Pshenicu obluchali dozami 10, 15, 20, 50,100,150, 200,-300, 500,1000, 1500 i 2000 kilorad. Byli opredeleny sledujushhie analiticheskie velichiny: a) po celomu zernu - ves 1 gektolitra, vlazhnost', procent proteina (soderzhanie azota h 13,5), cifra Zeleny, soderzhanie zoly, sposobnost' k prorastaniju (2 i 3 dnja); b) po muke - vlazhnost', procent proteina (soderzhanie azota h 13,5), cifra Zeleny, soderzhanie zoly, alkogol'naja kislotnost', soderzhanie solodovogo sahara, soderzhanie zhidkoj klejkoviny, soderzhanie suhoj klejkoviny, farintrafi- cheskie velichiny (pogloshhenie vody, vremja razvitija, stepen' poristosti, shhup dlja izmerenija vlazhnosti Brabendera), al'veograficheskie velichiny (soprotivlenie testa raskatyvaniju, rastjagivanie, stepen' i skorost' deformacii, sootnoshenie soprotivlenija na raskatyvanie'i raskatyvanija), velichiny rasshirenija (rabota, trebuemaja dlja raskatyvanija testa, soprotivlenie raskatyvaniju, raskatyvanie, otnoshenie soprotivlenija raskatyvaniju k raskatyvaniju), harakteristiki, kasajushhiesja vypechki hleba (ves, ob{sup e}m i udel'nyj ob{sup e}m hleba). Te zhe samye velichiny byli opredeleny takzhe dlja neobluchennoj pshenicy. Dostatochnoe kolichestvo pshenicy bylo oblucheno s tem, chtoby mozhno bylo osushhestvit' analizy obrazcov po istechenii razlichnyh periodov vremeni. Byli najdeny analiticheskie velichiny, menjajushhiesja s dozoj, otmecheny razlichija (s uchetom kontrol'nogo obrazca), registriruemye v teksture, aromate, cvete i vkuse hleba, izgotovlennogo iz pshenicy, obluchennoj samymi bol'shimi dozami. Dlja opredelenija izmenenij v pitatel'nyh svojstvah obluchennaja pshenica byla vkljuchena v racion krys kak neposredstvenno posle obluchenija, tak i spustja nekotoroe vremja. Posle jetogo byli provedeny tshhatel'nye nabljudenija za razvitiem krys, v chastnosti za razvitiem ih kartiny krovi i kostnogo mozga. (author)

  18. Evaluation of quality characteristics and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meats treated with different dose rates of ionizing radiation and use of antioxidants; Avaliacao de caracteristicas de qualidade e propriedades funcionais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango tratada com diferentes taxas de dose de radiacao ionizante e uso de antioxidantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula

    2012-07-01

    The Mechanically Deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used in traditional meat products, in greater proportion in those emulsified, replacing meat raw materials more expensive. The raw material can have high MDCM the microbial load, as a result of contamination during processing or failure during the evisceration. The irradiation process is accepted as one of the most effective technologies when compared to conventional techniques of preservation, to reduce contamination of pathogens and spoilage. However, little information is available about the use and effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation processing. Irradiation causes chemical changes in food, a major cause of deterioration of quality of raw or cooked meat products during refrigerated storage, frozen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dose rates of ionizing radiation on the production of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken added or without added antioxidants, during the cold storage and evaluation of functional properties. The results showed that among the tested dose rates using cobalt-60 source, dose rate of 4.04 kGy.h-1 was the best for processing MDCM. Furthermore, the use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to reduce lipid oxidation generated by irradiation of the samples, showed a synergistic effect to the processing with ionizing radiation in reduction of psychrotrophic bacteria count and contributed to a better sensory quality. The use of radiation in the processing FDMI did not adversely affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  19. PSYCRODATA: a software which calculates the air humidity characteristics and relate its with the variations of the gamma environmental bottom; PSYCRODATA: software que calcula las caracteristicas de la humedad del aire y las relaciona con las variaciones del fondo gamma ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D.; Dominguez L, O.; Ramos V, O.; Caveda R, C.A.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba); Dominguez G, A.; Valdes S, E. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnicas Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez V, E. [Instituto de Meteorologia (INSMET), La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The computer tool 'Psycrodata', able to calculate the values of those characteristics of the humidity of the air starting from the measurements carried out of humidity and temperature in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance was obtained. Among the facilities that 'Psycrodata' toasts it is the keeping the obtained information in a database facilitating the making of reports. For another part the possibility of selection of different approaches for the calculation and the introduction of the psicrometric coefficient to use, its make that each station can have the suitable psicrometric chart keeping in mind the instrumentation and the characteristics of the area of location of the same one. Also, can have facilities to import text files for later on to be plotted, it allowed to correlate the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation, besides of the temperature and the humidity, with the tension of the water steam, the temperature of the dew point and the saturation deficit. (Author)

  20. Effects of the modified atmosphere and irradiation on the microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of the 'minas frescal' cheese;Efeitos da atmosfera modificada e da irradiacao sobre as caracteristicas microbiologicas, fisico-quimicas e sensoriais do queijo minas frescal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Vanessa Pires da

    2004-07-01

    The experiment was divided into two parts. Initially, it was studied the 'Minas Frescal' cheeses packed under atmospheric air, modified atmosphere of 70% CO2 and 30% N2 (ATM) and vacuum. Second the cheeses packed under these three treatments had been radiated by doses of 2 KGy. In the two parts of the experiment, it was analyzed the microbial evolution and, the sensory and physical-chemical characteristics of the cheeses under the different treatments during a 4 deg C-storage. In the first phase of the experiment it was verified that the ATM and the vacuum decreased the intensity of the total population growth of aerobic mesophilic and psychotropic and had reduced the population of Staphylococcus positive coagulase, but they had not been efficient controlling the total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while in control all the populations had continuously grown, according to the sensory characteristics of the cheeses, color, odor and appearance. These characteristics were kept the same during the 40 days of storage, and the control decreased the acceptability levels gradually, being rejected in the 17{sup th} day. In the second part of the experiment, it was observed that a 2KGy-irradiation over the 'Minas Frescal' cheeses reduced the populations of aerobic mesophilic, aerobic and anaerobic psychotropic, Staphylococcus positive coagulase, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The ATM and vacuum treatments were very efficient therefore they prevented the growth of these microorganisms during the storage, while in control, the aerobic mesophilic and psychotropic population grew during the storage. According to sensory aspects, the ATM treatment was the most efficient one, because it kept the appearance, texture and flavor for more than 43 days while the vacuum kept for 36 days and the control for only 8 days. The use of the irradiation with modified atmosphere and low temperatures of storage increased the shelf life of the cheeses, hindering the growth of the microbial populations in the product and keeping product sensory characteristics. (author)

  1. The Gañuelas-Mazarrón Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain): Features, Analogies, implications for the Safety of a CO2-DGS and Methodology; La Cuenca de Gañuelas-Mazarrón (Murcia, España): Caracteristicas, Analogías, Implicaciones para la Seguridad de un AGP-CO y 2 Metodología de Estudio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Clemente-Jul, C.; Pérez del Villar, L.

    2015-07-01

    This work summarizes the main features of the Gañuelas-Mazarrón Tertiary basin, emphasising on the: i) geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics; ii) current carbonate precipitation related to waters from several hydrogeological and geothermal wells in the basin; and iii) dissolved and free CO2 leakages and associated gases, mainly 222Rn. Furthermore, it has been summarised the main analogies established between the natural system studied and a CO2-Deep Geological Storage (CO2-DGS) conceptual model; as well as the implications of these analogies to qualitatively analyse the behaviour and evaluate the safety, in short, medium and long term, of a CO2-DGS. Finally, a useful methodology for any sedimentary basin, similar to the Gañuelas-Mazarrón basin, capable to host a CO2-DGS is also proposed. In conclusion, the full or partial study of a natural system analogous to a CO2-DGS must not be confused with the study to characterise a site for a CO2-DGS, since natural analogues should provide information about the behaviour, evolution and safety, in long-term, of the natural system, and that this information could be applied to a CO2-DGS system.

  2. 2, 4 and 6 kGy effect on the microbiological characteristics of chicken hamburgers stored at 2{+-}2 {sup o}C; Efecto de 2, 4 y 6 kGy sobre las caracteristicas microbiologicas de hamburguesa de pollo almacenadas a 2{+-}2{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Z [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Basurto, H; Silva, M [Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2001-01-01

    Decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) of S. typhimurium irradiated in Casoy broth (TSB) and inoculated in chicken burger was found to be 0,425 and 0,547 kGy respectively being the second value 22,3 % higher than the first one. Then, chicken burger previously radiosterilized at 15 kGy was inoculated with S. typhimurium, irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and kept under storage for 57 days at 2{+-} 2 {sup o}C and HR 90 5%. Another batch of chicken burger without radiosterilization was irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored under the same conditions than the previous one in order to study the natural bacterial flora. It was observed that there is a synergic effect between irradiation dose and time of storage ({alpha}=5%) in the counting of S. typhimurium. In unirradiated chicken burger, the number of total coliforms increased from 29 NMP/g at the beginning to 4250 NMP/g at day 22 and fecal coliforms from 4 to 240 NMP/g; subsequently the number of these bacteria dropped again at the end of the storage time, while in irradiated samples no coliforms were found. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria diminished its ability of growing up and making colonies, proportionally to the applied irradiation doses. However, as the storage time advanced these bacteria recovered its ability to grow up and of cause spoilage. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of Fluorine-18 as a Scanning Agent for Intracranial Tumours; Emploi du Fluor-18 en Scintigraphy des Tumeurs Intracraniennes; Otsenka Ftora-18 kak skenniruyushchego agenta dlya vnutricherepnykh opukholej; Examen de las Caracteristicas del Fluor-18 como Agente de Exploracion de los Tumores Intracraneales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entzian, W.; Aronow, S.; Soloway, A. H.; Sweet, W. H. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    F{sup 18}, a 110-min half-life, positron emitter was studied as a possible agent for brain-tumour localization. It was prepared in a nuclear reactor by thermal neutron irradiation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (Li{sup 6} (n, {alpha}) H{sup 3}, O{sup 16}(H{sup 3}, n) F{sup 18}). Tissue studies in mice bearing subcutaneously-transplanted ependymomas indicated that labelled sodium fluoride (NaF{sup 18}) gave excessive concentrations in bone and was therefore unsuitable as a brain-scanning agent. However, labelled potassium fluoborate (KBF{sup 18}{sub 4}) showed good preferential uptake in tumour compared with brain, uptake ratios ranging from 8 to 11. No excessive concentrations were found in other organs in either mice or cats. Toxicity studies were carried out in mice and rabbits at levels of 300 mg/kg and 120 mgAg respectively. No adverse effects were observed provided the solution was neutralized to a physiological pH. The chemical amounts needed for patient scanning were less than 0.5 mgAg of body weight. A comparative clinical study of 10 patients, each scanned with KBF{sup 18}{sub 4} and other isotopic agents, corroborated the findings of Askenasy et al. that this is a useful compound for brain-tumour localization. Intravenous injection was optimally performed 30 min before scanning at a dosage of 15 {mu}c/kg of body weight. Tissue samples of tumour and normal brain were obtained from one patient at operation. The uptake ratio was 3.5. While this is lower than that found in the mouse, it is still in a useful range. Blood samples obtained from patients at varying time intervals after injection yielded a blood clearance curve which had two time constants. The first was very rapid and the second slower. This sequence is typical of useful scanning agents. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie la possibilite d'employer {sup 18}F, emetteur de positons ayant une periode de 110 min, pour localiser lcs tumeurs du cerveau. Cette substance a ete preparee dans un reacteur par irradiation de Li{sub 2}Co{sub 3} par des neutrons thermiques ({sup 6}Li (n, {alpha}){sup 3}H, {sup 15}O({sup 3}H, n){sup 18}F). Il ressort d'etudes faites sur des tissus de souris presentant des ependymomes implantes par greffes sous-cutanees que le fluorure de sodium marque (Na{sup 18}F) se concentre de maniere excessive dans les os et qu'il ne convient donc pas pour explorer le cerveau. Par contre, on a constate que le fluoborate de potassium marque (KBF{sup 18}{sub 4}) se concentrait nettement plus dans les tumeurs que dans le tissu normal du cerveau, les rapports de concentration allant de 8 a 11. Aucune concentration excessive n'a ete observee dans d'autres organes, tant chez les souris que chez les chats. Les auteurs ont fait des etudes de toxicite sur des souris et des lapins pour 300 mgAg et 120 mgAg' respectivement. Aucun effet nocif n'a ete observe tant que le pH de la solution etait maintenu a une valeur physiologique. Les quantites de substance necessaire pour proceder a la scintigraphie du sujet etaient inferieures a 0,5 mgAg de poids du corps. Une etude clinique comparative menee sur 10 patients, qui ont tous ete examines a l'aide de KBF{sup 18}{sub 4} et d'autres agents radioisotopiques, a confirme la conclusion d'Askenasy et autres: ce compose est utile pour localiser les tumeurs du cerveau. On a fait des injections intraveineuses dans des conditions optimales 30 min avant la scintigraphie, a raison de 15 {mu}c/kg de poids du corps. Des echantillons de tissus de tumeur et de tissus normaux du cerveau ont ete preleves sur un malade qui subissait une operation. Le rapport de concentration etait de 3,5. Bien que ce rapport soit inferieur a celui qui avait ete observe chez la souris, il n'en demeure pas moins convenable. L'examen d'echantillons de sang preleves sur des malades a divers intervalles apres l'injection a permis d'etablir une courbe d'elimination du sang a deux constantes de temps. La premiere etait tres rapide et la seconde plus lente, ce qui est caracteristique des bons agents de scintigraphie. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estudiaron la posibilidad de utilizar {sup 18}F (periodo: 110 min) para localizar tumores cerebrales. Prepararon este isotopo en un reactor por irradiacion de Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} con neutrones termicos ({sup 6}Li (n, {alpha}){sup 3} H, {sup 16}O({sup 3}H, n) {sup 18}F). Los estudios realizados con tejidos de raton en el que se habfe transplantado epen- dimomas.por vCa subcutanea mostraron que el fluoruro de sodio marcado (Na{sup 18}F) se concentra excesivamente en los huesos y que, por tanto, no es adecuado para explorar el cerebro. Sin embargo, el tumor capto una proporcion mayor de fluoborato potasico marcado (KB{sup 18}F{sub 4}) que el tejido normal del cerebro; la razon de captacion fue de 8 a 11. En los experimentos efectuados con ratones y gatos no se observo ninguna concentracion excesiva en otros organos. Los autores efectuaron estudios de toxicidad sobre ratones y conejos con dosis de 300 mgAg y 120 mg/kg respectivamente. No se observo ningun efecto adverso cuando la solucion estaba neutralizada hasta alcanzar un pH fisiologico. La cantidad de productos quimicos necesaria para la exploracion fue inferior a 0,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. Un estudio clinico comparativo de 10 pacientes, explorados despues de administrarles KB{sup 18}F{sub 4} y otros agentes isotopicos, corroboro los resultados obtenidos por Askenasy y sus colaboradores, segun los cuales este compuesto es util para localizar tumores cerebrales. La inyeccion intravenosa dio resultados optimos cuando se administraron 15 {mu}c por kg de peso corporal 30 min antes de proceder a la exploracion. Se sacaron muestras de tumor y de tejido cerebral normal de un paciente durante la operacion. La razon de absorcion tumor/tejido normal fue de 3,5. Si bien este valor es inferior al correspondiente al raton, presenta todavia utilidad diagnostica. Las muestras de sangre extraidas a diferentes intervalos despues de la inyeccion permitieron trazar una curva de depuracion sanguinea con dos constantes de tiempo. La primera era muy breve y la segunda mas larga. Esta secuencia es tipica de los agentes de exploracion eficaces. (author) [Russian] V kachestve verojatnogo agenta dlja lokalizacii mozgovyh opuholej izuchalsja ftor-18, izluchatel' pozitronov s periodom poluraspada 110 min. Ftor-18 poluchali v jadernom reaktore putem obluchenija Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (Li{sup 6} (n, {alpha}) H{sup 3}, O{sup 16}(H{sup 3}, n) F{sup 18}) teplovymi nejtronami. Tkanevye issledovanija na myshah s peresazhennoj podkozhno jependimomoj pokazalo, chto mechenyj ftorid natrija (NaF{sup 18}) sozdaet izbytochnye koncentracii v kostjah i pojetomu ne udovletvorjaet v kachestve skennirujushhego agenta dlja mozga. Odnako pri primenenii mechenogo ftorborata kalija (KBF{sup 18}{sub 4})obnaruzheno izbiratel'noe pogloshhenie ego opuhol'ju po sravneniju s mozgom, prichem velichina pogloshhenija izmenjalas' v diapazone ot 8 do 11. Kak u myshej, tak i u koshek ne obnaruzheno izbytochnoj koncentracii v drugih organah. Izuchenie toksichnosti provodilos' na myshah i krolikah pri koncentracii 300mg/kg i 120 mg/kg sootvetstvenno. Pri nejtralizacii rastvora do urovnja fiziologicheskogo pH ne nabljudalos' nikakih neblagoprijatnyh jeffektov. Himicheskie kolichestva, neobhodimye dlja skennirovanija pacientov, sostavljali menee 0,5 mg/kg vesa tela. Sravnitel'nye klinicheskie issledovanija u 10 pacientov, kazhdyj iz kotoryh podvergalsja skennirovaniju s KBF{sup 18}{sub 4} drugimi izotopnymi veshhestvami, podtverdili vyvody Ashkenazi i dr. o tom, chto jeto soedinenie javljaetsja poleznym dlja opredelenija lokalizacii mozgovyh opuholej. Vnutrivennoe vvedenie osushhestvljalos' optimal'no za 30 minut do skennirovanija pri doze 15 mkkjuri/kg vesa tela. U odnogo pacienta pri operacii byli vzjaty obrazcy tkanej opuholi i zdorovoj tkani mozga. Kojefficient pogloshhenija sostavljal 3,5. Hotja jeto sootnoshenie nizhe, chem u myshej, no jeta velichina prakticheski prigodna. Pri issledovanii krovi, vzjatoj u pacientov cherez raznye promezhutki vremeni posle in{sup e}kcii, poluchena krivaja klirensa krovi, imejushhaja dve postojannyh vremeni. Pervaja-ochen' kratkovremennaja, vtoraja -medlennee. Takaja harakteristika tipichna dlja prigodnyh sken- nirujushhih agentov. (author)

  4. Raw material of the Corumbatai formation at the region of ceramic pole of Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, Brazil, with natural characteristics for fabrication of expanded clay; Materia-prima da formacao Corumbatai na regiao do polo ceramico de Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, com caracteristicas naturais para fabricacao de argila expandida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M.M.T.; Zanardo, A.; Rocha, R.R.; Roveri, C.D., E-mail: mmoreno@rc.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    This paper refers to the study of the bases material of the Corumbatai Formation (Parana Basin) from a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0,5g.cm{sup -3} because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles. (author)

  5. Características epidemiológicas dos óbitos maternos ocorridos em Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006 Caracteristicas epidemiológicas de las muertes maternas ocurridas en Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006 Epidemiological features of maternal deaths occurred in Recife, PE, Brazil (2000-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Araújo Correia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de corte transversal que objetivou descrever as características epidemiológicas dos óbitos maternos de residentes no Recife, PE, Brasil, ocorridos entre 2000 e 2006. A fonte de dados foi constituída pelas fichas de investigação de óbito materno da Secretaria de Saúde do Recife. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se o programa EpiInfo 6.04d. Foram estudados 111 óbitos, correspondendo a uma Razão de Morte Materna de 65,99/100.000 nascidos vivos. Os dados obstétricos mostraram a realização de menos de seis consultas pré-natais, entre uma e quatro gestações prévias, parto cesário e admissão em estado grave. Os transtornos hipertensivos constituíram a principal causa de óbito. A maioria dos óbitos foi considerada evitável. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de aprimorar a assistência à saúde da gestante durante o pré-natal, parto e puerpérioEstudio de corte transversal cuyo objetivo ha sido describir las características epidemiológicas de los óbitos maternos de residentes en la ciudad de Recife, PE, Brasil ocurridos entre los años 2000 y 2006. La fuente de datos la constituyeron las fichas de investigación de óbito materna de la Secretaría de Salud de Recife. Para el análisis de los datos se ha hecho uso del programa EpiInfo 6.04d. Han sido investigados 111 óbitos, lo que corresponde a una Razón de Muerte Materna de 65,99/100.000 nacidos vivos. Los datos obstétricos han demostrado la realización de menos de seis consultas prenatales, entre una y cuatro gestaciones previas, parto cesáreo, ingreso en estado grave, con demanda de asistencia bajo terapia. Los trastornos hipertensivos constituyeron la principal causa del óbito. En su mayor parte, los óbitos han sido considerados evitables. Los resultados señalan la necesidad de aprimorar la asistencia a la salud de la gestante en el período prenatal, el parto y el puerperioThis was a cross-sectional study that aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of maternal deaths among women living in Recife, PE, Brazil that occurred between 2000 and 2006. The data source consisted of investigation files on maternal deaths. To analyze the data, the EpiInfo 6.04d software was used. The analysis considered 111 deaths, corresponding to a maternal death ratio of 65.99/100,000 live births. The obstetric data showed that these women had had fewer than six prenatal consultations, between one and four previous pregnancies, cesarean deliveries and hospital admission in a severe condition. Hypertensive disorders were the main cause of death. Most of the deaths were considered avoidable. The results indicate the need to improve the healthcare for pregnant women prenatally, at delivery and during the puerperium

  6. Características dos grupos de pesquisa da enfermagem brasileira certificados pelo CNPq de 2005 a 2007 Caracteristicas de los grupos de investigación de la enfermería brasileña certificados por el CNPq de 2005 hasta 2007 Research group characteristics of the brazilian nursing certificated by the CNPq from 2005 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo documental, constituindo-se um banco de dados coletados em quatro momentos distintos: março de 2005, dezembro de 2005, agosto de 2006 e abril de 2007, dados estes referentes ao total de Grupos de Pesquisa de Enfermagem encontrados no Diretório dos Grupos de Pesquisa no Brasil do CNPq. Os resultados indicam que 92% dos grupos de pesquisa possuem de 1 a 5 linhas de pesquisa, são compostos por 11 a 15 membros, oscilando em uma média de até 8 pesquisadores, 5 doutores, 3 mestres, 3 especialistas e 7 graduandos. Logo, os grupos de pesquisa representam o lócus de produção de conhecimentos e formação de recursos humanos em pesquisa. No Brasil, houve um crescimento significativo dos grupos de pesquisa da área da Enfermagem com o incremento da produção, qualificação dos integrantes, bem como o fortalecimento das bases de investigação e a maior visibilidade e reconhecimento da inovação da Enfermagem.Estudio documental que constituye en una base de datos recogida en cuatro momentos distintos: marzo de 2005, diciembre del 2005, agosto de 2006, y abril de 2007, datos éstos que refieren el total de grupos de investigación encontrados en el directorio de los grupos de investigación en el Brasil del CNPq. Los resultados indican que los 92% de los grupos de investigación poseen de 01 las 05 líneas de la investigación, son compuestos para 11 los 15 miembros, oscilando en un promedio de hasta 08 investigadores, 05 doctores, 03 masteres, 03 especialistas, 07 graduandos. Luego, los grupos de investigación se constituyen en el locus de la producción del conocimiento y de la formación de recursos humanos en la investigación. En el Brasil, hubo un crecimiento significativo de los grupos de investigación del área de la enfermería con el incremento de la producción, la calificación de los integrantes, así como, el fortalecimiento de las bases de la investigación y de la mayor visibilidad y reconocimiento de la innovación de la enfermería.This is a documentary study and consisting a data base collected at four distinct moments: march of 2005, December of 2005, august of 2006 and April of 2007, these information are referring to the total of Research Groups of Nursing in the Directory of Research Groups of in Brazil of the CNPq. The results indicate that 92% of the research groups possess of 01 - 05 research lines, are composites of 11 - 15 members, oscillating in a average of 08 researchers, 05 doctors, 03 masters, 03 specialists, 07 student of graduation. Soon, the research groups are center of production of knowledge and formation of human resources in research. In Brazil, it had a significant growth of the research groups Nursing with the increment of the production, qualification of the integrants, the fortification of the inquiry bases and the biggest visibility and recognition of innovation of the Nursing.

  7. Raw materials from the region of Rio Claro - SP for the manufacture of ceramic coatings: technological characteristics and geological-technological modeling; Materias-primas da regiao de Rio Claro - SP para fabricacao de revestimentos ceramicos: caracteristicas tecnologicas e modelamento geologico-tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, R.A.; Roveri, C.D.; Maestrelli, S.C., E-mail: rafael.azevedodacunha@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Polo (PCSG) is the largest national producer of ceramic tiles, located in east-central region of Sao Paulo, encompassing different cities. PCSG uses various clays as the main raw material from the Corumbatai Formation, which is inserted in the Sedimentary Basin of Parana, with more than 1.5 square kilometers. In this context, X-ray diffractograms of samples from different areas of PCSG were used for application of the cluster analysis. Aiming to group the samples in families and subsequently to seek the most representative for the complete analysis. Also, ceramic tests were made by the following methods: the green bulk density after pressing, flexural strength modulus for green. , tests were conducted after firing at 1070 °C and 1120 °C: apparent density after drying, flexural modulus; after firing: apparent density after firing, water absorption linear shrinkage sintering, apparent porosity, modulus of resistance to bending after burning. Further, from the georeferenced sample were created tables for industry in the area, to facilitate the identification of new sample by XRD. Furthermore, the 3D model of the region was developed from the interesting characteristics for ceramic use, using Micromine Mining Software, Enterprise Micromine. (author)

  8. Thermal expansion analysis and structural characteristics of the (Pb, Ca)TiO{sub 3} solid solutions from 150 to 570 K; Analise da expansao termica volumetrica e das caracteristicas estruturais de solucoes solidas de (Pb, Ca)TiO{sub 3} entre 150 e 570 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, F.R.; Eiras, J.A.; Garcia, D., E-mail: frestrada@df.ufscar.br, E-mail: eiras@df.ufscar.br, E-mail: ducinei@df.ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica. Grupo de Materiais Ferroicos

    2017-01-15

    Ceramic samples of lead modified calcium titanate (Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x} TiO{sub 3}) with calcium concentration between 0.24≤x≤0.55 were prepared and analyzed in order to determine the structural origin of the negative thermal expansion observed in this ferroelectric system. The Rietveld structural refinement method was used to assess the thermal evolution of the structural parameters using powder X-ray diffraction data collected between 150 and 570 K. Since the Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x} TiO{sub 3} phase diagram and space groups are still unknown for the temperature range investigated, the structural analyses were based on adjustments of the refinement protocol. The results revealed the existence of a correlation between symmetry transitions and anomalies in the thermal expansion of the unit cell, being such transitions not necessarily of the ferroelectric-paraelectric nature. (author)

  9. Deep-water turbidity systems: a review of their elements, sedimentary processes and depositional models. Their characteristics on the Iberian margins; Sistemas turbiditicos de aguas profundas: revision de sus elementos, procesos sedimentarios y modelos deposicionales. Sus caracteristicas en los margenes Ibericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Ercilla, G.; Alonso, B.; Estrada, F.; Jane, G.; Mena, A.; Alves, T.; Juan, C.

    2015-07-01

    Turbidity systems or submarine fans are considered the most important clastic accumulations in the deep sea and represent the sediment-transfer system between the hinterland source area and the deep-sea depositional sink. Their deposits contain information about global factors and local factors. Different scales and varying observational methods have contributed to the lack of a unifying terminology. In order to solve this problem several authors have proposed an elemental approach. The main architectural elements defining a turbidity sys- tem are: large-scale erosive features (mass-movements and canyons), channels and channel-fill deposits, over- bank deposits and lobes. The sediment making up these elements is principally from gravity flow deposits, the most widely recognised being the turbidity, and other submarine mass movements. The genesis and character of these elements, as well as the overall geometry of the systems, indicate they are formed by a complex inter- action between global and local factors. Various turbidity-system classifications are found in the literature, the most widely-used being based on grain size and feeder systems. Besides the scientific importance of turbiditic systems, they are predominantly studied because of the economic interest in them, as turbidite sandstones con- stitute important gas and oil reservoirs. Turbidite systems shape the sea floor of the Iberian continental margins and contribute in a large part to their outbuilding and basin in filling. They are hugely variable in size, location within the physiographic domains, style and overall geometry of the architectural elements, as well as sediment composition. The most studied Iberian turbidity fans are in the Mediterranean Sea whereas those of the Atlantic Ocean remain poorly known. (Author)

  10. Iron making technology with fuels and other materials injection in blast furnace tuyeres. Part 1. Auxiliary fuels characteristics and its influence in the blast furnace process; Tecnologia de fabricacion de arrabio con la inyeccion de combustibles y otros materiales por toberas en el horno alto. I parte. Caracteristicas de los combustibles auxiliares y su influencia en el proceso del horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L. [Union de Empresas de Recuperacion de Materias Primas. Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Cores, A.; Formoso, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. Madrid (Spain); Babich, A.; Yaroshevskii, S. [Universidad Estatal Tecnologica de Donetsk. Ucrania (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    The injection of fuels by tuyeres in the blast furnace is a used practice in most furnaces with the principal aim to reduce the coke consumption by ton of pig iron produced. The nature of these fuels is very diverse and depends on the resources of each country and of the fuel price. At this moment the coal injection (pulverized and granular) is the most extended practice, and the number of furnaces with facilities for coal injection increases continuously. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of patients admitted to a thoracic pain unit in the context of a new definition of acute myocardial infarction; Caracteristicas clinicas y electrocardiograficas de los pacientes que ingresan a una unidad de dolor toracico en el contexto de la nueva definicion de infarto agudo de miocardio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Guillermo; Franco, Roberto; Fajardo, Hugo; Serrano, Daniel; Suarez, Martin

    2005-03-15

    In our environment we do ignore the clinical and para clinical characteristics from patients who come to a thoracic pain unit and more so with the new definition of acute myocardial infarction (Amid). 398 patients admitted to a thoracic pain unit were prospectively evaluated as to the pain characteristics, its risk factors, clinical examination findings, electrocardiographic findings and the troponin a T behaviour. 29.4% of the patients had a diagnosis of Amid, 29.9% of unstable angina and 40.7% of non-ischemic thoracic pain. retrosternal pain, irradiation to the neck, presence of diaphoresis, nausea or vomit are related with a higher probability to the diagnosis of Amid. Male sex and the presence of risk factors such as diabetes or dislipidemia increase the probability of the diagnosis. In the electrocardiogram, only the presence of a lesion, especially subepicardical favors the diagnosis. Unstable angina and in general acute coronary syndrome have a similar although not equal clinical behavior.

  12. Comparison of neutron scattering and DFM capacitance instruments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil water evaporation is an important parameter that needs to be accurately measured for the design of water-efficient agricultural systems. With this study, the abilities of the DFM capacitance probes and a neutron water meter (NWM) to measure evaporation from the soil surface were compared. Measured evaporation was ...

  13. Evaluation of streamflow forecast for the National Water Model of U.S. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieeinasab, A.; McCreight, J. L.; Dugger, A. L.; Gochis, D.; Karsten, L. R.; Zhang, Y.; Cosgrove, B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM), an implementation of the community WRF-Hydro modeling system, is an operational hydrologic forecasting model for the contiguous United States. The model forecasts distributed hydrologic states and fluxes, including soil moisture, snowpack, ET, and ponded water. In particular, the NWM provides streamflow forecasts at more than 2.7 million river reaches for three forecast ranges: short (15 hr), medium (10 days), and long (30 days). In this study, we verify short and medium range streamflow forecasts in the context of the verification of their respective quantitative precipitation forecasts/forcing (QPF), the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) and the Global Forecast System (GFS). The streamflow evaluation is performed for summer of 2016 at more than 6,000 USGS gauges. Both individual forecasts and forecast lead times are examined. Selected case studies of extreme events aim to provide insight into the quality of the NWM streamflow forecasts. A goal of this comparison is to address how much streamflow bias originates from precipitation forcing bias. To this end, precipitation verification is performed over the contributing areas above (and between assimilated) USGS gauge locations. Precipitation verification is based on the aggregated, blended StageIV/StageII data as the "reference truth". We summarize the skill of the streamflow forecasts, their skill relative to the QPF, and make recommendations for improving NWM forecast skill.

  14. Review of available data for a South African Inventory of Inland Aquatic Ecosystems (SAIIAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deventer, Heidi; Smith-Adao, Lindie; Petersen, Chantel; Mbona, Namhla; Skowno, Andrew; Nel, J.L.

    2018-01-01

    The National Biodiversity Assessment of 2011 found freshwater ecosystems to be highly threatened and poorly protected. However, a number of studies have shown that the National Wetland Map (NWM) Version 4 represents less than 54% of wetlands mapped at a fine scale. A more comprehensive South African

  15. 36 CFR 1226.20 - How do agencies temporarily extend retention periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTING DISPOSITION § 1226.20 How do agencies... Records Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001... of time that the records will be required; and (4) For records in the agency's custody, a statement...

  16. 36 CFR 1235.14 - May agencies retain records for the conduct of regular agency business after they are eligible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSFER OF RECORDS TO THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number (301... time the records will be needed (if no date is provided by the agency, approved certification requests...

  17. 36 CFR 1225.26 - How do agencies change a disposition authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT SCHEDULING RECORDS § 1225.26 How do agencies change a... must secure NARA approval of a change in the period of time that permanent records will remain in... (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number (301) 837-1738. NARA approval is...

  18. Adapting National Water Model Forecast Data to Local Hyper-Resolution H&H Models During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhofen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) is a remarkable undertaking. The foundation of the NWM is a 1 square kilometer grid which is used for near real-time modeling and flood forecasting of most rivers and streams in the contiguous United States. However, the NWM falls short in highly urbanized areas with complex drainage infrastructure. To overcome these shortcomings, the presenter proposes to leverage existing local hyper-resolution H&H models and adapt the NWM forcing data to them. Gridded near real-time rainfall, short range forecasts (18-hour) and medium range forecasts (10-day) during Hurricane Irma are applied to numerous detailed H&H models in highly urbanized areas of the State of Florida. Coastal and inland models are evaluated. Comparisons of near real-time rainfall data are made with observed gaged data and the ability to predict flooding in advance based on forecast data is evaluated. Preliminary findings indicate that the near real-time rainfall data is consistently and significantly lower than observed data. The forecast data is more promising. For example, the medium range forecast data provides 2 - 3 days advanced notice of peak flood conditions to a reasonable level of accuracy in most cases relative to both timing and magnitude. Short range forecast data provides about 12 - 14 hours advanced notice. Since these are hyper-resolution models, flood forecasts can be made at the street level, providing emergency response teams with valuable information for coordinating and dispatching limited resources.

  19. National Water Model: Providing the Nation with Actionable Water Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, G. R.; Bates, B.

    2017-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides national, street-level detail of water movement through time and space. Operating hourly, this flood of information offers enormous benefits in the form of water resource management, natural disaster preparedness, and the protection of life and property. The Geo-Intelligence Division at the NOAA National Water Center supplies forecasters and decision-makers with timely, actionable water intelligence through the processing of billions of NWM data points every hour. These datasets include current streamflow estimates, short and medium range streamflow forecasts, and many other ancillary datasets. The sheer amount of NWM data produced yields a dataset too large to allow for direct human comprehension. As such, it is necessary to undergo model data post-processing, filtering, and data ingestion by visualization web apps that make use of cartographic techniques to bring attention to the areas of highest urgency. This poster illustrates NWM output post-processing and cartographic visualization techniques being developed and employed by the Geo-Intelligence Division at the NOAA National Water Center to provide national actionable water intelligence.

  20. Soil properties and elements other than hydrogen that can affect the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A neutron water meter (NWM) operates on the principle that emitted high-energy neutrons are thermalised by elastic collisions with atomic nuclei present in soil, such as that of the hydrogen atom. Thermalised neutrons, however, are affected by other nuclear-matter interactions such as their capture by soil elements and ...

  1. From Buckets to Basins: Scaling up from the CZO to the NOAA National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, A. L.; Gochis, D.; Cosgrove, B.; Sampson, K. M.; McCreight, J. L.; Rafieeinasab, A.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's National Water Model (NWM) is generating terabytes of data on current and future states of water in streams, soils, snowpacks, lakes, and floodplains across the U.S. Altogether there are approximately 2.7 million stream reaches in the NWM and land cells distributed every 250-m (soil moisture, inundation) and 1-km (snow, evapotranspiration). Water predictions span the next hour to the next 30 days. Flood forecasting is an obvious NWM priority in the near term, but longer-range plans extend to water supply planning, drought forecasting, and water quality. An obvious question posed to a model operating across this many dimensions of space, time, and variables is: are you including the right processes and parameterizations to capture the hydrologic behaviors you are designed for? To answer this question, we generally rely on networks of in-situ observations to constrain models via parameter estimation or evaluate alternate process representations. While this gets us part of the way there, the question remains how well these in-situ characterizations scale up in the context of a national-scale model. The WRF-Hydro community hydrologic modeling system provides the initial backbone for the NWM, driving simulation of water and energy within the critical zone - vertical energy and water fluxes, lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water, simple deep groundwater dynamics, and channel routing. In this study, we first present baseline performance of the NWM over US-wide networks of streamflow (USGS), soil moisture (CRN, SCAN), and evapotranspiration (Ameriflux) observations at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We conduct a series of simple experiments using different submodel combinations of WRF-Hydro at high-resolution to predict water storage and partitioning behavior at 3 well-instrumented catchments, with the goal of optimizing combined performance of snowpack, soil moisture, ET, and streamflow prediction. We scale-up the optimal physics suites and

  2. Experiments with Interaction between the National Water Model and the Reservoir System Simulation Model: A Case Study of Russian River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Johnson, L.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.; Gochis, D.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Read, L.; Flowers, T.; Cosgrove, B.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA National Water Center (NWC) in partnership with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other academic partners have produced operational hydrologic predictions for the nation using a new National Water Model (NWM) that is based on the community WRF-Hydro modeling system since the summer of 2016 (Gochis et al., 2015). The NWM produces a variety of hydrologic analysis and prediction products, including gridded fields of soil moisture, snowpack, shallow groundwater levels, inundated area depths, evapotranspiration as well as estimates of river flow and velocity for approximately 2.7 million river reaches. Also included in the NWM are representations for more than 1,200 reservoirs which are linked into the national channel network defined by the USGS NHDPlusv2.0 hydrography dataset. Despite the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of the NWM, many known deficiencies exist, including the representation of lakes and reservoirs. This study addresses the implementation of a reservoir assimilation scheme through coupling of a reservoir simulation model to represent the influence of managed flows. We examine the use of the reservoir operations to dynamically update lake/reservoir storage volume states, characterize flow characteristics of river reaches flowing into and out of lakes and reservoirs, and incorporate enhanced reservoir operating rules for the reservoir model options within the NWM. Model experiments focus on a pilot reservoir domain-Lake Mendocino, CA, and its contributing watershed, the East Fork Russian River. This reservoir is modeled using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) HEC-ResSim developed for application to examine forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) in the Russian River basin.

  3. Study of the effect of different mixed supports on the catalytic activity and the structure of Bi{sub 2}Mo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} catalysts; Estudio del efecto de diferentes soportes mixtos en la actividad catalitica y las caracteristicas estructurales de catalizadores de Bi{sub 2}Mo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.; Cervantes L, J. L.; Espino, J. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, 58060 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Nunez G, R. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Bartolo P, P. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Matematicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Gomez C, A.; Diaz, G., E-mail: rrangel@umich.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A series of Bi{sub 2}Mo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} catalysts supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} and activated carbon were synthesized. The aim was to compare the different supports and calcination temperature of catalysts, studying their efficiency and activation temperature in the CO oxidation reaction. The catalysts active phase, Bi{sub 2}Mo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} was made by means of chemical precipitation procedure starting from high purity (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}·4H{sub 2}O, (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}W{sub 12}O{sub 6}·H{sub 2}O, Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·5H{sub 2}O compounds, which afterwards, were supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} and activated carbon through impregnation. The catalysts characterization was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and surface area determination (Bet method). Regarding the catalytic activity the Bi{sub 2}Mo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6}/carbon activated compound synthesized at 500 grades C was the best catalyst being activated at 125 grades C reaching 90% conversion. It is concludes that was observed an effect of calcination temperature and the support on the different values reached for the catalytic activity. (Author)

  4. Influence of Zn{sup 2+} content on morphological and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites synthesized on a large scale by combustion reaction; Influencia do teor de Zn{sup 2+} nas caracteristicas morfologicas e magneticas de ferritas Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintetizados em grande escala por reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, V.C.S.; Silveira Junior, J.E.R.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: veronicacristhina@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorramos_1@hotmail.com, E-mail: c_r_i_s_2005@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Cornejo, D.R., E-mail: cornejo@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A., E-mail: ruth@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Zn{sup 2+} in the morphological and magnetic characteristics of ferrites Mn{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} Fe{sub 2} O{sub 4} (where x= 0.0, 0.35, 0.5 and 0.65 mol of Zn) synthesized by combustion reaction in a pilot scale with batches of 200 g/reaction. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The results indicated that all compositions were single phase of ferrite; morphologically the addition of Zn to MnFe{sub 2} O{sub 4} system caused a slight reduction in size of the agglomerates, and reduced the particle size, but this behavior was not linear with the Zn{sup 2+} content. The samples had characteristic magnetic behavior of soft magnetic materials, maximum saturation magnetization of 62 emu/g for the sample with lower zinc content in its composition. (author)

  5. Results of work in the hot cells of Laboratory Testing Materials Irradiated Areva of Carina project for the expansion of the database of mechanical characteristics of fractures in materials of RPV German irradiated; Resultados del trabajo en las celdas calientes del Laboratorio de Ensayos de Materiales Irradiados de Areva del proyecto Carina para la ampliacion de la base de datos de caracteristicas mecanicas de las fracturas en materiales de RPV alemanas irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmes, J.; Schabel, H.; Hein, H.; Kein, E.; Eiselt, C.

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of the already completed research projects CARINA and its predecessor CARISMA a data base was created for pre-irradiated original RPV steels of German PWRs which allowed to examine the consequences if the Master Curve (T{sub 0}) approach instead of the RT{sub N}OT concept is applied to the RPV safety assessment. Furthermore in CARINA different irradiation conditions with respect to the accumulated neutron fluences and specific impact parameters were investigated. Besides a brief introduction of the CARINA project and an overview of the main results an overview on the requirements of the hot laboratory work in terms of specimen manufacturing and material testing is given and examples for realization are shown. (Author)

  6. Generator 113{sup S}n-113m{sup I}n. Study of the most important characteristics in the evaluate composition for the preparation of clinical labelled compounds; Generador de 113{sup S}n- 113m{sup I}n. Estudio de las caracteristicas mas relevantes en la composicion del eluido con miras a la obtencion de compuestos marcados de aplicacion clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adan, L; Rebollo, D V

    1978-07-01

    The design for the construction of a generator 113{sup S}n -113m{sup l}n is described. A systematic assay for de adequate adsorbents has been made, to obtain solutions of high radiochemical purity, as it is required for the radiopharmaceutical preparations. The control of purity is carried on by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the solutions, complemented by radiochemical techniques. The following physico-chemical parameters has been determinate; consecutive equilibrium constants, pH, distribution constants, separation factors and electrophoretic factors. It has been considered the measure of these parameters for the best quality In the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  7. Analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients admitted diagnosed with acute ischemic cerebrovascular event in internal medicine services and neurology of the Hospital Mexico in March 2013 to March 2014; Analisis de las caracteristicas epidemiologicas y clinicas de los pacientes ingresados con diagnostico de evento cerebrovascular isquemico agudo en los servicios de medicina interna y neurologia del Hospital Mexico de marzo 2013 a marzo 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya Gonzalez, Manuel Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Records of 100 patients were revised with diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular event in the neurology and internal medicine at the Hospital Mexico since March 2013 to March 2014. A total of 46 patients were men and 54 were women. The overall mean age was 69 years, for men have been 66 years and for women from 71. Patients of all provinces were entered main of San Jose with 56% followed by 19% Alajuela. The hospital management by specialty was distributed 60% to internal medicine and 40% neurology. The risk factors most frequently found were: hypertension 85%, diabetes mellitus 40%, smoking 35%, and dyslipidemia 35%. Overweight was observed in 23% of patients and 22% obese. As for the initial clinical manifestations documented in the first physical examination, the 6 most frequently found have been: faciobrachiocrural hemiparesis 60%, delirium 22%, dysarthria 22%, headache 20%, nausea and/or vomiting 17% and aphasia 15%. A total of 13% of patients have altered the consciousness and 5% have required ventilatory support for first 24 hours of evolution. 27% of patients have arrived within the first 3 hours of onset of symptoms, 11% between 3 to 4.5 hours and the remaining 62% beyond 4.5 hours of duration. 70% of patients have had 1 or more comorbidities prior to the event, the top 5 have been: ischemic heart disease 31%, 29% atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular disease 19%, 16% chronic kidney disease and congestive heart failure by 12%. Regarding the topographic classification of stokes, 16% were TACI, PACI 46%, 27% LACI and POCI only 11%. The average NIHSS scale has been 9 points to admission, 10 to 48 hours and 6 points at the time of discharge. Regarding brain scan on admission to 98% of the patients were performed while that between 48-72 hours alone to 74%. The most common initial tomographic CT findings have been: 49% lucency of more than 1/3 of middle cerebral artery territory, without alteration 46%, 8% cerebral edema data and 8% midline deviation. Hemorrhagic transformation was documented in 6% of cases. 70% of patients were performed Doppler ultrasound of neck vessels. Without injuries 82%, 9% with obstruction between 50-70% and 9% with over 70% lumen obstruction. Echocardiography was performed in 54% of cases and 76% was obtained left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial dilation 37% and 2% intramural thrombus. With respect to functionality 81% of patients had no or minimal dependence upon admission, to the time of discharge 74% have had moderated to severe disability, 12% mild and only 14% had no disability or this was minimal. 51% of patients have presented one or more complications during hospitalization, the 5 most frequent have been: bronchopneumonia 25%, bronchial aspiration and urinary tract infection 19%, 16% cognitive impairment and 10% cardiac arrhythmias. The average overall stay has been 13 days. Internal medicine has been 14± days and in neurology has been 12 ± days. The mortally rate has been 19% while 71% of patients were discharged to home and 10% were moved to the medical center. (author) [Spanish] Expedientes de 100 pacientes internos fueron revisados con el diagnostico de evento cerebrovascular isquemico, en los servicios de neurologia y medicina interna del Hospital Mexico desde marzo del 2013 hasta marzo del 2014. Del total de pacientes 46 eran hombres y 54 eran mujeres. La edad promedio en general era de 69 anos, para los hombres ha sido de 66 anos y para las mujeres de 71. Pacientes de todas las provincias fueron ingresados, principalmente de San Jose con un 56% y Alajuela con un 19%. El manejo intrahospitalario segun especialidad fue distribuido en 60% medicina interna y 40% neurologia. Los factores de riesgo mas frecuentemente encontrados han sido: hipertension arterial 85%, diabetes mellitus 40%, tabaquismo 35%, dislipidemia 35%. El sobrepeso fue observado en 23% de los pacientes y la obesidad en 22%. En cuanto a las manifestaciones clinicas iniciales documentadas en la primera exploracion fisica, las 6 mas frecuentemente encontradas han sido: hemiparesia faciobraquiocrural 60%, sindrome confusional 22%, disartria 22%, cefalea 20%, nauseas y/o vomito 17% y afasia en 15%. Un total de 13% de los pacientes han presentado alteracion de la consciencia y 5% ha necesitado soporte ventilatorio en las primeras 24 horas evolucion. El 27% de los pacientes han llegado en las primeras 3 horas de iniciado los sintomas, un 11% entre las 3 a 4.5 horas y el restante 62% mas alla de las 4.5 horas de evolucion. El 70% de los pacientes han tenido 1 o mas comorbilidades previas al evento, las 5 principales han sido: cardiopatia isquemica 31%, fibrilacion atrial 29%, enfermedad cerebrovascular 19%, enfermedad renal cronica 16% e insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva un 12%. En cuanto a la clasificacion topografica de los ictus, un 16% eran TACI, un 46% PACI, un 27% LACI y solo un 11% PoCI. El promedio de la escala de NIHSS ha sido de 9 puntos al ingreso, 10 a las 48 horas y 6 puntos al momento de egreso. Con respecto a la tomografia de cerebro al ingreso a 98% de los pacientes les fue realizada mientras que entre las 48 a 72 horas solo al 74%. Los hallazgos tomograficos mas frecuentes en el TAC inicial han sido: 49% hipodensidad de mas de 1/3 de territorio de arteria cerebral media, 46% sin alteraciones, 8% datos de edema cerebral y desviacion en la linea media. La transformacion hemorragica fue documentada en 6% de los casos. Al 70% de los pacientes les fue realizado ultrasonido Doppler de vasos del cuello. El 82% sin lesiones, un 9% con obstruccion entre 50-70% y 9% con mas de 70% obstruccion del lumen. La ecocardiografia fue realizada en 54% de los casos y fue obtenida 76% hipertrofia ventricular izquierda, 37% delitacion atrio izquierdo y 2% trombo intramural. Con respecto a la funcionalidad el 81% de los pacientes tenian ninguna o minima dependencia al momento de ingreso, para el momento de egreso 74% habian tenido discapacidad de moderada a severa, 12% leve y apenas un 14% se mostraba sin discapacidad o esta era minima. El 51% de los pacientes han presentado 1 o mas complicaciones durante su internamiento, las 5 mas frecuentes han sido: bronconeumonia 25%, broncoaspiracion e infeccion del tracto urinario 19%, deterioro cognitivo 16% y arritmias cardiacas 10%. La estancia promedio en general ha sido 13 dias. En medicina interna ha sido de 14± dias y en neurologia han sido 12± dias. La tasa de mortalidad ha sido de 19% mientras que 71% de los pacientes fueron egresados a casa y el 10% fue trasladado de centro medico. (autor)

  8. Neuropeptide diversity and the regulation of social behavior in New World primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A.; Taylor, Jack H.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are important hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate peripheral physiology, and have emerged as important modulators of brain function, particularly in the social realm. OT structure and the genes that ultimately determine structure are highly conserved among diverse eutherian mammals, but recent discoveries have identified surprising variability in OT and peptide structure in New World monkeys (NWM), with five new OT variants identified to date. This review explores these new findings in light of comparative OT/AVP ligand evolution, documents coevolutionary changes in the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OTR and V1aR), and highlights the distribution of neuropeptidergic neurons and receptors in the primate brain. Finally, the behavioral consequences of OT and AVP in regulating NWM sociality are summarized, demonstrating important neuromodulatory effects of these compounds and OT ligand-specific influences in certain social domains. PMID:27020799

  9. Managing nuclear wastes: an overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.G.; Utton, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The issues involving nuclear waste management are reviewed. The author points out the need for a critical overview of research priorities concerning nuclear waste management (NWM), and he discusses the uncertainties surrounding the scope of the problem (i.e., the controversy concerning the extent of dangers to public health and safety associated with the transport and storage of nuclear wastes). This article, intended as a introdution to the other nuclear waste management papers in the journal, also briefly discusses the papers

  10. Afghanistan Reveals the Source of Atmospheric Nitrogen during North Western Monsoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozlem Goral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of soil samples collected from Afghanistan have shown that those regions having capability of generating wind-induced dust at northern and south western territories have the capability of supplying nitrates and nitrites in addition to crustal materials. Together with all the other essential elements Afghan soil samples has the potential of controlling so far unexplained phytoplankton bloom and excess nitrate and nitrites during the course of NWM (North Western Monsoons over the surface waters of Arabian Sea

  11. Afghanistan Reveals the Source of Atmospheric Nitrogen during North Western Monsoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical analysis of soil samples collected from Afghanistan have shown that those regions having capability of generating wind-induced dust at northern and south western territories have the capability of supplying nitrates and nitrites in addition to crustal materials. Together with all the other essential elements Afghan soil samples has the potential of controlling so far unexplained phytoplankton bloom and excess nitrate and nitrites during the course of NWM (North Western Monsoons) over the surface waters of Arabian Sea. (author)

  12. Využití Network marketingu ve vybrané firmě

    OpenAIRE

    SAIKO, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    In my work I appreciated and considered the particular advantages compared to classical network marketing business. In the theoretical part, I mainly focused on the definition of network marketing, network marketing history, abuse of the principle of NWM, advantages and disadvantages of network marketing, illegal system and calculation of remuneration in network marketing. The analysis was first carried out the characteristics of the selected company, followed by analysis of network marketing...

  13. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

  14. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological parameters in calves. I. Digestibility of ... Body mass-gain (kg) and efficiency of feed conversion (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) over the 28-day experimental period were respectively 7,3 and 1,8 (WM); 7,3 and 1,8 (NWM); 4,3 and 3,9 (CM) and 4,9 and 2,9 (NCM).

  15. Retrospective evaluation of continental-scale streamflow nudging with WRF-Hydro National Water Model V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreight, J. L.; Wu, Y.; Gochis, D.; Rafieeinasab, A.; Dugger, A. L.; Yu, W.; Cosgrove, B.; Cui, Z.; Oubeidillah, A.; Briar, D.

    2016-12-01

    The streamflow (discharge) data assimilation capability in version 1 of the National Water Model (NWM; a WRF-Hydro configuration) is applied and evaluated in a 5-year (2011-2015) retrospective study using NLDAS2 forcing data over CONUS. This talk will describe the NWM V1 operational nudging (continuous-time) streamflow data assimilation approach, its motivation, and its relationship to this retrospective evaluation. Results from this study will provide a an analysis-based (not forecast-based) benchmark for streamflow DA in the NWM. The goal of the assimilation is to reduce discharge bias and improve channel initial conditions for discharge forecasting (though forecasts are not considered here). The nudging method assimilates discharge observations at nearly 7,000 USGS gages (at frequency up to 1/15 minutes) to produce a (univariate) discharge reanalysis (i.e. this is the only variable affected by the assimilation). By withholding 14% nested gages throughout CONUS in a separate validation run, we evaluate the downstream impact of assimilation at upstream gages. Based on this sample, we estimate the skill of the streamflow reanalysis at ungaged locations and examine factors governing the skill of the assimilation. Comparison of assimilation and open-loop runs is presented. Performance of DA under both high and low flow regimes and selected flooding events is examined. Preliminary evaluation of nudging parameter sensitivity and its relationship to flow regime will be presented.

  16. Hydrological Modeling in Alaska with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, N. J.; Zavodsky, B.; Molthan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The operational National Water Model (NWM), implemented in August 2016, is an instantiation of the Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Currently, the NWM only covers the contiguous United States, but will be expanded to include an Alaska domain in the future. It is well known that Alaska presents several hydrological modeling challenges, including unique arctic/sub-arctic hydrological processes not observed elsewhere in the United States and a severe lack of in-situ observations for model initialization. This project sets up an experimental version of WRF-Hydro in Alaska mimicking the NWM to gauge the ability of WRF-Hydro to represent hydrological processes in Alaska and identify model calibration challenges. Recent and upcoming launches of hydrology-focused NASA satellite missions such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) expand the spatial and temporal coverage of observations in Alaska, so this study also lays the groundwork for assimilating these NASA datasets into WRF-Hydro in the future.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging applications in multiple sclerosis patients using 3T magnetic resonance: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testaverde, Lorenzo; Caporali, Laura [University ' ' Sapienza' ' of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Venditti, Eugenio; Grillea, Giovanni [U.O.C. Neuroradiologia, I.R.C.C.S. ' ' Neuromed' ' , Pozzilli (Italy); Colonnese, Claudio [University ' ' Sapienza' ' of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); U.O.C. Neuroradiologia, I.R.C.C.S. ' ' Neuromed' ' , Pozzilli (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    This study evaluated patients with multiple sclerosis using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values. We investigated the possible statistically significant variation of MD and FA in different MS patients, compared simultaneously, putting in comparison their normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter affected by disease (plaques), both during activity and in remission, with normal white matter (NWM) of control subjects. Statistical analysis using Levene's test for comparison of variances revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences between FA values of the NWM of the controls and those of NAWM and active or inactive lesions, of the patients in the study. However, the differences between MD values of the NWM of the controls and those of NAWM and active or inactive lesions of the patients in the study were judged not significant (P > 0.05). Imaging of MS using MRI techniques is constantly searching for reproducible quantitative parameter. This study shows how these parameters can be identified in the MD and FA values, and thus suggests the implementation of MRI routine protocols for diagnosing MS with the DTI analysis, since it can provide valuable information otherwise unobtainable. (orig.)

  18. Influence of the Phytoplankton Community Structure on the Spring and Annual Primary Production in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Uitz, Julia; Gentili, Bernard; Ras, Joséphine; Vellucci, Vincenzo; Golbol, Melek; Antoine, David; Claustre, Hervé

    2017-12-01

    Satellite ocean color observations revealed that unusually deep convection events in 2005, 2006, 2010, and 2013 led to an increased phytoplankton biomass during the spring bloom over a large area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). Here we investigate the effects of these events on the seasonal phytoplankton community structure, we quantify their influence on primary production, and we discuss the potential biogeochemical impact. For this purpose, we compiled in situ phytoplankton pigment data from five ship surveys performed in the NWM and from monthly cruises at a fixed station in the Ligurian Sea. We derived primary production rates from a light photosynthesis model applied to these in situ data. Our results confirm that the maximum phytoplankton biomass during the spring bloom is larger in years associated with intense deep convection events (+51%). During these enhanced spring blooms, the contribution of diatoms to total phytoplankton biomass increased (+33%), as well as the primary production rate (+115%). The occurrence of a highly productive bloom is also related to an increase in the phytoplankton bloom area (+155%) and in the relative contribution of diatoms to primary production (+63%). Therefore, assuming that deep convection in the NWM could be significantly weakened by future climate changes, substantial decreases in the spring production of organic carbon and of its export to deep waters can be expected.

  19. Direct and large eddy simulations of a bottom Ekman layer under an external stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, John R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Sarkar, Sutanu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: sarkar@ucsd.edu

    2008-06-15

    A steady Ekman layer with a thermally stratified outer flow and an adiabatic boundary condition at the lower wall is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES). An initially linear temperature profile is mixed by turbulence near the wall, and a stable thermocline forms above the mixed layer. The thickness of the mixed layer is reduced by the outer layer stratification. Observations from the DNS are used to evaluate the performance of the LES model and to examine the resolution requirements. A resolved LES and a near-wall model LES (NWM-LES) both compare reasonably well with the DNS when the thermal field is treated as a passive scalar. When buoyancy effects are included, the LES mean velocity and temperature profiles also agree well with the DNS. However, the NWM-LES does not sufficiently account for the overturning scales responsible for entrainment at the top of the mixed layer. As a result, the turbulent heat flux and the rate of change of the mixed layer temperature are significantly underestimated in the NWM-LES. In order to accurately simulate the boundary layer growth, the motions responsible for entrainment must either be resolved or more accurately represented in improved subgrid-scale models.

  20. Direct and large eddy simulations of a bottom Ekman layer under an external stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, John R.; Sarkar, Sutanu

    2008-01-01

    A steady Ekman layer with a thermally stratified outer flow and an adiabatic boundary condition at the lower wall is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES). An initially linear temperature profile is mixed by turbulence near the wall, and a stable thermocline forms above the mixed layer. The thickness of the mixed layer is reduced by the outer layer stratification. Observations from the DNS are used to evaluate the performance of the LES model and to examine the resolution requirements. A resolved LES and a near-wall model LES (NWM-LES) both compare reasonably well with the DNS when the thermal field is treated as a passive scalar. When buoyancy effects are included, the LES mean velocity and temperature profiles also agree well with the DNS. However, the NWM-LES does not sufficiently account for the overturning scales responsible for entrainment at the top of the mixed layer. As a result, the turbulent heat flux and the rate of change of the mixed layer temperature are significantly underestimated in the NWM-LES. In order to accurately simulate the boundary layer growth, the motions responsible for entrainment must either be resolved or more accurately represented in improved subgrid-scale models

  1. Non-woven Textile Materials from Waste Fibers for Cleanup of Waters Polluted with Petroleum and Oil Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neznakomova, Margarita; Boteva, Silvena; Tzankov, Luben; Elhag, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using non-woven materials (NWM) from waste fibers for oil spill cleanup and their subsequent recovery. Manufacture of textile and readymade products generates a significant amount of solid waste. A major part of it is deposited in landfills or disposed of uncontrollably. This slowly degradable waste causes environmental problems. In the present study are used two types of NWM obtained by methods where waste fibers are utilized. Thus, real textile products are produced (blankets) with which spills are covered and removed by adsorption. These products are produced by two methods: the strengthening of the covering from recovered fibers is made by entanglement when needles of special design pass through layers (needle-punching) or by stitching with thread (technology Maliwatt). Regardless of the random nature of the fiber mixture, the investigated products are good adsorbents of petroleum products. The nature of their structure (a significant void volume and developed surface) leads to a rapid recovery of the spilled petroleum products without sinking of the fiber layer for the sampled times. The used NWM can be burned under special conditions.

  2. Aplicación del MDN al estudio de la corrosión de los convertidores Peirce - Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nodal Wear Model (NWM constitutes a tool of applicable work study the processes of differential corrosion in the Peirce – Smith convertor (PSC with the purpose of reaching significant improvements in duration and productivity of the several alternatives that one could utilize of the coating. For the application of the NWM to CPS is necessary of the knowledge the mechanisms of existent waste and the definition of the corrosion equations. With the NWM the outputs of corrosion in the tuyere zone of CPS are interpreted.

    El Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN constituye una herramienta de trabajo aplicable al estudio de los procesos de corrosión diferencial en los convertidores Peirce - Smith (CPS con el propósito de alcanzar mejoras significativas en duración y productividad de las diferentes alternativas que se puedan manejar del revestimiento. La aplicación del MDN al CPS precisa del conocimiento de los mecanismos de desgaste existentes y la definición de las ecuaciones de corrosión. Con el MDN se interpretan los resultados de corrosión en la zona de toberas del CPS.

  3. Retrospective Snow Analysis Across the Continental United States for the National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, L. R.; Gochis, D.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Barlage, M. J.; Fall, G. M.; Olheiser, C.

    2016-12-01

    For large portions of the United States, snow plays a vital role in hydrologic prediction. This is particularly true in the mountain west where snowmelt contributes up to 80% of total streamflow runoff. The Office of Water Prediction (OWP) will begin running the National Water Model (NWM) during the second half of 2016, which is a continental-scale implementation of the WRF-Hydro community hydrologic modeling framework. Assessing and benchmarking the performance of the snow component of the NWM is important for future research-to-operations activities and for forecasters to better understand NWM output. For this study, WRF-Hydro was ran using the same domain and physics options as the NWM (1 km LSM, 250m overland routing, and NHDPlus Version 2.1 channel network). The land surface component chosen is Noah-MP land surface model. Forcing from the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) was downscaled from the native 0.125 degree resolution to the 1 km modeling domain to drive the model. The model was ran over a 5-year retrospective period to gauge multi-year performance of the snow states. Output was analyzed against both in-situ observations, such as SNOTEL, and the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). In addition, gridded snow states and SNODAS grids were aggregated to Omernik-derived ecological regions. This was done in order to break up snow analysis by regions that share similar ecological and physiographic characteristics. Results show WRF-Hydro is able to capture peak timing across most of the mountain west fairly well. In terms of magnitudes, the model struggles across portions of the west with a low bias. This is especially true in the Cascades, which could be traced back to precipitation partitioning issues in the model. Across the central Rockies, the model exhibits a lower dry bias showing improved performance there. Previous literature suggests a dry bias in the precipitation out west may be contributing to model performance. East of the

  4. Use of In-Situ and Remotely Sensed Snow Observations for the National Water Model in Both an Analysis and Calibration Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, L. R.; Gochis, D.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Barlage, M. J.; Fall, G. M.; Olheiser, C.

    2017-12-01

    Since version 1.0 of the National Water Model (NWM) has gone operational in Summer 2016, several upgrades to the model have occurred to improve hydrologic prediction for the continental United States. Version 1.1 of the NWM (Spring 2017) includes upgrades to parameter datasets impacting land surface hydrologic processes. These parameter datasets were upgraded using an automated calibration workflow that utilizes the Dynamic Data Search (DDS) algorithm to adjust parameter values using observed streamflow. As such, these upgrades to parameter values took advantage of various observations collected for snow analysis. In particular, in-situ SNOTEL observations in the Western US, volunteer in-situ observations across the entire US, gamma-derived snow water equivalent (SWE) observations courtesy of the NWS NOAA Corps program, gridded snow depth and SWE products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), gridded remotely sensed satellite-based snow products (MODIS,AMSR2,VIIRS,ATMS), and gridded SWE from the NWS Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). This study explores the use of these observations to quantify NWM error and improvements from version 1.0 to version 1.1, along with subsequent work since then. In addition, this study explores the use of snow observations for use within the automated calibration workflow. Gridded parameter fields impacting the accumulation and ablation of snow states in the NWM were adjusted and calibrated using gridded remotely sensed snow states, SNODAS products, and in-situ snow observations. This calibration adjustment took place over various ecological regions in snow-dominated parts of the US for a retrospective period of time to capture a variety of climatological conditions. Specifically, the latest calibrated parameters impacting streamflow were held constant and only parameters impacting snow physics were tuned using snow observations and analysis. The adjusted parameter datasets were then used to

  5. Image Processing of Digital Cartographic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-05

    lasibases de datas digitales par media de una Estaci6n de Manja de Im~genes. Taznbign trata de la canfiguracio’n de las sistemas , sus cam- ponentes, la...DE IMAGENES DE DATOS CARTOGRAFICOS DIGITALES Desde hace tiempa el cart~graffa ha querido representar las caracteristicas de la superficie terrestre

  6. La encuesta de presupuestos familiares 1973-74

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Colmenares, María Dolores; Lara, Ana; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    1991-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe la construcción y el contenido de una serie de ficheros sobre los gastos, los ingresos, el ahorro y las caracteristicas geognificas, demograficas y socioecon6micas de los hogares espaiioles residentes en viviendas familiares. La fuente de informaci6n es la Encuesta de Presupuestos F amiliares realizada por el INE en 1973-74

  7. Intercomparison of Streamflow Simulations between WRF-Hydro and Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J.; Smith, M. B.; Koren, V.; Salas, F.; Cui, Z.; Johnson, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-National Weather Service (NWS) developed the Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) framework as an initial step towards spatially distributed modeling at River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Recently, the NOAA/NWS worked with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to implement the National Water Model (NWM) for nationally-consistent water resources prediction. The NWM is based on the WRF-Hydro framework and is run at a 1km spatial resolution and 1-hour time step over the contiguous United States (CONUS) and contributing areas in Canada and Mexico. In this study, we compare streamflow simulations from HL-RDHM and WRF-Hydro to observations from 279 USGS stations. For streamflow simulations, HL-RDHM is run on 4km grids with the temporal resolution of 1 hour for a 5-year period (Water Years 2008-2012), using a priori parameters provided by NOAA-NWS. The WRF-Hydro streamflow simulations for the same time period are extracted from NCAR's 23 retrospective run of the NWM (version 1.0) over CONUS based on 1km grids. We choose 279 USGS stations which are relatively less affected by dams or reservoirs, in the domains of six different RFCs. We use the daily average values of simulations and observations for the convenience of comparison. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate how HL-RDHM and WRF-Hydro perform at USGS gauge stations. We compare daily time-series of observations and both simulations, and calculate the error values using a variety of error functions. Using these plots and error values, we evaluate the performances of HL-RDHM and WRF-Hydro models. Our results show a mix of model performance across geographic regions.

  8. Management of citation verification requests for multiple projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) Technical Library is now responsible for providing citation verification management support for all references cited in technical reports issued by the Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Program. This paper dancing how this process is managed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization (YWP), Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) projects. Since technical reports are the main product of these projects, emphasis is placed on meeting the constantly evolving needs of these customers in a timely and cost-effective manner

  9. Leveraging North Carolina's QL2 Lidar to Quantify Sensitivity of National Water Model Derived Flood Inundation Extent to DEM Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, J. P.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Blanton, B.; Duncan, J. M.; Stillwell, L.

    2017-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) has provided a novel framework for near real time flood inundation mapping across CONUS at a 10m resolution. In many regions, this spatial scale is quickly being surpassed through the collection of high resolution lidar (1 - 3m). As one of the leading states in data collection for flood inundation mapping, North Carolina is currently improving their previously available 20 ft statewide elevation product to a Quality Level 2 (QL2) product with a nominal point spacing of 0.7 meters. This QL2 elevation product increases the ground points by roughly ten times over the previous statewide lidar product, and by over 250 times when compared to the 10m NED elevation grid. When combining these new lidar data with the discharge estimates from the NWM, we can further improve statewide flood inundation maps and predictions of at-risk areas. In the context of flood risk management, these improved predictions with higher resolution elevation models consistently represent an improvement on coarser products. Additionally, the QL2 lidar also includes coarse land cover classification data for each point return, opening the possibility for expanding analysis beyond the use of only digital elevation models (e.g. improving estimates of surface roughness, identifying anthropogenic features in floodplains, characterizing riparian zones, etc.). Using the NWM Height Above Nearest Drainage approach, we compare flood inundation extents derived from multiple lidar-derived grid resolutions to assess the tradeoff between precision and computational load in North Carolina's coastal river basins. The elevation data distributed through the state's new lidar collection program provide spatial resolutions ranging from 5-50 feet, with most inland areas also including a 3 ft product. Data storage increases by almost two orders of magnitude across this range, as does processing load. In order to further assess the validity of the higher resolution elevation products on

  10. Current status of the Colombia power plants emissions; Estado de las emisiones en las centrales termoelectricas de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The characteristics of the Colombian thermal electric resource and the environmental characteristics of the region such as: the climate where the power plants are located; the Geology and the type of soils; the technology employed for the atmospheric emissions control; the water consumption in the region; the systems for ash extraction an social-economical aspects are described [Espanol] Se describen las caracteristicas del parque termico de Colombia y las caracteristicas ambientales de la region como son: el clima donde estan localizadas las plantas; la geologia y los tipos de suelos; la tecnologia utilizada en el control de las emisiones atmosfericas; el consumo de agua en la region; los sistemas de extraccion de cenizas y aspectos socioeconomicos

  11. Current status of the Colombia power plants emissions; Estado de las emisiones en las centrales termoelectricas de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    The characteristics of the Colombian thermal electric resource and the environmental characteristics of the region such as: the climate where the power plants are located; the Geology and the type of soils; the technology employed for the atmospheric emissions control; the water consumption in the region; the systems for ash extraction an social-economical aspects are described [Espanol] Se describen las caracteristicas del parque termico de Colombia y las caracteristicas ambientales de la region como son: el clima donde estan localizadas las plantas; la geologia y los tipos de suelos; la tecnologia utilizada en el control de las emisiones atmosfericas; el consumo de agua en la region; los sistemas de extraccion de cenizas y aspectos socioeconomicos

  12. Desarrollo y análisis del sector cooperativas. Estudio de un caso práctico

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Enrique, Maite

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo intenta plasmar la importancia de las cooperativas, la necesidad de tener unas leyes y una contabilidad adecuada a sus caracteristicas. Para que se entienda mejor la parte teórica, se estudia el caso de una cooperativa en concreto, el "EL CONSORCIO PROMOCIÓN DEL OVINO" Departamento de Economía Financiera y Contabilidad Grado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas

  13. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  14. Uma biblioteca de pontos de controle para imagens MSS Landsat

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Augusto Mitsuo Ii

    1985-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho e desenvolver um sistema para criacao, manutencao e gerenciamento de uma biblioteca de pontos de controle para imagens MSS Landsat. Um ponto de controle e uma caracteristica fisicamente detectavel numa cena, cuja localizacao geodesica e precisamente conhecida. O uso destes pontos e de fundamental importancia num sistema de correcao geometrica de imagens de satelite. A biblioteca permitira que pontos de controle pertencentes a uma dada cena sejam recuperados de uma ma...

  15. Programacion funcional y lambda cálculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Gómez Perdomo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte de este artículo se explican algunos conceptos de los lenguajes de programación, haciendo énfasis en las caracteristicas y propiedades de los lenguajes de programación funcional. En la segunda, se realiza una introducción al lambda cálculo puro, su notación, axiomas y reglas elementales.

  16. Pontes e rupturas no fabular de Wilson Bueno

    OpenAIRE

    Furquim, Fulvia Maria Giaretta de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    O trabalho tem por objetivo analisar tres obras contemporaneas do escritor paranaense Wilson Bueno (1949- ), que fazem parte de um projeto literario, em que as personagens sao apresentadas de uma visao inicialmente plural, como se apenas uma delas pudesse ser a representacao do todo, para uma optica individualista, caracteristica de um sistema capitalista. Sao elas: Manual de Zoofilia (1991), Jardim Zoologico (1999) e Cachorrros do Ceu (2005). O escritor contemporaneo segue a tradicao dos bes...

  17. Composición corporal y velocidad de lanzamiento en jugadoras de élite de balonmano

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam García Expósito; Pedro Emilio Alcaraz Ramón; Carmen Ferragut Fiol; Carmen Manchado López; José Arturo Abraldes Valeiras; Nuria Rodríguez Suárez; Helena Vila Suárez

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir y comparar las caracteristicas antropometricas, composicion corporal, somatotipo y velocidad de lanzamiento de las jugadoras de balonmano de la seleccion espanola de diferentes categorias. Fueron estudiadas 59 jugadoras de balonmano, todas ellas pertenecen a las categorias juvenil, junior y senior. Las variables analizadas fueron: 20 medidas antropometricas, el indice de masa corporal, sumatorio de cuatro pliegues, porcentaje muscular, el somatotipo y...

  18. Algoritmo para generar formulas de características geométricas de las secciones planas, su implementación en DERIVE // Algorithm for the calculation of the geometric characteristics of the plane sections defined for polygonal, their implementation in DERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Rivero-Galán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la esfera del diseno de estructuras y de elementos de maquinas, se presenta con relativafrecuencia el calculo de determinadas caracteristicas o propiedades geometricas de seccionesplanas, como son entre otras: el area de una seccion transversal, el centro de gravedad, unmomento de inercia o mas general la determinacion de alguna caracteristica geometrica definidapor una integral doble extendida en la region del plano que ocupa la seccion, pieza o elemento.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la confeccion de un programa para computadora,utilizando el asistente matematico DERIVE, para la determinacion de las caracteristicas geometricasde secciones planas cuyo contorno este constituido por segmentos de rectas.Palabras claves: Algoritmo, seccion plana, DERIVE, momentos, centro de gravedad.______________________________________________________________AbstractIn the sphere of the design of structures, is relative frequency the calculation of certaincharacteristic or geometric properties of plane sections, like: the area of a traverse section, thecenter of gravity, a moment of inertia or more general the determination of some geometriccharacteristic defined by a double integral extended in the region of the plane that occupies thesection, piece or element.The present work has as objective the making of a program for computer, using the mathematicalassistant DERIVE, for the determination of the geometric characteristics of plane sections whosecontour this constituted by segments of right.Key words: Algorithm, plane section, DERIVE, moments, center of gravity

  19. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  20. Hurricane Havoc - Mapping the Mayhem with NOAA's National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, G. R.; Stone, M.

    2017-12-01

    With Hurricane Irene as an example, this work demonstrates the versatility of NOAA's new National Water Model (NWM) as a tool for analyzing hydrologic hazards before, during, and after events. Hurricane Irene made landfall on the coast of North Carolina on August 27, 2011, and made its way up the East Coast over the next 3 days. This storm caused widespread flooding across the Northeast, where rain totals over 20" and wind speeds of 100mph were recorded, causing loss of life and significant damage to infrastructure. Large portions of New York and Vermont were some of the hardest hit areas. This poster will present a suite of post-processed products, derived from NWM output, that are currently being developed at NOAA's National Water Center in Tuscaloosa, AL. The National Water Model is allowing NOAA to expand its water prediction services to the approximately 2.7 million stream reaches across the U.S. The series of forecasted and real-time analysis products presented in this poster will demonstrate the strides NOAA is taking to increase preparedness and aid response to severe hydrologic events, like Hurricane Irene.

  1. Merging Real-Time Channel Sensor Networks with Continental-Scale Hydrologic Models: A Data Assimilation Approach for Improving Accuracy in Flood Depth Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Javaheri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework that (i uses data assimilation as a post processing technique to increase the accuracy of water depth prediction, (ii updates streamflow generated by the National Water Model (NWM, and (iii proposes a scope for updating the initial condition of continental-scale hydrologic models. Predicted flows by the NWM for each stream were converted to the water depth using the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND method. The water level measurements from the Iowa Flood Inundation System (a test bed sensor network in this study were converted to water depths and then assimilated into the HAND model using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF. The results showed that after assimilating the water depth using the EnKF, for a flood event during 2015, the normalized root mean square error was reduced by 0.50 m (51% for training tributaries. Comparison of the updated modeled water stage values with observations at testing locations showed that the proposed methodology was also effective on the tributaries with no observations. The overall error reduced from 0.89 m to 0.44 m for testing tributaries. The updated depths were then converted to streamflow using rating curves generated by the HAND model. The error between updated flows and observations at United States Geological Survey (USGS station at Squaw Creek decreased by 35%. For future work, updated streamflows could also be used to dynamically update initial conditions in the continental-scale National Water Model.

  2. On the Impact of Inhomogeneities in Meteorological Data on VLBI Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Phogat, Apurva; Soja, Benedikt; Glaser, Susanne; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Schuh, Harald

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we address the issue of the quality of meteorological data employed for VLBI data analysis. We use data from six numerical weather models (NWMs) to form references on which the homogenization process is based. We explore the impact of the choice of NWM as well as the way to extract data from it. Among our findings is that data from the surface fields of NWMs are not suitable for either geodetic analysis or homogenization efforts, whether they are in their original form or after they have been compensated for the height difference between the orography of the NWM and the actual elevation. The reason lies in the fact that for 77% of the VLBI stations a height bias larger than 2.5 mm appears, as well as an average bias in the zenith wet delay estimates of 12.2 mm. Should the proposed extraction approach be followed, the difference between operational and reanalysis NWMs is not significant for such an application. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of VLBI data over 13 years.

  3. 137 Cs as a tracer of the Catalan current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Molero, J.; Merino, J.; Pujol, L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    A number of nuclear power installations located in the north-western Mediterranean (NWM) area are known to enhance 137 Cs levels in various marine compartments. The nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Marcoule (France) has been reported to originate a significant increase of 137 Cs in Rhone river waters and sediments because of the discharge of low-level liquid radioactive waste. This radionuclide may be used as a tracer of oceanographic processes in the NWM; in fact, 137 Cs of Rhone river origin has been detected in the Gulf of Lions by several authors. The results reported in this work correspond to various transect experiments in waters of the Catalan Sea and show that: (i) surface salinity measurements confirmed the presence of the Catalan current in the Cap de Creus area; (ii) the 1991 Cap de Creus transect showed clearly the presence of 137 Cs above a baseline level of 4.3 ± 0.2 Bq.m -3 ; (iii) the Cap de Salou transect showed elevated levels towards the coast; (iv) the 1992 Cap de Creus transect showed no structure at all. Therefore, it was concluded that traces of 137 Cs from the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant were transported by the Catalan current and were detectable in the Catalan Sea with a complex spatio-temporal structure. (authors). 25 refs., 4 figs

  4. Nested hyper-resolution modeling of urban areas for the National Water Model - The Dallas-Fort Worth Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S. J.; Kim, S.; Habibi, H.; Seo, D. J.; Welles, E.; Philips, B.; Adams, E.; Smith, M. B.; Wells, E.

    2017-12-01

    With the development of the National Water Model (NWM), the NWS has made a step-change advance in operational water forecasting by enabling high-resolution hydrologic modeling across the US. As a part of a separate initiative to enhance flash flood forecasting and inundation mapping capacity, the NWS has been mandated to provide forecasts at even finer spatiotemporal resolutions when and where such information is demanded. In this presentation, we describe implementation of the NWM at a hyper resolution over a nested domain. We use WRF-Hydro as the core model but at significantly higher resolutions with scale-commensurate model parameters. The demonstration domain is multiple urban catchments within the Cities of Arlington and Grand Prairie in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. This area is susceptible to urban flooding due to the hydroclimatology coupled with large impervious cover. The nested model is based on hyper-resolution terrain data to resolve significant land surface features such as streets and large man-made structures, and forced by the high-resolution radar-based quantitative precipitation information. In this presentation, we summarize progress and preliminary results and share issues and challenges.

  5. WRF-Hydro Simulated Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Streamflow Extremes over the CONUS during 1993-2016 and Possible Connections with Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, A. L.; Zhang, Y.; Gochis, D.; Yu, W.; McCreight, J. L.; Karsten, L.; Rafieeinasab, A.; Sampson, K. M.; Salas, F.; Read, L.; Pan, L.; Yates, D. N.; Cosgrove, B.; Clark, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow extremes (lows and peaks) tend to have disproportionately higher impacts on the human and natural systems compared to mean streamflow. Examining and understanding the spatiotemporal distributions of streamflow extremes is of significant interests to both the research community and the water resources management. In this work, the output from the 24-year (1993 through 2016) retrospective runs of the National Water Model (NWM) version of WRF-Hydro will be analyzed for streamflow extremes over the CONUS domain. The CONUS domain was configured at 1-km resolution for land surface grid and 250-m resolution for terrain routing. The WRF-Hydro runs were forced by the regridded and downscaled NLDAS2 data. The analyses focus on daily mean streamflow values over the full water year and within the summer and winter seasons. Connections between NWM streamflow and other hydrologic variables (e.g. snowpack, soil moisture/saturation and ET) with variations in large-scale climate phenomena, e.g., El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and North American monsoon are examined. The CONUS domain has a diverse environment and is characterized by complex terrain, heterogeneous land surfaces and ecosystems, and numerous hydrological basins. The potential dependence of streamflow extremes on regional terrain character, climatic conditions, and ecologic zones will also be investigated.

  6. Accessing National Water Model Output for Research and Application: An R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Coll, J.

    2017-12-01

    With the National Water Model becoming operational in August of 2016, the need for a open source way to translate a huge amount of data into actionable intelligence and innovative research is apparent. The first step in doing this is to provide a package for accessing, managing, and writing data in a way that is both interpretable, portable, and useful to the end user in both the R environment, and other applications. This can be as simple as subsetting the outputs and writing to a CSV, but can also include converting discharge output to more meaningful statistics and measurements, and methods to visualize data in ways that are meaningful to a wider audience. The NWM R package presented here aims to serve this need through a suite of functions fit for researchers, first responders, and average citizens. A vignette of how this package can be applied to real-time flood mapping will be demonstrated.

  7. Anti-convulsant therapy in eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari J

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy four patients presented with eclampsia at N.W.M. Hospital. Bombay. Among the patients with eclampsia, 64.9% were primis, 29.7% were gravida II-IV and 5.4% were grand multis. As many as 40.5% patients were less than 20 years of age, while 2.7% were over 30 years of age. 48.7% had antepartum convulsions, 40.5% had intrapartum convulsions, while 8 patients convulsed in the postpartum period. Besides standard management of eclamptic patients, 3 protocols of anticonvulsant therapy were utilised. 27% were managed with diphenyl hydantoin sodium, 43% with magnesium sulphate, and 30% by combination of diazepam and pentazocine. The maternal and perinatal outcome was evaluated. Control of convulsions was superior with magnesium sulphate while perinatal outcome was best with diphenyl hydantoin.

  8. Measurements of nonionizing radiation emitted from microwave oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnour, Yassir Elnour Osman

    2014-05-01

    There is an increase in the usage of microwave oven which is used electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which believed to be harmful to human health. The measurements were taken at distance of range(0-100) cm from the microwave oven. The study concluded that the risk possibility of the radiation increases at high mode. We measured the power density, magnetic field and signal strength of microwave oven using the SPECTRAN high frequency (HF-6080) detector. The experimental results of power density were found to be (3.78-208000) nW/m 2 and magnetic field is (0.001-0.744) mA/m. These values are less than the exposure limits recommended. (author)

  9. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  10. Effect of fabrication pressure on the fatigue performance of Cemex XL acrylic bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gladius; Janna, S I

    2004-01-01

    During a cemented arthroplasty, the prepared polymerizing dough of acrylic bone cement is subjected to pressurization in a number of ways; first, during delivery into the freshly prepared bone bed, second, during packing in that bed (either digitally or with the aid of a mechanical device), and, third, during the insertion of the prosthesis. Only a few studies have reported on the influence of the level of pressurization experienced during these events (which, depending on the cementing technique used, has been put at between 8 and 273 kPa) on various properties of the cement. That was the focus of the present study, in which the fully reversed tension-compression (+/-15 MPa; 5 Hz) fatigue lives (expressed as number of cycles to fracture, N(f)) of rectangular cross-sectioned "dog-bone" specimens (Type V, per ASTM D 638) fabricated from Cemex XL cement, at pressure applied continuously to the cement dough during curing in the specimen mold, p=75,150, and 300 kPa, were determined. The N(f) results were analyzed using the linearized transformation of the three-parameter Weibull relationship to obtain estimates of the Weibull mean, N(WM), which was taken to be the index of fatigue performance of the specimen set. Over the range of p studied, N(WM) increased as p increased (for example, from 329,118 cycles when p was 75 kPa to 388,496 cycles when p was 300 kPa); however, the increase was not significant over any pair of p increment steps (Mann-Whitney U-test; alpha<0.05).

  11. Conclusions and summaries of feed-back comments from participating countries. Deliverable D18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie; Richardson, Phil; Pritrsky, Jozef

    2009-12-01

    Deliverable 18 is focused on the principal components of risk communication strategies and based on actual experiences from different cultural settings in relation to nuclear waste management (NWM) issues. Essentially it describes how the ideas were presented and developed within the 3rd year of the ARGONA project, in sub-workpackage 4.1. The intention of this work was to delineate good risk communication approaches across national borders, as well as to specify the circumstances that require more specific and unique national or group considerations. Our aim was to provide an in-depth analysis of societal patterns and trends regarding the management of nuclear wastes on the basis of a number of individual participants' understanding and open discussion of the issue between themselves and across the heterogeneous groups represented. To meet these goals we involved a number of stakeholders from ARGONA participating countries (UK, Sweden, Slovakia, Czech Republic) in a one-day focus group in September 2009. Their task was to provide comments on the strategies for risk communication that have emanated from the various interest groups within the different countries. Another reason for their engagement was to elicit their comments on the central features of existing materials and thus point to any strengths and weaknesses associated with various risk communication techniques and more composite risk communication strategies. The results obtained reflect the opinions and sentiments related to risks and safety of various groups in civil society within the participating countries. We also believe that the work performed in D18 fits well into the transparency framework provided in the RISCOM model. This model was successfully used in Sweden and has actually also been applied in the Czech Republic within the ARGONA project. It was shown that if applied in practice this model has a high potential for improving transparency related to consensus building in the NWM area

  12. Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Bruno M; Jia, Hongwei; Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Katzourakis, Aris; Mendoza, Patricia; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Switzer, William M

    2015-10-29

    Although simian foamy viruses (SFV) are the only exogenous retroviruses to infect New World monkeys (NWMs), little is known about their evolutionary history and epidemiology. Previous reports show distinct SFVs among NWMs but were limited to small numbers of captive or wild monkeys from five (Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles, Alouatta, and Callithrix) of the 15 NWM genera. Other studies also used only PCR testing or serological assays with limited validation and may have missed infection in some species. We developed and validated new serological and PCR assays to determine the prevalence of SFV in blood specimens from a large number of captive NWMs in the US (n = 274) and in captive and wild-caught NWMs (n = 236) in Peruvian zoos, rescue centers, and illegal trade markets. Phylogenetic and co-speciation reconciliation analyses of new SFV polymerase (pol) and host mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences, were performed to infer SFV and host co-evolutionary histories. 124/274 (45.2 %) of NWMs captive in the US and 59/157 (37.5 %) of captive and wild-caught NWMs in Peru were SFV WB-positive representing 11 different genera (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Cacajao, Callithrix, Cebus, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri). Seroprevalences were lower at rescue centers (10/53, 18.9 %) compared to zoos (46/97, 47.4 %) and illegal trade markets (3/7, 8/19, 42.9 %) in Peru. Analyses showed that the trees of NWM hosts and SFVs have remarkably similar topologies at the level of species and sub-populations suggestive of co-speciation. Phylogenetic reconciliation confirmed 12 co-speciation events (p history of SFV in NWMs at the species level. Additional studies are necessary to further explore the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection of NWMs and to determine the zoonotic potential for persons exposed to infected monkeys in captivity and in the wild.

  13. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  14. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  15. Profesionales y burocracia: Desprofesionalización, proletarización y poder profesional en las organizaciones complejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURO F. GUILLÉN

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available las profesiones han experimentado un proceso generalizado de asalarizacion a lo largo del siglo xx, cuestion que ha despertado una controversia sociologica considerable. En el presente articulo se describen las caracteristicas de las ocupaciones profesionales tal y como se desarrollaron en la sociologia anglosajona a partir de la obra de spencer en 1896. Se abordan las teorias de "desprofesionalizacion" y "proletarizacion", criticandose la evidencia empirica disponible. Se analizan las profesiones "organizativas", introduciendo las teorias que postulan que las organizaciones complejas, lejos de socavar el profesionalismo, son medios de trabajo que favorecen la autonomia y el poder de las profesiones.

  16. Sensibilidad del análisis termomecánico a las variables de termofijado del poliéster.

    OpenAIRE

    Gacén Guillén, Joaquín; Bernal Sánchez, Fernando; Juárez Quero, Dionisio

    1989-01-01

    El estudio por Análisis Termomecánico de las fibras de poliester termofijadas detecta una extensión a temperaturas próximas de transiaón vítrea, cuyo origen puede atribuirse a la movilización de las zonas amorfas. A mayores temperaturas se inicia un encogimiento cuya temperatura caracteristica está muy relacionada con la temperatura efectiva del termofijado. Esta temperatura (TIE) constituye una buena medida de la estabilidad dimensional al calor seco, aumentando tras el descrudado, tras el t...

  17. Percepción de patrones de envejecimiento: ¿Unidireccionalidad o multidireccionalidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Posada, Feliciano

    1995-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende comprobar si existe una percepción uniforme del proceso de envejecimiento o si bien esta percepción es múltiple y dependiente de las dimensiones o caracteristicas concretas que se tomen en consideración. Se administró un protocolo de respuesta en el que 186 universitarios estimaron la evolución a 10 largo del ciclo vital de 16 dimensiones diferentes (salud, capacidad de movimiento,rapidez, agudeza sensorial, fuerza fisica, memoria, inteligencia, felicidad, ilusión...

  18. The application of frequency converters and/or high efficiency motors in fans; Aplicacion de convertidores de frecuencia y/o motores de alta eficiencia en ventiladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmar S, A. [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the characteristic curves of fans will be analyzed, some of the opportunities for energy conservation that can be applied and the precautions that have to be taken when a high efficiency motor is selected for this type of equipment. [Espanol] En este articulo se describiran las curvas caracteristicas de los ventiladores, algunas de las oportunidades de ahorro de energia que se pueden aplicar y las precauciones que hay que tomar cuando se seleccione un motor de alta eficiencia para estos equipos

  19. The application of frequency converters and/or high efficiency motors in fans; Aplicacion de convertidores de frecuencia y/o motores de alta eficiencia en ventiladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmar S, A [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the characteristic curves of fans will be analyzed, some of the opportunities for energy conservation that can be applied and the precautions that have to be taken when a high efficiency motor is selected for this type of equipment. [Espanol] En este articulo se describiran las curvas caracteristicas de los ventiladores, algunas de las oportunidades de ahorro de energia que se pueden aplicar y las precauciones que hay que tomar cuando se seleccione un motor de alta eficiencia para estos equipos

  20. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  1. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  2. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  3. Ensenanza de la Astronomia a Traves de Metodos no Tradicionales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.

    1990-11-01

    REUMEN: Se presentan los aspects pri nc ipales de a ense? anza de la astronor:. a para -; s. En esta cc .unicaci #n, 5 ha especial mfasis em Ia descripci':"n de las caracteristicas y las posibi lidades peda gicas de los no tradicionales de aprendiZaje. E' : In the following the principal aspects of teaching of astrono ..y for children) are oresented. In this paper, special emphasis has been given to desc rib the characteristics and pedagogical possibilities of the non traditional methods of learning. : TEACHING

  4. Controlled environment laboratory for the energy certification of refrigeration and air conditioning systems; Laboratorio de ambiente controlado para la certificacion energetica de sistemas de refrigeracion y aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Dorantes, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the general characteristics of the Controlled Environment Laboratory (CELAB) are described and some of the possible tests that could be performed in this device to evaluate the energy efficiency in air conditioning systems, domestic refrigeration and industrial refrigeration, as well as tests to evaluate the hydrothermal comfort in national populations, are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen las caracteristicas generales del Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado (LAB), y se presentan algunas de las posibles pruebas que podran ser desarrolladas en este dispositivo para evaluar la eficiencia energetica en sistemas de aire acondicionado, refrigeracion domestica y refrigeracion industrial, asi como para pruebas para evaluar el confort hidrotermico en poblaciones nacionales.

  5. Comportamento dos bancos em alta inflação : teoria e experiencia brasileira recente

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando Rodrigues de Paula

    1997-01-01

    Resumo:Esta tese tem por objetivo efetuar uma análise sobre o comportamento dos bancos em um contexto de alta inflação, seja numa abordagem teórica centrada na firma bancária, seja realizando um estudo de caso sobre a experiência brasileira. Em particular, procura-se analisar o desempenho, as transformações e as caracteristicas do sistema bancário privado brasileiro no período recente, anterior ao Real, de modo a permitir um entendimento acerca das especificidades do comportamento dos bancos ...

  6. Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Prates, Hélio Teixeira; Viana, Paulo Afonso; Waquil, José Magid

    2003-01-01

    A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)) tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlor...

  7. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J; Bonilla, O [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  8. Películas de harinas de arroz y plátano reforzadas con nanopartículas de montmorillonita de sodio: caracterización fisicoquímica, funcional y molecular

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Marín, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Los empaques a base d epolímeros sintéticos han contribuido a la contaminación ambiental , debido a su uso intensivo y que sus residuos son resientess al atque microbiano y/o degradación ambiental. Se han utilizado polisacáridos, proteínas y lípídos para la elaboración de películas biodegradables. Las harinas son una mezcla natural de esras macromoléculas y representan una alternativa para obetner este tipo de materiales. Actualmente, la tendencia para mejorar las caracteristicas de las pelíc...

  9. Estudio de factibilidad para la creación de una empresa productora y comercializadora de adoquines ubicada en el barrio Santa Lucía del retorno, Canton Ibarra provincia de Imbabura.

    OpenAIRE

    Pabón Torres, Natalia Belén

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto tiene como objetivo dar a conocer la creacion de una empresa productora y comercializadora de adoquines en el barrio Santa Lucia del retorno. Ciudad de Ibarra. Provincia de Imbabura. A raíz de la regeneración urbana que esta viviendo la ciudad de Ibarra, la utilización de los adoquines se ha vuelto la materia de prima en la construcción y mejoramiento de la capa de rodamiento de las calles de la urbe y debido de a sus caracteristicas fisicas el adoquin es un material m...

  10. System programs design of motors; Sistema de programas de diseno de motores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Gonzalez Palomas, Oscar; Ciprian Avila, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This paper describes the objective of creating the program system for induction motors design SIPRODIMO, its scope, its general characteristics, its structure and the results obtained with its application, as well as the service capacity developed by the Motors Area of the Instituto de Investigaciones Elctricas. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el objetivo de crear el sistema de programas de diseno de motores de induccion, Siprodimo, su alcance, sus caracteristicas generales, su estructura y los resultados obtenidos con su aplicacion, asi como la capacidad de servicio desarrollada por el area de motores, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

  11. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  12. Complementary analyses to interpret profiles of 2{sup 10}Pb; Analisis complementarios para interpretar perfiles de {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia (Mexico); Mulsow, Sandor [Universidad Austral de Chile (Chile)

    2012-07-01

    The coastal zone is highly dynamic, subject to processes that often cause disturbances in the sedimentary record. These processes have varied origins: physical, chemical and biological. Because of this feature of the coastal area we suggest improving the quality of dating and estimated accumulation rates through the study of some of the many features expressed in the sedimentary record. Below are some ancillary techniques that can improve the quality of the interpretation of the profile of {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}. [Spanish] La zona costera es un medio altamente dinamico, sujeta a procesos que frecuentemente causan perturbaciones en el registro sedimentario. Estos procesos tienen origenes variados: fisicos, quimicos y biologicos. Debido a esta caracteristica del area costera sugerimos mejorar la calidad del fechado y las estimaciones de las tasas de acumulacion a traves del estudio de algunas de las muchas caracteristicas expresadas en los registros sedimentarios. A continuacion describimos algunas tecnicas auxiliares que pueden mejorar la calidad de la interpretacion del perfil de {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}.

  13. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  14. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  15. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic Consensus panel - Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. Deliverable 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtechova, Hana

    2009-06-01

    An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the

  16. Daylighting analysis of rooflights through model measurements in the artificial sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filetoht, Levente I. [University of Technnology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary (Hungary)

    2000-07-01

    In investigating the daylighting of rooflights, it can be assumed that they are behaving as luminaires-having a major role in the lighting features of the interior space. Until now there is not enough precise information on these daylighting systems, and because of this, it is difficult to predict precisely the quality and quantity of illuminance and the light distribution in the interior. The exact behavior of the rooflights are complex and sophisticated. Their features are based on their geometry, reflectance and transmittance of their non-transparent, transparent and translucent surfaces. The effect of these features can not be predicted of calculated using the traditional mathematical methods. I am investigating roof-lighting systems taking into account the complex effects of their parts, using a completely new method based on a series of model measurements under artificial sky. Investigating the roof-light as a complex system which consist of relatively large surfaces and the effects of surfaces on other surfaces. Considering the different illuminance fields of the different types of roof-lighting systems. I will be able to determine the light distribution and efficiency of the system as well. The results of this research will lead to the development of a new computer software which is beyond the scope of this paper. [Spanish] Al investigar la iluminacion de luz de dia de luces de techo puede suponerse que se estan comportando como luminarias teniendo un papel principal en las caracteristicas de iluminacion del espacio interior. Hasta ahora no existe ninguna informacion precisa de estos sistemas de iluminacion de dia y a causa de ello es dificil predecir con precision la calidad y cantidad de iluminancia y la distribucion de la luz en el interior. El comportamiento exacto de las luces de techo es complejo y sofisticado. Sus caracteristicas estan basadas en su geometria, reflectancia y trasmitancia de sus superficies no transparentes, transparentes y

  17. Open-ocean convection process: A driver of the winter nutrient supply and the spring phytoplankton distribution in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Tatiana; Kessouri, Faycal; Rembauville, Mathieu; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia Denisse; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Mayot, Nicolas; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Conan, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    This study was a part of the DeWEX project (Deep Water formation Experiment), designed to better understand the impact of dense water formation on the marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, nutrient and phytoplankton vertical and horizontal distributions were investigated during a deep open-ocean convection event and during the following spring bloom in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). In February 2013, the deep convection event established a surface nutrient gradient from the center of the deep convection patch to the surrounding mixed and stratified areas. In the center of the convection area, a slight but significant difference of nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations was observed possibly due to the different volume of deep waters included in the mixing or to the sediment resuspension occurring where the mixing reached the bottom. One of this process, or a combination of both, enriched the water column in silicate and phosphate, and altered significantly the stoichiometry in the center of the deep convection area. This alteration favored the local development of microphytoplankton in spring, while nanophytoplankton dominated neighboring locations where the convection reached the deep layer but not the bottom. This study shows that the convection process influences both winter nutrients distribution and spring phytoplankton distribution and community structure. Modifications of the convection's spatial scale and intensity (i.e., convective mixing depth) are likely to have strong consequences on phytoplankton community structure and distribution in the NWM, and thus on the marine food web.Plain Language SummaryThe deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea is an important process for the formation and the circulation of the deep waters of the entire Mediterranean Sea, but also for the local spring phytoplankton bloom. In this study, we showed that variations of the convective mixing depth induced different supply in nitrate

  18. Tropospheric products of the second GOP European GNSS reprocessing (1996-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousa, Jan; Vaclavovic, Pavel; Elias, Michal

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present results of the second reprocessing of all data from 1996 to 2014 from all stations in International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe (EUREF) Permanent Network (EPN) as performed at the Geodetic Observatory Pecný (GOP). While the original goal of this research was to ultimately contribute to the realization of a new European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRS), we also aim to provide a new set of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) tropospheric parameter time series with possible applications to climate research. To achieve these goals, we improved a strategy to guarantee the continuity of these tropospheric parameters and we prepared several variants of troposphere modelling. We then assessed all solutions in terms of the repeatability of coordinates as an internal evaluation of applied models and strategies and in terms of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs) and horizontal gradients with those of the ERA-Interim numerical weather model (NWM) reanalysis. When compared to the GOP Repro1 (first EUREF reprocessing) solution, the results of the GOP Repro2 (second EUREF reprocessing) yielded improvements of approximately 50 and 25 % in the repeatability of the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, and of approximately 9 % in tropospheric parameters. Vertical repeatability was reduced from 4.14 to 3.73 mm when using the VMF1 mapping function, a priori ZHD (zenith hydrostatic delay), and non-tidal atmospheric loading corrections from actual weather data. Raising the elevation cut-off angle from 3 to 7° and then to 10° increased RMS from coordinates' repeatability, which was then confirmed by independently comparing GNSS tropospheric parameters with the NWM reanalysis. The assessment of tropospheric horizontal gradients with respect to the ERA-Interim revealed a strong sensitivity of estimated gradients to the quality of GNSS antenna tracking performance. This impact was demonstrated at the

  19. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. A meteorology comparision for better understanding of different pollutant concentration simulations with different chemistry transport models. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Ein Meteorologievergleich zum besseren Verstaendnis der unterschiedlichen Schadstoffkonzentrationssimulationen mit verschiedenen Chemie-Transport-Modellen. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschbaumer, Andreas [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    In this study, input variables for chemical transport models were compared from different meteorological drivers each with other and with the measured friction velocities in one place. Friction velocities are used as a measure of the mechanical turbulence, but are made available neither by numerical weather models nor routinely available observations: so they must either recalculate or estimated. In this study, friction velocities (u{sup *}), which is measured for years by the DWD in Lindenberg near Berlin, averaged over 30 minutes and have been made available to FU Berlin, compared with modeled values. The considered models are firstly the diagnostic interpolation model TRAMPER, on the other the prognostic models of the DWD COSMO-EU and the EZMWF. The boundary layer relevant parameters from the NWM were recalculated from the involved groups, which has been made for the COSMO-EU the one from the FU Berlin, the other from IfT in Leipzig. The boundary layer variables in the EZMWF model, however, were determined by TNO Netherlands. The measurements have shown that u{sup *} in the forest twice as high as above the meadow. [German] In dieser Studie wurden Eingangsvariablen fuer Chemie-Transport-Modelle aus verschiedenen meteorologischen Treibern miteinander und mit an einem Ort gemessenen Schubspannungsgeschwindigkeiten verglichen. Schubspannungsgeschwindigkeiten werden als Mass fuer die mechanische Turbulenz benutzt, werden aber weder von numerischen Wettermodellen noch routinemaessig von Beobachtungen zur Verfuegung gestellt: sie muessen also entweder nachgerechnet oder abgeschaetzt werden. In dieser Arbeit wurden Schubspannungsgeschwindigkeiten (u{sup *}), die vom DWD in Lindenberg bei Berlin ueber Jahre gemessen, gemittelt ueber 30 Minuten, und der FUBerlin zur Verfuegung gestellt worden sind, mit modellierten Werten verglichen. Die beruecksichtigten Modelle sind zum einen das diagnostische Interpolationsmodell TRAMPER, zum anderen die prognostischen Modelle des DWD

  20. Application of ray-traced tropospheric slant delays to geodetic VLBI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Armin; Böhm, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    The correction of tropospheric influences via so-called path delays is critical for the analysis of observations from space geodetic techniques like the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). In standard VLBI analysis, the a priori slant path delays are determined using the concept of zenith delays, mapping functions and gradients. The a priori use of ray-traced delays, i.e., tropospheric slant path delays determined with the technique of ray-tracing through the meteorological data of numerical weather models (NWM), serves as an alternative way of correcting the influences of the troposphere on the VLBI observations within the analysis. In the presented research, the application of ray-traced delays to the VLBI analysis of sessions in a time span of 16.5 years is investigated. Ray-traced delays have been determined with program RADIATE (see Hofmeister in Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien. http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-3444, 2016) utilizing meteorological data provided by NWM of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In comparison with a standard VLBI analysis, which includes the tropospheric gradient estimation, the application of the ray-traced delays to an analysis, which uses the same parameterization except for the a priori slant path delay handling and the used wet mapping factors for the zenith wet delay (ZWD) estimation, improves the baseline length repeatability (BLR) at 55.9% of the baselines at sub-mm level. If no tropospheric gradients are estimated within the compared analyses, 90.6% of all baselines benefit from the application of the ray-traced delays, which leads to an average improvement of the BLR of 1 mm. The effects of the ray-traced delays on the terrestrial reference frame are also investigated. A separate assessment of the RADIATE ray-traced delays is carried out by comparison to the ray-traced delays from the

  1. The effect of meteorological data on atmospheric pressure loading corrections in VLBI data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Glaser, Susanne; Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Lu, Cuixian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Earth's crustal deformation is a manifestation of numerous geophysical processes, which entail the atmosphere and ocean general circulation and tidal attraction, climate change, and the hydrological circle. The present study deals with the elastic deformations induced by atmospheric pressure variations. At geodetic sites, APL (Atmospheric Pressure Loading) results in displacements covering a wide range of temporal scales which is undesirable when rigorous geodetic/geophysical analysis is intended. Hence, it is of paramount importance that the APL signal are removed at the observation level in the space geodetic data analysis. In this study, elastic non-tidal components of loading displacements were calculated in the local topocentric frame for all VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) stations with respect to the center-of-figure of the solid Earth surface and the center-of-mass of the total Earth system. The response of the Earth to the load variation at the surface was computed by convolving Farrell Green's function with the homogenized in situ surface pressure observations (in the time span 1979-2014) after the subtraction of the reference pressure and the S1, S2 and S3 thermal tidal signals. The reference pressure was calculated through a hypsometric adjustment of the absolute pressure level determined from World Meteorological Organization stations in the vicinity of each VLBI observatory. The tidal contribution was calculated following the 2010 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service conventions. Afterwards, this approach was implemented into the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ and the entirety of available VLBI sessions was analyzed. We rationalize our new approach on the basis that the potential error budget is substantially reduced, since several common errors are not applicable in our approach, e.g. those due to the finite resolution of NWM (Numerical Weather Models), the accuracy of the orography model necessary for adjusting the former as

  2. The CNA-1 (Nuclear Power Plant Atucha-1) QK-01 repairing project; Proyecto de reparacion del QK-01 de CNA-1 (Central Nuclear Atucha-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzaferri, J C [Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabot, P [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1998-12-31

    The repair/maintenance of the CNA-1 QK-01 Moderator Cooler will be a leading case of the repair of a class 1 nuclear component in a high radiation environment; utilizing for the work, sophisticated remotely operated equipment. This paper describes the component, the repair-maintenance objective, and the equipment-procedures developed for the intervention. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs. [Espanol] La reparacion/mantenimiento del enfriador del moderador QK-01 de CNA-1 sera un caso sobresaliente de reparacion de un componente nuclear clase 1 en un ambiente de alta radiacion, utilizando equipamiento sofisticado de accion remota. En este trabajo se describen caracteristicas de diseno del componente, objetivos del mantenimiento, y las facilidades y procedimientos desarrollados en el marco del proyecto para realizar la tarea en cuestion. (autor)

  3. Restoration of contaminated soils; Restauracion de suelos contaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [Spanish] Una gran variedad de tecnicas son utilizadas para la restauracion de suelos contaminados. La contaminacion se presenta tanto por contaminantes organicos como inorganicos. Las condiciones ambientales y caracteristicas del suelo se deben de tomar en cuenta para poder implementar una tecnica remediadora. Las tecnologias de biorremediacion son mostradas como ayuda para remover una gran variedad de contaminantes del suelo. (autor)

  4. Clasificación de fallas en motores eléctricos utilizando señales de vibración

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Flórez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    La tesis está encaminada a la aplicación de las técnicas tiempo frecuencia al análisis de senales de vibración para el diagnóstico de fallas en máquinas rotativas. Para esto se implementan métodos de extracción y clasificación de caracteristicas para lograr acercar de manera más precisa al diagnosticador a encontrar la causa raíz de la falla. Se realiza un estudio de cuatro métodos de extracción de características: Transformadas Wavelet, Distribución Wigner Ville, Distribución Choi Williams y...

  5. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  6. LAS CIBERCIUDADES DE LA NORDPATAGONIA (REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian N. Cardone

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La crisis del sistema capitalista, entre otros aspectos, ha cuestionado la validez de los tradicionales modelos explicativos de la economía regional, adoptando a partir de lo años '70 y especialmente en los países de Europa un nuevo enfoque, donde la integración y la coordinación se presentan como las principales caracteristicas. Imprimir, en estos países, un nuevo enfoque a la política regional, implica ensayar y desarrollar, a partir de estos últimos años, otros frentes de actuación, entre los que ocupan un lugar preponderante los relacionados con la innovacion tecnologica en curso, el desarrollo de los servicios, las soluciones financieras sobre capital- riesgo y la conquista de nuevos mercados externos, dada la creciente internacionalizacion de las economías.

  7. MODELO DE GESTION DE MANEJO COSTERO INTEGRADO EN EL ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Soria

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el manejo costero integrado como una forma de gobernanza ambiental en la provincia de Santa Elena que incluyen dos aspectos: fortalecimiento institucional y participacion ciudadana. El deficiente control ambiental existente exige un modelo de gestión a escala local basado en tres ejes: el fortalecimiento de las capacidades institucionales de los gobiernos locales; el ordenamiento territorial para una adecuada determinacion y delimitacion de las competenecias en materia ambientak  costera y la participacion ciudadana a nivel del régimen de la comunas en coordinación con los distintos niveles de gobierno. Se propone el estudio delas caracteristicas específicasde cada comua ubicada en la faja costera para implementar en cada una de ella el respectivo modelo de gestion. Tambien se propone la creación de un obeservatorio de manejo costero integrado para medir el avance en manejo costero iuntegrado de la provincia de Santa Elena.

  8. The fuel cells: Truths on the generation of clean and efficient electricity electrochemical way; Las celdas de combustible: Verdades sobre la generacion de electricidad limpia y eficiente via electroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the search of alternative technologies for the generation of electrical energy, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has put special attention in a technology that promises to be key in the next years: The fuel cells, it is for this reason that in this article a review of this type of cells is presented, as well as its basic characteristics and benefits as a result of its use for the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] En la busqueda de tecnologias alternativas de generacion de energia electrica, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha puesto atencion especial en una tecnologia que promete ser clave en los proximos anos: Las celdas de combustible, es por ello que en este articulo se presenta una resena de este tipo de celdas, asi como sus caracteristicas principales y beneficios como resultado de su utilizacion para la generacion de energia electrica.

  9. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  10. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  11. Recommendations for the use of high efficiency motors; Recomendaciones para la utilizacion de motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitron Sanchez, Horacio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the most important characteristics of the high efficiency motors are examined and the use of these motors as an alternative for the saving and efficient use of the electrical energy is proposed. The operating cost is analyzed in relation with similar standard motors and several suggestions that can help to justify its application are given. [Espanol] En este trabajo se examinan las caracteristicas relevantes de los motores de alta eficiencia y se plantea su utilizacion como alternativa para el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica. Se analiza su costo de operacion, en relacion con motores estandar similares y se dan varias sugerencias que pueden ayudar a justificar su aplicacion.

  12. The application of the expert system Seilum for the energy assessment in the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) illumination, phase 1: Acatlan; Aplicacion del sistema experto Seilum para la evaluacion energetica de la iluminacion en la UNAM, fase 1: Acatlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Sanchez Cifuentes, Augusto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyses the characteristics of the expert system Seilum and its first validation after being employed to compare the energy audit of the illumination installations carried out at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)`s Acatlan Unit. In accordance with these results, the perspectives of its generalized application in the balance of the units is proposed, as well as in the small and medium size Mexican industry. [Espanol] En este trabajo se discuten las caracteristicas del sistema experto Seilum y su primera validacion luego de haber sido empleado para comparar la auditoria energetica de las instalaciones de iluminacion llevada a cabo en la unidad de acatlan de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). De acuerdo a estos resultados se plantean las perspectivas de su empleo generalizado en las demas unidades, asi como en la pequena y mediana industria mexicana.

  13. Optimum design of a self-supported power transmission tower type 2M2 for 230 kW; Diseno optimo de una torre de transmision autosoportada tipo 2M2, para 230 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejel Valdez, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Millan Monje, Alejandro; Honk Hernandez, Wenceslao [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    A group of specialists from the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analyzes the design of various types of power transmission towers in their application stage, in order to enhance them. In this article the structural characteristics of the self-supported tower type 2M2 for 230 kV of two circuits and of suspension, are presented. [Espanol] Un grupo de especialistas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analiza el diseno de diversos tipos de torres de transmision en su etapa de aplicacion, con el fin de mejorarlos. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas estructurales de la torre autosoportada tipo 2M2 para 230 kV, de dos circuitos y de suspension.

  14. Colaborarea sociopolitică: experiență mondială și ucraineană

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Politica crowdfunding este una dintre tehnologiile sociale inovatoare. Caracteristica sa importantă este lipsa de intermediari tradiţionali în finanţare: investitorul colaborează direct cu destinatarul. Unicitatea crowdfunding reiese din faptul că acest instrument de finanţare, utilizând tehnologii Internet, permite obţinerea rapidă a investiţiilor mici dintr-un număr mare de oameni, cu scopul de a susţine proiectul. Rata politicii crowdfunding creşte, fiind ca un instrument eficient al capitalului implicat. Datorită dezvoltării rapide a tehnologiei informaţionale, noi oportunităţi de finanţare atractive au devenit disponibile pentru investitorii politici.

  15. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  16. Design of a grounding network in electrical substations. Materials and formulas the most used; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas. Materiales y formulas mas utilizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull Martin, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as well as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presenta los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asimismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  17. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  18. Analysis system and remote monitoring of atmospheric discharges; Sistema de analisis y monitoreo remoto de descargas atmosfericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabre Borgaro, Eric; Rodriguez Padilla, Ma. Consuelo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A system for analysis and monitoring of atmospheric discharges (SAMDA (Sistema de Analisis y Monitoreo de Descargas Atmosfericas) (lightnings)) in an electronic device that subsequently transmits these data as automatic processing or by request of a user from a computer operating as a remote station, is described. Also, the characteristics of the SAMDA, its evolution, and the challenges encountered along the development of this project and comments on possible improvements to the equipment and data recordings of this nature, are described. [Espanol] Se presenta el sistema de analisis y monitoreo de descargas atmosfericas (SAMDA) utilizado en la deteccion y registro de descargas atmosfericas (rayos) en un equipo electronico que posteriormente transmite estos datos como procesamiento automatico o por peticion de un usuario desde una computadora, operando como estacion remota. Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas del SAMDA, su evolucion, los retos encontrados a lo largo del desarrollo de este proyecto y comentarios sobre posibles mejoras a equipos y registros de datos de esta naturaleza.

  19. Thermoelectric power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal with integration of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. Part 1; Conversion de una central termoelectrica de combustoleo a carbon con integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huante Perez, Liborio; Rodriguez Martinez, J. Hugo; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The major features in the design of power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal, considering the new technical characteristics of fuel and his transportation to plant, equipment required to comply with Mexican environmental standards and additional requirements of auxiliaries are described. In addition, changes needed on power plant design were considered according to integrates CO{sub 2} capture plant alternatives. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales en el diseno de la conversion de Centrales de combustoleo a carbon, considerando el nuevo combustible y su transporte hasta la central, los equipos requeridos para cumplir con las normas ambientales y los requerimientos adicionales de los servicios auxiliares. Adicionalmente, se lleva a cabo el analisis de los cambios requeridos en el diseno de la conversion considerando diferentes opciones para la integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}, la cual debera entregar este subproducto para su compresion y envio a su destino final para su almacenamiento.

  20. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  1. Metodologia de la Administración Federal de Aviación para el Diseño de estructuras de Pavimento flexible para aeropuertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se representan los aspectos técnicos fundamentales y principalesconsideraciones de la metodologia propuesta por la Administracion Federal de Aviación FAA para el diseño de estructuras de pavimento para aeropuertos. Se exponen los aspectos sobre las variables consideradas en el diseño (estructurales tránsito, factores ambientales y factores intrinsecos, se establecen las caracteristicas de las variables consideradas por el metodo (subrasante y materiales para la estructura, geometría del tren de aterrizaje, número de decolajes equivalentes y peso bruto maximo del decolaje y se explica el procedimiento utilizado para el tratamiento de la información requerida en diseño estructural de pavimentos flexibles para aeropuertos.

  2. Optimum design of a self-supported power transmission tower type 2M2 for 230 kW; Diseno optimo de una torre de transmision autosoportada tipo 2M2, para 230 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejel Valdez, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Millan Monje, Alejandro; Honk Hernandez, Wenceslao [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    A group of specialists from the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analyzes the design of various types of power transmission towers in their application stage, in order to enhance them. In this article the structural characteristics of the self-supported tower type 2M2 for 230 kV of two circuits and of suspension, are presented. [Espanol] Un grupo de especialistas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analiza el diseno de diversos tipos de torres de transmision en su etapa de aplicacion, con el fin de mejorarlos. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas estructurales de la torre autosoportada tipo 2M2 para 230 kV, de dos circuitos y de suspension.

  3. Simulator of a geotermoelectric unit for the training of operators; Simulador de una unidad geotermoelectrica para entrenamiento de operadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavira Mondragon, Jose Antonio; Lopez Aguilera, Diana Monica; Roldan Villasana, Edgardo Javier; Rodriguez Lozano, Saul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The use of simulators replica in real time for operators training has demonstrated to be one of the best forms to enable the personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). This article shows the basic characteristics of a simulator replica of the Cerro Prieto geotermoelectric power station of Baja California. It is expected that with this simulator 400 people between operators, shift superintendents and operation and maintenance auxiliary personnel become qualified. [Spanish] El uso de simuladores replica en tiempo real para entrenamiento de operadores de centrales generadoras ha demostrado ser una de las mejores formas de capacitar al personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Este articulo muestra las caracteristicas principales de un simulador replica de la central geotermoelectrica de Cerro Prieto Baja California. Se espera que con este simulador se capaciten 400 personas entre operadores, superintendentes de turno y auxiliares de operacion y mantenimiento.

  4. Analysis system and remote monitoring of atmospheric discharges; Sistema de analisis y monitoreo remoto de descargas atmosfericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabre Borgaro, Eric; Rodriguez Padilla, Ma Consuelo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A system for analysis and monitoring of atmospheric discharges (SAMDA (Sistema de Analisis y Monitoreo de Descargas Atmosfericas) (lightnings)) in an electronic device that subsequently transmits these data as automatic processing or by request of a user from a computer operating as a remote station, is described. Also, the characteristics of the SAMDA, its evolution, and the challenges encountered along the development of this project and comments on possible improvements to the equipment and data recordings of this nature, are described. [Espanol] Se presenta el sistema de analisis y monitoreo de descargas atmosfericas (SAMDA) utilizado en la deteccion y registro de descargas atmosfericas (rayos) en un equipo electronico que posteriormente transmite estos datos como procesamiento automatico o por peticion de un usuario desde una computadora, operando como estacion remota. Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas del SAMDA, su evolucion, los retos encontrados a lo largo del desarrollo de este proyecto y comentarios sobre posibles mejoras a equipos y registros de datos de esta naturaleza.

  5. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  6. Guides for flow sensors selection; Guias para la seleccion de sensores de flujo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Garcia, Gustavo; Guzman Flores, Roberto; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper a system is presented that allows the selection and calculation on instruments for flow measurement, based on practical experiences, standards an taking into consideration the process operational characteristics such as fluid type, maximum flow rate, piping diameter, etc. The system is composed of a knowledge base and a software for the selection, calculation and de adequate recommendation of flow sensing elements for the different services needed in the power plants. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema que permite realizar la seleccion y calculo de instrumentos para la medicion de flujo con base en experiencias practicas, normas y tomando en cuenta las caracteristicas de operacion del proceso como el tipo de fluido, flujo maximo, diametro de tuberia, etcetera. El sistema esta compuesto por una base de conocimiento y un software para la seleccion, calculo y la recomendacion adecuada de elementos sensores de flujo para los diferentes servicios que se tienen en centrales generadoras.

  7. The application of the expert system Seilum for the energy assessment in the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) illumination, phase 1: Acatlan; Aplicacion del sistema experto Seilum para la evaluacion energetica de la iluminacion en la UNAM, fase 1: Acatlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Sanchez Cifuentes, Augusto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper analyses the characteristics of the expert system Seilum and its first validation after being employed to compare the energy audit of the illumination installations carried out at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)`s Acatlan Unit. In accordance with these results, the perspectives of its generalized application in the balance of the units is proposed, as well as in the small and medium size Mexican industry. [Espanol] En este trabajo se discuten las caracteristicas del sistema experto Seilum y su primera validacion luego de haber sido empleado para comparar la auditoria energetica de las instalaciones de iluminacion llevada a cabo en la unidad de acatlan de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). De acuerdo a estos resultados se plantean las perspectivas de su empleo generalizado en las demas unidades, asi como en la pequena y mediana industria mexicana.

  8. Recommendations for the use of high efficiency motors; Recomendaciones para la utilizacion de motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitron Sanchez, Horacio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper the most important characteristics of the high efficiency motors are examined and the use of these motors as an alternative for the saving and efficient use of the electrical energy is proposed. The operating cost is analyzed in relation with similar standard motors and several suggestions that can help to justify its application are given. [Espanol] En este trabajo se examinan las caracteristicas relevantes de los motores de alta eficiencia y se plantea su utilizacion como alternativa para el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica. Se analiza su costo de operacion, en relacion con motores estandar similares y se dan varias sugerencias que pueden ayudar a justificar su aplicacion.

  9. Diseño y construcción de un prototipo controlado para carburización gaseosa de aceros utilizando alcoholes

    OpenAIRE

    Obando B, Johnny F; Castro P, Álvaro; Trujillo, Carlos Alexander

    2010-01-01

    En esta investigación se realizó el diseno, construcción y prueba de un equipo a escala de laboratorio para tratamientos térmicos con atmósfera controlada para el estudio de la carburización gaseosa de aceros con alcoholes. El equipo posee las siguientes caracterIsticas: producción controlada de una atmósfera gaseosa compuesta hasta por tres gases y dos lIquidos volatiles, una zona de reacción isotérmica, inerte y hermética, y una zona de analisis de gases que retiene sólidos y lIquidos cond...

  10. The competitive forces of the natural gas industry of Mexico; Las fuerzas competitivas de la industria del gas natural de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Servin de la Mora, Neil Spar [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The present paper is intended to identify the structural characteristics of the natural gas national industry, that determines the intensity of the forces in competition. To know the ambient where PEMEX-Gas and Basic Petrochemistry will compete, the distributors and the partnerships formed by national and foreign companies is fundamental, since the forces that affect the market determine the attractiveness of the industry, the gain margins, investments, et cetera. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se pretende identificar las caracteristicas estructurales de la industria nacional del gas natural, que determinan lo intenso de las fuerzas en competencia. Conocer el ambiente en donde competiran PEMEX-Gas y Petroquimica Basica, las distribuidoras nacionales y los consorcios formados por empresas nacionales y extranjeras es primordial, puesto que las fuerzas que inciden al mercado determinan el atractivo de la industria, los margenes de ganancia, inversiones, etcetera.

  11. Neutron Spectrometry Work at the CNEN; La spectrometrie neutronique au CNEN; Raboty po nejtronnoj spektrometrii v nkyaeh; Trabajos de espectrometria neutronica realizados en el CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglioti, G; Ascarelli, P [Comitato Nazionale per L' energia Nucleare Euratom, G. C. R. Ispra, Varese (Italy)

    1963-01-15

    In this communication the main features of the triple axis spectrometer recently installed at the Ispra-1 reactor are presented. Preliminary results in the quasi elastic angular distribution of 1.4A neutrons scattered in liquid bromine are shown and briefly discussed. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire, l'auteur decrit les principales caracteristiques du spectrometre triaxial installe recemment au reacteur Ispra-1. Il donne et examine brievement les resultats preliminaires des experiences sur la distribution angulaire quasi elastique de neutrons de 1.4A a diffuses dans du brome liquide. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe las principales caracteristicas del espectrometro triaxial recientemente instalado en el reactor lspra-1. Asimismo, expone brevemente los resultados iniciales de las determinaciones de distribucion angular de neutrones de 1,4 A dispersados en forma cuasi elastica por bromo liquido. (author)

  12. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  13. General diagnosis on the control of the pollution by combustion gases of the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL); Diagnostico general del control de la contaminacion de los gases de la combustion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Arce, Efren [Central Termica Gonzalo Zevallos, (Ecuador)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the characteristics of the electric sector of Ecuador, its interconnected system, the principal laws in effect on the prevention and control of the environmental pollution related to the electric sector and an overview of the pollution control in the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan las caracteristicas del Sector Electrico del Ecuador, su Sistema Nacional Interconectado, las principales leyes vigentes en el pais sobre la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental relacionadas con el sector electrico y, un panorama general con respecto al control de la contaminacion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

  14. General diagnosis on the control of the pollution by combustion gases of the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL); Diagnostico general del control de la contaminacion de los gases de la combustion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Arce, Efren [Central Termica Gonzalo Zevallos, (Ecuador)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented the characteristics of the electric sector of Ecuador, its interconnected system, the principal laws in effect on the prevention and control of the environmental pollution related to the electric sector and an overview of the pollution control in the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan las caracteristicas del Sector Electrico del Ecuador, su Sistema Nacional Interconectado, las principales leyes vigentes en el pais sobre la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental relacionadas con el sector electrico y, un panorama general con respecto al control de la contaminacion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

  15. The Panama fossil power plants generation system: Atmospheric pollution, general and legal aspects; El sistema de generacion termoelectrico en Panama: Contaminacion atmosferica, aspectos generales y legales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milciades, Concepcion [Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion, (Panama)

    1997-12-31

    The Thermal electric energy resource of Panama is administered by four Regional Managements and a group of Regional Systems comprising the fossil power plants supplying electric energy to the country`s marginal areas. The characteristics of the different fuels used in these fossil power plants, the results of the assessment of the polluting particles and sulfur and nitrogen oxides are presented. Finally, the alleviation measures and the environmental legislation implanted in these power plants are also presented [Espanol] El parque termico de Panama es administrado por cuatro Gerencias Regionales y un conjunto de Sistemas Regionales que comprenden las plantas termicas de menor capacidad destinadas a suplir de energia a las areas marginadas del pais. Se presentan las caracteristicas de los diferentes combustibles utilizados en estas unidades termicas; los resultados de las mediciones de particulas contaminantes y de oxidos de azufre y oxidos de nitrogeno. Por ultimo se presentan las medidas de mitigacion y legislacion ambiental implantadas en estas centrales termoelectricas

  16. Análisis del cambio de voto hacia el PSOE en las elecciones de 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELÉN BARREIRO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available en este articulo investigamos las transferencias de voto hacia el psoe que tuvieron lugar durante la campaña de las elecciones generales de 1993. nuestro objetivo de estudio es el grupo de votantes que antes de la campaña no manifestaron tener intencion de votar hacia el psoe pero que acabaron decidiendose por este partido. ese grupo fue crucial en la inesperada victoria final de los socialistas. mediante una encuesta de panel analizamos las caracteristicas de estos electores, sobre todo en relacion a los votantes no socialistas y, en menor medida, frente a los socialistas convencidos. el perfil del grupo es el de personas de izquierda, que valoran muy positivamente la figura de felipe gonzalez (especialmente tras la celebracion de los debates televisivos entre los dos principales candidatos, cuya pareja o persona con la que mas trato tienen son votantes del psoe pero que, sin embargo, estan descontentas con la gestion del gobierno socialista.

  17. Guides for flow sensors selection; Guias para la seleccion de sensores de flujo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Garcia, Gustavo; Guzman Flores, Roberto; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper a system is presented that allows the selection and calculation on instruments for flow measurement, based on practical experiences, standards an taking into consideration the process operational characteristics such as fluid type, maximum flow rate, piping diameter, etc. The system is composed of a knowledge base and a software for the selection, calculation and de adequate recommendation of flow sensing elements for the different services needed in the power plants. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema que permite realizar la seleccion y calculo de instrumentos para la medicion de flujo con base en experiencias practicas, normas y tomando en cuenta las caracteristicas de operacion del proceso como el tipo de fluido, flujo maximo, diametro de tuberia, etcetera. El sistema esta compuesto por una base de conocimiento y un software para la seleccion, calculo y la recomendacion adecuada de elementos sensores de flujo para los diferentes servicios que se tienen en centrales generadoras.

  18. Dynamic friction characterization in a turbine rotor and metallographic analysis of the friction element; Caracterizacion dinamica del rozamiento en rotor de turbina y analisis metalografico del elemento de rozamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    As a part of the diagnosis of the root cause of the blades fault of the of the L-1 wheel of a of low pressure rotor of 300 MW, in one of the Power stations of Electrical Generation, a design was made and an experimental rubbing test of friction in the same rotor was performed but in the adjacent wheel of movable blades L-2. The objectives of the experimental rubbing test were to determine the dynamic characteristics of the rubbing to corroborate what was observed in the diagrams of spectra registered by the power station during the operation of the Unit, to determine the maximum bending stress of the used element to provide rubbing to the wheel of blades L-2 and to infer in a qualitative way the magnitude of the necessary friction force to generate the dynamic characteristics of the rubbing and finally to determine the micro-structural changes that underwent the element employed to apply rubbing. [Spanish] Como parte del diagnostico de la causa raiz de la falla de los alabes de la rueda L-1 de un rotor de baja presion de 300 MW, en una de las Centrales de Generacion Electrica, se diseno y efectuo una prueba experimental de rozamiento en el mismo rotor pero en la rueda adyacente de alabes moviles L-2. Los objetivos de la prueba experimental de rozamiento fueron determinar las caracteristicas dinamicas del rozamiento para corroborar lo observado en los diagramas de espectros registrados por la Central durante la operacion de la Unidad, determinar el esfuerzo maximo a la flexion del elemento utilizado para suministrar rozamiento a la rueda de alabes L-2 e inferir de manera cualitativa la magnitud de la fuerza de rozamiento necesaria para generar las caracteristicas dinamicas del razonamiento y por ultimo determinar los cambios microestructurales que experimento el elemento utilizado para aplicar rozamiento.

  19. Wind power, a clean energy alternative; El viento, una alternativa energetica limpia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Venta (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    That a new energy source, renewable and environmentally benign is incorporated into our electric networks, is something really significative. What better contribution for the rational use of the conventional energy sources than substituting an important part of its share for a source of the stated characteristics. The wind is a resource that Nature offers US for free, whose energy can be transformed into electricity utilizing conversion technologies that have reached maturity and are currently available in the marketplace. This document presents the characteristics of the aeolian resource in the Tehuantepec Isthmus region. A description is made of the first pilot project in our country built by Comision Federal de Electricidad at La Venta, Oaxaca. The reasoning that support the development of the projects at a greater scale and investment and production costs are exhibited for the above mentioned project. [Espanol] Que una nueva fuente de energia, renovable y ambientalmente benigna se incorpore a nuestras redes electricas, es algo verdaderamente significativo. Que mejor contribucion para el uso racional de los energeticos convencionales que substituir una parte importante de su aportacion con una fuente de las caracteristicas mencionadas. El viento es un recurso que nos brinda la naturaleza en forma gratuita, cuya energia puede transformarse en electricidad utilizando tecnologias de conversion que han alcanzado madurez y que actualmente se encuentran disponibles en el mercado. En este documento se presentan las caracteristicas del recurso eolico en la region del Istmo de Tehuantepec, se hace una descripcion del primer proyecto piloto de nuestro pais, construido por la Comision Federal de Electricidad en La Venta, Oaxaca, se exponen los argumentos que apoyan al desarrollo de proyectos en mayor escala y se exhiben los costos de inversion y produccion para el proyecto mencionado.

  20. Estructura del quiste hidatídico producido por Echinococcus oligarthrus en el hospedero intermediario Proechimys c.f. guairae (rata espinosa en Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzain Rodríguez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La equinococosis es un parasitismo grave producido en el hombre y en los animales por larvas de tenias del género Echinococcus que se desarrollan en el higado, el pulmón, el bazo y en otras visceras y tejidos. De las cuatro tenias dei género Echinococcus, tres se presentan en Suramerica: E granulosus, E. vogeli y E. oligarihrus. En Colombia se han informado casos en humanos y en animales cuyo agente etiológico más frecuente es E. vogeli. En este trabajo presentamos la estructura macroscópica, microscópica y de microscopia electrónica de barrido de quistes hidatídicos múltiples y de sus protoescólices encontrados en un Proechimys c.f guairae o rata espinosa, capturado en la vereda La Plata del municipio de Pore, Casanare, durante la búsqueda de reservorios del virus de la encefalitis equina venezolana. En la autopsia del animal se encontraron quistes múltiples en el higado, el bazo y el pulmón, la gran mayoría fértiles. Están constituidos por una pared franjeada que origina cápsulas proligeras dentro de las cuales están los protoescólices. El protoescólex es el escólex inmaduro del parásito adulto formado por cuatro ventosas y un rostelo con ganchos, cuyo tamaño y morfologia corresponden con las medidas de E. oligaiihrus. Ilustramos las caracteristicas morfológicas de las larvas, el desarrollo de los protoescólices y revisamos las caracteristicas de la equinococosis en Colombia.

  1. Application of the identification methods from Hilbert and Prony to the study of oscillatory phenomena in electrical power systems; Aplicacion de los metodos de identificacion de Hilbert y Prony al estudio de fenomenos oscilatorios en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Soto, Manuel Antonio

    2002-10-15

    In the present thesis work the application of identification techniques is investigated based on methods of spectral analysis to the study of the instantaneous characteristics of signals obtained by means of digital simulation of the dynamic behavior of the power system. The study focuses on the perspectives developed from two different approaches of analysis: the use of lineal methods of spectral analysis and the use of methods of non-lineal analysis, based on the concept of an analytical signal. The developed tools are applied to the study of two phenomena of electromechanical origin of different characteristics in complex power systems. A comparison between the results obtained is performed for these techniques and the possibility of its application is discussed for the problem of on-line identification in power systems. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo de tesis se investiga la aplicacion de tecnicas de identificacion basadas en metodos de analisis espectral al estudio de las caracteristicas instantaneas de senales obtenidas mediante simulacion digital del comportamiento dinamico del sistema de potencia. El estudio se centra en las aproximaciones desarrolladas desde dos enfoques distintos de analisis: la utilizacion de metodos lineales de analisis espectral y la utilizacion de metodos de analisis no lineal, basados en el concepto de una senal analitica. Las herramientas desarrolladas se aplican al estudio de dos fenomenos de origen electromecanico de caracteristicas distintas en sistemas complejos de potencia. Se hace una comparacion entre los resultados obtenidos por estas tecnicas y se discute la posibilidad de su aplicacion al problema de identificacion en linea en sistemas de potencia.

  2. Dynamic characterization of the friction in turbine rotor and metallographic analysis of the friction element; Caracterizacion dinamica del rozamiento en rotor de turbina y analisis metalografico del elemento de rozamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    As a part of the diagnosis of the root cause of the fault of the blades of the L-1 wheel of a of low pressure rotor of 200 MW, in one of the power stations of electrical generation, an experimental test of friction in the same rotor was designed and carried out, but in the adjacent wheel of movable blades L-2. The objectives of the friction experimental test were to determine the dynamic characteristics of the friction, to corroborate what it was observed in the spectra diagrams registered by the power station during the operation of the unit, to determine the maximum bending stress of the used element to provide friction to the wheel of L-2 blades and to infer, in a qualitative way, the magnitude of the force of friction necessary to generate the dynamic characteristics of the friction and finally to determine the micro-structural changes that underwent the used element to apply friction. [Spanish] Como parte del diagnostico de la causa raiz de la falla de los alabes de la rueda L-1 de un rotor de baja presion de 200 MW, en una de las centrales de generacion electrica, se diseno y efectuo una prueba experimental de rozamiento en el mismo rotor, pero en la rueda adyacente de alabes moviles L-2. Los objetivos de la prueba experimental de rozamiento fueron determinar las caracteristicas dinamicas del razonamiento, para corroborar lo observado en los diagramas de espectros registrados por la central durante la operacion de la unidad, determinar el esfuerzo maximo a la flexion del elemento utilizado para suministrar rozamiento a la rueda de alabes L-2 e inferir, de manera cualitativa, la magnitud de la fuerza de rozamiento necesaria para generar las caracteristicas dinamicas del rozamiento y por ultimo determinar los cambios microestructurales que experimento el elemento utilizado para aplicar rozamiento.

  3. Use of refraction to increase the efficiency of solar panels; Uso de la refraccion para el incremento de la eficiencia en paneles solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Patino, J [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesusmp23@ugto.mx; Hernandez Figueroa, M. A; Lozano Garcia, J.M; Ireta Moreno, F; Rubio Maya, C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: mahf@ugto.mx; jm.lozano@ugto.mx; fireta@ugto.mx; rmaya@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    With the increased use of photovoltaic systems in dwellings and other areas, it is important the growing concern in sustainable development, as well as the tax benefits gotten by the acquisition of this type of systems. In this context, technical aspects of trading systems should be considered, as well as characteristics of sunlight, humidity, etc., where the photovoltaic equipment will be installed. This article seeks to increase the efficiency of commercial solar panels from a simple and economical perspective using refraction. Through three different tests, first normal operating conditions and two more tests with different conditions of temperature, humidity and water vapor the authors seek to understand the behavior of electric power generation of the PV system used. With the results obtained in this work set the tone by opening new opportunities to investigate more deeply the thermal and moisture characteristics of solar panels based on their efficiency and materials involved in the design. [Spanish] Con el incremento del uso de instalaciones fotovoltaicas en casas habitacion y en otros ambitos, es importante la creciente concientizacion del desarrollo sustentable, ademas de la utilizacion de los beneficios de impuestos que se tienen al comprar este tipo de sistemas. Bajo este contexto, se debe de considerar aspectos tecnicos de los sistemas comerciales, asi como caracteristicas de insolacion, humedad, etc., donde se instalen los equipos fotovoltaicos. En este articulo se busca incrementar la eficiencia de paneles solares comerciales desde una perspectiva sencilla y economica haciendo uso de la refraccion. A traves de tres diferentes pruebas; primeramente las condiciones normales de operacion y dos pruebas mas con diferentes condiciones de temperatura, humedad y vapor de agua los autores buscan conocer el comportamiento de la generacion de energia electrica de la instalacion fotovoltaica utilizada. Con los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo dan la pauta

  4. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosnell, T. B.; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach Wittenau, A. von; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress

  5. A bone tissue engineering strategy based on starch scaffolds and bone marrow cells cultured in a flow perfusion bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maria Manuela Estima

    A Engenharia de Tecidos e uma area cientifica em continua expansao. Os desenvolvimentos conseguidos por esta area tem contribuido significativamente para diversos avancos no campo da Medicina Regenerativa. Esta ciencia interdisciplinar combina os conhecimentos de diversas outras areas, tao distintas como a Engenharia de Materiais e a Biologia, com o objectivo de desenvolver substitutos sinteticos para tecidos humanos. Para se atingir este objectivo utilizam-se, de uma forma generica, combinacoes especificas de celulas e de um material de suporte tridimensional com propriedades adequadas, gerando um material hibrido cujas caracteristicas podem ainda ser moduladas atraves do sistema de cultura usado. A presente tese e centrada no desenvolvimento de estrategias de engenharia de tecido osseo baseadas na cultura in vitro de celulas previamente "semeadas" num suporte tridimensional ("scaffold"). Esta estrategia permite que as celulas adiram ao suporte, proliferem e segreguem matriz extracelular especifica do tecido osseo, ate se obter um substituto artificial funcional com caracteristicas do tecido original, que pode finalmente ser transplantado para tratar o defeito em causa. Para que uma estrategia deste tipo seja bem sucedida, pelo menos tres componentes fundamentais devem ser cuidadosamente estudados: o material de suporte (scaffold), as celulas a usar e o sistema de cultura in vitro. Dai que os principais objectivos desta tese estejam relacionados com estes tres aspectos, nomeadamente: • Desenvolvimento de scaffolds biodegradaveis a partir de polimeros a base de amido de milho que induzam a adesao e proliferacao celular e que apresentem propriedades adequadas, tais como a porosidade e interconectividade entre poros, de forma a proporcionar um ambiente que favoreca o desenvolvimento in vitro de um material hibrido com caracteristicas similares ao osso humano. • Estudo da utilizacao de celulas da medula ossea como uma potencial fonte de celulas para engenharia do

  6. Site of the First Spanish Nuclear Power Stations; Los Emplazamientos de las Primeras Centrales Nucleares Espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, F.; Alonso, A.; Norena, S.; Sevilla, A. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-09-15

    (e), con reactor de agua en ebullicion y contencion por condensacion de vapor, y la central de Vandellos, de 480 MW(e), con reactor grafito-gas y diseno integrado del tipo EDF-4. Los dos primeros estan situados en el interior del pais, el tercero en la costa mediterranea. Se discuten los criterios convencionales y los relacionados con la seguridad, que se han utilizado en la seleccion. Se pone de relieve la influencia de la orografia espanola en el transporte del equipo pesado y su repercusion en la seleccion de emplazamientos para centrales nucleares. Se hace referencia a la experiencia obtenida en el transporte del equipo de la central de Zorita. Se analizan las dificultades practicas encontradas al aplicar unas determinadas normas de seguridad a emplazamientos de centrales de tipo y caracteristicas de diseno diferentes. Ya que el tipo de reactor y su sistema de contencion influyen en el valor practico de la aplicacion de unas determinadas normas que, ademas, han de adaptarse a las caracteristicas peculiares de cada nacion, se indica la conveniencia de utilizar de forma adecuada y flexible las normas de seguridad para el analisis de los emplazamientos de centrales nucleares. Se describen las caracteristicas geologicas y meteorologicas de los tres emplazamientos y se resumen los trabajos e investigaciones realizados en estos campos. En especial, se destacan los estudios de hidrologia realizados en el caso de Zorita y Santa Maria de Garofia, y se describen las estaciones meteorologicas montadas en ambos emplazamientos, los experimentos de difusion con globos equilibrados realizados en el caso de Santa Maria de Garofia y los resultados de estas investigaciones. (author)

  7. Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137 Gamma Sources; Sources de rayonnement gamma au cobalt-60 et au cesium-137; Gamma-istochniki iz kobal'ta-605 i tseziya-137; Fuentes gamma de cobalto-60 y de cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulish, E E; Fradkin, G M [Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialits Republics (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    The paper gives the main technical characteristics of gamma sources produced in the USSR using cobalt-60 and caesium-137 and discusses some of the problems of their production technology. The paper contains information on the radiation spectra of Co{sup 60} and Cs{sup 137} and of the source material from which they are prepared. Data are given on the dependence of the activity of cobalt sources upon the intensity of the neutron beam and the geometrical size of the sample. The yield of caesium by uranium fission is also analyzed. The problem of hermetic sealing of the sources is discussed and a complete nomenclature of all the sources manufactured in the USSR are listed, their size and activity also being indicated. In conclusion a comparison of Co{sup 60} and Cs{sup 137} sources is made. (author) [French] Cette communication expose les caracteristiques techniques fondamentales des sources de rayonnement gamma a base de cobalt-60 et de cesium-137 pro- duites en URSS; on y examine egalement certaines questions relatives a la technologie de leur production. La communication contient des donnees sur la nature du rayonnement des isotopes {sup 60}Co et {sup 137}Cs, ainsi que sur celle des matieres brutes utilisees pour leur preparation. On donne les resultats obtenus lors de l'etude de la variation de l'activite des sources au cobalt en fonction de la valeur du flux de neutrons et des dimensions geometriques de l'echantillon, ainsi que les resultats relatifs a la valeur du rendement en isotopes de cesium lors de la fission des noyaux d'uranium. On etudie ensuite les procedes pour assurer l'hermeticite de ces sources. Suit une nomenclature complete des sources produites en URSS, comportant des indications sur leurs dimensions geometriques et sur les valeurs de leur activite. Enfin, il est procede a une comparaison des sources au {sup 60}Co et au {sup 137}Cs. (author) [Spanish] En este informe se describen las principales caracteristicas tecnicas de las fuentes gamma de

  8. La importancia de la encuesta de selección de donantes en el pretamizaje: experiencia en un banco de sangre de Bogotá, noviembre-diciembre de 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Beltrán

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La disminución del riesgo de adquirir una enfermedad por via transfusional se basa en la selección cuidadosa de los donantes por medio de la encuesta. el tamizaje serológico y, más recientemente, la inactivación viral. La encuesta permite detectar individuos en riesgo de portar infecciones que podrian no ser detectados en el tamizaje serológico (periodo de ventana; por tanto. su utilidad depende, entre otros, del tipo de donante y de sus motivaciones para donar. En algunos paises, los donantes difieren de la población general en aspectos como las caracteristicas sociales, la frecuencia en la donación y, principalmente, en el bajo riesgo de presentar infecciones transmisibles por sangre. En Colombia, sin embargo, cerca del 80% de la sangre proviene de donantes de reposición y muchas veces obligados, que donan con poca regularidad. Con el propósito de analizar la utilidad de la encuesta, el proceso de selección de donantes y estimar la prevalencia de las infecciones transmitidas por sangre tamizada, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de los registros de donantes que acudieron en noviembre y diciembre de 1996 a un banco de sangre de Bogotá. Se revisaron 414 encuestas de donantes y sus resultados serológicos correspondientes. Se analizó si la encuesta incluía o no preguntas sobre factores de riesgo para infecciones susceptibles de trasmitirse por sangre, el porcentaje de preguntas con respuesta en todos los casos, la concordancia entre las respuestas del donante y el procedimiento realizado, ya fuera aceptando o no la donación, las caracteristicas sociodemográficas y, finalmente, se estimó la reactividad a anticuerpos contra VIH, VHC, Treponema pallidum, Tvpanosoma cruzi y contra HBsAg. Se encontró que las preguntas sobre antecedentes de tatuajes, uso de drogas intravenosas y tipo de conducta sexual, entre otras, no estaban incluidas en la encuesta. El 90% de las preguntas fue diligenciado en las 414 encuestas; las preguntas sobre

  9. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pettenella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT, scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services.Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M. Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%. Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy.Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use.Abbreviations: Bln: billion; CUM: cubic meter; EM: East Mediterranean; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; FRA: Forest Resource Assessment; ha: hectare; M: million; NEM: North-East Mediterranean; NWFP: non-wood forest product; NWM: North-West Mediterranean; SM: South Mediterranean. 

  10. The coexistence of dual form of malnutrition in a sample of rural Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Ihab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The coexistence of under and over nutrition might be influenced by a marked shift in dietary and lifestyle practices of people in developing countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with the occurrence of dual form of malnutrition in the same households in a rural district in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a 223 mother-child pairs based on several inclusion criteria such as; non-pregnant, non lactating mothers and having youngest children aged from 2 to 12 years old. Anthropometric indices of Weight-for-age Z score (WAZ ≤ 1SD was used to classify underweight status in children and body mass index (BMI ≥25kg/m 2 was used to measure overweight status among mothers. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, whereas food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the diet diversity. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of overweight mother/underweight child (OWM/UWC pairs was 29.6%, whereas the prevalence of normal weight mother/normal weight child (NWM/NWC pairs was 15.2%. Out of mother-child pairs measured, 61.0% of the children were underweight and 61.4% were stunted, whereas the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 35.0% and 17.0%, respectively. The study did not report any association between the dual burden of malnutrition and household size, number of children, educational level of the mother, total income, income per capita, and food expenditure, except with household type (OR:5.01;95% CI:1.63,15.34; P = 0.005. In general, the total diet diversity score of both types of mother-child pairs was low. Conclusions: Dual forms of malnutrition in the same household exists in Malaysian households. This phenomenon will be a big challenge especially for food intervention programs to be implemented in the future.

  11. Características sólido-fluido en el crisol del horno alto según el modelo de desgaste nodal (MDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth.

    La porosidad del coque aparece como unas de las variables que más pueden afectar a la producción de arrabio y a la correspondiente corrosión de los revestimientos. Hasta el momento, en la bibliografía existente sobre la corrosión de los revestimientos, siempre se asocia un mayor desgaste con el correspondiente incremento del flujo del fluido (arrabio en el crisol. No obstante, no se tiene referencia de ningún modelo determinístico que pudiera relacionar, desde el punto de vista teórico, las siguientes variables: corrosión de los revestimientos, porosidad del coque inactivo y flujo del arrabio en el crisol. El Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN, además de justificar los perfiles de corrosión de los revestimientos a lo largo de la campaña, puede ser un instrumento eficaz para interpretar la porosidad del coque y los gradientes de velocidad del arrabio que se generan dentro del crisol.

  12. Focused science shop - Potential environmental impact of radioactive waste disposal in comparison with other hazardous wastes. Deliverable 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtechova, Hana

    2008-07-01

    An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The Czech Republic is one of the countries where these approaches will be applied and tested. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the focused science shop was held on March 12, 2008 in the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) in Rez, and addressed the theme: 'Radioactive waste management and radiation risk in comparison with other hazardous waste and risks'. The main goal of this focused science shop was to increase awareness amongst the public of actual and potential effects of radioactive and toxic wastes and to prioritise questions/uncertainties that people might have in this field. The following topics were discussed: - Differences in the general perception of nuclear waste in comparison with other toxic wastes; - General public awareness of the issue of nuclear waste management and other toxic wastes management; - Management and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste and other toxic waste in terms of the technology employed; - NIMBY effect. A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In the Czech Republic there is a general unwillingness by the public to actively participate in the NWM decision-making process. Therefore, despite all the efforts made by the project team, not all invited stakeholders attended the meeting. Despite this, the meeting was very positively received by those who did attend and indicates the

  13. The natural history of class I primate alcohol dehydrogenases includes gene duplication, gene loss, and gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Carrigan

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s, where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs and hominoids.To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines. Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM and marmoset (a NWM. These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding sequences and intronic sequences.We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels. The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates

  14. Progress towards Continental River Dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Wei; Zheng, Xing; Liu, Frank; Maidment, Daivd; Hodges, Ben

    2017-04-01

    The high-resolution National Water Model (NWM), launched by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in August 2016, has shown it is possible to provide real-time flow prediction in rivers and streams across the entire continental United States. The next step for continental-scale modeling is moving from reduced physics (e.g. Muskingum-Cunge) to full dynamic modeling with the Saint-Venant equations. The Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) provides a computational approach for the Saint-Venant equations, but obtaining sufficient channel bathymetric data and hydraulic roughness is seen as a critical challenge. However, recent work has shown the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method can be applied with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to provide automated estimation of effective channel bathymetry suitable for large-scale hydraulic simulations. The present work examines the use of SPRNT with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and HAND-derived bathymetry for automated generation of rating curves that can be compared to existing data. The approach can, in theory, be applied to every stream reach in the NHD and thus provide flood guidance where none is available. To test this idea we generated 2000+ rating curves in two catchments in Texas and Alabama (USA). Field data from the USGS and flood records from an Austin, Texas flood in May 2015 were used as validation. Large-scale implementation of this idea requires addressing several critical difficulties associated with numerical instabilities, including ill-posed boundary conditions generated in automated model linkages and inconsistencies in the river geometry. A key to future progress is identifying efficient approaches to isolate numerical instability contributors in a large time-space varying solution. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  15. Ecosystem structure and fishing impacts in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea using a food web model within a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Xavier; Coll, Marta; Tecchio, Samuele; Bellido, José María; Fernández, Ángel Mario; Palomera, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    We developed an ecological model to characterize the structure and functioning of the marine continental shelf and slope area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from Toulon to Cape La Nao (NWM model), in the early 2000s. The model included previously modeled areas in the NW Mediterranean (the Gulf of Lions and the Southern Catalan Sea) and expanded their ranges, covering 45,547 km2, with depths from 0 to 1000 m. The study area was chosen to specifically account for the connectivity between the areas and shared fish stocks and fleets. Input data were based on local scientific surveys and fishing statistics, published data on stomach content analyses, and the application of empirical equations to estimate consumption and production rates. The model was composed of 54 functional groups, from primary producers to top predators, and Spanish and French fishing fleets were considered. Results were analyzed using ecological indicators and compared with outputs from ecosystem models developed in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz prior to this study. Results showed that the main trophic flows were associated with detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. Several high trophic level organisms (such as dolphins, benthopelagic cephalopods, large demersal fishes from the continental shelf, and other large pelagic fishes), and the herbivorous salema fish, were identified as keystone groups within the ecosystem. Results confirmed that fishing impact was high and widespread throughout the food web. The comparative approach highlighted that, despite productivity differences, the ecosystems shared common features in structure and functioning traits such as the important role of detritus, the dominance of the pelagic fraction in terms of flows and the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling.

  16. LA CUEVA DE LA GRIEGA (PEDRAZA, SEGOVIA, ESPAÑA EN LA ENCRUCIJADA IBÉRICA: NUEVOS ANÁLISIS DEL ARTE PARIETAL PALEOLÍTICO A TRAVÉS DEL ANÁLISIS FACTORIAL DE CORRESPONDENCIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Corchón Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los nuevos resultados de los estudios en curso sobre la cueva de La Griega (Pedraza, Segovia, España. Las investigaciones en esta cavidad se han centrado en una renovación de los métodos de análisis del registro parietal: aplicación de técnicas de estudio en 3D, análisis microscópico de los trazos grabados, análisis formal utilizando herramientas estadísticas (Análisis Factorial de Correspondencias-AFC . Se discuten los resultados concernientes, particularmente, a las representacions de caballos, analizados por AFC sobre un conjunto de mas de 200 entidades que proceden de las cavidades (La Pasiega, Castillo, La Viña, Covalanas, Parpalló, Nerja, La Pileta… y dispositivos al aire libre de la Peninsula Ibérica (Siega Verde y Foz Côa. Los resultados muestran que las caracteristicas formales de los équidos de la griega son muy homogéneas y comparten también caracteristicas cantábricas y mediterráneas. Estos datos permiten establecer hipótesis acerca de la cronología de las representaciones, y las relaciones de larga distancia durante el periodo premagdaleniense.This paper presents the new results of the ongoing studies of La Griega Cave (Pedraza, Segovia, Spain. The investigations are focused in a methodological renewal of the analysis of rock art and formal analysis using statistical tools (Correspondence Factorial Analysis- CFA.The aim of this article is to discuss the results of correspondence factorial analysis focused particularly on the representation of hourses, for which a set of over 200 entities from the cavities (La Pasiega, Castillo, La Viña, Covalanas, Parpalló, Nerja, La Pileta… and from outdoor sites in the Iberian Peninsula (Siega Verde and Foz Côa have been analyzed. The results show that the formal characteristics of the Griega cave horses are very homogeneous and share also Cantabrian and Mediterranean characteristics. These data highlight the links between the segovian cave and

  17. Procedures to enter the international market of the carbon and PEMEX electrical generation projects; Procedimientos para ingresar al mercado internacional del carbono y proyectos de generacion electrica de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeferino Abundis, Yolanda [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    de gases de efecto invernadero. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) tiene grandes necesidades de energia electrica y vapor, y cuenta con proyectos con caracteristicas que bajo el MDL cubren con las caracteristicas para ser tecnica y economicamente viables.

  18. Quantitative physic behavior of fine soils: collapsible aeolian and expansive residual; Comportamiento fisico cuantitativo de los suelos finos: eolicos colapsibles y residuales expansivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert-Wiechers, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In many places of the earth crust there are fine sediments of eolian origin with collapsible characteristics, and residual soils with expansive features. In general, these soils are found with very low degrees of saturation. When the degree of saturation in fine eolian sediments increases, they suffer collapse because of the leaching of the calcium carbonates and the softening of the little clay, holding the intergranular structure. In the case of residual soils of expansive characteristics, the increase in the degree of saturation produces a reduction in the bond between the grains and the swelling of the clay mineral takes place, inducing important changes in the mechanical behavior such as irregular vertical displacements of the ground surface and of the engineering constructions on top of it. It is therefore, necessary to learn the quantitative parameters that govern the static and dynamic behavior of this type of soils with respect to the moisture-related environmental changes. Basic investigation is important and required in soil mechanics and foundation engineering and it shall be performed on the different types of soils found in nature. [Spanish] En multiples lugares de la corteza terrestre existen sedimentos eolicos finos de caracteristicas colapsibles y suelos residuales con propiedades expansivas, los que en general se encuentran con grados muy bajos de saturacion. Cuando aumenta el grado de saturacion en los sedimentos eolicos finos, que sufren un colapso, debido a la lexiviacion de los carbonatos de calcio y al reblandecimiento de la poca arcilla, que sostienen la estructura intergranular. En el caso de los suelos residuales de caracteristicas expansivas, el aumento en el grado de saturacion provoca reduccion de la adherencia entre los granos e hinchamiento del mineral de arcilla, ocasionandose cambios importantes en el comportamiento mecanico. Lo anterior provoca deformacion irregularse en la superficie de los suelos y en las construcciones que se

  19. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  20. Pressure surge generated by start up of pumping equipment in pipes to pressure. Application to a real case; Transitorios hidraulicos generados por arranque de equipo de bombeo en conducciones a presion. Aplicacion a un caso real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, L.G.; Carmona Paredes, R.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Water closed conduits are commonly designed with special attention paid to pressure surges due to pumping failures. In some particular cases, such at the Rio Yaqui-Guaymas water pipeline system, pressure surges due to pumping start ups are as high and dangerous as those produced by pumping failures. New subroutines were thus developed and included in the Closed Conduit Flow Transient Model developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This paper presents the mathematical model and its numerical solution using the Method of Characteristics and the Newton-Raphson Method. With the new modeling system it is possible to evaluate the pressure fluctuation time series due to start up at any pumping system. Using this new system a reliable explanation of bursts at the Rio Yaqui-Guaymas system could be set forth. [Spanish] Al disenar conducciones a presion, es comun que se preste especial atencion a los transitorios hidraulicos generados por paros de emergencia de los equipos de bombeo. En el acueducto rio Yaqui-Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, los transitorios generados al poner en marcha los equipos de bombeo son tan importantes como los producidos por disparo de bombas. En el Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, se desarrollo e implanto en su programa de simulacion de transitorios hidraulicos en tuberias a presion una subrutina para simular el arranque de equipos de bombeo. El modelo matematico esta formado por el conjunto de ecuaciones dinamica y de continuidad, asi como la condicion de frontera que describe el arranque de las bombas. Se reescriben las ecuaciones dinamica y de continuidad, con el metodo de las caracteristicas y se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales, el cual se resuelve con el metodo de las caracteristicas y se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales, el cual se resuelve con el metodo de newton-raphson. La simulacion del arranque de las bombas del acueducto en estudio, arroja valores de las cargas

  1. Application of heating in dex in Los Humeros geothermal reservoir; Comportamiento de los indices de calentamiento en el yacimiento geotermico de los Humeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Alfonso; Arellano, Victor M; Izquierdo, Georgina; Garcia, Alfonso; Barragan, Rosa Maria; Verma, Mahendra P [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Pizano, Arturo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Reservoir engineering uses several methodologies to evaluate reservoir information characteristics, which in one well vary with time during its production life. One of the methods widely used is the pressure analysis by stimulating the reservoir through cold water injection. For this case, the temperature is used as stimulating parameter and the resultant perturbation is analyzed for the formation intervals in order to determine reservoir permeability and thickness. This method requires a set of temperature logs taking a different stability time. The heating index is calculated from the temperature gradient with time. The index correlated with drilling parameters such as the circulation lost volume, lithology, drilling speed, et cetera. It is used identify interesting reservoir characteristics for production and injections purposes. The method is applied on wells: Br-2 from Broadlands, New Zealand; and H-11, H-31 and H-33 from Los Humeros, Mexico. The results indicate the usefulness of this method in evaluating geothermal reservoirs. [Spanish] La ingenieria de yacimientos dispone de diversas tecnicas para la evaluacion de las caracteristicas de los espesores de la formacion en un pozo, cuyo comportamiento cambia a largo de las diferentes etapas de su vida productiva. Uno de los metodos ampliamente utilizados es el comportamiento de la presion a traves de estimulos suministrados al yacimiento. Haciendo una analogia de la presion, para el caso de inyeccion de agua fria, se utiliza la temperatura como estimulo y se analizan los disturbios que esta provoca en algunas secciones de la formacion, a partir de lo cual es factible determinar intervalos permeables en el yacimiento. El metodo requiere de un par de perfiles de temperatura registrados a diferente tiempo de reposo del pozo. Con las diferencias de temperatura respecto al tiempo, se calcula el indice de calentamiento el cual se correlaciona con los parametros disponibles, contenidos durante la perforacion, como son

  2. Cloridrato de ractopamina em dietas para suínos em terminação = Ractopamine hidrochloride in diets for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Soares da Silva Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de ractopamina em diferentes niveis de inclusao na dieta para suinos em terminacao. Foram utilizados 50 suinos hibridos comerciais com peso inicial de 74,08 (1,42 kg, aleatoriamente distribuidos em cinco blocos casualizados. Havia dois animais em cada parcela experimental, macho e femea, alimentados com dieta suplementada com ractopamina (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ppm durante 28 dias. Foram avaliados desempenho e caracteristicas de carcaca dos animais. A ractopamina melhorou odesempenho, espessura de toucinho, profundidade, area de olho de lombo e rendimento de carne na carcaca, porem sem influenciar no consumo de racao, rendimento de cortes e qualidade da barriga. Exceto a dose de 0 ppm, nao houve diferenca entre as doses de ractopamina utilizadas. O modelo de regressao Linear Response Plateau, aplicado nas variaveis onde houve significancia, estimou o ponto otimo de suplementacao deste aditivo entre 4,09 a 5,14 ppm. Houve aumento de 6,09% no indice de bonificacao quando foi utilizado o nivel de 5 ppm de ractopamina. Conclui-se que a ractopamina e eficaz em melhorar odesempenho e as caracteristicas de carcaca de suinos em terminacao.The present work was carried out to evaluate different inclusion levels of ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs. Fifty animals with initial weight of 74.08 (1.42 kg selected for high meat deposition were used, randomly allotted in five blocks. Each experimental unit had two animals, barrow and gilt, fed diets with ractopamine (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm for 28 days. Growth performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Ractopamine improved final weight, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, loin eye area and lean tissue yield, but did not influence feed intake, cut yields and belly quality. No differences were found among the doses of ractopamine utilized. The optimum level of supplementation of this additive, as estimated by the Linear

  3. Intelligent tutorial system for selftraining in tuning of control systems; Sistema tutorial inteligente para el autoentrenamiento en sintonizacion de sistemas de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Perez Ocampo, Maria Concepcion [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the design, development and validation of an intelligent tutorial system oriented to the instruction of techniques of tuning of control systems is described. This system is based on systems previously developed in the Simulation Unit of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). The designed system accounts with four modules: of knowledge, the student model, of tutor and of interface, basic characteristics that allows to locate this system in the context of the intelligent tutorial systems. In this system in particular, the knowledge module was only modified, because advantage is taken of the existing structure to incorporate a new dominion of application: the one of the techniques of tuning of control systems. The system maintains the characteristic that it can also be used as a consultation system. In addition to the design and validation of the tutorial system, when following the methodology of processing the degree of generality of the developed system, was evaluated, taking into account the evaluation and quantification of metrics that the engineering software proposes. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen el diseno, el desarrollo y la validacion de un sistema tutorial inteligente orientado a la instruccion de tecnicas de sintonizacion de sistemas de control. Este sistema esta basado en sistemas desarrollados anteriormente en la Unidad de Simulacion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). El sistema disenado cuenta con cuatro modulos: de conocimiento, del modelo del estudiante, de tutor y de interfaz, caracteristica principal que permite ubicar a este sistema en el contexto de los sistemas tutoriales inteligentes. En este sistema en particular solo se modifica el modulo de conocimiento, pues se aprovecha la estructura existente para incorporar un nuevo dominio de aplicacion: el de las tecnicas de sintonizacion de sistemas de control. El sistema mantiene la caracteristica de que tambien puede utilizarse como un sistema de

  4. Estudo de propriedades estruturais e opticas de multicamadas epitaxiais emissoras de luz baseadas em InGaN/GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sergio Manuel de Sousa

    Esta tese apresenta os resultados de uma investigacao experimental em filmes epitaxiais emissores de luz baseados em InxGa1-xN. O InxGa1-xN e uma liga semicondutora ternaria do grupo III-N muito utilizada como camada activa numa gama de dispositivos optoelectronicos em desenvolvimento, incluindo diodos emissores de luz (LEDs) e diodos laser (LDs), para operacao na regiao do visivel e ultravioleta do espectro electromagnetico. Neste estudo, caracterizam-se as propriedade opticas e estruturais de camadas simples e pocos quânticos multiplos (Multiple Quantum Wells, MQWs) de InxGa1-xN/GaN, com enfase nas suas propriedades fisicas fundamentais. O objectivo central do trabalho prende-se com a compreensao mais profunda dos processos fisicos que estao por tras das suas propriedades opticas, preenchendo o fosso existente entre aplicacoes tecnologicas e o conhecimento cientifico. Nomeadamente, a tese aborda os problemas da medicao da fraccao de InN (x) em multicamadas ultrafinas sujeitas a tensoes, a influencia da composicao e das tensoes microscopicas nas propriedades opticas e estruturais. A questao relativa a segregacao de fases em multicamadas de InxGa1-xN/GaN e tambem discutida a luz dos resultados obtidos. A metodologia seguida assenta na integracao de resultados obtidos por tecnicas complementares atraves de uma analise sistematica e multidisciplinar. Esta abordagem passa pela combinacao de: 1) Crescimento de amostras por deposicao epitaxial em fase de vapor organometalico (MOVPE) com caracteristicas especificas de forma a tentar isolar parâmetros estruturais, tais como espessura e composicao; 2) Caracterizacao nanoestrutural por microscopia de forca atomica (AFM), microscopica electronica de varrimento (SEM), difraccao de raios-X e retro-dispersao de Rutherford (RBS); 3) Caracterizacao optica a escalas complementares por: espectroscopia de absorcao optica (OA), fotoluminescencia (PL), catodoluminescencia (CL) e microscopia confocal (CM) com analise espectral. Com

  5. Environmental characterization of the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia-Garcia, M; Garcia-Abad, M.C [Departamento de Hidrobiologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, (Mexico); Carranza-Edwards, A; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    This study analyzes data and information of the physical and chemical characteristics of water, and type of sediments of the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The changes of salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen fluctuate according to the wet and dry seasons (in the last one, prevails the Tehuantepecanos winds). The stations samples of salinity, temperature, pH, and type of sediments were classified by cluster and factor analysis. The results suggest that the Gulf of Tehuantepec has two subsystems. The Oaxaqueno subsystem extends south-southeast from Salina Cruz to the Tonala inlet. This subsystem is characterized by upwelling periods, which leads to low temperatures, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient concentration, as well as sandy sediments and insignificant river discharges when low temperature, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient concentration are typical, and by sandy sediments and insignificant river discharges. The second, the Chiapaneco subsystem, is located between the Tonala inlet and the Suchiate River, with strong influence of coastal lagoons and river discharges. The bottom is characterized by sandy and muddy-sand sediments. This subsystem is not affected by either Tehuantepecanos winds or upwelling. Both subsystems and their characteristics probably determine the patterns of distribution of the biotic resources. [Spanish] Se analizan datos e informacion de las caracteristicas fisico-quimicas del agua y tipo de sedimentos de la plataforma continental del Golfo de Tehuantepec, Mexico. Los cambios de salinidad, temperatura y oxigeno disuelto varian de acuerdo con las estaciones de lluvias y sequia (en esta ultima prevalecen fuertes vientos denominados Tehuantepecanos). Las estaciones de muestreo fueron agrupadas (utilizando salinidad, temperatura, pH y tipo de sedimentos) con analisis por conglomerados y analisis de factores. Los resultados indican que el Golfo de Tehuantepec tiene dos subsistemas. El subsistema

  6. Secado de café en lecho fluidizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Todo el café se cosecha en grano cereza, el cual se beneficia en forma tradicional o aplicando el método Becolsub o de beneficio ecológico. Una vez lavado el café pergamino obtenido, se seca en forma natural o mecánicamente. Los secadores mecánicos más utilizados son de tipo estático, en los cuales generalmente se presentan problemas de desuniformidad en el contenido de humedad final del grano, la cual debe oscilar entre 10 y 12% b.h. En el presente trabalo de investigación se empleó el sistema de secado mediante fluidización, el cual convierte un lecho de partIculas sólidas en una masa suspendida y expandida que posee muchas de las propiedades de un lIquido. Se diseno y construyó un prototipo de 5.000 g de capacidad, en el cual se secó café balo tres condiciones de temperatura del aire de secado: 42, 46 y 49°C. El tiempo de secado varió de 6 a 8 horas. Se obtuvo una buena uniformidad en el contenido de humedad final del grano, con diferencias menores a 0.86%. Además al grano se le hizo prueba de taza, obteniéndose que el producto presenta caracterIsticas organolépticas de buena calidad.

  7. Nonceramic insulators for the transmission power lines. Part I: Experiences of a promising technology; Aisladores no ceramicos para las lineas de transmision. Parte I: Experiencias de una tecnologia prometedora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro Chavez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The nonceramic insulators have special characteristics that make them attractive to solve problems detected in glass or porcelain insulators, mainly in zones of high contamination and vandalism. In this first part a panorama is presented of the operative experience with nonceramic insulators for transmission power lines in different parts of the world until the beginning of the Nineties decade. The tendency in its use has increased remarkably in new transmission projects, mainly in the United States, but the operative experience shows that the selection of such insulators requires a careful analysis and of a pursuit of its behavior in the field that allows the establishments of its technical - economic advantages or disadvantages of its long term application. [Spanish] Los aisladores no ceramicos poseen caracteristicas especiales que los hacen atractivos para resolver problemas detectados en los aisladores de vidrio o porcelana, principalmente en zonas de alta contaminacion y vandalismo. En esta primera parte se presenta un panorama de la experiencia operativa con aisladores no ceramicos para las lineas de transmision en diferentes partes del mundo hasta principios de la decada de los noventa. La tendencia en su uso ha incrementado notablemente en nuevos proyectos de transmision, principalmente en los Estados Unidos, pero la experiencia operativa muestra que la seleccion de dichos aisladores requiere de un analisis cuidadoso y de un seguimiento de su comportamiento en campo que permita establecer las ventajas o desventajas tecnico - economicas de su aplicacion a largo plazo.

  8. Simulation of the electric systems of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station; Simulacion de los sistemas electricos de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Lozano, Saul; Ruiz Ponce, Gerardo E [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-03-01

    In this article, the electric system models of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station (CNLV) simulator, are presented. These models permit the functioning simulation, in the different operation modes of the main generator (Ruiz and Rodriguez 1991a), of the auxiliaries system and of the substation (Ruiz and Rodriguez 1991b), and of the emergency diesel generators system (Ruiz and Rodriguez 1991c). The general characteristics of such systems, considered as the basis to obtain the representative models, which were developed as modules in an independent way to be integrated in the simulator, are also described. [Espanol] En este articulo, se presenta los modelos de los sistemas electricos del simulador de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV). Estos modelos permiten simular el funcionamiento, en los diferentes modos de operacion del generador principal (Ruiz y Rodriguez, 1991a), del sistema de auxiliares y de la subestacion (Ruiz y Rodriguez, 1991b) y del sistema de generadores diesel de emergencia (Ruiz y Rodriguez, 1991c). Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas generales de tales sistemas, consideradas como la base para obtener los modelos representativos, los cuales fueron desarrollados como modulos en forma independiente para integrarse al simulador.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 IN GIANH RIVER IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PART OF VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Anh TUAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and identification of 57 specimens of genus Macropodus Lacépède collected from Gianh River in Quang Binh province in north center region Vietnam. We have classified three species: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758, Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936 was first discovered in the study area and north center region Vietnam.CARACTERISTICA MORFOLOGICĂ PENTRU CLASIFICAREA GENULUI MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 DIN BAZINUL RÂULUI GIANH, REGIUNEA CENTRALĂ DE NORD A VIETNAMULUIAu fost analizate şi identificate 57 de exemplare ale genului Macropodus Lacépède colectate din bazinul râului Gianh, provincia Quang Binh, regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului. Noi am clasificat 3 specii: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758 şi Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936, descoperite în aria de studiu şi în regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului.

  10. Spanish radioactive lignites, nature and solubility of the uranium; Lignitos radiactivos espanoles, naturaleza y solubilizacion del uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josa, J M; Merino, J L; Villoria, A [Direccion de Plantas Piloto e Industriales, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-06-15

    The authors describe the features of some 70 samples of radioactive lignites from various places in Spain (Huesca, Lerida, Teruel, Galicia and Murcia) with uranium contents varying between 20 and 1200 ppm. They carried out experiments on extraction of the uranium from these ores both by direct treatment and after roasting to eliminate organic matter and bring about concentration. The acid method was considered for leaching of the uranium from the substances in question using agitation and static bed techniques. Investigations were also carried out on the effect of the variables represented by grain size, amount of acid, temperature time and oxidants, in addition to those involved in the roasting process. (author) [Spanish] Los autores presentan las caracteristicas de unas 70 muestras de lignitos radiactivos procedentes de distintos puntos de Espana (Huesca, Lerida, Teruel, Galicia y Murcia) con leyes de uranio comprendidas entre 20 y 1200 ppm. El beneficio del uranio de estos minerales se ha abordado por tratamiento directo y despues de someterlos a tostacion, lo que elimino la materia organica y produjo enriquecimiento. La lixiviacion del uranio de los productos indicados se considero por via acida, utilizando tecnicas de agitacion y de lecho estatico. Se investigo la influencia de las variables tamano de grano, dosis de acido, temperatura, tiempo y oxidante, ademas de las implicadas en los procesos de tostacion. (author)

  11. Una herramienta para la selección automatizada de aceros en el contexto // A tool for the automated selection of steels in the Mechanical Engineering´s context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dumitrescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl diseno de Ingenieria de un producto o componente constituye una actividad dificil, compleja ymultidisciplinaria, enfocada a la resolucion de problemas. En el presente trabajo se muestra eldesarrollo de una herramienta automatizada para la seleccion de los aceros mas utilizados en laconstruccion de maquinarias. La herramienta constituye una ayuda para la seleccion de losmateriales desde la etapa conceptual del proceso de diseno, donde se identifican las diferentescategorias de materiales a utilizar. La herramienta comprende las caracteristicas y propiedades masrelevantes de los aceros de Ingenieria disponibles en seis normas internacionales: Japonesa (JIS,Alemana (DIN, Vbn, DIN-Vbn, Rusa (GOST, Americana (AISI, SAE, AISI-SAE, ASTM, Inglesa (BS, EN,GB, Francesa (AFNOR y la Norma Cubana (NC vigente.Palabras claves: materiales, automatizada, aceros, ingenieria.____________________________________________________________AbstractThe product or component design constitutes a difficult, complex and multidisciplinary activity,focused to the resolution of problems. Presently work show the development of an automated toolfor the selection of the more used steels in the construction of machineries. The tool constitute ahelp for the selection of the materials from the conceptual stage of the design process, where thedifferent categories of materials are identified to use. The tool analyze the characteristics and morecommon properties of the available steels in six international standards: JIS (Japan, DIN, Vbn, DINVbn(Germany, GOST (Russia, AISI, SAE, AISI-SAE, ASTM (USA, BS, IN, GB (England, AFNOR(France and NC (Cuba.Key words: materials, automated, steels, engineering.

  12. Bioclimatic Architecture; Arquitectura Bioclimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenak, Joseph C [A.G.I.S.A., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of the Bioclimatic Architecture comes from the term used by the Olgyay brothers, to emphasize the relations and connections between life, the climate and the bonds of these natural factors with the design. These base a method so that the development of the design responds in terms of function and comfort to the climatic implications that give context to the architectonic projects. The central objective is the creation of expressive spaces and aesthetically harmonic whose characteristics privilege the function of the building with optimal conditions for physical and psychological comfort for those who live, operate or use the building. [Spanish] La idea de la arquitectura bioclimatica proviene del termino utilizado por los hermanos Olgyay, para resaltar las relaciones y enlaces entre la vida, el clima y los vinculos de estos factores naturales con el diseno. Estos fundamentan un metodo para que el desarrollo del diseno responda en terminos de funcion y confort a las implicaciones climaticas que dan contexto a los proyectos arquitectonicos. El objetivo central es la creacion de espacios expresivos y esteticamente armonicos cuyas caracteristicas privilegien la funcion del inmueble con optimas condiciones de comodidad fisica y psicologica para quienes viven, operan o utilizan el edificio.

  13. Overview of the IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO{sub 2} monitoring and storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourits, Frank [Natural Resources Canada (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation it is explained what the Weyburn-Midale project consists of; it is also spoken on the operation for the enhanced oil recovery of Encana Weyburn and Apache Midale Commercial; an overview and results are given of phase I (2000-2004) of the Weyburn project of monitoring and CO{sub 2} storage of greenhouse effect gases of the International Energy Agency; Characteristics and statistics of operation of the oil fields Weyburn and Midale, and how is it that with CO{sub 2} and recycled water the oil is recovered?. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se explica en que consiste el proyecto Weyburn-Midale; se habla tambien sobre la operacion para la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo de Encana Weyburn y Apache Midale Commercial; se da una vision general y resultados de la fase I (2000-2004) del proyecto Weyburn de monitoreo y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} gases de efecto invernadero de la Agencia Internacional de Energia; Caracteristicas y estadisticas de operacion de los yacimientos petroliferos Weyburn y Midale, y como es que con el CO{sub 2} y agua reciclada se recupera el petroleo?.

  14. Hydraulic speed variators for electrical energy saving; Variadores de velocidad hidraulicos para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This paper shows the characteristics and applications of the hydraulic speed variators, where because of the conditions of the industrial processes it is necessary to vary the operation parameters, obtaining therefore an energy saving besides improving the control of these processes. In addition, the technical and economic evaluation is presented of a project of the Mazatlan Fossil Power Plant, in which it is intended to invest in the installation of a hydraulic speed variator connected to the forced draft fan of unit number three, which operates with an induction motor of 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), with a Voltage of 4,180 V at 1,180 rpm. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra las caracteristicas y aplicaciones de los variadores de velocidad hidraulicos, donde por las condiciones de los procesos industriales sea necesario variar los parametros de operacion, obteniendose asi un ahorro de energia ademas de mejorar el control de dichos procesos. Se presenta ademas la evaluacion tecnica y economica de un proyecto de la Planta Termoelectrica Mazatlan, en donde se pretende invertir en la instalacion de un variador de velocidad hidraulico acoplado al ventilador de tiro forzado de la unidad numero tres, el cual opera con un motor de induccion de 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), con un voltaje de 4,180 V y una velocidad de 1,180 rpm.

  15. Status report about the works for the start up of the RA-0 `zero power` nuclear reactor at the Cordoba National University; Estado actual de avance de las tareas para la nueva puesta en marcha del reactor nuclear RA-0 en la Universidad Nacional de Cordoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, H R; Carballido, C; Oliveras, T

    1992-12-31

    After two years of works at the Cordoba National University for the new start-up of the RA-0 `zero power` nuclear reactor, the results obtained are herein presented. Starting with practically null infrastructure at the beginning, specially in human resources and instrumentation of the reactor, the objectives can be considered satisfactory. The training in work of the future operational staff, the design and the construction of the instrumentation and the fitting of the installations are the principal items described in this paper. An special attention is devoted to the insertion of this type of installation in the university organization, usually not prepared for the quality and control activities, which is necessarily considered in these type of works. (Author). [Espanol] Luego de aproximadamente dos anos de trabajo para la nueva puesta en marcha del REACTOR NUCLEAR RA-0, se han alcanzado los resultados presentados en este trabajo. Partiendo de una infraestructura practicamente inexistente en cuanto a recursos humanos y estado de las instalaciones, los avances logrados son significativos. Comenzando por la capacitacion y el entrenamiento del futuro personal de operacion y pasando por la adecuacion de los equipos y componentes, hasta la confeccion de la documentacion mandatoria, se muestran los aspectos mas destacables de los trabajos realizados. Una atencion especial se dedica a la insercion de una instalacion de este tipo en el ambito universitario, el cual por sus particulares caracteristicas, ha debido ser tenido en cuenta permanentemente para la futura operacion de las instalaciones. (Autor).

  16. Development and fabrication process for ZnO based varistors for medium voltage arresters 13000 V to 34000 V; Desarrollo y produccion de varistores de ZnO dopados para media tension 13000 V a 34000 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rolon, B.; Ireta Moreno, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Electrica y Electronica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: barbara@salamanca.ugto.mx; fireta@salamanca.ugto.mx

    2011-04-15

    The fabrication process for ZnO doped varistor blocks with Sb2O3/ Bi2O3 to medium tension of 13000 V to 34000 V, and was optimised in terms of a starting composition and firing temperatures with amounts for Sb2O3/ Bi2O3 ratios of 1.7 by dry pressing, and fired in the temperature 1150 degrees Celsius {+-}2 degrees Celsius. The microstructure characteristics were analysed across the surface of the varistor blocks in order to evaluate their microstructure homogeneity. Their current-voltage I-V and energy handling capabilities were also determined. Characteristics and electrical properties of the varistor blocks are discussed. [Spanish] El proceso de fabricacion para varistores de media tension de 13000 V a 34000 V de ZnO consistio en dopar con Sb2O3, Bi2O3 y optimizarlos en terminos de la composicion de inicio, con una relacion de Sb2O3/Bi2O3 de 1.7, y el uso de aditivos para ceramicas, la temperatura de sinterizado fue de 1150 grados centigrados {+-}2 grados centigrados. Se investigo la homogeneidad de la microestructura. Se determinaron las propiedades electricas mediante la determinacion de la grafica I-V. Las caracteristicas electricas son discutidas.

  17. Universality of conductance in mesoscopic junctions and chiral anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxman, Luis E.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R. [Universidadade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-03-01

    We show that the electrical conductance of one-dimensional, finite systems with chiral symmetry is not renormalized at low temperatures and depends solely on the characteristics of the electron gas at the leads. This chiral symmetry is related to the invariance under phase transformations that distinguish between left- and right-moving electrons. Alternatively to previous works in the literature, we employ a fermionic path integral formalism which does not rely on bosonization. The fundamental role played by the reservoirs and the finite size of the junctions is put into evidence. [Spanish] En este articulo mostramos que en sistemas unidimensionales finitos con simetria quiral, la conductancia electrica no se renormaliza a bajas temperaturas, y depende solamente de las caracteristicas del gas de electrones en los reservatorios. Esta simetria quiral esta relacionada a la invariancia ante transformadores de fase que distinguen entre modos derechos e izquierdos. Empleamos un formalismo de integral funcional sobre fermiones, el cual constituye una alternativa al metodo de bosonizacion utilizado previamente en la literatura. Tambien ponemos en evidencia el papel fundamental desempenado por los reservatorios y el tamano finito de la muestra.

  18. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A. G. [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  19. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  20. LA CONDICIÓN HUMANA, ESENCIA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESIONALES DE ENFERMERÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Divia Mejía Reales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se develó el significado que docentes y estudiantes le dan a la condici6n humana como esencia en la formación de futuros profesionales de Enfermería. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, interpretativo y fenomenológico. La muestra fue intencional o selectiva y, para el análisis e interpretación de los datos se utilizó la matriz des- criptiva. En la institución objeto de estudio, se evidenció un proceso curricular que condiciona el quehacer docente al logro de objetivos e influye en las caracteristicas actitudinales de estudiantes y docentes, así como la ausencia del valor de la condi- ción humana en el acto pedagógico del programa de Enfermería estudiado. AbstractA qualitative, interpretive, and phenomenology study was conducted making possi- ble to reveal the significance of human condition as the essence in Nursing profes- sionals training given by teachers and students. The sample was intentional or se- lective and a descriptive matrix was used for the analysis and interpretation of data. The institution taken as object of study, showed a curriculum process that conditions the teaching work to achieve goals and to influence students and teachers attitudinal characteristics, in like manner, the absence of human value in the pedagogical act in Nursing program.

  1. Determinación de la frecuencia de Vibrio parahaemolyticus y otros vibriones halofilicos en alimentos preparados con productos marinos frescos y procesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabilia Vilcapoma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante las estaciones de verano a otoño de 1988, sobre un total de 122 muestras, correspondiendo 82 a pescado congelado y 40 a cebiches, en su mayoría de tipo "mixto"; todos procedentes de la ciudad de Lima. El procesamiento de las muestras y el aislamiento de los vibrio se efectuaron siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la FDA (1985, con algunas modificaciones. La identificación de las cepas se realizó en base a caracteristicas de colonia, morfología celular y pruebas bioquímicas diferenciales. Se obtuvieron 57 cepas presuntivas de vibriones halofílicos, de las cuales 42 procedieron de pescado congelado y 15 de "cebiches"; se identificaron 5 cepas de Vibrio parahaemoIyticus (8.8% y 14 cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus (24.6% 38 cepas de Vibrio no fueron especificados, catalogándose como Vlbrio sp. (66.6%.

  2. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A G [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  3. Digital viscosity controller for fossil power plants; Controlador digital de viscosidad para plantas termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista B, Amberto; Ocampo P, Carlos; Gutierrez A, Ruben; Madinaveitia V, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Upon the need of increasing the efficiency of the existing fossil power plants in Mexico, the Instrumentation and Control Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) designed and built a viscosity controller to enhance the fuel oil heating process. The system strategy, that allows the control either by temperature or viscosity considers, as an important element, the changing characteristics of the supplied fuels. The equipment that is utilized forms apart of the line Acquisition and Control System (ACS) developed at the same Institute, that has been successfully applied in other systems. [Espanol] Ante la necesidad de aumentar la eficiencia de las plantas termoelectricas existentes en Mexico, el Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), diseno y construyo un controlador de viscosidad para mejorar el proceso de calentamiento del aceite combustible. La estrategia del sistema, que permite controlar ya sea por viscosidad o por temperatura, considera como elemento importante las caracteristicas cambiantes de los combustibles suministrados. El equipo que se utiliza forma parte de la linea SAC (sistema de adquisicion y control), desarrollada en el mismo Instituto, que se ha aplicado satisfactoriamente en otros sistemas.

  4. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M; Ambriz, J J; Romero P, H [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  5. Advantages of the synthetic technique for the conduction of short circuit tests to breakers; Ventajas de la tecnica sintetica para realizar pruebas de corto circuito a interruptores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibilski, Henry [Instituto Electrotecnico de Varsovia, Varsovia (Poland); Ochoa Vivanco, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article the operational principle of the synthetic test is described; specifically of the current injection circuit in parallel. Its utilization in the research and development of new breaker models and its wide possibilities regarding its testing characteristics is outlined. Likewise the different tests that can be performed by means of the synthetic technique are described. Finally the importance of the synthetic tests is outlined for the development of own technology in the area of interruption equipment and emphasis is made that in industrialized countries this technique is of common practice. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el principio de operacion de la prueba sintetica; especificamente del circuito de inyeccion de corriente en paralelo. Se destaca su utilizacion en la investigacion y desarrollo de nuevos modelos de interruptores y sus amplias posibilidades en cuanto a caracteristicas de prueba. Asimismo, se describen las diferentes pruebas que pueden realizarse mediante la tecnica sintetica. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de las pruebas sinteticas para el desarrollo de tecnologia propia en el area de equipos de interrupcion, y se hace notar que en paises desarrollados, esta tecnica es practica comun.

  6. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  7. Digital viscosity controller for fossil power plants; Controlador digital de viscosidad para plantas termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista B, Amberto; Ocampo P, Carlos; Gutierrez A, Ruben; Madinaveitia V, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Upon the need of increasing the efficiency of the existing fossil power plants in Mexico, the Instrumentation and Control Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) designed and built a viscosity controller to enhance the fuel oil heating process. The system strategy, that allows the control either by temperature or viscosity considers, as an important element, the changing characteristics of the supplied fuels. The equipment that is utilized forms apart of the line Acquisition and Control System (ACS) developed at the same Institute, that has been successfully applied in other systems. [Espanol] Ante la necesidad de aumentar la eficiencia de las plantas termoelectricas existentes en Mexico, el Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), diseno y construyo un controlador de viscosidad para mejorar el proceso de calentamiento del aceite combustible. La estrategia del sistema, que permite controlar ya sea por viscosidad o por temperatura, considera como elemento importante las caracteristicas cambiantes de los combustibles suministrados. El equipo que se utiliza forma parte de la linea SAC (sistema de adquisicion y control), desarrollada en el mismo Instituto, que se ha aplicado satisfactoriamente en otros sistemas.

  8. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations; Organisation du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Organizatsiya personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh; Organizacion del personal de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuricini, G. B. [Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author) [French] Dans le memoire, on examine l'organisation du personnel d'exploitation et d'entretien des centrales nucleaires italiennes et les differences existant dans les effectifs, differences dues soit aux caracteristiques des centrales memes, soit aux particularites d'organisation des entreprises. Le personnel charge de fonctions determinees pour lesquelles un entrainement special est requis, fait l'objet d'une attention particuliere. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examina la organizacion del personal de explotacion y conservacion de las centrales nucleares italianas y las diferencias que existen entre sus efectivos, diferencias que se deben a las caracteristicas de las mismas centrales o a las particularidades de organizacion de las empresas. El autor dedica especial atencion al personal encargado de funciones que requieren una formacion profesional especial. (author) [Russian] Issleduyutsya voprosy organizatsii personala, zanimayushchegosya ehkspluatatsiej ital'yanskikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij i ukhodom za nimi, a takkhe razlichiya v sostave personala, vytekayushchie libo iz kharakternykh osobennostej samikh stantsij, libo iz osobennostej organizatsii predpriyatij. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya personalu, kotoromu porucheny opredelennye funktsii, trebuyushchie spetsial'noj pod go tovki. (author)

  9. Use of efficient technologies in the lighting system for new constructions in hotels; Utilizacion de tecnologias eficientes en el sistema de iluminacion para nuevas construcciones en hoteles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Ramirez, Ricardo [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    The Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (FIDE) jointly worked with two hotels in construction modifying the original projects of the lighting system to obtain a suitable selection of lamps and lighting control subsystems that would render a saving of 67.5% and 71.0% with respect to the lighting systems originally considered. The project also financed the investment with recovery periods between 1.6 and 2.6 years. It is presented the equivalence between the characteristics of the different types of feasible lamps. [Spanish] El Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (FIDE) trabajo conjuntamente con dos hoteles en construccion modificando los proyectos originales del sistema de iluminacion para lograr una adecuada seleccion de lamparas y subsistemas de control de iluminacion que redituaron en un ahorro del 67.5 y 71.0 % respecto a los sistemas de iluminacion originalmente considerados, al tiempo que financio la inversion con periodos de recuperacion entre 1.6 y 2.6 anos. Se expone una equivalencia entre las caracteristicas de los distintos tipos de lamparas factibles.

  10. DESARROLLO DE APIO MINIMAMENTE PROCESADO FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E, UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERIA DE MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio, en terminos de la cuantificacion de sus propiedades fisicoquimicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y caracteristicas sensoriales. Se formulo la emulsion con el objetivo de adicionar teoricamente un 73% del Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR vitamina E/100 g de apio fresco y su cuantificacion se realizo por HPLC. La respuesta a la impregnacion en la matriz fue de 12,10+-1,15%, lo cual permitio alcanzar un 112% VDR vitamina E/100g apio fresco, manteniendose este contenido durante el almacenamiento de 9 dias en ambos tipos de envasado. Los parametros fisicoquimicos del producto fueron afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, manteniendo su coloracion verdosa y presentando disminucion en la firmeza. La ingenieria de matrices constituye una metodologia efectiva para el desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado adicionado con vitamina E.

  11. Quistes de los maxilares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Alberto Manotas Arevalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Grandes Quistes de los Maxilares han estado vinculados siempre a la humanidad, desde tiempos remotos, pues han sido halladas en restos de especimenes fosiles, han llamado la atencion de los clínicos, en torno a su etiologia, en la que se ha introducido la participacion de la genetica, (demostrada en el desarrollo de los queratoquistes maxilares, la fisiopatologia, caracteristicas histologicas (inmunohistoquimica, posibilidades diagnosticas por la imagen, (como la tomografia computarizada y la resonancia nuclear magnetica y otras pruebas. Además llaman la atención al estudio, por sus alternativas de manejo especialmente las formas radicales, y el analisis de asociaciones a otras patolo-gias benignas y malignas, y de la recurrencia muy alto de algunas de estas lesiones. Mucho se ha desarrollado para elucidar su naturaleza real, estadificar adecuadamente la lesion descartando asocia-ciones patologicas sindromicas, indicar un tratamiento apropiado, y realizar seguimientos a largo plazo. Este articulo pretende recaudar una information general que de parametros para abordar el estudio de los quistes maxilares a partir de la presentacion de un caso clinico.

  12. Investigation of metallic elements in remainders of firings; Investigacion de elementos metalicos en residuos de disparos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochmann, Sonnia; Riquelme, Ildefonso [Division Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares, Direccion de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Lorenzo (Paraguay); Fernandez, Myriam; Vera Planas, Nestor [Laboratorio Quimico Biologico, Departamento de Investigacion de Delitos, Direccion de Apoyo Tecnico, Policia Nacional, Asuncion (Paraguay); Insauralde, Arieal; Sanabria, Felipe [Fisicoquimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, San Lorenzo (Paraguay)

    1999-07-01

    The nuclear analysis its nondestructive characteristics of high sensibility, rapidity and specificity, offers optimal conditions for its application in forensic field, the determination of present metallic elements in the remainders of firings of, firearms like obtention of patterns that help systematic to distinguish originating remainders of other sources, like pyrotechnique devices or contamination of the labor environment, and but important, from the legal point of view, it contributes the certainty and it leaves the possibility of an expertise in a punishable fact taken to the court. [Spanish] Las tecnica analitica nuclear de espectrometria por fluorescencia de rayos X dispersiva en energia, por sus caracteristicas no destructivas de alta sencibilidad, rapidez y especificidad, brinda condiciones optimas para su aplicacion en en campo forense, en la determinacion de elementos metalicos presentes en los residuos de disparos de armas de fuego, asi como la obtension de patrones que ayuden a distinguir sistematicamente residuos provenientes de otras fuentes, como artefactos pirotecnicos o contaminacion del medio ambiente laboral, y lo mas importante, desde el punto de vista legal, aporta la certeza y deja abierta la posibilidad de una contrapericia en un hecho punible llevado a los estrados judiciales.

  13. The program Quetzal/II for the dispersion study of polluting flows with recirculation; El programa Quetzal/II para el estudio de la dispersion de contaminantes en flujos con recirculacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Leon, Hermilo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this article a physico-mathematical model for the transport of atmospheric pollutants when they are trapped in the cavities produced by the wind action on the thermoelectric power plants, is described. The main characteristic of these cavities is that they involve high turbulence zones where the physical parameters change in magnitude a direction considerably . The developed model allows the analysis of these flows, as well as its evolution in space and time and its influence on the pollutants transport; the turbulence is represented by means of a model {kappa} - {epsilon}. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe un modelo fisico-matematico para el estudio del transporte de contaminantes atmosfericos cuando son atrapados en las cavidades producidas por la accion del viento sobre las centrales termoelectricas. La caracteristica principal de estas cavidades es que involucran zonas de alta turbulencia donde las variables fisicas cambian de magnitud y direccion considerablemente. El modelo desarrollado permite analizar estos flujos, asi como su evolucion en el espacio y en el tiempo y su influencia sobre el transporte de los contaminantes; la turbulencia se representa por medio de un modelo {kappa} - {epsilon}.

  14. Use of the operation planning network at Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE); Uso de la red de planeacion de la operacion en el Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Roberto; Alatorre, Pedro; Gonzalez, Nemorio; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A description is made of the ways Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utilizes the system called Short Term Operation Planning Network (Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo) (REDPLA) in the elaboration of the generation daily pre-dispatch (PD) of the National Electric System (SEN). The PD defines the hourly generation with which each central must contribute, to cover the predicted demand during the following 24 hours, so that the total production cost be the lowest. Respecting at every moment the transmission limitations, the characteristics of the generation system and the operational restrictions. [Espanol] Se describe la manera en que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utiliza el sistema denominado Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo (Redpla) en la elaboracion del predespacho diario (PD) de generacion del sistema electrico nacional (SEN). El PD define la generacion horaria que debera aportar cada central electrica para cubrir la demanda pronosticada durante las proximas 24 horas, de tal manera que el costo de produccion total sea el mas bajo, respetando en todo momento las limitaciones de transmision, las caracteristicas del sistema de generacion y las restricciones operativas del sistema.

  15. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  16. Modal analysis of electromechanical oscillations in electrical power systems; Analisis modal de oscilaciones electromecanicas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jgcg@iie.org.mx

    2008-10-15

    The presence of electromechanical oscillations in any electrical power system is a typical characteristic of this kind of systems. Provided the damping associated with these oscillations lies above of a minimum specified value, the occurrence of these oscillations is not considered as a threat to the system operation. This paper focuses the attention on the application of modal analysis for assessing the dynamical behavior of a power system subjected to small disturbances for different operating conditions and transmission system topologies, as well. The reported results indicate, that modal analysis enables a straight identification of the causes that contribute negatively to the damping of the electromechanical modes. [Spanish] La presencia de oscilaciones electromecanicas en cualquier Sistema Electrico de Potencia (SEP) es una caracteristica propia de estos sistemas. Mientras el amortiguamiento asociado con este tipo de oscilaciones se encuentre dentro de los limites considerados como aceptables para la operacion continua de este tipo de sistemas, el surgimiento de estas no se considera una amenaza para la operacion segura del SEP. El presente articulo, centra su atencion en la aplicacion del analisis modal para evaluar el comportamiento dinamico de un SEP ante la ocurrencia de disturbios de magnitud pequena para diferentes topologias y condiciones de operacion. Los resultados reportados indican, que la aplicacion del analisis modal permite la identificacion directa de las causas que contribuyen en forma negativa al amortiguamiento asociado con los modos electromecanicos, asi como la ubicacion mas adecuada de controles que contribuyan a mejorar el amortiguamiento de los mismos.

  17. CARACTERISTICILE GENERALE ALE LIMBAJULUI ŞTIINŢIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PLEŞCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul prezintă un studiu al limbajului ştiinţific ca subsistem al limbajului literar, scopul căruia este de a identifica caracteristicile generale ale acestuia. Limbajul ştiinţific se adresează raţiunii şi logicii, raţiona­mentul fiind caracteristica sa de bază, iar funcţia sa de a transmite informaţii ştiinţifice, utilizate pe baza unor raţionamente logice şi deductive, este una dominantă şi serveşte în scopul informării şi educării – piloni de bază ai oricărui text ştiinţific.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCIENTIFIC LANGUAGEThe article deals with the study of the scientific language as a literary language subsystem, the aim of which is to identify its general characteristics. The scientific language addresses the reason and logic, reasoning being its basic characteristic feature and its function of rendering scientific and utilitarian information based on logical and deductive reasoning is the dominant one and serves the purpose of informing and educating, basic pillars of any scientific text.

  18. Current instabilities under HF electron gas heating in semiconductors with negative differential conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Yu. G.; Logvinov, G. N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Laricheva, N. [Datmouth College, New Hampshire (United States); Mashkevich, O. L. [Kharkov University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2001-10-01

    A nonlinear temperature dependence of the kinetic coefficients of semiconductor plasma can result in the appearance of regions of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in both the high-frequency (HF) and static current-voltage characteristics (CVC). In the present paper the formation of the static NDC under simultaneous electron gas heating by HF and static electric field is studied. As is shown below, in this case the heating electromagnetic wave has a pronounced effect on the appearance of NDC caused by the overheating mechanisms and the type of the static CVC as a whole. [Spanish] Una dependencia no lineal de la temperatura de los coeficientes cineticos del plasma del semiconductor puede llevar a la aparicion de regiones con conductividad diferencial negativa (CDN) en las caracteristicas corriente voltaje (CCV) de alta frecuencia (AF) y estatica. En este articulo se estudia la formacion de la CDN estatica bajo la accion simultanea del calentamiento del gas de electrones por AF y el campo electrico estatico. Como se muestra mas adelante, en este caso la onda electromagnetica que calienta a los electrones ejerce un fuerte efecto en la aparicion de la CDN; que se obtiene por mecanismos de sobrecalentamiento, y en el tipo de CCV estatica.

  19. Anticuerpos aviares: alternativa en producción y diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Alarcón

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de anticuerpos para investigación y diagnóstico se realiza desde hace varias décadas en todo el mundo. Normalmente, estos anticuerpos se obtienen a partir del suero de mamíferos (roedores, caprinos, equinos, etc.. De acuerdo con el tamaño del huésped, se pueden producir pequeñas o grandes cantidades de suero, haciendo siempre sangrías regulares para su recolección. En los últimos anos, se han utilizado cada vez con mayor frecuencia anticuerpos purificados a partir de huevos de gallinas inmunizadas, los cuales presentan diferencias con los anticuerpos producidos en mamiferos en su estructura y caracteristicas fisicoquímicas, pero, además, son una alternativa que disminuye el estrés e injuria al huésped y tiene alta productividad y facilidad para su recolección. Se ha informado el uso de estos anticuerpos aviares en ensayos inmunoquímicos, producción de conjugados y en terapéutica con un éxito similar al de los anticuerpos en mamiferos y a un costo menor. En este trabajo, se hace una revisión del tema y se plantean sus posibles usos tanto en investigación y diagnóstico, como en terapia.

  20. Form birefringence analysis in a grating by means of modal theory; Analisis de la birrefringencia de forma en una rejilla mediante la teoria modal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ponce, G.; Solano, Cristina [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    The propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave through a grating using the modal theory is analyzed. The eigenproblem is solved in function of the ratio illumination wavelength {lambda} to grating period (d). When this ratio is much greater than one (quasiestatic limit), the grating shows a response similar to an uniaxial film. It is possible to approximate the eigenfunction for calculating the effective refractive indices of the birefringent element. This effect is called form birefringence and can be used to design retardation plates. [Spanish] En este trabajo se analiza la propagacion de una onda electromagnetica plana a traves de una rejilla utilizando la teoria modal. Estableciendo el problema de valor caracteristico se determina que la solucion es dependiente de la razon longitud de onda de iluminacion {lambda} y el periodo de la rejilla (d). En el caso {lambda}/d mayor que 1, conocido como el limite cuasiestatico, la rejilla se comporta como una pelicula uniaxial, obteniendose los indices ordinario y extraordinario a partir de una aproximacion a la ecuacion caracteristica. Este fenomeno, llamado birrefringencia de forma, puede emplearse para disenar elementos birrefringentes.

  1. Slug-Burst Detection in the G3 Reactor; La detection de rupture de gaine au reacteur G3; Obnaruzhenie razryva obolochki v reaktore G3; Deteccion de fallas del revestimiento en el reactor G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plisson, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Marcoule (France)

    1963-10-15

    The author explains the principles underlying slug-burst detection and describes the construction of the apparatus concerned. The main features are a) fully automatic operation, b) centralization of data in the control room and c) measurement by electrostatic collection on a turntable. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire, l'auteur expose les principes sur lesquels est fondee la detection de rupture de gaines et il decrit la realisation des installations. Les caracteristiques principales sont a) l'automatisme integral, b) la centralisation des informations dans la salle de commande et c) mesure par collection electrostatique sur plaque tournante. (author) [Spanish] El autor expone los principios en que se basa la deteccion de las fallas en los revestimientos de los elementos combustibles y describe las caracteristicas principales de la instalacion, que son: a) automatizacion integral, b) centralizacion de las informaciones en la sala de mandos, y c) medicion por recoleccion electrostatica sobre una placa giratoria. (author) [Russian] Izlagayutsya printsipy, na kotorykh osnovano obnaruzhenie razryva obolochki, opisyvaetsya konstruirovanie ustanovok. Osnovnye kharakteristiki takovy: a) integral'nyj avtomatizm, b) tsentralizatsiya informatsii v komandnom zale i c) izmerenie putem ehlektrostaticheskogo sobiraniya na povorachivayushchejsya plastinke. (author)

  2. Educational software tool for protection system engineers: distance relay; Herramienta educativa para la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas: relevador de distancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Guajardo, L.A.; Conde-Enriquez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: luistrujillo84@gmail.com; con_de@yahoo.com

    2012-04-15

    In this article, a graphical software tool is presented; this tool is based on the education of protection system engineers. The theoretical fundaments used for the design of operation characteristics of distance relays and their algorithms are presented. The software allows the evaluation and analysis of real time events or simulated ones of every stage of design of the distance relay. Some example cases are presented to illustrate the activities that could be done with the graphical software tool developed. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una herramienta computacional grafica para apoyar la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas. Los fundamentos teoricos para el diseno de caracteristicas de operacion de relevadores de distancia, asi como las rutinas de programacion de un relevador de distancia son presentados. La herramienta desarrollada permite la evaluacion de las etapas de diseno de relevadores y el analisis de la operacion ante eventos reales o simulados. Se presentan algunos casos de ejemplo para ilustrar las actividades didacticas que son posibles de realizar con la herramienta presentada.

  3. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  4. CULTIVO in vitro DE PITAYO (Stenocereus stellatus [Pfeiffer] Riccobono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylvi María Martínez Villegas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El pitayo (Stenocereus stellatus es una cactacea nativa de Mexico, apreciada por sus frutos, los cuales tienen caracteristicas organolepticas unicas. Su propagacion es por esquejes tomados de plantas adultas, generalmente silvestres, causando deforestacion de zonas naturales. El objetivo fue definir el tipo y la dosis de citocininas asi como la concentracion de sacarosa que permita obtener mayor numero de plantas de pitayo in vitro. Se usaron semillas de frutos maduros de las cuales se obtuvieron plantulas para iniciar el incremento de plantas. Para la multiplicacion de brotes se utilizaron plantulas de 2 a 3 cm de altura divididas en secciones de 1 cm, el medio fue MS con 3 % de sacarosa; se evaluaron tres citocininas (kinetina, 6-benciladenina, y 2-isopentiladenina en cinco concentraciones (2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.6 y 35.2 ¿ÊM. Para el crecimiento de brotes se uso medio MS con sacarosa (1, 2, 3, 4 y 5 %. En la aclimatacion se evaluo el efecto de la concentracion de sacarosa usada para el crecimiento de los brotes in vitro. Se observo que la concentracion de 17.6 ¿ÊM de 6-benciladenina ocasiono formacion de brotes en todos los explantes, los cuales tuvieron ocho brotes por explante. Los brotes desarrollaron la mayor altura cuando fueron cultivados en 3 y 4 % de sacarosa. En aclimatacion sobrevivieron mas del 92 % de las plantas trasplantadas a sustrato.

  5. Compared gametophytic development of three species of Phebodium (Polypodiaceae, s.str.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Pérez-García

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison was made of the gametophytic development of Phlebodium araneosum, P. pseudoaureum and P. decumanum. Spores were collected from several Mexican localities ranging in altitude from 30 to 2300 m and sown on agar with mineral salts. Similarities in germination type and prothallial development were observed. Adult gametophytes are cordate-spathulate to cordate-reniform; gametangia are of the tipical type of the common leptosporangiate ferns. All three species share similar morphogenetic features of the gametophytes, and these do not lend additional characteristics to support the distinction of Phlebodium from Polypodium, Microgramma and Niphidium, as regard the sexual phase.Una comparación del desarrollo del gametofito de Phlebodium araneosum, P. pseudoaureum y P. decumanum fue hecha. Las esporas fueron sembradas en agar con sales minerales. Similitudes en el tipo de germinación y desarrollo protálico fueron observadas. Los gametofitos adultos fueron cordiforme-espatulados a cordiforme-reniformes; los gametangios son del tipo común de los helechos leptosporangiados. Las tres especies muestran caracteristicas morfogenéticas del gametofito similares y no a aden características adicionales que apoyen la distinción entre Phlebodium, Polypodium, Microgramma y Niphidium, por lo que se refiere a la fase sexual.

  6. ¿Algo más que "ganadores del pan"?: El papel de los hombres en el ámbito familiar en España (1975-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELIA VALIENTE FERNÁNDEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available el aumento de la importancia de otras funciones del llamado cabeza de familia distintas de la provision economica (por ejemplo, el cuidado de los niños o la realizacion de las tareas domesticas se ha producido en menor medida en españa que en otros paises occidentales, si bien a nuestro pais porcentajes importates de la poblacion de ambos sexos opinan que las mencionadas actividades han de ser compartidas por ambos miembros de la pareja. este articulo explora algunos factores que explican esta divergencia entre actitudes mas bien igualitarias y comportamientos que no lo son tanto, entre otros: la distinta posicion de hombres y mujeres en el mercado de trabajo ; la carencia de habilidades, destrezas y conocimientos necesarios para realizar tareas domesticas y cuidar a los niños por parte de muchos varones, carencia que es en cierta medida el resultado de la educacion recibida en sus familias de origen y de las circunstancias del inicio de su edad adulta ; las concepciones de la mayor parte de lapoblacion acerca de las caracteristicas de los quehaceres del hogar ; la extendida opinion de que el trabajo extradomestico femenino es de menor importancia que el masculino, ademas de la creencia, bastante generalizada, de la importancia del cuidado materno para los niños pequeños ; y, por ultimo, la ausencia de politicas publicas que no solo permitan sino tambien incentiven a los hombres a participar en el cuidado de sus hijos.

  7. Use of the operation planning network at Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE); Uso de la red de planeacion de la operacion en el Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Roberto; Alatorre, Pedro; Gonzalez, Nemorio; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A description is made of the ways Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utilizes the system called Short Term Operation Planning Network (Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo) (REDPLA) in the elaboration of the generation daily pre-dispatch (PD) of the National Electric System (SEN). The PD defines the hourly generation with which each central must contribute, to cover the predicted demand during the following 24 hours, so that the total production cost be the lowest. Respecting at every moment the transmission limitations, the characteristics of the generation system and the operational restrictions. [Espanol] Se describe la manera en que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utiliza el sistema denominado Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo (Redpla) en la elaboracion del predespacho diario (PD) de generacion del sistema electrico nacional (SEN). El PD define la generacion horaria que debera aportar cada central electrica para cubrir la demanda pronosticada durante las proximas 24 horas, de tal manera que el costo de produccion total sea el mas bajo, respetando en todo momento las limitaciones de transmision, las caracteristicas del sistema de generacion y las restricciones operativas del sistema.

  8. The program Quetzal/II for the dispersion study of polluting flows with recirculation; El programa Quetzal/II para el estudio de la dispersion de contaminantes en flujos con recirculacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Leon, Hermilo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this article a physico-mathematical model for the transport of atmospheric pollutants when they are trapped in the cavities produced by the wind action on the thermoelectric power plants, is described. The main characteristic of these cavities is that they involve high turbulence zones where the physical parameters change in magnitude a direction considerably . The developed model allows the analysis of these flows, as well as its evolution in space and time and its influence on the pollutants transport; the turbulence is represented by means of a model {kappa} - {epsilon}. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe un modelo fisico-matematico para el estudio del transporte de contaminantes atmosfericos cuando son atrapados en las cavidades producidas por la accion del viento sobre las centrales termoelectricas. La caracteristica principal de estas cavidades es que involucran zonas de alta turbulencia donde las variables fisicas cambian de magnitud y direccion considerablemente. El modelo desarrollado permite analizar estos flujos, asi como su evolucion en el espacio y en el tiempo y su influencia sobre el transporte de los contaminantes; la turbulencia se representa por medio de un modelo {kappa} - {epsilon}.

  9. The argentine electric sector reform and its correlation with energy efficiency; La reforma del sector electrico argentino y su relacion con la eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Claudio [MGM International (Argentina)

    2005-04-15

    The reforms in the Argentine electrical sector and the effect these have originated in the energy efficiency policies for public sector are presented. The characteristics exposed of the Argentina Electric sector previous to the 1992 transformation are the departing base that gave rise to the reform fundaments, generating privatizations and a vertical economic scheme. The transformation of the electric sector departing from its environmental regulations yielded in a quality service, good electricity distribution, better prices and proper energy efficiency. [Spanish] Se presentan las reformas en el sector electrico argentino y el efecto que han tenido sobre las politicas de eficiencia energetica elaboradas en el sector publico. Las caracteristicas expuestas del sector electrico argentino previas a la transformacion de 1992 son la base de partida que dio lugar a los fundamentos de la reforma generando privatizaciones y un esquema economico vertical. La transformacion del sector electrico a partir de sus regulaciones energeticas y ambientales redituaron en calidad de servicio, de distribucion de electricidad, precios y en la propia eficiencia energetica.

  10. Características, manejo, usos y beneficios del saúco (Sambucus nigra L. con énfasis en su implementación en sistemas silvopastoriles del Trópico Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Milena Grajales Atehortúa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El sauco Sambucus nigra es un arbusto con características botanicas, composicion quimica y sustancias activas, que ofrece las condiciones para ser aprovechado con fines medicinales, alimenticios, ornamentales, artesanales y para suplementación animal. Sobre la especie existen publicaciones sobre diversos temas en particular, sin embargo, no se cuenta con un documento que contenga informacion total sobre la especie. El objetivo de esta investigacion fue consolidar documentacion bibliografica sobre las caracteristicas, manejo y usos del sauco, que permita conocer ampliamente la especie y asi motivar su implementación en sistemas productivos generando beneficios sociales, ambientales y economicos, de tal manera que se puedan aprovechar todos los beneficios que esta brinda. Es asi como al final del articulo se dan recomendaciones sobre el manejo y uso del S. nigra en sistemas silvopastoriles del tropico alto, entre los que se tienen las cortinas rompe vientos, cercas vivas, sistema de ramoneo y banco de forraje mixto. Entre las alternativas en sistemas silvopastoriles, se tiene el sauco como especie multiproposito, el cual por sus propiedades permite ser implementado bajo diferentes herramientas de manejo del paisaje y proporciona forraje de buena calidad, mejora las condiciones de la leche, aporta en la protección de los recursos y en general ofrece diversidad de subproductos que pueden ser aprovechados.

  11. Reasoning based in cases applied to diagnosis of electric generators; Razonamiento basado en casos aplicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, H. Octavio; Garcia Tevillo, Arturo; Campuzano Martinez, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a system for the diagnosis of electrical generators that apply techniques of artificial intelligence, is presented, as it is the reasoning based on cases, to support the work of the diagnosis engineer. This system is part of a system called CADIS, dedicated to the diagnosis of electrical generators out of line and reason of previous articles. In this occasion the characteristics of the reasoning module based on experiences (SirBE) are emphasized, indicating how to make a diagnosis using similar cases and how to edit the system base of experience, using the interactive editor of cases. It is included, in addition, a summarized example which represents a case for SirBE and how the system helps to make a diagnosis. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de diagnostico de generadores electricos que aplica tecnicas de inteligencia artificial, como es el razonamiento basado en casos, para apoyar la labor del ingeniero de diagnostico. Este sistema es parte de un sistema denominado CADIS, dedicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos fuera de linea y motivo de articulos anteriores. En esta ocasion se resaltan las caracteristicas del modulo de razonamiento basado en experiencias (SirBE), indicando como realizar un diagnostico utilizando casos similares y como editar la base de experiencia del sistema utilizando el editor interactivo de casos. Se incluye, ademas, un ejemplo resumido de lo que representa un caso para SiRBE y como el sistema ayuda a realizar un diagnostico.

  12. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero P, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  13. Estimation of the resource and technological prospective of geothermal energy in Mexico (Annexe 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la geotermia en Mexico (Anexo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo; Arellano G, Victor; Torres R, Rodolfo Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Due to its individual geologic-structural characteristics, Mexico counts on abundant geothermal resources. At the moment we count on a database that includes 2,332 geothermal manifestations distributed in 27 of the 32 Mexican states, the geothermal resources are classified as high temperature and intermediate or low temperature resources. Those of high temperature can be used for the generation of electrical energy. Those of intermediate to low temperature are more appropriate for direct applications of the geothermal heat. As of today, in Mexico exist four geothermal fields of high temperature that are being exploded for the electrical generation. [Spanish] Debido a sus particulares caracteristicas geologico-estructurales, Mexico cuenta con abundantes recursos geotermicos. Actualmente contamos con una base de datos que incluye 2,332 manifestaciones geotermicas distribuidas en 27 de los 32 estados mexicanos, los recursos geotermicos se clasifican en de alta temperatura y recursos de temperatura intermedia a baja. Los de alta temperatura pueden utilizarse para la generacion de energia electrica. Los de temperatura intermedia a baja son mas apropiados para aplicaciones directas del calor geotermico. Actualmente en Mexico existen cuatro campos geotermicos de alta temperatura que estan siendo explotados para la generacion electrica.

  14. Sistemas de lógica difusa en el proceso de secado de café en lecho fluidizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabalo de investigación se experimenta con un sistema de secado de granos en lecho fluidizado. Se utiliza un prototipo en el cual se seca café utilizando varias temperaturas del aire de secado (López, 2002. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el tiempo de secado varIa entre 6 a 8 horas, el contenido de humedad final del grano presenta uniformidad y en prueba de tasa se obtiene un producto con caracterIsticas organolépticas de buena calidad. Como complemento a lo anterior y teniendo en cuenta el grado de incertidumbre de dicho proceso, median- te sistemas de lógica difusa se plantean en forma preliminar algunas posibles estrategias de control y automatización que presenta el proceso de secado de café en lecho fluidizado, relacionadas con: establecer el punto de fluidización de los granos hümedos, control de la velocidad superficial del aire, y usar al inicio del proceso de secado una temperatura de aire mayor de 50°C .

  15. Advantages of the synthetic technique for the conduction of short circuit tests to breakers; Ventajas de la tecnica sintetica para realizar pruebas de corto circuito a interruptores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibilski, Henry [Instituto Electrotecnico de Varsovia, Varsovia (Poland); Ochoa Vivanco, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article the operational principle of the synthetic test is described; specifically of the current injection circuit in parallel. Its utilization in the research and development of new breaker models and its wide possibilities regarding its testing characteristics is outlined. Likewise the different tests that can be performed by means of the synthetic technique are described. Finally the importance of the synthetic tests is outlined for the development of own technology in the area of interruption equipment and emphasis is made that in industrialized countries this technique is of common practice. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el principio de operacion de la prueba sintetica; especificamente del circuito de inyeccion de corriente en paralelo. Se destaca su utilizacion en la investigacion y desarrollo de nuevos modelos de interruptores y sus amplias posibilidades en cuanto a caracteristicas de prueba. Asimismo, se describen las diferentes pruebas que pueden realizarse mediante la tecnica sintetica. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de las pruebas sinteticas para el desarrollo de tecnologia propia en el area de equipos de interrupcion, y se hace notar que en paises desarrollados, esta tecnica es practica comun.

  16. Barrera del desempeño laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Rosario Alvarez-Ramirez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El estres es un hecho complejo en la vida de toda persona con efectos distintos en cada quien, que no puede ser evitada ya que en todos lo momentos de la vida se esta en riesgo de presentarlo ante cualquier situacion, o una actividad laboral o familiar, que puede llegar a generar cualquier cambio que represente estres. Los sucesos negativos, dario, enfermedad o muerte de un ser querido, son hechos estresantes, asi como los sucesos positivos; ascender en el trabajo trae consigo el estres del nuevo status, de nuevas responsabilidades. Dentro de los trastornos clinicos vinculados al estres hay alteraciones como: trastornos del sumo, ulceras, dolores de cabeza, aceleracion del ritmo cardiaco y otros trastornos como los cardiovasculares: palpitaciones, hipertension arterial, trastornos digestivos, dolores, ardores, vomitos, nauseas, diarrea o estreriimiento y trastornos cutaneos: donde se presenta transpiracion de manos y pies y problemas alergicos. En el estres se pueden llegar a presentar dos tipos de estres: el positivo y el negativo. Los cuales presentan unas caracteristicas muy particulares, como en el estres negativo: una persona se encuentra ante un nitmero creciente de demandas que le plantean dificultad o constituyen una amenaza, se debe mirar el modo de afrontarlas. En el Estres positivo se presenta cuando la percepcion de capacidad de demanda es mucho mas amplia que las verdaderas demandas. Un aspecto fundamental ante la presencia de estres es la practica necesaria de un deporte o la realizacion de actividades recreativas.

  17. Variabilidad de establecer el sistema de denominaciones de origen de los productores agroalimentarios en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Granados

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la opinion de personas vincu- ladas al desarrollo rural y a los sectores agricola y alimentario, se explor6 la viabilidad de esta- blecer en Costa Rica un sistema de denomina- ciones de origen, como un medio para la valora- estabcion y promocion de productos agricolas y ali- menticios tradicionales, con un origen geografi- co reconocible. La poblaci6n consultada mostr6 un bajo nivel de conocimiento sobre el tema; sin embargo, se percibi6 una alta valoracion para es- te tipo de productos y una percepcion positiva acerca de las ventajas del establecimiento del sistema en Costa Rica, principalmente en el me- establishjoramiento de la imagen y calidad de los produc- tos y en la apertura de nuevos mercados. Se in- dicaron como factores limitantes para su imple- mentacion, entre otros, el insuficiente conoci- miento y experiencia acerca del sistema. Se re- comendo realizar nuevas investigaciones sobre knowllos productos que preliminarmente presentaron caracteristicas promisorias para ser incluidas en el sistema, 10 mismo que profundizar en el ana- lisis del marco normativo e institucional para la adecuacion de una estructura general de organi- syszacion y operaci6n del sistema.

  18. Diagnóstico de enfermagem Eliminação urinária prejudicada em pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório descritivo com o objetivo de descrever os diagnósticos de enfermagem em pessoas com diabetes mellitus que apresentaram diagnóstico de enfermagem Eliminação urinária prejudicada. Os dados foram obtidos através do exame físico e a técnica de entrevista dirigida. Após a coleta de dados, procedeu-se a identificação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem nomeados de acordo com a Taxonomia II da NANDA, utilizando o processo de raciocínio diagnóstico de Risner. Das 31 pessoas entrevistadas, identificou-se 10 (32% sujeitos que apresentaram o diagnóstico de enfermagem eliminação urinária prejudicada. Conhecer os fatores relacionados e as caracteristicas definidoras desse diagnóstico possibilita que o enfermeiro trace intervenções de enfermagem que preservem a função renal, e consequentemente a nefropatia diabética.

  19. Classification and identification of hazardous residues; Clasificacion e identificacion de residuos peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto V, Federico; Obaya V, Adolfo; Guerrero, Claudia [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-06-01

    In this work, we present the classification and identification of hazardous industrial residues. Mexico has had a wide industrial development in last years, for instance the chemical, steel and petroleum industries, and it has had important effects in the waste industrial generation from different processes. For this reason it is important to diffuse how the correct classification and identification of industrial wastes is made, for insuring their handling, treatment and adequate disposal. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan los principales aspectos a considerar en la clasificacion e identificacion de los residuos industriales peligrosos. Mexico, considerado como un pais en vias de desarrollo, ha mantenido en los ultimos anos un amplio crecimiento industrial y uno de los mas altos del mundo en poblacion. Esta situacion ha orillado a intensificar la explotacion de los recursos naturales mediante la actividad minera, la siderurgica, la industria quimica, la petrolera, etcetera. Todo esto ha repercutido indudablemente en la generacion de residuos de tan diversa naturaleza como lo son los procesos y las materias primas involucradas, con caracteristicas que van desde los poco riesgosos hasta los altamente peligrosos. Por esta razon, la clasificacion e identificacion de los residuos peligrosos es de suma importancia para asegurar su adecuado manejo, tratamiento y disposicion.

  20. Decree 243/994 National Direction of Especial Subjects it create and will operate in the orbit of the External Relation Ministere; Decreto 243/994 Direccion de Asuntos Especiales crease y funcionara en la orbita del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-10

    Creates in the Ministry of External Relationships the Direction of Special Matters, to which concerns to study, to coordinate and to execute in the pertinent thing, the foreign policy of the Republic in the related with Nuclear Energy, Dismantle, human rights and Humanitarian Right, Population, Migration and Refugees, Drug traffic, Terrorism, Space Right and all those topics of political character that require to be considered in form separated by their special characteristic . The Direction of Special Political Matters in opinion of the Ministry of External Relationships will depend directly on the General Direction for Political Matters. [Spanish] Crease en el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores la Direccion de Asuntos Especiales, a la que compete estudiar, coordinar y ejecutar en lo pertinente, la politica exterior de la Republica en lo relacionado con Energia Nuclear, Desarme, Derechos Humanos y Derecho Humanitario, Poblacion, Migracion y Refugiados, Narcotrafico, Terrorismo, Derecho Espacial y todos aquellos temas de caracter politico que a juicio del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores requieran ser considerados en forma separada por sus caracteristicas especiales.La Direccion de Asuntos Politicos Especiales dependera directamente de la Direccion General para Asuntos Politicos.

  1. Present situation of the control of the transmissions of thermal power plants in Colombia; Situacion actual del control de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lozada, Hector [Consultor Ambiental, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents, departing from a historical recollection, the evolution analysis of the Colombian Electric Sector, with emphasis in the electric component performance. Also, a general view is offered on the characteristics of the thermal electric resource in terms of energy production level, type of fuels used and annual amount of air pollutants originated in the combustion process. In the second part of the paper the normative scheme and the regulation for emissions control, particularly coming from power plants; and the tendencies in the policies that for the management of the atmospheric resource are being implemented in the country are identified. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta, a partir de un breve recuento historico, el analisis de la evolucion del Sector Electrico Colombiano con enfasis en el comportamiento del componente termoelectrico. Asi mismo se ofrece una vision general sobre las caracteristicas del parque termico, en terminos de los niveles de produccion de energia, los tipos de combustibles utilizados y las cantidades anuales de contaminantes atmosfericos que se generan en el proceso de combustion. En la segunda parte del trabajo se comenta el esquema normativo y la regulacion para el control de las emisiones, en particular de las procedentes de plantas termoelectricas; y se identifican las tendencias de las politicas que para la administracion del recurso atmosferico se estan implantando en el pais.

  2. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  3. Present situation of the control of the transmissions of thermal power plants in Colombia; Situacion actual del control de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lozada, Hector [Consultor Ambiental, Bogota (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents, departing from a historical recollection, the evolution analysis of the Colombian Electric Sector, with emphasis in the electric component performance. Also, a general view is offered on the characteristics of the thermal electric resource in terms of energy production level, type of fuels used and annual amount of air pollutants originated in the combustion process. In the second part of the paper the normative scheme and the regulation for emissions control, particularly coming from power plants; and the tendencies in the policies that for the management of the atmospheric resource are being implemented in the country are identified. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta, a partir de un breve recuento historico, el analisis de la evolucion del Sector Electrico Colombiano con enfasis en el comportamiento del componente termoelectrico. Asi mismo se ofrece una vision general sobre las caracteristicas del parque termico, en terminos de los niveles de produccion de energia, los tipos de combustibles utilizados y las cantidades anuales de contaminantes atmosfericos que se generan en el proceso de combustion. En la segunda parte del trabajo se comenta el esquema normativo y la regulacion para el control de las emisiones, en particular de las procedentes de plantas termoelectricas; y se identifican las tendencias de las politicas que para la administracion del recurso atmosferico se estan implantando en el pais.

  4. Composición corporal y velocidad de lanzamiento en jugadoras de élite de balonmano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam García Expósito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue describir y comparar las caracteristicas antropometricas, composicion corporal, somatotipo y velocidad de lanzamiento de las jugadoras de balonmano de la seleccion espanola de diferentes categorias. Fueron estudiadas 59 jugadoras de balonmano, todas ellas pertenecen a las categorias juvenil, junior y senior. Las variables analizadas fueron: 20 medidas antropometricas, el indice de masa corporal, sumatorio de cuatro pliegues, porcentaje muscular, el somatotipo y las velocidades de lanzamiento. No se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente significativas (p . 0,05 en las variables que caracterizan a la muestra asi como en el somatotipo y velocidad de lanzamiento en los distintos equipos nacionales. Todas las selecciones estudiadas presentan un somatotipo endo-mesomorfico a excepcion del equipo juvenil que presenta un somatotipo meso-endomorfico. Los resultados corroboran que existe un prototipo de jugadora de balonmano similar en todas las categorias. El componente mesomorfico es el predominante por lo que se puede deducir que la robustez musculo-esqueletico en el balonmano femenino puede ser determinante.

  5. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  6. Caracterización estacional del hábitat fluvial del río Erro (Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Leunda, R. Miranda, M.C. Escala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción de catorce tramos representativos del río Erro (Navarra a partir de la caracterización del hábitat fluvial llevada a cabo en invierno, verano y otoño de 2002. Para este estudio se han considerado parámetros tanto del hábitat físico (profundidad, anchura del cauce, pendiente de las orillas, velocidad del agua, tipo de sustrato, vegetación acuática y sombreado como físico-químicos del agua (temperatura, pH, conductividad, sólicos disueltos y oxigeno disuelto. El análisis de las caracteristicas del rio Erro permite considerar su estado general como bueno, aunque se detecta la presencia de un tramo sensible aguas abajo de la localidad de Erro. Si bien este tramo sensible presenta niveles de conservación aceptables, es susceptible de deteriorarse si no de adoptan las medidas oportunas para su conservación. Se sugiere su inclusión en el Lugar de Interés Comunitario (Red Natura 2000 de Navarra de los "Sistemas Fluviales de lis Ríos Irati, Urrobi y Erro".

  7. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M; Ribeiro, C M; Borba, A J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  8. Radioisotope measurement system; Sistema de medicion de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina).Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    2007-07-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [Spanish] Un sistema de instrumentacion instalado en el L.M.R. (Centro Atomico Ezeiza de la CNEA) mide en amplio rango la actividad del decaimiento nuclear de radioisotopos. Permite caracterizar una amplia gama de radioistopos de variados niveles de actividad. Tanto el hardware de medicion como el software de operacion han sido desarrollados y construidos en el Dept. Instrumentacion y Control. El trabajo esboza la conformacion del sistema y su concepto de operacion, describe caracteristicas de disenio, construccion y del tratamiento del error, comenta resultados de ensayos y provee recomendaciones de uso. Pruebas de medicion realizadas empleando diversos nucleidos comprobaron que el sistema funciona en forma satisfactoria y su operacion es amigable. (autor)

  9. Nuevas herramientas para la clasificación taxonómica de los insectos vectores de leishmaniosis: utilidad de los genes mitocondriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar E. Bejarano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La controversia en torno a la posición taxonómica de los flebotomineos, debida en parte a dificultades morfológicas, ha evidenciado la necesidad de buscar nuevas herramientas que permitan no sólo establecer una clasificación más acorde con los procesos evolutivos que han experimentado estos insectos, sino también diferenciar los taxones que conforman los complejos de especies. Con la aparición de las técnicas de biología molecular, el estudio del genoma en insectos vectores de enfermedades se ha convertido en un paso importante en la resolución de muchos conflictos taxonómicos. Las caracteristicas del ADN mitocondrial, entre las que se destacan su rápida evolución y la facilidad con la que se puede aislar y manipular, han favorecido su elección como marcador molecular para estudios de taxonomía. Recientemente, el polimorfisrno de algunos genes mitocondriales comenzó a utilizarse para explorar las relaciones filogenéticas y evolutivas en especies de los géneros Lutzomyia y Phlebotomus. La presente revisión recopila la literatura disponible sobre los principales grupos de flebotomíneos estudiados, los genes mitocondriales más utilizados y su contribución a la clasificación de los vectores de leishmaniosis.

  10. Location of facts devices from a dynamic perspective; Ubicacion de dispositivos FACTS desde una perspectiva dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado Gallegos, Ixtlahuatl

    2001-09-15

    algunas de sus principales caracteristicas, clasificacion y las ventajas que presenta su utilizacion. En la siguiente parte, se desarrolla la formulacion de la matriz de estado en el contexto maquina-barra infinita considerando la posibilidad de incluir un estabilizador de sistemas de potencia. Posteriormente se extiende la formulacion a un sistema multimaquina. Ademas se analiza la forma de incluir un capacitor serie controlado por tiristores (TCSC por sus siglas en ingles) y un controlador unificado de flujos de potencia (UPFC por sus siglas en ingles). Se lleva a cabo un analisis del UPFC en condiciones de estado estacionario y dinamico en un sistema maquina-barra infinita a fin de conocer sus caracteristicas operativas y su capacidad para amortiguar oscilaciones de potencia a traves de sus entradas de control al utilizar senales locales. En la ultima parte del trabajo se propone una metodologia para atacar el problema de la localizacion de dispositivos FACTS, la cual esta basada en la tecnica de respuesta a la frecuencia del sistema. Para validar esta propuesta se utilizan algunos casos de estudio y se comparan los resultados obtenidos con los proporcionados por otras tecnicas. Asimismo se proponen algunos medios auxiliares para la obtencion de localizaciones factibles utilizando otras herramientas matematicas como los valores singulares y las sensitividades. Finalmente se llevan a cabo simulaciones en el tiempo para corroborar los resultados obtenidos.

  11. Transistor precision pulse-shaper with short recovery time; Dispositif de haute precision pour la mise en forme des impulsions, a transistors et a faible temps de recuperation; Tranzistornyj tochnyj formirovatel' impul'sov s korotkim vremenem vosstanovleniya; Formador de impulsos de precision, transistorizado, de corto tiempo de recuperacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotto, I De [European Atomic Energy Community, CCR, Ispra (Italy)

    1962-04-15

    A pulse-shaper with a short recovery time is very often necessary in nuclear electronics. The pulse-shaper which has the lowest recovery time is the one-shot multivibrator with RC timing-network. This type of timing network and the influence of transistor characteristics on the performance of this circuit are analysed. Some circuit modifications are suggested for obtaining (1) a pulse-width precision better than 2% without the need for individual adjustments and (2) a pulse-width stability better than 1% over a 20{sup o}C temperature range. The circuit is so designed that use is allowed of transistors with a low base-emitter inverse-voltage like that of most of the fastest types. (author) [French] Un dispositif de mise en forme des impulsions, a faible temps de recuperation, est frequemment indispensable en electronique nucleaire. Le dispositif ayant le temps de recuperation le plus faible est le multivibrateur a un seul coup muni d'un systeme de synchronisation RC. L'auteur analyse ce systeme de synchronisation et les effets des caracteristiques des transistors sur le rendement du circuit. Il propose d'apporter au circuit certaines modifications en vue d'obtenir: 1{sup o} une largeur d'impulsion d'une precision superieure a 2% sans qu'il soit necessaire de proceder a divers ajustements, et 2{sup o} une largeur d'impulsion d'une stabilite superieure a 1% sur une gamme de temperature de 20{sup o}C. Le circuit est concu de telle maniere qu'il permet d'utiliser, comme pour les circuits ultra-rapides, des transistors a tension inverse base-emetteur faible. (author) [Spanish] En electronica nuclear es a menudo necesario un formador de impulsos de corto periodo de recuperacion. El formador de impulsos de periodo de recuperacion mas breve es el univibrador con periodo determinado por una RC. Se estudia este circuito y la influencia de las caracteristicas de los transistores en su funcionamiento. Se sugieren algunas modificaciones para obtener 1) una precision en la

  12. Determination of the geothermal well damage from its production tests; Determinacion del dano en pozos geotermicos a partir de sus pruebas de produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo Montalvo, Georgina; Arellano Gomez, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    In this work the evolution is described that undergoes the factor of damage in a well during its productive stage, which is identifiable from the diminution in the characteristics of its production. It is mentioned that during the productive stage of wells, its declination is, in many occasions, synonymous of the damage presence. Traditionally, the damage effect is determined from the equations for analysis of the transitory tests of pressure. Nevertheless, the execution of this type of tests requires relatively long periods of time to obtain the stabilization of the well and of significant costs. By the previous facts the development of techniques to determine the damage from production tests was initiated. In this article is presented the curve-type of geothermal inflow affected by the damage, from which the value of this one in a geothermal well for the time in which its test of production is realized can be determined. A methodology is proposed to determine the damage effect in the well using the proposed curve-type and its applicability with examples of test measurements of well discharge is demonstrated in Mexican geothermal fields. From the conducted analyses it is found that the numerical value of the damage determined in selected wells increases based on the time of exploitation, which indicates a deterioration of its productive characteristics. The previous statements aid to constitute a technical endorsement for the decision making, on the pertinent actions that can be executed in the well. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la evolucion que sufre el factor de dano en un pozo durante su etapa productiva, el cual es identificable a partir de la disminucion en las caracteristicas de su produccion. Se menciona que durante la etapa productiva de los pozos, su declinacion es, en muchas ocasiones, sinonimo de la presencia de dano. Tradicionalmente, el efecto de dano se determina a partir de las ecuaciones para analisis de las pruebas transitorias de presion

  13. Preparation and characterization of novel nanocomposites of inorganic/polysaccharide type =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiane Costa

    concerne a carga e as caracteristicas gelificantes: a goma de alfarroba (nao ionica), o quitosano (cationico) e a goma xantana (anionica) cujas propriedades reologicas sao amplamente conhecidas. Os estudos reologicos realizados sob diferentes condicoes demonstraram que a formacao de geis frageis e/ou bem estruturados depende do tamanho SiO2, da concentracao, do pH e da forca ionica. Estes estudos foram confirmados por analises microestruturais usando a microscopia electronica a baixas temperaturas (Cryo-SEM). No quarto capitulo, sao apresentados os estudos relativos a preparacao e caracterizacao de filmes bionanocompositos utilizando quitosano como matriz. Primeiramente e apresentada uma revisao sobre filmes de bionanocompositos e os aspectos fundamentais das tecnicas de caracterizacao utilizadas. A escolha do plasticizante e da sua concentracao sao discutidas com base nas propriedades de filmes de quitosano preparados. Em seguida, o efeito da concentracao de silica e dos metodos utilizados para a dispersar na matriz de polissacarideo, bem como o efeito da modificacao da superficie da silica e avaliado. As caracteristicas da superficie e as propriedades de barreira, mecanicas e termicas sao discutidas para cada conjunto de filmes preparados antes e apos a sua neutralizacao. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a dispersao das cargas no plasticizante e posterior adicao a matriz polissacaridica resultaram apenas em pequenas melhorias ja que o problema da agregacao de silica nao foi ultrapassado. Por esse motivo foram preparados filmes com SiO2 APS os quais apresentaram propriedades melhores apesar da agregacao das particulas nao ter sido completamente impedida. Tal pode estar relacionado com o processo de secagem dos filmes. Finalmente, no capitulo 5, sao apresentadas as principais conclusoes obtidas e algumas sugestoes para trabalho futuro.

  14. Resources of thermal control in vernacular houses of North of Mexico and Peru. A comparative analysis; Recursos de control termico en viviendas vernaculas del Norte de Mexico y Peru. Un analisis comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Luis F. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F.(Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    ponencia se presentan los resultados de un analisis comparativo realizado entre viviendas prehispanicas y vernaculas de los alrededores de la ciudad de Trujillo, Peru y de Casas Grandes en Chihuahua, Mexico, con la finalidad de identificar las caracteristicas formales, funcionales y materiales que permitieron su adaptacion termica a medios geograficos con climas hostiles, resultado de su localizacion en zonas deserticas. Sin que haya existido contacto alguno entre las culturas historicas y vernaculas que se desarrollaron desde hace casi dos mil anos en el Valle de Moche y el Valle de Casas Grandes, se han generado una serie de respuestas arquitectonicas con notables coincidencias en su eficacia para integrarse a las extremosas condiciones climaticas imperantes. Entre estas respuestas es posible destacar la utilizacion de la tierra como material de construccion, la masividad de las estructuras, orientacion geografica, pendientes de techos, dimensiones de sus locales, formas de agrupacion, tipos de ventanas, espacios abiertos, parasoles, pergolas y celosias, entre otros recursos de diseno. Sin embargo, con el paso del tiempo una parte importante de los conocimientos que fundamentaban estas formas de adaptacion al medio fueron perdiendose y se transformo la arquitectura para dar pie a una tradicion vernacula cuyas caracteristicas han resultado ser cada vez menos eficientes. Lo mas grave de esta tendencia es que en anos recientes, a consecuencia de la incorporacion de sistemas constructivos ajenos, la arquitectura local ha ido degenerando hasta perder casi totalmente los rasgos que apoyaban su integracion al medio circundante, transformandose en espacios con un confort termico nulo. El analisis no solo permite valorar los elementos arquitectonicos identificados para promover su conservacion como testimonio historico, sino fundamentalmente como fuente para el diseno de soluciones habitacionales que en el presente y el futuro recuperen la sabiduria ancestral.

  15. Program of actions for energy conservation in the equipment for the urban public transportation; Programa de acciones para el ahorro de la energia en los equipos de transporte publico urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhez Arellano, L.I. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    las redes de transporte y su explotacion, asi como la del ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia utilizada para su funcionamiento. El trabajo aqui presentado se inscribe dentro de las lineas de interes de este programa. Las caracteristicas propias de operacion y de consumo de energia de los diferentes tipos de vehiculos utilizados en el servicio de transporte publico urbano, dependen principalmente de las aplicaciones para las que se hayan previsto. Sin embargo un punto importante es el conocer de manera mas concreta y especifica la naturaleza y otras opciones de utilizacion posibles de los diversos sistemas de transporte urbano, asi como su impacto energetico y la posibilidad de ahorros bien canalizados. El objetivo de este trabajo es la de presentar de manera concreta los diferentes equipos utilizados en el transporte publico urbano, haciendo una comparacion energetica, ademas de plantear un programa de acciones tendientes al ahorro de energia para los vehiculos que operan actualmente en las principales ciudades del pais. Se indican las principales acciones y sus caracteristicas basicas para su puesta en marcha, las cuales se pueden resumir en tres grandes rubros: -acciones dentro de las mismas empresas y sobre el parque vehicular existente. -acciones sobre la administracion y explotacion de los sistemas de transporte. -acciones para la utilizacion de nuevos equipos y vehiculos mas eficientes. Una explicacion detallada de cada una de estas acciones y su impacto en el consumo de energeticos son el proposito final de este estudio.

  16. Program of actions for energy conservation in the equipment for the urban public transportation; Programa de acciones para el ahorro de la energia en los equipos de transporte publico urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhez Arellano, L I [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    las redes de transporte y su explotacion, asi como la del ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia utilizada para su funcionamiento. El trabajo aqui presentado se inscribe dentro de las lineas de interes de este programa. Las caracteristicas propias de operacion y de consumo de energia de los diferentes tipos de vehiculos utilizados en el servicio de transporte publico urbano, dependen principalmente de las aplicaciones para las que se hayan previsto. Sin embargo un punto importante es el conocer de manera mas concreta y especifica la naturaleza y otras opciones de utilizacion posibles de los diversos sistemas de transporte urbano, asi como su impacto energetico y la posibilidad de ahorros bien canalizados. El objetivo de este trabajo es la de presentar de manera concreta los diferentes equipos utilizados en el transporte publico urbano, haciendo una comparacion energetica, ademas de plantear un programa de acciones tendientes al ahorro de energia para los vehiculos que operan actualmente en las principales ciudades del pais. Se indican las principales acciones y sus caracteristicas basicas para su puesta en marcha, las cuales se pueden resumir en tres grandes rubros: -acciones dentro de las mismas empresas y sobre el parque vehicular existente. -acciones sobre la administracion y explotacion de los sistemas de transporte. -acciones para la utilizacion de nuevos equipos y vehiculos mas eficientes. Una explicacion detallada de cada una de estas acciones y su impacto en el consumo de energeticos son el proposito final de este estudio.

  17. Some Questions on the Fixation of Radioisotopes in Connexion with the Problem of their Safe Burial; Quelques Aspects de la Fixation des Isotopes Radioactifs en Rapport avec le Probleme de leur Elimination dans le Sol; 041d 0414 ; Algunos Aspectos de la Fijacion de los Isotopos Radiactivos en Relacion con los Problemas de su Evacuacion sin Riesgos en el Suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimakov, P. V.; Kulichenko, V. V.

    1960-07-01

    isotopos procedentes de la fision, consiste en encerrarlos en bloques de vidrio fundido. Exponen los principios fisicoquimicos de la transformacion de los desechos liquidos radiactivos en bloques solidos. La memoria contiene termogramas de este proceso y un analisis de sus caracteristicas. Se indican las condiciones de fusion de las masas de vidrio, especialmente las que favorecen el desplazamiento de los aerosoles radiactivos. Se presentan algunos resultados del estudio de la composicion quimica de los isotopos de fision radiactivos en el interior de la masa solida en relacion con la eliminacion de su radiactividad mediante el lavado. Por ultimo, se dan algunos resultados del calculo de las temperturas a que es posible recalentar los bloques radiactivos segun sus caracteristicas. (author) [Russian] Doklad ishodit iz polozhenija, chto nailuchshej formoj zahoronenija oskolochnyh izotopov javljajutsja steklovidnye plavlenye bloki, vkljuchajushhie v svoej strukture jeti oskolki. Izlagajutsja fiziko-himicheskie osnovy prevrashhenija zhidkih radioaktivnyh othodov v tverdye bloki. Privodjatsja termogrammy jetogo processa i analizirujutsja ee otdel'nye osobennosti. Ukazyvajutsja uslovija plavlenija steklovidnoj massy, osobenno sposobstvujushhie poletu radioaktivnyh ajerozolej. Privodjatsja nekotorye rezul'taty izuchenija himicheskogo sostojanija radioaktivnyh oskolkov v tverdoj masse v svjazi s vymyvaniem radioaktivnosti iz nee. V zakljuchenie privodjatsja rezul'taty podscheta temperatur, do kotoryh mogut nagrevat'sja radioaktivnye bloki v zavisimosti ot ih harakteristik. (author)

  18. Influence of the Previous History of the Raw Material on Sintering of UO{sub 2}; Influence des antecedents de la matiere premiere sur le frittage de UO{sub 2}; Vliyanie obrabotki iskhodnogo veshchestva na spekanie UO{sub 2}; Influencia de la historia previa de la materia prima sobre la sinterizacion del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, E.; Alonso, J. A.; Pedregal, J. D. [Junta de Energia Nuclear Madrid (Spain)

    1963-11-15

    medio de prefijar las caracteristicas granulometricas de la materia prima, sino la molienda y clasificacion de los polvos. Las uranias ensayadas en este trabajo son materiales convencionales representantes de tipos diferentes de fabricacion por el origen y metodo operatorio. Del estudio de las pastillas obtenidas se deducen las posibilidades y limitaciones de cada tipo de urania en el proceso adoptado. Se controlan las caracteristicas de superficie especifica, granulometria, analisis termico diferencial y termogravimetricoy estequiometria de los polvos, asi como la densidad, contraccion, estructura y estequiometria de las pastillas. (author) [Russian] Izlagayutsya ehksperimental'nye dannye, na kotorykh osnovan primenyaemyj odnim zavodom metod izgotovleniya tabletok UO{sub 2}. Soglasno ehtomu metodu granulometricheskaya kharakteristika iskhodnogo veshchestva opredelyaetsya zaranee ne putem upravlyaemogo osazhdeniya, a razmel'cheniem i sortirovkoj poroshka. V dannoj rabote ispol'zovalis' obraztsy obychnoj okisi urana, otlichayushchiesya po sposobu izgotovleniya i po proiskhozhdeniyu. Issledovanie privelo k nekotorym vyvodam otnositel'no vozmozhnostej i ogranichenij metoda v zavisimosti ot tipa ispol'zuemoj okisi urana. Privodyatsya rezul'taty izmereniya udel'noj poverkhnosti, granulometrii, termicheskikh differentsial'nogo i termogravimetricheskogo analizov i stekhiometrii poroshkov, a takzhe po plotnosti usadki, strukture i stekhiometrii tabletok. (author)

  19. A structure-preserving approach to normal form analysis of power systems; Una propuesta de preservacion de estructura al analisis de su forma normal en sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Carrillo, Irma

    2008-01-15

    . [Spanish] El comportamiento dinamico de los sistemas de potencia es no lineal y es comprendido por diversos procesos en diferentes escalas de tiempo. El tamano y la complejidad de estos mecanismos han estimulado a la propuesta de metodos que reducen la dimension original preservando caracteristicas esenciales de la naturaleza del sistema. En esta investigacion, se propone un metodo analitico no lineal basado en la teoria de formas normales y tecnicas de perturbacion singular para el analisis de oscilaciones de gran amplitud. Este enfoque permite que el metodo de formas normales alcance su maxima capacidad proporcionando una metodologia general para su aplicacion en una amplia variedad de sistemas no lineales en los diversos campos de la investigacion. Basados en la teoria de formas normales de los sistemas dinamicos, se propone un modelo que preserva la estructura del sistema, las caracteristicas de la red y la carga. Aprovechando la separacion que existe entre la dinamica lenta y rapida, originada por las diferentes escalas de tiempo; una eficiente tecnica basada en perturbaciones singulares, es usada para obtener el comportamiento no lineal de los sistemas de potencia preservando exactamente la estructura de la red. Este metodo no requiere reduccion de ecuaciones por lo que se puede obtener informacion adicional de interes directamente de la red y de la dinamica de la carga del sistema de potencia. En este trabajo son desarrolladas expresiones analiticas que proporcionan una buena aproximacion al comportamiento real del sistema, y ademas se proponen tecnicas para interpretar estas soluciones en terminos de funciones modales para designar areas de control y ubicar dispositivos FACTS; asi tambien se desarrollan criterios para caracterizar los efectos de la red sobre el comportamiento no lineal del sistema. Los procedimientos desarrollados son probados en dos sistemas reales de potencia.

  20. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    comerciales. La zona alrededor de los pozos H-4, H-16 y H-29 del sector norte del campo de Los Humeros, Pue., conocido como el Colapso Central, presento en el pasado indicios de fluidos acidos agresivos, motivo por el cual varios pozos de esa zona debieron ser reparados cementando y aislando sus zonas productoras mas profundas. El pozo H-43 se perforo hace dos anos en la zona norte del campo, y aunque no esta localizado en la zona con fluidos agresivos, hay caracteristicas mineralogicas que podrian indicar la presencia de fluidos acidos. Por tanto, para la operacion comercial de este pozo se contempla la instalacion de un sistema de neutralizacion, cuyas caracteristicas generales se describen en este trabajo. Esto permitiria prevenir la corrosion que hasta el momento ha impedido la explotacion de la parte profunda del Colapso Central y coadyuvaria a un desarrollo mas rentable en este campo.

  1. Geochemistry of the thermal springs from Piedras de Lumbre Zone, Chihuahua, Mexico; Geoquimica de los manantiales termales de la zona de Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water produced by 12 hot springs in the geothermal areas of Recubichi and Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristic of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two sampling of water and gases in 1984 and 1995. The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs is of sulfate alkaline type. It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was 187 degrees celsius. It was found that the He has a deep origin, whereas the N{sub 2} is of atmospheric origin. Methane was not detected, suggesting that equilibria between gases and the liquid phase was reached at temperatures over 150 degrees celsius. The chemical compositions for the springs at Recubichi and Piedras de Lumbre zones are similar, so, it suggests that they have the same origin. The water quality of the springs for agricultural use, is classified between C2-S2 and C2-S3 types, that suggest that this water can be used for irrigation. The arsenic element was not detected and the concentration for the boron element is lower that 0.175 ppm. [Espanol] Los analisis quimicos de agua de 12 manantiales y 4 fumarolas de las zonas de Recubichi y Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico fueron estudiados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en 1984 y 1995. En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicioon quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo sulfatado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes (93 grados celsius), se ubica en la zona de equilibrio parcial, mientras que en los de menor

  2. Geochemistry of the thermal springs from San Antonio El Bravo zone, Chihuahua, Mexico; Geoquimica de manantiales termales de la zona de San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    Isotopic and chemical analysis o water produced by 14 springs in the San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico geothermal area, were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristics of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two samplings of water and gases in 1984 and 1995. The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs in of sodium-bicarbonate-chloride type. It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content, that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was 129 degrees celsius. The isotopic composition at Ojo Caliente and Infiernito springs presents enrichment in {delta}{sup 18}O, product rock-water interaction at high temperature. The Agua Roque spring is located in the line of meteoric waters. Analysis of metals was carried out too, the concentration of gold element is 0.09 mg/l in Ojo Caliente and Infiernito springs, whereas silver, aluminum and iron elements were not detected. The water quality of the springs for agricultural use, is classified between C2-S1, C3-S1, C3- S2, C4-S3 and C4-S4 types, that suggests that only the water from Agua Roque can be used for irrigation. The arsenic element was not detected but the concentration of the boron element is high for irrigation use (2.39 ppm). [Espanol] Los analisis quimicos e isotopicos de agua de 14 manantiales de la zona de San Antonio El Bravo. Chihuahua, Mexico, fueron realizados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en 1984 y 1995. En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicion quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo bicarbonatado-clorurado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes

  3. Analysis tools for simulation of hybrid systems; Herramientas de analisis para simulacion de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen S, Omar; Mejia N, Fortino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    significativa en los costos de inversion. Dada la mezcla de tecnologia de generacion electrica que estan involucradas en un sistema hibrido, es muy importante disponer de una herramienta integrada con paquetes especializados de computo (software), que permitan efectuar las tareas de simulacion del funcionamiento operacional de estos sistemas. Aunado a lo anterior, no se debe dejar de considerar caracteristicas de funcionamiento, las facilidades al usuario, la claridad en los resultados obtenidos y la posibilidad de su validacion con respecto a prototipos instrumentados en campo. De igual modo, hay que considerar la identificacion de tareas involucradas en relacion con el lugar de instalacion de esta tecnologia de electrificacion. Actualmente, la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos se encuentra todavia en una etapa de desarrollo en el plano internacional, y existen limitaciones importantes en cuanto a la disponibilidad de metodologia y herramientas ingenieriles para el diseno optimo de estos sistemas. Con el desarrollo de este trabajo, se pretende contribuir al avance de la tecnologia y contar con herramientas propias para resolver la problematica descrita. En este articulo se describen las actividades que mas impacto tienen en el diseno y desarrollo de sistemas hibridos, asi como la identificacion de variables, caracteristicas principales y forma de validacion de herramientas en la integracion de una metodologia para la simulacion de estos sistemas, facilitando su diseno y desarrollo.

  4. The influence of the representation loads in the voltage stability; Influencia de la representacion de las cargas en la estabilidad de voltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Gonzalez, Eduardo

    2005-12-15

    condiciones estresadas, el colapso de voltaje se han convertido en un problema en la operacion de los mismos. Por consiguiente, la determinacion de limites de operacion confiables respecto a la estabilidad y colapso de voltaje han cobrado importancia para garantizar la operacion segura y economica del sistema electrico. Con el proposito de comprender los mecanismos de la estabilidad y colapso de voltaje, se han propuesto aproximaciones de estudio para el analisis de tales problemas. Una caracteristica comun de estas aproximaciones es la importancia de modelos confiables para representar las caracteristicas de la carga. Como resultado de esto, el desarrollo de modelos matematicos adecuados para la representacion confiable de la misma ha recibido gran atencion. A pesar de estos esfuerzos, el modelado de carga continua sigue siendo un gran reto en el analisis de la estabilidad de voltaje. En esta tesis se trata la influencia que tiene el modelado de la carga en la estabilidad de voltaje utilizando aproximaciones de analisis de estado estable. El analisis de estabilidad de voltaje del sistema se lleva a cabo con las curvas P-V para diferentes representaciones, ademas de utilizar indices de sensibilidad para completar el analisis. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados numericos de dos sistemas de prueba para resaltar la relacion entre los limites de estabilidad de voltaje y el modelo de carga utilizado.

  5. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA PARA BIOCOMPOSITO DE HIDROXIAPATITA COM POLIURETANOS E PROPRIEDADES OSTEOINDUTORAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Xavier Nobre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Os biopolimeros são macromoléculas que basicamente não agridem o meio ambiente no processo de degradação, e que apresentam características que os tornam viáveis no processo de reconstituição de tecido, liberação de fármacos, produção de embalagens para alimentos dentre outras. Os poliuretanos (PU são polímeros que dentre outros mecanimos de obtenção, podem ser sintetizados utilizando óleos vegetais e gorduras animais como materiais de partida, e que ao longo dos anos têm sido descritos como promissor na produção de próteses para diversas finalidades. Ao combinar polímeros com bioceramicas, biovidros ou similares as características combinam-se a fim de obter biomateriais que apresentem capacidade de ser atribuídos a sistemas biológicos, de tal forma que aumente a velocidade de reconstituição e sustentação principalmente do tecido ósseo. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar por meio de competências tecnológicas e artigos relacionados a materiais constituidos basicamente de hidroxiapatita com poliuretano e caracteristicas osteoindutoras no intervalo de anos entre 2000 à 2014. Os resultados descrevem que, o país que mais se destaca em quantidade de patentes depositadas relacionando todas as palavras chave é a China, seguida pela República da Coréia, e que a classificação internacional que mais teve frequência nas competências foi a que relaciona necessidades humanas (A. Palavras Chave: Hidroxiapatita; Poliuretano; Osteoindutor. 

  6. Environmental impact of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment; Impacto ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire tipo cuarto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [OLADE, Quito (Ecuador)

    2002-09-01

    The present article approaches in a general way the relation that exists between the environment and the saving of electrical energy, especially in the Programs of Demand Side Management (DSM). In particular form the potential environmental impacts are described, derived of the use and the discard of the room type air conditioning equipment, goes deep into the characteristics of their cooling fluids, as well as in the relation that these keep with the protocols of Montreal and Kyoto. Finally, this article comments the incidence which have, the manufacturers as the institutions that implement DSM programs, on the environmental part of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment. In addition it is briefly described, the pilot program developed by Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) as a successful case. [Spanish] En forma general, el presente articulo aborda la relacion que existe entre el medio ambiente y el ahorro de energia electrica, especialmente en los Programas de Administracion por el Lado de la Demanda (ALD). En forma particular se describen los impactos ambientales potenciales, derivados del uso y desecho de los equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto, se ahonda en las caracteristicas de sus refrigerantes, asi como en la relacion que estos guardan con los protocolos de Montreal y Kioto. Finalmente, se comenta la incidencia que tienen, tanto los fabricantes como las instituciones que implementan programas de ALD, sobre la parte ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto. Ademas se describe brevemente, el programa piloto desarrollado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) como un caso exitoso.

  7. Investigations on the nature and physical concentration of Spanish uraniferous quartzites; Estudios de caracterizacion y concentracion fisica de cuarcitas uraniferas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lora, F de [Direccion de Plantas Piloto e Industriales, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-06-15

    A study was made of a sample of radioactive material from Santa Elena (Jaen) containing 130 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, 300 ppm ThO{sub 2}, 4.96% ZrO{sub 2} and 14.29% TiO{sub 2}. Over 150 million tons of material were examined. In the light of the studies carried out the material can be defined as a rutilo-zirconiferous quartzite with a double radioactivity source due to the uranium enclosed in the zircon lattice structure and to the presence of monazite. The possibility of brannerite or davidite being present can be discarded. There is likewise no conclusive evidence of the presence of sphene, rutile being the most abundant titanium mineral. The author determined the features of the ore with a view to its physical concentration and applied magnetic and gravimetric separation and the flotation process. The use of oleic acid as collector has permitted good zircon recovery. (author) [Spanish] Se ha estudiado una muestra de material radiactivo procedente de Santa Elena (Jaen) con 130 ppm de U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, 600 ppm de ThO{sub 2}, 4,96% de ZrO{sub 2} y 14,29% de TiO{sub 2}. El material examinado es considerable: mas de 150 millones de toneladas. De acuerdo con los estudios realizados se puede definir como una cuarcita rutilo-circonifera con dos fuentes de radiactividad debidas al uranio englobado en la red del circon y a la presencia de monacita. Se descarta la posibilidad de existencia de brannerita o davidita. Tampoco existen pruebas concluyentes de que contenga esfena, siendo el ratilo el mineral de titanio mas abundante. Se han determinado las caracteristicas de la mena con vistas a su concentracion fisica. Se ha ensayado la separacion magnetica, gravimetrica y flotacion. El empleo de acido oleico, como colector, ha dado buenas recuperaciones de circon. (author)

  8. Intelligent support system online for the operation of fossil fuel units; Sistema inteligente de ayuda en linea para la operacion de unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Sanchez L, Jose Alfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present a support system online for the operation (SAO) of fossil fuel units, having as objective to support the operator of fossil fuel units when handling guidelines and essential information to carry out the starting and shutdown in a safe and efficient way, reducing the consumption of the useful life of the steam generator and the turbine, as well as the operational cost. Here are presented the intelligent systems for the support of the operation and are described the main characteristics in the dominion of application for the support system, its architecture and functionality, as well as the results obtained in the system assessment performed with the aid of total reach simulator of a fossil fuel unit and a pilot unit. [Spanish] Es motivo de esta publicacion, la presentacion de un sistema de ayuda en linea para la operacion (SAO) de unidades termoelectricas que tiene como objetivo asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica con guias de manejo e informacion esencial para llevar a cabo el arranque o paro en forma segura y eficiente, reducir el consumo de vida util del generador de vapor y la turbina, asi como el costo de operacion. Aqui se presentan los sistemas inteligentes de ayuda a la operacion y se describen las caracteristicas principales del dominio de aplicacion para el sistema de ayuda, su arquitectura y funcionalidad, asi como los resultados obtenidos de la evaluacion del sistema realizada con la ayuda de un simulador de alcance total de una unidad termoelectrica y una unidad piloto.

  9. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  10. Water temperature change caused by reservoirs; Alteracion que presenta la temperatura del agua por la existencia de embalses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val, Rafael [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ninerola, Daniel; Pomares, Juan; Dolz, Jose [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna (Spain); Armengol, Juan [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The water of a river exchanges heat with the atmosphere and with the riverbed; this process can reach its equilibrium along a stretch of river with similar geologic and climatic characteristics. This behavior can be modified by artificial effects; for example the use of the river water as a cooler in thermal power stations or in reservoir existent. The case of regions with Mediterranean climate, where the reservoirs here studied are found, the effects of changes in the natural thermal regime caused by dams and reservoirs are evaluated through: seasonal and daily thermal constancies, warmer winter water temperatures and reduced summer water temperature. Downstream from the power station or downstream the dam, the water temperature will evolve in such a way as to achieve the environmental equilibrium. The water temperature is a main factor in the ecology of the river; already it conditions in importance the life in fluvial reservoirs. [Spanish] El agua de un rio mantiene un intercambio de calor con la atmosfera y con el fondo. Este proceso puede alcanzar su equilibrio siempre y cuando las caracteristicas geologicas y climaticas a lo largo de un tramo del rio sean similares. Sin embargo, el comportamiento termico del rio puede ser alterado por los diversos usos del agua, como la refrigeracion de centrales termoelectricas, o por el almacenamiento del agua debido a la existencia de una presa. En el caso de las regiones con clima mediterraneo, donde se encuentran los embalses aqui estudiados, los efectos de las alteraciones en el regimen termico, resultado a su vez de dichos embalses, provocan una tendencia a la constancia termica estacional (elevacion de las temperaturas invernales y disminucion de las temperaturas estivales) y tambien un aumento de la uniformidad diaria. Aguas abajo de las termoelectricas o presas, la temperatura del agua evoluciona de tal forma que tiende a lograr el equilibrio con el medio ambiente.

  11. Galbraith' s planning system as substitute for market theory El sistema planificador de Galbraith como sustituto de la teoría del mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciscel David H.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Galbrai th' s vision of the capitalist system of production which was developed in the United States beginning in the second half of the twentieth century. The major characteristic of his analysis is the loss of importance of the market and economic exchange because of the mechanisms which the large corporations created to broaden their autonomy and reduce the effects of uncertainty. The generalization of this bebev ioxe i pattern forms what Galbrai th calls a 'planning economy'. The essential aspects for understanding the process of exchange in a planning system are insti tutional control and power which depend, in turn, on effective interaction among the
    technostructure, bureaucratic symbiosis, and the revised sequence, whose meaning is explained in this paper.Este articulo comenta la vision de Galbraith acerca del sistema de produccion capitalista que se desarrollo en Estados Unidos a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo veinte. La caracteristica principal de su analisis es la perdida de importancia del mercado en el intercambio economico debida a los mecanismos que crearon las grandes corporaciones para ampliar su autonomia y reducir los efectos de la incertidumbre. La generalizacion de este patron de conportamiento conforma lo que Galbraith denomina             'economia planeada'. Los aspectos esenciales para entender el proceso de intercambio en un sistema planificador son el control y el poder institucional, que dependen, a su vez, de la interaccion efectiva entre la tecnoestructura, la simbiosis burocratica y la secuencia revisada, cuyo significado se precisa en este trabajo.

  12. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  13. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N. [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  14. Operational performance of the Avispa-IIE wind generator in microhybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Galarza, Raul; Mejia Neri, Fortino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to make a general analysis over the operational performance of the Avispa-IIE wind generator in an Solar-Eolic hybrid installation, at an eco-tourist resort. This work was performed through the monitor of the wind generator and the system itself throughout a year, for the acquisition taking the variables of interest and operational parameters that might allow to characterize and to evaluate the general behavior of the system. Herein are the principals characteristics of the wind generator; its performance curve, the basic configuration of the installation and the control philosophy; Likewise, some technical and human problems which arise during the operation of the system are included, the implementation of improvements in the wind generator and the general results acquired during the time of operation of the wind generator in the cited installations. [Espanol] El proposito de este articulo es el hacer un analisis general del comportamiento operacional del aerogenerador Avispa-IIE en una instalacion hibrida Solar-Eolica en un lugar de veraneo eco-turistico. Este trabajo ha sido llevado a cabo mediante el monitor del aerogenerador y el sistema mismo por espacio de un ano, para la adquisicion de las variables de interes y de los parametros operacionales que pudieran servir para caracterizar y evaluar el comportamiento general del sistema. Aqui se incluyen las caracteristicas principales del aerogenerador; su curva de comportamiento, la configuracion basica de la instalacion y la filosofia del control. De la misma manera se incluyen algunos problemas tecnicos y humanos que se originan durante la operacion del sistema y la puesta en practica de las mejoras del aerogenerador y los resultados generales adquiridos durante el tiempo de operacion del aerogenerador en las instalaciones citadas.

  15. Technological tendencies for the improvement of the performance of combined cycle power stations; Tendencias tecnologicas para el mejoramiento del desempeno de centrales de cilco combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; Chavez T, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article are dealt some the aspects that have turned the combined cycle generating power stations (CCGPS) into the dominant way for the electrical generation in the world. In the first part it is presented the plan of expansion of the national electrical generation and similar information that the U.S.A. has for the CCGPS, which will give an idea of the importance and the impact that has this technology at the moment. The basic characteristics that are necessary to specify in order to satisfy the environmental and operation requirements, and the available technologies to increase the global efficiency of the CCGPS are also exposed. Finally it describes the evolution of the technology of control for CCGPS developed in the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), as well as the capacities available to support the electrical sector in this technological discipline. [Spanish] En este articulo se tratan algunos de los aspectos que han convertido a las centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado (CGCC) en el modo dominante para la generacion electrica en el mundo. En la primera parte se presenta el plan de expansion de la generacion electrica nacional e informacion similar que los EE.UU. tienen para las CGCC, lo que dara una idea de la importancia y del impacto que tiene actualmente esta tecnologia. Se exponen tambien las caracteristicas principales que es necesario especificar a fin de satisfacer los requerimientos ambientales y de operacion, y las tecnologias disponibles para incrementar la eficiencia global de las CGCC. Finalmente se describe la evolucion de la tecnologia de control para CGCC desarrollada en la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), asi como las capacidades disponibles para apoyar al sector electrico en esta disciplina tecnologica.

  16. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  17. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  18. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  19. Evaluation of nickel-rich alloys for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen in an alkaline medium; Evaluacion de aleaciones ricas en niquel para la generacion electrolitica de hidrogeno en medio alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Verdin, A.A.; Ortega Borges, R.; Trejo Cordova, G.; Meas Vong, Y. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C., Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: aortiz@cideteq.mx

    2009-09-15

    The simultaneous electrodeposition of Ni with metals such as Zn to form alloys enables obtaining surfaces with high electrocatalytic activity or particular characteristics that resist wear and abrasion. This work presents the results of the study of the electrochemical characterization of different types of nickel electrodeposition and compositions, used as cathodes, and measurements of the electrocatalytic activity in the release of hydrogen in an alkaline medium. Curves I through IV were generated, which were potentiostatically obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere in a NaOH alkaline solution. The morphology of the deposits was evaluated with sweep electron micrscopy(SEM). The results enabled evaluating its potential application as electrode materials for the generation of electrolytic hydrogen in alkaline medium, given the good electrocatalytic activity of nickel-rich materials. [Spanish] El electrodeposito simultaneo del Ni, con metales como el Zn para formar aleaciones, permite obtener superficies con elevada actividad electrocatalitica o con caracteristicas particulares de resistencia al desgaste y abrasion. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de la caracterizacion electroquimica de los electrodepositos a base de niquel de diferente naturaleza y composicion utilizandolos como catodos midiendo la actividad electrocatalitica con respecto a la reaccion de desprendimiento de hidrogeno (RDH) en medio alcalino. Se realizaron curvas I vs V obtenidas potenciostaticamente bajo atmosfera de nitrogeno en una solucion alcalina de NaOH. La morfologia de los depositos se evaluo mediante SEM (microscopio electronico de barrido). Los resultados permiten evaluar su potencial aplicacion como materiales de electrodo para la generacion electrolitica de hidrogeno en medio alcalino, dada la buena actividad electrocatalitica de los materiales ricos en niquel.

  20. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  1. Analisis experimental de la propagacion en redes de area corporal para la banda de ultra wideband. experimental characterization of the propagation in ultra wideband body area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Serna, Ruben Gregorio

    Diferentes dispositivos capaces de obtener informacion sobre parametros fisiologicos, cinematicos o contextuales del cuerpo pueden interconectarse de manera inalambrica dando lugar a las denominadas Redes de Area Corporal Inalambricas (WBAN, Wireless Body Area Networks). De entre las posibles tecnologias para establecer los enlaces, Ultra Wideband (UWB) esta captando cada vez un mayor interes debido a caracteristicas tales como el bajo nivel de potencia de transmision requerido (bajo nivel de exposicion a campos electromagneticos), el alto ancho de banda disponible y la alta resolucion temporal/espacial. El diseno de sistemas centrados en el cuerpo requiere de modelos de canal que describan de manera precisa la propagacion de senales en este tipo de entornos. Esta tesis se plantea con el objetivo de contribuir al estudio experimental de la propagacion en sistemas centrados en el cuerpo operando en la banda UWB. En primer lugar, se presenta un marco introductorio a las redes WBAN, sus elementos constitutivos, bandas de frecuencia, estandarizacion y modelos de canal. Ademas, se introducen los fundamentos de la tecnologia UWB y sus aplicaciones en este area. Seguidamente, se analiza en terminos de las perdidas de propagacion y la dispersion de retardo la propagacion en el canal off-body entre un transmisor fijo y un dispositivo receptor colocado sobre la superficie del cuerpo de un sujeto. Se considera la influencia de diferentes aspectos, tales como el entorno de medidas, la posicion de colocacion de una antena sobre el cuerpo y la postura adoptada por un sujeto. Finalmente, se analiza el canal de propagacion in-body considerando el movimiento relativo entre dos dispositivos causado por efecto de la respiracion. Las condiciones de propagacion en el interior del cuerpo se emulan por medio de un phantom liquido para UWB y la caracterizacion se plantea tanto en frecuencia, en terminos del modelado de la forma y el ensanchamiento del espectro Doppler, como en tiempo, por

  2. CIRCULACION DEL NEUMOCOCO RELACIONADO A CAMBIOS EN LOS FACTORES CLIMÁTICOS EN LA PROVINCIA DE LA RIOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cordoba, PhD

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Streptococo pneumoniae (Neumococo, Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae producen meningitis bacterianas. Este trabajo describe las caracteristicas del aumento de casos de meningitis bacterianas en la Provincia de la Rioja, Argentina. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de las meningitis desde 1997 hasta 2001. Se estudió la circulación de los agentes etiologicos; la distribución de las neumonías y bacteriemias producidas por neumococo; las variaciones de la humedad relativa y de las temperaturas promedios (aportadas por el Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Los casos se estudiaron desde fichas epidemiológicas de la Dirección de epidemiología y de historias clínicas del Hospital "Dr. E. Vera Barros". Los liquidos cefalorraquideos y lavados pleurales o bronquiales se procesaron en el laboratorio de bacteriología. Los aislamientos se remitieron para su serotipificación al laboratorio de referencia nacional. Durante el año 2000, la tasa de incidencia de meningitis fue mayor y la tasa de meningitis por neumococo fue mayor en el periodo estudiado. En ese año, el neumococo aumenta la circulación presentandose aumento de meningitis, neumonias mientras que las infecciones neumococcicas invasivas fueron simirales a otros años. La circulación de los otros agentes etiológico se mantienen constante en el periodo estudiado. Los serotipos circulantes fueron sensibles penicilina. Durante el año 2000 aumenta en la humedad (2-6 puntos y disminuye la amplitud térmica en los meses simultáneamente a la presencia de los casos de infecciones por neumococo. Los resultados sugieren que la circulación del neumococo en una población estaría relacionada con la alta humedad relativa y la poca amplitud térmica.

  3. Evidencia de orígenes filogenéticos diferentes de dos aislamientos mexicanos del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Rojas Luz Yineth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El análisis molecular del cistron, (ue codica para la proteina de la cubierta del virus del mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV reportado en la base de datos del banco de genes (GenBank, reveló la pre- sencia de 65 nucleotidos adicionales (ue codican para (uince aminoãcidos, en la region amino de la secuencia de la proteina de la cubierta del aislamiento mexicano identicado con el nümero de acceso GU474635. El análisis BLAST indicó que esta característica particular también está presente en el aislamiento DDDF6F, reportado en 1FF1 en Estados Unidos. El anãlisis logenHtico de 1I5  secuen- cias de la proteína de la cubierta de SCMV reportadas de Asia, África, Brasil y Argentina, entro otros, sugiere diJerentes origenes logeogrãcos de los aislamientos mexicanos. El aislamiento mexicano GU6N6OP5 es filogeneticamente mãs cercano a aislamientos de QCWV de Brasil X de EE.UU., mien- tras que secuencias de la proteína de la cubierta del virus SCMV reportadas en China y Alemania son

    logenHticamente mãs cercanas al aislamiento mexicano EUDF1DN5. Las caracteristicas particulares que comparten aislamientos virales de tres países del continente americano, a saber, EE.UU., México X Brasil, sugieren un baYo control tosanitario en el intercambio de material vegetal.

  4. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  5. Estimation of the resource and energy prospective of trash in Mexico (Annexe 1 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva energetica de la basura en Mexico (Anexo 1 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In the last century trash has been considered as an energy resource, since on one a side when it is deposited in sanitary landfills or trash disposal sites, this produces biogas with a content of 50% of methane, and on the other side it can be subjected to thermo-chemical processes of incineration or gasification, opening the possibility of generating electricity, either via steam generation in the case of incineration, or producing a gas mixture composed of CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the case of gasification, that can also be used to generate steam, of be used as fuel in internal combustion motors or in the near future, in fuel cells. In this section it is spoken about the amount and characteristics of this resource, the production of the energy by means of thermal processes or with biogas and the technological prospective. [Spanish] En la ultima centuria la basura ha sido considerada como un recurso energetico, ya que por un lado cuando es depositada en rellenos sanitarios o basureros, esta produce biogas con un contenido de 50% de metano, y por el otro puede someterse a procesos termoquimicos de incineracion o gasificacion, dando lugar a la generacion de energia, ya sea via generacion de vapor en el caso de la incineracion, o una mezcla de gases compuesta por CO, H{sub 2} y CH{sub 4} en el caso de la gasificacion, que tambien puede ser empleado para generar vapor, emplearse como combustible en motores de combustion interna o en celdas de combustible en el futuro cercano. En este apartado se habla acerca de la cantidad y caracteristicas de este recurso, la produccion de la energia mediante procesos termicos o con biogas y la prospectiva tecnologica.

  6. The normalization in the use of solar heaters; La normalizacion en el uso de calentadores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky F, I.; Terrones B, A.; Garcia H, C.R. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the different criteria in the establishment of the standard for the converter devices and solar systems for water heating for domestic, commercial and services use, as well as the criteria needed for the standard required for the installation of the equipment and systems. Together with the former, it discusses the establishment of the criteria for the creation of: training programs, of a regulatory commission for the implementation, follow up and penalties derived of the application of the norm, a legal frame, to regulate the legal relationship among the manufacturers and service providers with the consumers, as well as a permanent program for the diffusion of the characteristics, energy saving and the environmental impact derived of the utilization of solar energy. Additionally, a description is made of the first experimental results obtained in a test bench, where the norm ASHRAE 93-77 was applied. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se presentan los diferentes criterios tanto para el establecimiento de la normatividad de los dispositivos conversores y sistemas solares para el calentamiento de agua para uso domestico, comercial y de servicios, asi como los necesarios para la normatividad requerida en la instalacion de los equipos y sistemas. Aunado a lo anterior se analiza el establecimiento de criterios para la creacion de: programas de capacitacion de una comision reguladora de la implantacion, seguimiento y sanciones derivadas de la aplicacion de la norma, un marco legal, regulador de la relacion juridica entre los fabricantes y prestadores de servicios y los consumidores, asi como un programa permanente de difusion sobre las caracteristicas, ahorro de energia e impacto ambiental derivado del uso de la energia solar. Adicionalmente se describen los primeros resultados experimentales obtenidos en un banco de pruebas, en donde se aplico la normas ASHRAE 93-77.

  7. First multivendor scheme in CFE to protection of 400 kV transmission line, using optical TC's, digital relays and bus IEC 61850-9-2; Primer esquema multivendedor en CFE para proteccion de linea de transmision de 400 kV, utilizando TC's opticos, relevadores digitales y bus IEC 61850-9-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Colon, V.R; Rasgado, J.P [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lara C, H; Melendez, C; Juarez, N [Subdireccion de Transmision, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    This paper presents the details of design, installation and putting into service in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), of the first multi-vendor scheme that exists in the world, for the protection of a 400kV transmission line, which uses optical current transformers and digital relays IEC 61850-9-2. This system arises as a pilot project of the Subdireccion de Transmision of the CFE with the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). To ensure success in the implementation of the protection scheme, CFE joined a team coordinated by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)involving nine international companies and a university. Pilot protection scheme is in operation under continuous monitoring, in one of the transmission lines of CFE that interconnect Manuel Moreno Torres with El Juile substations. The construction features, the challenges that were overcome and the first results obtained in operation are presented below. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta los detalles del diseno, instalacion y puesta en servicio en la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del primer esquema multivendedor que existe en el mundo, para la proteccion de una linea de transmision de 400kV, que utiliza transformadores de corriente opticos y relevadores digitales IEC 61850-9-2. Este sistema surge como un proyecto piloto de la Subdireccion de Transmision de la CFE con el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Para asegurar el exito en la implementacion del esquema de proteccion, la CFE integro un equipo de trabajo coordinado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en el que participaron 9 empresas internacionales y una universidad. El esquema de proteccion piloto, se encuentra en operacion bajo monitoreo continuo, en una de las lineas de transmision de la CFE que interconecta las subestaciones de Manuel Moreno Torres y El Juile. Las caracteristicas de construccion, los retos que fueron vencidos y los primeros resultados obtenidos en su operacion se

  8. A critical evaluation of the use of cluster analysis to identify contaminated sediments in the Ria de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, B; Nombela, M. A; Vilas, F [Departamento de Geociencias Marinas y Ordenacion del Territorio, Vigo, Espana (Spain)

    2001-06-01

    The indiscriminate use of cluster analysis to distinguish contaminated and non-contaminated sediments has led us to make a comparative evaluation of different cluster analysis procedures as applied to heavy metal concentrations in subtidal sediments from the Ria de Vigo, NW Spain. The use of different clusters algorithms and other transformations from the same departing set of data lead to the formation of different clusters with a clear inconclusive result about the contamination status of the sediments. The results show that this approach is better suited to identifying groups of samples differing in sedimentological characteristics, such as grain size, rather than in the degree of contamination. Our main aim is to call attention to these aspects in cluster analysis and to suggest that researches should be rigorous with this kind of analysis. Finally, the use of discriminate analysis allows us to find a discriminate function that separates the samples into two clearly differentiated groups, which should not be treated jointly. [Spanish] El uso indiscriminado del analisis cluster para distinguir sedimentos contaminados y no contaminados nos ha llevado a realizar una evaluacion comparativa entre los diferentes procedimientos de estos analisis aplicada a la concentracion de metales pesados en sedimentos submareales de la Ria de Vigo, NW de Espana. La utilizacion de distintos algoritmos de cluster, asi como otras transformaciones de la misma matriz de datos conduce a la formacion de diferentes clusters con un resultado inconcluso sobre el estado de contaminacion de los sedimentos. Los resultados muestran que esta aproximacion se ajusta mejor para identificar grupos de muestras que difieren en caracteristicas sedimentologicas, tal como el tamano de grano, mas que el grado de contaminacion. El principal objetivo es llamar la atencion sobre estos aspectos del analisis cluster y sugerir a los investigadores que sean rigurosos con este tipo de analisis. Finalmente el uso

  9. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  10. Review of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the treatment of renal tumors, T1 stadium in adults; Revision de la nefrectomia parcial laparoscopica en el tratamiento de los tumores renales, estadio T1 en adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora Montes de Oca, Maria Jose

    2012-07-01

    The T1 renal cancer in adults is made known; incidence, characteristics and management. Renal cell carcinoma has been the most common malignancy of the kidney, percentage is close to three percent of solid tumors of adults. The treatments for this tumor are analyzed: open radical nephrectomy, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, open partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy has represented an alternative option acceptable, safely and with good oncological and surgical outcomes for patients, as it is used to conserve nephrons and simultaneously to resect the tumor of a complete form promoting in the future the patient present a good renal function. Additionally, a adequate oncological control has reduced the risk of submit postoperative renal failure. An evolution of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is presented determining the procedure for renal tumors in state T1 in the adults [Spanish] El cancer renal T1 en adultos es dado a conocer; su incidencia, caracteristicas y manejo. El carcinoma de celulas renales ha sido la malignidad mas comun de los rinones, su porcentaje se acerca al tres porciento de los tumores solidos de los adultos. Los tratamientos para combatir ese tumor son analizados: nefrectomia radical abierta, nefrectomia radical laparoscopica, nefrectomia parcial abierta y nefrectomia parcial laparoscopica. La nefrectonomia parcial laparoscopica ha representado una opcion alternativa aceptable, segura y con buenos resultados oncologicos y quirurgicos para los pacientes, ya que es utilizada para conservar nefronas y a la vez poder resecar el tumor de una forma completa promoviendo en el futuro que el paciente presente un buen funcionamiento renal. Ademas, un adecuado control oncologico ha reducido el riesgo de presentar insuficiencia renal postoperatoria. Una evolucion de la nefrectonomia parcial laparoscopica es presentada determinando el procedimiento para tumores renales en estado T1 en los adultos.

  11. Fotointerpretation and geological integration of San Diego-El Naranjo thermal zone in the Nayarit State, Mexico; Fotointerpretacion e integracion geologica de la zona termal de San Diego-El Naranjo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo H, Daniel [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    The lithological, structural and thermal characteristics of a zone located in the State of Nayarit, Mexico between the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) and the Llanura Costera del Pacifico (PCP) are presented. The SMO is constituted by both extrusive and intrusive rocks of Oligo-Miocene age whereas the PCP is formed by conglomerates and erosional products derived from the disintegration of these rocks. Nine thermal superficial manifestations were observed at the site, with temperatures ranging from 35 degrees celsius to 80 degrees celsius. The chemical nature of these geothermal fluids is sodium-sulfate with estimated deep temperatures of 185 degrees celsius. From the structural view point, the zone is affected by faults and fractures aligned NE-SW and NW-SE; these structural trends control the thermalism. On the other hand, a 20 x 20 km ring-shaped geologic feature was identified within the area, which may be associated with the SMO. [Espanol] Se presentan las caracteristicas litologicas, estructurales y termales de una zona del Estado de Nayarit, comprendida entre las Provincias de la Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) y la Llanura Costera del Pacifico (PCP). La primera comprende rocas igneas, intrusivas y extrusivas, de edad oligomiocenica. La segunda agrupa productos erosivos y conglomeraticos producidos por la desintegracion de las rocas; su edad se considera del Cuaternario. En la zona existen nueve localidades termales con un intervalo de temperatura de 35 grados celsius a 80 grados celsius, y un caracter quimico sulfatado-sodico. Por geotermometria se obtuvo una temperatura de 185 grados celsius. Estructuralmente dominan las fallas y fracturas NE-SW y NW-SE, que afectan a todas las rocas expuestas y controlan tambien al termalismo. Dentro del area se identifico una geoforma circular de 20 x 20 km, que se considera asociada y controlada geneticamente por la SMO.

  12. Experiences in transferring the techniques for the economical conduction of the Mexico`s vehicular transport; Experiencias de la transferencia de las tecnicas de conduccion economica en el autotransporte en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Osorio, Francisco Javier [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Conservation) developed the training program that through the dictation of pilot courses of technical-economical conduction of auto-motor vehicles is addressed to private enterprises, agencies and governmental institutions. This paper presents the background and the obtained results of the same. This methodology is presented in detail and a description of the courses is also presented as well as its characteristics. The comparative results are annexed of the tests between the conduction normally performed and the technical-economical conduction. The fuel saving obtained varies from 9% to 22.5%. Then, the reasons why the training in the technical- economical conduction results in one of the actions more profitable in fuel saving are explained, but also the difficulties for its implementation are also discussed. A conclusion is offered. [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) desarrollo el programa de capacitacion que a traves de la imparticion de cursos pilotos de conduccion tecnico- economica de vehiculos automotores, se dirige a las empresas privadas, dependencias e instituciones gubernamentales. En este trabajo se presentan los antecedentes y resultados obtenidos del mismo. Se detalla esta metodologia y se presenta una descripcion de los cursos y sus caracteristicas. Se anexan resultados comparativos de las pruebas entre la conduccion que se realiza normalmente y la conduccion tecnico-economica. Los ahorros de combustible obtenidos van desde 9% hasta 22.5%. Luego, se explican las razones por las que la capacitacion en conduccion tecnico-economica resulta ser una de las acciones mas rentables del ahorro de combustibles, pero tambien se discuten las dificultades para implantarla. Se ofrece una conclusion.

  13. Geological interpretation of Eastern Cuba Laterites from an airborne magnetic and radioactive isotope survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.A; Blanco, J [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa, (Cuba); Perez-Flores, M.A [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    In eastern Cuba area several geophysical techniques have been applied to distinguish the main geological characteristics of the laterites which are of economical importance for the extraction of iron, nickel and chrome. The geophysical measurements include an aeromagnetic survey and thorium (eTh), potassium (K) and uranium (eU) isotope measurements. The results of gamma spectrometer measurements make a distinction between laterite reservoirs. The application of the magnetic and isotope methods allowed the determination of the distribution and development of the laterite crust, as well as the determination of hydrothermal alterations affecting the laterites, which is very useful for mining exploration and exploitation. Such alterations indicate the presence of silicates, which have negative effects on the metallurgic process. It is known that laterite crust has a high content of eU and eTh. [Spanish] Se han utilizado varias tecnicas geofisicas en la region oriental de Cuba para distinguir las principales caracteristicas geologicas de las lateritas, que poseen importancia economica para la extraccion de hierro, niquel y cobalto. Las mediciones geofisicas incluyen un estudio aeromagnetico y mediciones de isotopos de torio (eTh), potasio (K) y uranio (eU). Los resultados de las mediciones espectrometricas establecen diferencias entre los yacimientos de lateritas. De la aplicacion del metodo magnetico e isotopico se determino la distribucion y desarrollo de las cortezas lateriticas, asi como la ubicacion de alteraciones hidrotermales que afectan a las lateritas, lo cual es muy util durante la exploracion y explotacion minera. Esas alteraciones indican la presencia de silicatos, que tienen un efecto negativo en el proceso metalurgico. Se conoce que las cortezas lateriticas tienen altos contenidos de eU y eTh. De los contenidos de eU y eTh se infiere que las lateritas de la region de Moa se formaron antes que las de Mayari. De estas mediciones fue posible inferir el

  14. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  15. Estimation of the resource and energy prospective of trash in Mexico (Annexe 1 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva energetica de la basura en Mexico (Anexo 1 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In the last century trash has been considered as an energy resource, since on one a side when it is deposited in sanitary landfills or trash disposal sites, this produces biogas with a content of 50% of methane, and on the other side it can be subjected to thermo-chemical processes of incineration or gasification, opening the possibility of generating electricity, either via steam generation in the case of incineration, or producing a gas mixture composed of CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the case of gasification, that can also be used to generate steam, of be used as fuel in internal combustion motors or in the near future, in fuel cells. In this section it is spoken about the amount and characteristics of this resource, the production of the energy by means of thermal processes or with biogas and the technological prospective. [Spanish] En la ultima centuria la basura ha sido considerada como un recurso energetico, ya que por un lado cuando es depositada en rellenos sanitarios o basureros, esta produce biogas con un contenido de 50% de metano, y por el otro puede someterse a procesos termoquimicos de incineracion o gasificacion, dando lugar a la generacion de energia, ya sea via generacion de vapor en el caso de la incineracion, o una mezcla de gases compuesta por CO, H{sub 2} y CH{sub 4} en el caso de la gasificacion, que tambien puede ser empleado para generar vapor, emplearse como combustible en motores de combustion interna o en celdas de combustible en el futuro cercano. En este apartado se habla acerca de la cantidad y caracteristicas de este recurso, la produccion de la energia mediante procesos termicos o con biogas y la prospectiva tecnologica.

  16. Increase in the selenium content of extra virgin olive oil: quantitative and qualitative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amato, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of food crops for human consumption is a direct strategy increasing dietary intake of selenium (Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the Se content of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO by spraying the olive tree canopy with sodium selenate and the effect of the increase in Se on the chemical properties and sensory characteristics of the EVOO. Se treatments were up to 50 times more effective in enhancing Se content in the EVOO compared with the untreated controls. Se concentration in all the EVOO samples can be considered adequate and useful for providing the human diet with the correct dose of Se. Se-enriched EVOO showed a significant increase in pigment and phenol content. Also, Se treatment does not produce negative effects on fruit characteristics or the sensory quality of EVOO.La biofortificación de cultivos alimenticios para el consumo humano es una estrategia directa para aumentar la ingesta de selenio (Se en la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el contenido de Se en aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE pulverizando la copa de los olivos con selenato de sodio y el efecto del aumento en el contenido de Se en las propiedades químicas y características sensoriales del AOVE. Los tratamientos con Se fueron muy eficaces consiguiendo aumentar el contenido de Se en el AOVE hasta 50 veces más en comparación con los controles no tratados. La concentración de Se en todas las muestras EVOO puede considerarse adecuada y útil para proporcionar a la dieta humana con la dosis correcta de Se. EVOO-Se enriquecido mostró un aumento significativo en pigmentos y contenido de fenoles. Además, el tratamiento de Se no implica efectos negativos sobre caracteristicas frutales ni sobre la calidad sensorial de AOVE.

  17. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  18. Experiences in transferring the techniques for the economical conduction of the Mexico`s vehicular transport; Experiencias de la transferencia de las tecnicas de conduccion economica en el autotransporte en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Osorio, Francisco Javier [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Conservation) developed the training program that through the dictation of pilot courses of technical-economical conduction of auto-motor vehicles is addressed to private enterprises, agencies and governmental institutions. This paper presents the background and the obtained results of the same. This methodology is presented in detail and a description of the courses is also presented as well as its characteristics. The comparative results are annexed of the tests between the conduction normally performed and the technical-economical conduction. The fuel saving obtained varies from 9% to 22.5%. Then, the reasons why the training in the technical- economical conduction results in one of the actions more profitable in fuel saving are explained, but also the difficulties for its implementation are also discussed. A conclusion is offered. [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) desarrollo el programa de capacitacion que a traves de la imparticion de cursos pilotos de conduccion tecnico- economica de vehiculos automotores, se dirige a las empresas privadas, dependencias e instituciones gubernamentales. En este trabajo se presentan los antecedentes y resultados obtenidos del mismo. Se detalla esta metodologia y se presenta una descripcion de los cursos y sus caracteristicas. Se anexan resultados comparativos de las pruebas entre la conduccion que se realiza normalmente y la conduccion tecnico-economica. Los ahorros de combustible obtenidos van desde 9% hasta 22.5%. Luego, se explican las razones por las que la capacitacion en conduccion tecnico-economica resulta ser una de las acciones mas rentables del ahorro de combustibles, pero tambien se discuten las dificultades para implantarla. Se ofrece una conclusion.

  19. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  20. The normalization in the use of solar heaters; La normalizacion en el uso de calentadores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky F, I; Terrones B, A; Garcia H, C R [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the different criteria in the establishment of the standard for the converter devices and solar systems for water heating for domestic, commercial and services use, as well as the criteria needed for the standard required for the installation of the equipment and systems. Together with the former, it discusses the establishment of the criteria for the creation of: training programs, of a regulatory commission for the implementation, follow up and penalties derived of the application of the norm, a legal frame, to regulate the legal relationship among the manufacturers and service providers with the consumers, as well as a permanent program for the diffusion of the characteristics, energy saving and the environmental impact derived of the utilization of solar energy. Additionally, a description is made of the first experimental results obtained in a test bench, where the norm ASHRAE 93-77 was applied. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se presentan los diferentes criterios tanto para el establecimiento de la normatividad de los dispositivos conversores y sistemas solares para el calentamiento de agua para uso domestico, comercial y de servicios, asi como los necesarios para la normatividad requerida en la instalacion de los equipos y sistemas. Aunado a lo anterior se analiza el establecimiento de criterios para la creacion de: programas de capacitacion de una comision reguladora de la implantacion, seguimiento y sanciones derivadas de la aplicacion de la norma, un marco legal, regulador de la relacion juridica entre los fabricantes y prestadores de servicios y los consumidores, asi como un programa permanente de difusion sobre las caracteristicas, ahorro de energia e impacto ambiental derivado del uso de la energia solar. Adicionalmente se describen los primeros resultados experimentales obtenidos en un banco de pruebas, en donde se aplico la normas ASHRAE 93-77.

  1. Importância da nova classificação das pneumonias intersticiais idiopáticas A propósito de um caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Paula

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A nova classificação das Pneumonias Intersticiais ldiopáticas (PI, de Katzenstein, foi de primordial importância, ao considerar a Fibrose Pulmonar ldiopatica (FPI como uma entidade particular, a mais grave, com a pior resposta aterapeutica e o pior prognostico, dentro daquele grupo.A FPI passou a ser uma entidade clínica distinta, com caracteristi_cas histólogicas próprias.Neste contexto, e apos uma breve introdução teorica, os autores apresentam urn caso clinico de Pneumonia Intersticial Nao Especifica (NSIP, que antes da classificação actual foi diagnosticada como FPI.O diagnóstico definitivo foi por biópsia cirúrgica (toracoscopia.Édiscutida a importancia do diagnóstico diferencial entre FPI e NSIP.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2001; VII (1: 49-56 ABSTRACT: The new Katzenstein classification of Idiopathic Intersticial Pneumonia (liP, was of major interest, because it focus the Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis as a particular entity, with bad response to therapy and the worst prognosis in that group.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, became a particular clinical entity, with its own histology.Thus, after a short theorical introduction, the authors present a clinical case of Non Specific Intersticial Pneumonia, that before the new classification has emerged, was considered an Idiophatic Pulmonary Fibrosis.The final diagnosis was made by surgical biopsy (thoracoscopy.Finally, the importance of the diferential diagnosis between those entities, is considered.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2001; VII (1: 49-56 Palavras-chave: Idiopathic Intersticial Pneumonia, Non Specific Intersticial Pneumonia, Key-words: Idiophatic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Non Specific Intersticial Pneumonia

  2. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in