Sample records for nw turkey implications

  1. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay


    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  2. New U-Pb ages from dykes cross-cutting the Demirci metamorphics, NW Turkey: Implications for multiple orogenic events (United States)

    Sen, Fatih; Koral, Hayrettin; Peytcheva, Irena


    A high-grade metamorphic sequence in the Sünnice Mountains, Bolu, NW Turkey, is represented by migmatitic quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in amphibolite facies called the Demirci metamorphics/paragneisses, and a sequence of low-grade meta-volcanics containing meta-andesites with minor meta-rhyolites and meta-sedimentary rocks called the Yellice meta-volcanics. They are intruded by the Dirgine granite with an age of Upper Ediacaran (576-565 Ma) and are considered a part of the İstanbul-Zonguldak Tectonic Unit. The Demirci paragneisses are also intruded by a number of dykes in various directions, traditionally considered without radiometric dating to have been emplaced in a single magmatic phase in the Eocene related to post-collision regime of the Anatolide-Tauride platform. Mafic-intermediate-felsic dykes cross-cutting the Demirci paragneisses have been investigated in maps of 1/1000 scale, and their U-Pb zircon age, major-trace element and kinematic data have been obtained. The mafics dykes cross-cutting the Yellice meta-volcanics, equivalents of those in the Demirci paragneisses, occur in N400-500E orientations and have calc-alkaline basalt compositions with a subduction signature. The intermediate dykes occur in N650W, N800W orientations and have calc-alkaline basaltic andesite to andesitic compositions with a subduction signature. Some felsics occur in N150W and N800E orientations and have calc-alkaline dacitic compositions with a collisional tectonic setting. Other calc-alkaline granitic dykes occur in N750E orientation and calc-alkaline granitic compositions with a subduction signature. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of zircons yield ages from 485.7±3.6 Ma (i.e. Cambro-Ordovician) for N800E trending dacite dykes; 443.0±5.4 Ma (i.e. Ordovician-Silurian) for N150W trending dacite dykes; 301.0±1.6 Ma (i.e. Upper Pennsylvanian-Carboniferous) for N650W trending basaltic andesite dykes; 268.2±2.4 Ma (i.e. Guadalupian-Permian) for N40-500E trending basalt dykes; 262.9±3

  3. An integrated study on microtectonics, geothermometry and thermochronology of the Çataldaǧ Core Complex (NW Turkey): Implications for cooling, deformation and uplift history (United States)

    Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak


    We present an integrated study on structure, microstructure, geothermometry and thermochronology of the Çataldaǧ Core Complex (ÇCC) in NW Turkey in order to understand the cooling, deformation and uplift mechanisms. ÇCC is formed from an Eo-Oligocene granite-gneiss-migmatite complex (GGMC) and an Early Miocene I-type granodioritic body (ÇG: Çataldaǧ granodiorite) which were exhumed as a dome-shaped core complex in the footwall of a ring-shaped low-angle detachment zone (The Çataldaǧ Detachment Fault Zone; ÇDFZ) in the Early Miocene. New U-Pb zircon (LA-ICPMS) and monazite ages of GGMC yielded magmatic ages of 33.8 and 30.1 Ma (Latest Eocene-Early Oligocene). 40Ar/39Ar muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar from the GGMC yielded the deformation age span 21.38±0,05 Ma and 20.81±0.04 Ma, which is also the emplacement age (20.84±0.13 Ma and 21.6±0.04 Ma) of ÇG. ÇDFZ is responsible for mainly top-to-the-north sense kinematic processes. The microstructural features of quartz, feldspar and mica indicate that the ÇCC has undergone continuous deformations during its cooling, from submagmatic to cataclastic conditions. Five microstructural grades have been classified under ductile (DZ) and ductile-to-brittle shear zone (SZ), according to the estimated deformation temperature and intensity of the strain. Microcline twinning, marginally replacement myrmekite and flame-perthite are predominant features for feldspar while chessboard extinction, grain boundary migration and subgrain rotation recrystallization is common for quartz in the DZ which has a deformation temperature range of >600°C to 400°C. Grain size reduction is an important factor for the ductile to brittle shear zone (SZ). Feldspar is represented by bulging recrystallization (BLG), feldspar-fish and domino-type microfracture/microfaulting and quartz show more elongated structures such as ribbons with high aspect ratios. Mineral-fish (muscovite, biotite and feldspar) structures indicate a temperature

  4. Petrography, palynology and depositional environment of Gelibolu coals, NW Turkey (United States)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koşun, Erdal


    Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal samples collected from two outcrops in the Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey were analyzed petrographically and palynologically to determine the depositional environment of the coals. Microscopic studies reveal that the studied coal samples from both locations are characterized by high amount of huminite group macerals, ranging from 46 to 78% (mineral-included basis). The prevailing maceral from this group is gelinite (31-65%), it can be easily seen on all studied samples, indicative of high gelification degree of organic matter. Relatively low amount of liptinite (does not exceed 9%) and inertinite (does not exceed 8%) are also observed in the coals. The mineral matter content is variable but generally high, varying from 5 to 37%, as in other Turkish coals and consists mostly of clay minerals, quartz, calcite and pyrite. The mean reflectance values range from 0.502 to 0.564% suggesting that rank of coal is subbituminous (ASTM). The chemical properties of coal including calorific value, volatile matter and fixed carbon content are also in accordance with rank of coal. Facies indices based on maceral ratios (Tissue Preservation Index vs. Gelification Index and ABC ternary diagrams) were used to interpret to depositional environment of coals. Low tissue preservation index (TPI) and high gelification index (GI) values are observed. These indices indicate that the coals deposited in limnic environment. High pH and strongly reducing conditions inferred from the presence of framboidal pyrite and also evidenced by low TPI values. The palynological assembly of the coals dominated by angiosperm pollen and spore, however, gymnosperms were rarely seen. Herbaceous/sedge plants are common in Miocene coal samples.

  5. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tosun


    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  6. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide


    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  7. Rugose corals across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Denayer


    Full Text Available An uppermost Famennian (Strunian coral assemblage has been recovered in the middle part of the Yılanlı Formation of the Istanbul Zone (Zonguldak and Bartın areas, NW Turkey. In the Bartın area, the studied fossiliferous interval corresponds to a c. 30 m-thick unit of bioclastic to peloidal wackestone to packstone grading to grainstone and including two stromatoporoid biostromes. In the Zonguldak area, 60 km westward, the bioclastic facies is dominant. The rugose corals are mainly solitary taxa belonging to the genera Campophyllum, Bounophyllum, Amplexocarinia, and ?Metriophyllum, and only one colonial genus occurs: Pseudoendophyllum. This fauna is similar to that documented in Europe. The campophyllids and dibunophyllids are the main component of the uppermost Famennian assemblages in S Belgium, N France, W Germany, NW and S Poland. The endophyllids occur in S Poland, Novaya Zemlya, and in the Ural Mountains. The Istanbul Zone is supposed to be situated in the central part of the Palaeotethys Ocean, along the southern margin of Laurussia during the uppermost Devonian and Carboniferous. The rugose corals indicate some relationship with the eastern part of Laurussia, or that both areas were under a common marine influence at this time. The global Hangenberg event was not recognized in the Turkish localities, except for the disappearance of the corals, occurring less than 19 m below the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary based on the foraminifers. There is no major facies change through the boundary and the first Carboniferous corals (small Uralinia and Caninophyllum appear 6 m above the D–C boundary. The new species Caninophyllum charli sp. nov. is described from the upper part of the lower Tournaisian.

  8. Spatial Analysis of b-value Variability in Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Yeken, Tekin


    Spatial variations of b values were studied by means of 2376 earthquakes with a magnitude completeness of 2.7 in the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) during a 15-year period following the destructive earthquake on August 17, 1999 in Kocaeli. The b value of L6 for the entire Armutlu Peninsula represents a large value for a global value, but this analysis suggested that the distribution of b value around the Armutlu Peninsula varied extensively from 1.2 to 2.6. Several pockets of high bvalue reflected changes in the physical properties of the Armutlu Peninsula. The southern part of the peninsula represents a lower b value against the northern part of the peninsula. A high b value was observed around Termal and Armutlu towns where plenty of geothermal springs occur. Seismic tomography studies revealed a low velocity zone beneath the Termal area where the high b value was imaged in this study. A seismic swarm which is considered to be related with geothermal activity also occurred in 2014 at the same place. This observation suggests that it is possible to propose that the high b value in the northern part of the peninsula could be related to hydrothermal/geothermal activity which contributes to lowering the effective stress.

  9. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying levels of rice millingwaste. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... 50% rice milling waste produced enhanced performance that was next to the control in terms ...

  10. Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of Turkey for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation (United States)

    Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.


    Tekirdag region (NW Turkey) is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major faults. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of Turkey) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on

  11. Monitoring of Landslides using Repeated Kinematics GPS Observables in Sevketiye Town, Biga Peninsula, Çanakkale, NW Turkey (United States)

    Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun; Karaca, Zeki; Erenoglu, Oya; Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Yucel, Mehmet Ali


    Landslide is one of the most important natural events, and is also a result of earth's crust movements. Landslides generally result in the outward and downward movement of slope-forming materials consisting soil, rock, artificial fill and etc. Moreover, possible earthquakes are one of the main reasons of triggering landslides in active areas seismically. There have been many studies based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observables to compute the three dimensional positioning of established sites, and to model landslides precisely. We can monitor landslide with GPS using continuous data collection or the type of campaign surveying. While continuous data collection provide a millimetre-level of accuracy, the accuracy decreases with the shorter sessions, e.g. campaign surveying, due to possible sources of error. The area, located west of the Çanakkale, has been studied to identify the landslide susceptibility and geology. Çanakkale, NW Turkey, is located on the territory of the Biga Peninsula and the Gallipoli Peninsula. The section of remaining at the west of the line from the Gulf of Edremit to the Gulf of Erdek is called Biga Peninsula, and it covers an area of approximately 10 thousand km². In the Biga Peninsula, the main morphological units are at the western, northern and southern of coastal plains, and on their behind the hills, plateaus and mountainous areas of the inland. But at the middle areas, it is often possible to find the tectonic depressions sandwiched between the masses plateau and mountainous. In general, moving down the slope of a rock, soil or debris can be defined as landslides that are ranks second in terms of caused losses after earthquakes in Turkey. Landslides, harm to urbanization as well as loss of lives and economic losses. Moreover they adversely affects to agricultural, forest areas and the quality of the rivers. For example, the gas pipeline connecting Turkey and Greece, which will provide gas to the Southern Europe passes

  12. Boron content of Lake Ulubat sediment: A key to interpret the morphological history of NW Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazanci, N. [Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Toprak, O. [Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Leroy, S.A.G. [Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (West London) (United Kingdom); Oncel, S. [Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ileri, O. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06520 Ankara (Turkey); Emre, O. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06520 Ankara (Turkey); Costa, P. [Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (West London) (United Kingdom); Erturac, K. [Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earthsciences, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); McGee, E. [Environmental Radiation Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, University College, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    Freshwater Lake Ulubat (c. 1.5 m deep and c. 138 km{sup 2}) receives sediment from a 10.414 km{sup 2} area in the seismically active Susurluk Drainage Basin (SDB) of NW Turkey. The B and trace element contents of the lake infill seem to be a link between the fresh landforms of the SDB and the lacustrine sediment. Deposition in Lake Ulubat has been 1.60 cm a{sup -1} for the last 50 a according to radionuclides; however the sedimentation rate over the last millennium was 0.37 cm a{sup -1} based on {sup 14}C dating. The B content of the lacustrine infill displays a slight increase at 0.50 m and a drastic increase at 4 m depth occurring c. 31 a and c. 1070 a ago, respectively. Probably the topmost change corresponds to the start of open mining in the SDB and the second one to the natural trenching of borate ore-deposits. These dates also show indirectly a 1.4 cm a{sup -1} erosion rate during the last millennium as the borate beds were trenched up to 15 m. By extrapolation, it is possible to establish that the formation of some of the present morphological features of the southern Marmara region, especially river incision, began in the late Pleistocene, and developed especially over the last 75 ka.

  13. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  14. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa


    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  15. Microseismicity at the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara offshore Istanbul, NW Turkey (United States)

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ellsworth, William L.; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) below the Sea of Marmara forms a “seismic gap” where a major earthquake is expected to occur in the near future. This segment of the fault lies between the 1912 Ganos and 1999 İzmit ruptures and is the only NAFZ segment that has not ruptured since 1766. To monitor the microseismic activity at the main fault branch offshore of Istanbul below the Çınarcık Basin, a permanent seismic array (PIRES) was installed on the two outermost Prince Islands, Yassiada and Sivriada, at a few kilometers distance to the fault. In addition, a temporary network of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed throughout the Çınarcık Basin. Slowness vectors are determined combining waveform cross correlation and P wave polarization. We jointly invert azimuth and traveltime observations for hypocenter determination and apply a bootstrap resampling technique to quantify the location precision. We observe seismicity rates of 20 events per month for M < 2.5 along the basin. The spatial distribution of hypocenters suggests that the two major fault branches bounding the depocenter below the Çınarcık Basin merge to one single master fault below ∼17 km depth. On the basis of a cross-correlation technique we group closely spaced earthquakes and determine composite focal mechanisms implementing recordings of surrounding permanent land stations. Fault plane solutions have a predominant right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, indicating that normal faulting along this part of the NAFZ plays a minor role. Toward the west we observe increasing components of thrust faulting. This supports the model of NW trending, dextral strike-slip motion along the northern and main branch of the NAFZ below the eastern Sea of Marmara.

  16. Dynamics of a complex mass movement triggered by heavy rainfall: a case study from NW Turkey (United States)

    Ocakoglu, Faruk; Gokceoglu, Candan; Ercanoglu, Murat


    Following a period of heavy precipitation, a large and complex mass movement, namely the Dagkoy landslide, occurred in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey on May 21, 1998. This paper describes the conditioning factors of the landslide and interprets the mass transport processes in terms of a movement scenario. Geology, geomorphology and vegetation cover were considered as the conditioning factors of the failure. Observations showed that the gently sloping (about 10°) area is mostly covered by dense forest trees at the crown where the motion initiated. Significant intersection of the collapsed slope with dip of the local marls seems to have contributed to the formation and geometry of the landslide. The distance from the crown down to the toe of the landslide measured more than 600 m, with about 0.6 km 3 total earth material displaced. The landslide has both a block sliding characteristics in the upper portions and a debris flow/soil flow component around the margins of the sliding blocks in the middle parts and at the toe. The proposed scenario for the landslide reveals that the movement was initiated near crown as a result of the excess water content in the marls at the end of 3 days of heavy rainfall. The early perturbations (transverse cracks, ridges, etc.) lasted for 6-7 h, after which the central part of the zone started to move as a soil flow in which very large intact blocks were transported. Even though the movement was very rapid (1.2 m/min), there was no loss of life. However, the movement destroyed 38 houses, one mosque and a considerable amount of farmland.

  17. Geochemical and Isotopic Constrains on the Origin of Kaymaz Gold Deposit, Eskisehir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Toygar, Ozlem; Sendir, Huseyin; Mutlu, Halim; Demirbilek, Mehmet


    The Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system produced several gold deposits in Turkey related to subduction, collision, post-collision and rifting processes. The Kaymaz gold deposit in mid-west Anatolia, 65 km southeast of Eskisehir city, is an orogenic gold deposit which formed in association with listwaenites. The gold occurrence is closely related to listwaenitization process and intense silicification. SiO2 content is up to 96% due to pervasive hydrothermal alteration. Listwaenites are enriched in Au, Ag and several metals in varying levels which are also variably correlated with other trace elements. Regarding rare earth element concentrations in the mineralized zone, light rare earth elements are found to display different variations with respect to gold content. It is proposed that these differences are due to the presence of more than one fluid type in the system and/or different phases which transported ore minerals at varying extent. According to microthermometric data on quartz samples, the temperature of the mineralization between 200°C-420°C and 3.9%-9.6% NaCl eq., the deposit is an epithermal-mesothermal type mineralization. δ18O compositions of quartz samples and calculated δ18OH2O values at homogenization temperatures indicate that boiling process and/or hydrothermal fluids affected the system at more than one stage. δ34S compositions of pyrite samples show a magmatic source for sulfur in the system probably originating from local granite intrusion in the area. Keywords: Kaymaz, Eskisehir, gold, geochemistry, stable isotopes, fluid inclusion

  18. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  19. Contact relations and petrography of the Solarya intrusive complex (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Nur Güraslan, Işıl; Ünal, Alp; Altunkaynak, Şafak


    Solarya pluton is a N-S trending intrusive body exposed in the North of the Balikesir city in NW Anatolia. It is Early Miocene in age and intruded into the Nilüfer and Hodul unit of Karakaya complex representing Triassic metamorphic and non-metamorphic basement of Sakarya Continent. Solarya plutonic complex consists of three granitic rock members: Porphyritic granodiorite with K-feldspar (orthoclase) megacrystals, microgranite-microgranodiorite and haplogranite. Coarse grained porphyritic granodiorite is common in northern part of the pluton while the southern part of the pluton is formed from microgranite-microgranodiorite. Haplogranite was emplaced between the pluton and the metamorphic country rocks and surrounds the pluton as a thin light coloured outer zone along northern half of the border. Haplogranitic envelope zone display graphic and granophyric textures. Main plutonic body also contains mafic enclaves and syn-plutonic mafic dykes. Along the southern border, the fine grained chilled margin of Solarya pluton gradually passes into the hypabyssal and volcanic rocks. At the western border of the pluton, a young fault separates the pluton from non-metamorphic Hodul Unit of Karakaya complex. Along the northern and eastern margin, Solarya pluton intruded into metamorphic rocks of Nilüfer Unit which consist mainly of marbles, metapelites and metabasites. Solarya intrusive complex developed contact metamorphism in a narrow zone (150-200 m) around its eastern margin between the marbles which reaches to hornblende-hornfels facies conditions. The grain sizes of the marbles grow towards the margin of the pluton. Contact metamorphic rocks surrounding the intrusive body are common with granoblastic texture and display calcite + plagioclase + tremolite + diopside + garnet ± quartz mineral paragenesis dominantly. This mineral paragenesis suggest that the contact metamorphic aureole has developed under 500-550 C° and 2-3 kbar temperature and pressure conditions, which

  20. Understanding Cu release into environment from Kure massive sulfide ore deposits, Kastamonu, NW Turkey (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Sonmez, Seref; Balci, Nurgul


    Covering a wide range on the earth's crust, oxidation of metal sulfide minerals have vital environmental impacts on the aquatic environment, causing one of the major environmental problems known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Located in the Kastamonu province of the Western Black Sea region, Kure district is one of the major copper mining sites in Turkey. Mining activities in the area heads back to ancient times, such that operation is thought to be started with the Roman Empire. Currently, only the underground mining tunnels of Bakibaba and Asikoy are being operated. Thus, mining heaps and ores of those pyritic deposits have been exposed to the oxidative conditions for so long. As a result of weathering processes of past and recent heaps of the Kure volcanic massive sulfide deposits in addition to the main ore mineral (chalcopyrite), significant amount of metals, especially Cu, are being released into the environment creating undesirable environmental conditions. In order to elucidate Cu release mechanisms from Kure pyritic ore deposits and mining wastes, field and laboratory approaches were used. Surface water and sediment samples from the streams around the mining and waste sites were collected. Groundwater samples from the active underground mining site were also collected. Physical parameters (pH, Eh, T°C, and EC) of water samples were determined in situ and in the laboratory using probes (WTW pH 3110, WTW Multi 9310 and CRISON CM 35). Metal and ion concentrations of the water samples were analysed using ICP-MS and DR 2800 spectrophotometer, respectively. High Cu, Co, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined in the water samples with pH values ranging from 2.9- 4. Cu concentrions ranges from 345 ppm to 36 ppm in the water samples. Consistent with the water samples, high Cu, Fe, Zn and Co were also determined in the sediment samples. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation experiments under the conditions representing the field site were set up as biological and

  1. Analysis of Synoptic Weather Types and Its Influence on Precipitation in the Marmara Region (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Baltaci, H.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Karaca, M.


    In this study, we investigated the relationship between synoptic weather types and rainfall patterns in the Marmara region, northwestern part of Turkey. For this purpose, the automated Lamb weather type classification method was applied to the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily mean sea level pressure data for the period between 2001 and 2010. Ten synoptic weather types were found that represent the 90% of the synoptic patterns that affect the Marmara region. Based on the annual frequency analysis, mainly six synoptic weather types, 24% (NorthEast), 21% (North), 11% (South), 9% (SouthWest), 7% (Anticyclonic), 5% (Cyclonic), were found dominant in the region. Multiple comparison tests suggest that (i.e., Bonferroni test) northerly patterns (i.e., North and NorthEast) have statistically significantly higher percentages as compared to the southerly (i.e., South and SouthWest) and the rest of the patterns (i.e., Anticylonic and Cylonic). During winter months, N- and NE-patterns observed less frequently than the annual frequencies of them, 18% and 13% of the period, respectively. On the other hand, due to the formation of the low pressure center located over the central Mediterranean Sea, S- and SW-patterns were observed more frequently than their annual mean frequencies, 16% and 17%, respectively. During summer months, N- and NE-patterns become dominant in the region, and they constitute about three quarters of the period, 25% and 44%, respectively. The low pressure center located over central Anatolia and Black Sea brings moist and cool air to the region, preventing excessive heating during the summer season. Cyclonic patterns observed less frequent during the winter and fall months, about 3%. They become more frequent during the summer season, 9% as a result of the shifting of the subtropical jet stream to the south, and the seasonal movement of the Basra low pressure toward the inner and northern parts of the Anatolian peninsula. On the other hand, Anticyclonic patterns are

  2. Turkey


    World Bank Group


    The Country Opinion Survey in Turkey assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Turkey perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Turkey on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Tur...

  3. Eolianite and coquinite as evidence of MIS 6 and 5, NW Black Sea coast, Turkey (United States)

    Erginal, Ahmet Evren; Kıyak, Nafiye Güneç; Selim, Hamit Haluk; Bozcu, Mustafa; Öztürk, Muhammed Zeynel; Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Demirci, Alper; Elmas, Elmas Kırcı; Öztürk, Tuğba; Çakır, Çağlar; Karabıyıkoğlu, Mustafa


    This paper discusses the implications of a lowstand carbonate eolianite and overlying transgressive sequence of coquinite at Şile on the Turkish Black Sea coast based on composition, depositional characteristics and optical age estimations. The cross-bedded eolianite is a mixed ooid quartz grainstone in composition, yielding a depositional age matching MIS 6. It formed at the backshore of the paleobeach with the supply of sediment the from the beach face and offering insights into the drift of mixed shallow marine carbonates and siliciclastics together with radial ooids by onshore winds from a subaerially exposed high- to low-energy ooid shoals and oolitic sand complexes which developed parallel to the shoreline on the shallow shelf margin. During this lowstand, a low-relief dune retaining a record of opposing paleowind directions than that of prevalent northeasterly winds of today appears to have been lithified to form dune rock (aeolinite) under drier conditions compared to the present. Coinciding with MIS 5e, shallow marine coquina beds resting unconformably on the eolianite indicate the occurrence of the Mediterranean transgression during the last interglacial, as confirmed by benthic foraminifera within the high-salinity tolerant coquina shells.

  4. Evolution of Çan-Etili (Çanakkale-NW Turkey) lignite basin:Sedimentology, petrology, palynology and lignite characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Bozcu; Funda Akgün; Gülbin Gürdal; Ayşe Bozcu; Sevinç Kapan Yeşilyurt; Öznur Karaca; M. Serkan Akkiraz


    abstract This study examines the development and sedimentology of Çan-Etili lignite basin in Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey) along with the palynologic and petrographic properties of the coals in this region. The Çan-Etili lignite basin discordantly overlies Oligocene-aged Çan volcanics. The basin consists of caldera type sedimentation developed by the combined effects of volcanism and tectonics. The volcanic rocks forming the basement of the basin consist of andesitic, dacitic and basaltic lava flows as well as agglomerates, tuff and silicified tuffs, and kaolin which is their alteration product. The basement volcanic rocks cooled from high potassium and calc-alkaline magma. The trace element geochemistry of different rocks within the volcanics reveals that they are from a volcanic arc. The Çan Formation contains lignites and consists of 6 lithofacies representing alluvial, fluvial, marsh and lacustrine environments. These lithofacies are the lower volcanogenic conglomerate, the claystone, the lignite, the laminated organic claystone, the tuff intercalated sandstone–siltstone and the upper volcanogenic conglomerate. The lignite in the basin is limnic and is formed in a non-fluvial marsh and marsh-lake environment. An abundant percentage of vegetation (Engelhardia, Sapotaceae, Cyrillaceae) is compatible with temperate and subtropical climatic conditions in the basin during sedimentation of lignite.The coals of Çan-Etili basin are humic with high sulfur content (6–6.5%average) mostly containing huminite compounds belonging to the class of lignite-low bituminous (C-A) coal. Their coalification rank is between 0.38%and 0.56%Ro. The coals are formed in limnic-limnotelmatic marsh zones based on their microlithotype components. The inorganic components of the coal mostly consist of pyrite and clay. The trace elements, As, Th, U and V, are higher than international coal standards. The coal quality is adversely affected by high sulfur content and sulfur driven trace

  5. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa


    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  6. Climate change and Sea level rise: Potential impact on the coast of the Edremit Plain, NW Turkey. (United States)

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman


    Over the past century, most of the world's mountain glaciers and the ice sheets have lost mass due to global warming. When the temperature exceeds a particular level, glaciers and polar ice caps will continue to lose mass. Recent studies report that low-lying coastal areas will be seriously affected by sea level rise. Changes in the amount of natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols had a warming effect on the global climate during last century. Thus, the pace of melting of ice sheets increased, and, accordingly, sea level began to rise faster. Rise in sea level between 1961 and 2003 was equal to 1.8 mm/year while it was 3.1 mm/year between 1993 and 2003. The total rise in the 20th century is estimated to be between 17 and 19 cm. The models based on the sea level change indicate that the average global temperature at the end of the 21st century will increase by 0.3°C - 6.4°C. Global sea level is projected to rise 8-25 cm by 2030, relative to 2000 levels, 18-48 cm by 2050, and 50-140 cm by 20110. The Edremit Plain lies between Mount Madra and the Kaz Mountains on the coast of Aegean Sea in NW Turkey. It is lowland with an area of 141 km2. The widest part of the plain is 16 km along the E - W direction. The N - S direction amounts to a width of 15 km. The plain is covered with alluvial deposits that settled in the Quaternary Period. The elevation ranges from 0 to 50 m a.s.l. in the plain. This study aims to determine how the low-lying coastal land areas of the Edremit Plain may be affected by possible changes in sea level. Elevation dataset is based on the digital elevation model (DEM) of Landsat ETM + satellite images. To that end, satellite images were used to draw the current coastline. Curves of 2.5, 5, and 10 m were drawn through the use of maps with a scale of 1/25.000. Later on, the areas of the fields between these points were calculated. Current estimates show that 2.5 m rise in sea level will cause sea water to cover an area of 8.6 km2 (%14

  7. Losing Turkey? Implications of a Failed Turkish EU Bid (United States)


    2010, German Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed her preference for a privileged partnership for Turkey, but also identified the Cyprus dispute as the...only 21 percent throughout the EU.25 These statements from the senior leadership of both sides are clearly indicative of a relationship that is...Turkey.‖ Under Erdogan‘s leadership , Turkey has vastly improved its relations 15 with Syria, Iran, and Russia. This has largely been accomplished

  8. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun


    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  9. Turkey. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  10. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa


    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  11. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat


    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  12. Estimation of shallow S-wave velocity structure and site response characteristics by microtremor array measurements in Tekirdag region, NW Turkey (United States)

    Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Citak, Seckin; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Hatayama, Ken


    In this study, we aimed to explore the S-wave velocity structure of shallow soils using microtremors in order to estimate site responses in Tekirdag and surrounding areas (NW Turkey). We collected microtremor array data at 44 sites in Tekirdag, Marmara Ereglisi, Corlu, and Muratlı. The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves were estimated from the microtremor data using a Spatial Autocorrelation method. Then, we applied a hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm to obtain a 1D S-wave velocity structure at each site. Comparison between the horizontal-to-vertical ratio of microtremors and computed ellipticities of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves showed good agreement with validation models. The depth of the engineering bedrock changed from 20 to 50 m in the Tekirdag city center and along the coastline with a velocity range of 700-930 m/s, and it ranged between 10 and 65 m in Marmara Ereglisi. The average S-wave velocity of the engineering bedrock was 780 m/s in the region. We obtained average S-wave velocities in the upper 30 m to compare site amplifications. Empirical relationships between the AVs30, the site amplifications, and also average topographic slopes were established for use in future site effects microzonation studies in the region.

  13. Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW Turkey): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the Anatolian plate (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur


    The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the Anatolian plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.

  14. Land use and land cover change detection in Karinca river catchment (NW Turkey) using GIS and RS techniques. (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Curebal, Isa; Sonmez, Suleyman


    The basin of Karinca river, in the north-west of Turkey, covers an area of 29,840 ha. Pronounced changes in land use emerged as a result of the development of activities in the tourism sector in Turkey in the 1970's. The basin has been significantly affected in the course of this process. This study was conducted in order to determine the land use changes (as well as the type of changes and their direction) occurring in the use of land in the Karinca river catchment for the period 1979-2007. The geographical data were gathered by using 1:25000 scale topographical maps as a basis. Thus, the existing soil and land use data from 1979 were processed on these bases and the the main materials rendering the land use were produced. Geometric verification was made by putting the previously prepared bases onto landsat ETM+ and satellite images of 2007. In the final stage, results pertaining to the changes in land use were obtained by overlapping the two sets of data. All processes were done using the ArcGIS Desktop v9.x program. According to the data of the year 1979, the catchment area consisted of 43.4% forest, 26.5% grassland, 18.3% olive groves, 10.6% agriculture and 1.2% built-up lands. Comparing these coverage with the data of 2007, show a clear shift among residential areas, olive groves and forest terrain. It was found that the agricultural areas, particularly along the shoreline, were converted into resort houses and that the olive groves (the dominant land use) shifted from lower regions to its upper sectors. All these changes caused loss of natural habitats leading to degradation.

  15. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey. (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut


    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  16. Preliminary Results of Bedrock Variations in the Tekirdag Region (NW Turkey) by Multidisciplinary Geophysical Methods for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation (United States)

    Tuncer, M. K.; Arslan, M. S.; Ozel, A. O.; İşseven, T.; Genc, T.; Aksahin, B. B.


    As it is well known, North Anatolian fault Zone is highly capable of producing destructive earthquakes. Hence, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are very important for the urban areas which is close to the major faults. From this point of view, multidisciplinary geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. Our study area Tekirdag region which located western end of Nort Anatolian Fault Zone is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. We carried out research on determination of bedrock variations has been carried out in the Tekirdag Region which took place in the western end of North Anatolian Fault Zone by using multidisciplinary geophysical methods. This research has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the joint project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education. Microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on the seven profiles of 45km to 60km length. We attempt to map variations in bedrock, its geologic structure along the profiles. According to the results obtained in the region where the north-south direction is toward the north branch of the bedrock, and also in the east-west direction it was determined to be deepening westward. Final target would be 3-dimensional mapping of bedrock in the area.

  17. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with Cenozoic Intrusion-Hosted Cu-Pb-Zn Mineralization at Tavşanlı Area, Kütahya, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kumral


    Full Text Available The Miocene magmatic intrusion in the Tavşanlı zone of the Kütahya-Bolkardağ Belt (KBB in the northwestern region of Turkey is represented by the Eğrigöz granitoids. This paper studies the petrology and geochemistry of hydrothermal alterations associated with the vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization hosted by this pluton, focusing on the determination of the mass gains and losses of chemical components, which reflect the chemical exchanges between the host rocks and hydrothermal fluids. Vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization is closely associated with intense hydrothermal alterations within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones that are controlled by NW-SE trending faults cutting through the Eğrigöz granitoids. Paragenetic relationships reveal three stages of mineralization: pre-ore, ore, and supergene. The ore mineralogy typically includes hypogene chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and pyrite, with locally supergene covellite, malachite, and azurite. Wall-rock hypogene hydrothermal alterations include pervasive silicification, sulfidation, sericitization, and selective carbonatization and albitization. These are distributed in three main alteration zones (zone 1: silicified/iron carbonatized alterations ± albite, zone 2: argillic-silicic alterations, and zone 3: phyllic alterations. Based on the gains and losses of mass and volume (calculated by the GEOISO-Windows™ program, zone 1 has a higher mass and volume gain than zones 2 and 3. Non-systematic zonal distributions of alterations are observed in which the silicic-carbonate alterations +/− albitization appeared in zone 1 in the center and the phyllic-argillic alterations appeared in zones 2 and 3, with an increase in base metals (Cu-Pb-Zn in the zone from Cu, Cu-Pb, to Cu-Pb-Zn moving outwards.

  18. Determination of Sinkholes with Different Geophysical Techniques; A Case Study in Yarımburgaz, Küçükçekmece Lake NW Istanbul, Turkey (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mualla; Tezel, Okan; Dedecan, Hasan; Oygo, Azat


    The Yarımburgaz cave which is located in the city of Istanbul, NW Turkey plays an important host to the first human culture and preserve significant archaeological and paleontological resources. The cave was formed as a result of a subterranean stream erosion on the limestones of the Eocene Kırklareli formation. It has been reported that a double cave with upper and lower entrance chambers exist, although no geophysical research was conducted to detect the cave's trunk passages and the extend of the sediment fill inside the cave. The aim of this study was to test the preferred order for detection the response to different geophysical methods applied on the cave. We therefore carried out an a series of geophysical study to determine the size, position, and depth of sinkholes inside the caves. Integrated methodological approaches including multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) 2- microtremor array method, 3-single station microtremor measurements, 4- electrical tomography (ET) measuruments and 5-microgravity imaging showed that the geophysical response was succesfully applied. Based upon the flow-chart we concluded that the microgravity survey should be applied as a first step to detect the air-filled void and the geometry of the cave. The electric tomography method was well applied showing high resistivity values across the voids. The surface wave method showed that the low-velocity zones are detected in various locations of the cave. In addition we the results of MASW and ReMi methods showed clearly the density variation in the lateral direction. Fundamental frequency value above void decraese according the properties of geological units in lateral directional, especially when they are engineering rock like limestone.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations and the variations of foraminifers in the Silivri-Kumbagi area (NW Marmara Sea, Turkey) (United States)

    Ünal Yümün, Zeki; Murat Kılıç, Ali; Önce, Melike


    In the area between Silivri (İstanbul) and Kumbagi (Tekirdag), NW of Marmara Sea, there is a considerable extent in marine pollution from industrial and settlements wastes, sea transports, and agricultural activities. The most important one of these pollutions is the spread of heavy metals. Our research investigated sediments in order to determine whether heavy minerals affected biota such as recent foraminifers, or not. Our investigation area starts from Marmara Ereglisi, in the east, continues to Tekirdag and Kumbagi, in the west. 10 sea-water samples, 10 sediment-core samples and one 10 m core-drilling sample, taken 250 m off-shore from coast line. As a result of this sampling geochemical analysis of the bottom-mud and water samples were done and the ratio of heavy metals and other contaminants determined. For heavy metal analyses, concentration analysis of 12 heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, and Hg) has been conducted, as ppm, in sediment samples taken from the levels in which foraminifers are collected. Perpendicular (spatial) heavy metal concentration changes have been determined with off-shore drilling samples and horizontal changes (geochronological) have been determined with the help of core samples. Especially, it has been understood that heavy metal concentrations in recent sediments are higher compared to the past. In this research the samples have been taken from each 10 cm. of core and drilling samples to collect the benthic foraminifers. In this context, 15 grams of dry sediment sample taken from each level, have been washed in 125 μm sieves in order to determine its benthic foraminifer content. Benthic foraminifera from these samples have been identified taxonomically and their morphological differentiation has been determined after taking SEM photos. As a result of this study, the foraminifera types of "Adelosinacliarensis, Adelosinamediteranensis, Adelosinapulchella, Ammonia compacta, Ammonia parkinsonia, Ammonia tepida

  20. Electrical Resistivity Survey for Delineation of the Seawater Intrusion in the Çanakkale Plain, NW Turkey (United States)

    Demirci, Alper; Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Kaya, Mehmet Ali


    characterized by relatively higher resistivity values ranging between 30-70 ohm.m. These results clearly outlined the extension of saturated zones. Due to the active tectonism of the region, and highly saturated zones, preventive measures should be considered against liquefaction risks in construction of engineering structures by local authorities. Keywords: Resistivity, Seawater, Saturation, Çanakkale, Turkey

  1. Outsourcing and its implications for hospital organizations in Turkey. (United States)

    Yigit, Vahit; Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Kisa, Adnan; Younis, Mustafa Zeedan


    To thrive in this era of global competition, all organizations must explore new managerial approaches to get an edge in the marketplace. One increasingly appealing approach is outsourcing. Hospitals are particularly fertile environments for outsourcing, given their role as providers of a broad and complex array of services, many of which may be bought from other institutions. The purpose of this study is to determine the types of services that hospitals in Turkey buy from other organizations. The study sample included 14 university hospitals, 20 Ministry of Health Hospitals, 15 Social Insurance Organization Hospitals and 31 private hospitals in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Antalya, and Eskisehir, which are the biggest cities in Turkey. The following services were found to be outsourced: hospital management information systems (83.8%), cleaning services (81.3%), maintenance services (72.5%), leased medical devices (75.0%), food services (60.0%), patient direction services (63.8%), magnetic imaging services (60.0%), other imaging services (48.8%), laboratory services (42.5%), security services (38.8%), laundry services (36.3%), patient transportation services (33.8%), accounting services (26.3%), ambulance services (22.5%), patient satisfaction measurement services (13.8%), consultancy services (12.5%), and financial and investment services (9.5%). Private hospitals bought more services than public facilities did. The sampled hospitals chose to outsource services in order to decrease costs (78.8%), increase the quality of services rendered (65.5%), increase flexibility and share risk (36.6%), and increase profits (11.2%). The results of this study suggest that outsourcing, when applied judiciously through cost and risk analysis, is a cost-effective approach that can be used by most hospitals.

  2. Testing alternative tectono-stratigraphic interpretations of the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex in NW Turkey: support for an accretionary origin related to northward subduction of Palaeotethys (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Ustaömer, Timur


    The mainly Permian-Triassic rocks of the Karakaya Complex exposed E-W across Turkey are critical to reconstruction of Tethys in the E Mediterranean region. Their origin remains controversial with both stratigraphic layer-cake and accretionary-type settings being advocated. Suggested tectonic settings range from back-arc rift, to accretionary prism- related to either northward or southward subduction. To test alternatives we have studied the contact relations and the internal fabric of each of the main litho-tectonic units making up the Karakaya Complex and related "basement" in nine outcrop areas across NW Turkey, also taking account of existing chemical and dating evidence. Our results show that the Karakaya Complex was assembled by regional-scale thrust faulting without evidence of layer cake-type stratigraphical contacts, or even of deformed sedimentary contacts separating the major lithotectonic units. In several areas (e.g. Havran) the outcrops of meta-siliciclastic sediments of presumed Palaeozoic-age (~Kalabak Unit) are locally cut by Early-Mid Devonian granites. These outcrops represent one or more high-level crustal imbricates made up of basement rocks together with depositionally overlying U. Triassic siliciclastic rocks. Evidence from structurally lower, high pressure-low temperature Karakaya rocks (~Nilüfer Unit) reveals an imbricated, mainly volcaniclastic-carbonate sequence. Both these relatively high-grade Karakaya rocks and the structurally overlying, lower-grade Karakaya rocks (i.e. Çal and Ortaoba units) are interpreted as tectonically emplaced accretionary melange rather than sedimentary "olistostromes". MOR-type basalts (Ortaoba Unit) are locally overlain by red ribbon radiolarites that then pass upwards into feldspar-rich siliciclastics. Triassic oceanic crust and oceanic siliceous sediments were overlain by terrigenous turbidites derived from the north (Sakarya continent), followed by tectonic accretion at a subduction trench bordering the

  3. Geochemical and isotopic approach to maturity/source/mixing estimations for natural gas and associated condensates in the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergey, Kadir [University of Pamukkale, Geological Engineering Department, Kinikli Campus, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Philp, R. Paul [Geology and Geophysics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Clayton, Chris [High Bank House, Eardiston, Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire, WR15 8JJ (United Kingdom); Emiroglu, Hasan [Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Exploration Group, Soeguetoezue, Ankara (Turkey); Siyako, Muzaffer [Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Exploration Group, Soeguetoezue, Ankara (Turkey)


    The Tertiary Thrace Basin located in NW Turkey comprises 9 km of clastic-sedimentary column ranging in age from Early Eocene to Recent in age. Fifteen natural gas and 10 associated condensate samples collected from the 11 different gas fields along the NW-SE extending zone of the northern portion of the basin were evaluated on the basis of their chemical and individual C isotopic compositions. For the purpose of the study, the genesis of CH{sub 4}, thermogenic C{sub 2+} gases, and associated condensates were evaluated separately. Methane appears to have 3 origins: Group-1 CH{sub 4} is bacteriogenic (Calculated {delta} {sup 13}C{sub C1-C} = -61.48%o; Silivri Field) and found in Oligocene reservoirs and mixed with the thermogenic Group-2 CH{sub 4}. They probably formed in the Upper Oligocene coal and shales deposited in a marshy-swamp environment of fluvio-deltaic settings. Group-2 ({delta} {sup 13}C{sub C1-C} = -35.80%o; Hamitabat Field) and Group-3 ({delta} {sup 13}C{sub 1-C} = -49.10%o; Degirmenkoey Field) methanes are thermogenic and share the same origin with the Group-2 and Group-3 C{sub 2+} gases. The Group-2 C{sub 2+} gases include 63% of the gas fields. They are produced from both Eocene (overwhelmingly) and Oligocene reservoirs. These gases were almost certainly generated from isotopically heavy terrestrial kerogen ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21%o) present in the Eocene deltaic Hamitabat shales. The Group-3 C{sub 2+} gases, produced from one field, were generated from isotopically light marine kerogen ({delta} {sup 13}C = -29%o). Lower Oligoce ne Mezardere shales deposited in pro-deltaic settings are believed to be the source of these gases. The bulk and individual n-alkane isotopic relationships between the rock extracts, gases, condensates and oils from the basin differentiated two Groups of condensates, which can be genetically linked to the Group-2 and -3 thermogenic C{sub 2+} gases. However, it is crucial to note that condensates do not necessarily correlate

  4. Triassic Collision Between the Sakarya and Istanbul Zones, and Remarks on the Existence of Intra-Pontide Ocean in NW Turkey (United States)

    Bozkurt, E.; Winchester, J. A.; Satir, M.; Crowley, Q. G.


    Two important controversial issues about Tethyan evolution in northwest Turkey are: (i) the existence and evolution of a Cretaceous Intra-Pontide ocean and location of its suture: the metamorphosed ultramafic-mafic rocks exposed in both the Armutlu Peninsula and the Almacik Mountains, which have long been considered by some to be the remnants of this ocean; (ii) the timing of the juxtaposition of the Sakarya and Istanbul zones, with Palaeocene-Lutetian, Coniacian-Santonian, Turonian, pre-Senonian, Early Cretaceous and pre-Santonian all being suggested. Here, we present both field and isotopic data from two localities on opposite sides of the North Anatolian Fault: the Sunnice Massif in the Istanbul Zone and the Almacik Mountains in the Sakarya Zone. The lowest structural levels of the Istanbul Block in NW Turkey are exposed in the Sunnice Massif and comprise the Ediacaran greenschist-facies calc-alkaline bimodal Yellice metavolcanics, intruded by the Dirgine granitoid. However, ages obtained from the underlying amphibolite-facies ultramafic gneisses, hitherto termed the Cele 'meta-ophiolite' (hornblende gneisses of island arc meta-tholeiitic and transitional to calc-alkaline metagabbroic compositions), and previously thought to be part of the İstanbul Block basement, indicate a Permian age of formation. The junction between the Cele gneisses and the overlying basement to the İstanbul Block is tectonic, which we term the Istanbul Block Basal Thrust (IBBT). Equivalent rocks to the Cele gneisses occur in the Almacik Mountains south of the North Anatolian Fault (adjacent to the Sakarya Continent) where high amphibolite facies, alternating ultramafic (harzburgitic and websteritic) and mafic (metagabbroic) gneisses of similar compositions and age are exposed. Isotopic dating has suggested that both the Cele and Almacik gneisses formed during the Permian and underwent late Triassic metamorphism. We attribute the Triassic metamorphism to compression of the Sakarya Block

  5. Late Eocene-Early Oligocene two-mica granites in NW Turkey (the Uludağ Massif): Water-fluxed melting products of a mafic metagreywacke (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.


    This paper deals with the petrogenesis of two-mica granites within the amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks in the Uludağ Massif (NW Turkey). The two-mica granites are represented by three different types (i) a 17 km long and 1.5 km-wide strongly foliated and lineated metagranite, (ii) a relatively younger circular granite, 11 km by 6.5 km, free of any penetrative fabric, and (iii) up to 5 m thick dikes of unfoliated granite-porphyries. Mineral constituents include quartz, plagioclase, microcline, biotite, muscovite and minor apatite, zircon, ilmenite and monazite. U-Pb zircon dating indicates that the metagranite was emplaced at 35 ± 1 Ma (2σ, latest Eocene) and the unfoliated granite at 28 ± 1 Ma (2σ) (Early-Late Oligocene boundary). Overall, the two-mica granites are characterized by (i) a restricted bulk composition (SiO2 70-76 wt.%), (ii) near-linear to linear inter-element variations, (iii) high concentrations of Al2O3, Sr, Ba, LREEs, and low abundances of Rb, Y, Sc and HREEs, comparable with adakitic rocks, (iv) variably pronounced concave-upward shape of HREEs and absent to feeble Eu anomaly, (v) relatively high Na2O, CaO and Sr, and lower K2O and Rb contents at identical silica contents relative to the classical S-type granites. 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd(i) values range from 0.7052 to 0.7080, and 0.7 to - 3.6, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb(i) values range from 18.23 to 18.69, 207Pb/204Pb(i) from 15.63 to 15.70 and 208Pb/204Pb(i) from 38.48 to 38.77. 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd(i), and εNd(i) and 207Pb/204Pb(i) values are negatively correlated. Isotopic variation and negative correlations can best be explained by a heterogeneous source, including an older crustal component and a more juvenile basic component. Magma temperatures are estimated as 754-790 °C based on zircon and monazite saturation. All these features such as (i) relatively Na-, Ca- and Sr-rich compositions, (ii) isotopically heterogeneous source with inferred residual phases such as garnet and

  6. Paleomagnetic investigation of the Early Permian Panjal Traps of NW India; regional tectonic implications (United States)

    Stojanovic, Denis; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Ali, Jason R.; Ahmad, Talat; Dar, Reyaz Ahmad


    The ∼289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are part of a series of rift-related mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto northern India (present-day coordinates) around the same time as separation of the Cimmerian blocks of Qiangtang and Sibumasu. We report new data from only the second paleomagnetic investigation of this unit. Standard alternating field and thermal demagnetization methods were used to isolate characteristic magnetizations from seven outcrops at three locations within the Kashmir Valley, NW India. Analysis of four sections (14 individual cooling units) from close to Srinagar, that together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning ∼3 km of stratigraphy, yield a single-component, primary magnetization with a mean direction of Dec: 134.8°, Inc: 55.3° (α95 = 8.9°, k = 21.0). An inclination-only mean of 52.5° (α95 = 8.9°, k = 47.2) gives a paleolatitude of ∼33°S (±5°). A paleopole of 110.5°E 8.4°S (A95 = 10.7) is also calculated. Assuming the magnetization records a portion of the reverse polarity Kiaman Superchron, the new result indicates extrusion of the Panjal Traps basalts at mid-latitudes in the southern hemisphere. By inference this constrains the location of central Gondwana, and informs debates related to Cimmeria's detachment from Gondwana.

  7. Policy implications of trends in Turkey's meat sector with respect to 2023 vision. (United States)

    Yavuz, Fahri; Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Terin, Mustafa; Guler, Irfan O


    Turkey has become one of the leading emerging economies in the world being second after China as the highest economically growing country with 8.9% economic growth rate in 2010. Forecasting impacts of this development in coming 10 years might have very important policy implications for the meat sector in the framework of 2013 vision of Turkey. In this study, annual time series data which contain several key variables of meat sector in last 26 years (1987-2012) are used to forecast the variables of the coming twelve years (2013-2024) to drive policy implications by considering the impacts of high economic growths, crises and major policy changes. Forecasted future values of the variables for 2023 in the sector are assessed and compared with recent national and international values to drive policy implications. The results show that the economic growth results in the increase in per capita income and thus increased demand for meat seemed to foster the meat sector. Therefore, these macroeconomic indicators need to be better in addition to improvements at micro level for establishing competitive meat sector and thus reaching aimed consumption level of meat.

  8. Velocity Field in the NW Himalayan Syntaxis: Implications for Future Seismicity (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Szeliga, W.; Bali, B. S.; Khan, A.; Wahab, A.; Khan, F.; Qazi, S.


    For the past eight years we have monitored crustal deformation in Ladakh, the Karakoram, Kohistan, Zanskar, Salt Range and Pir Pinjal, using a combination of fixed and campaign GPS measurements, to provide quantitative constraints on the rates of convergence in the NW syntaxis of the Himalaya. We find a 13-17 mm convergence rate with maximum SSW velocity gradients NE of the Kashmir Valley beneath the Zanskar range, and maximum SSE directed gradients NW of the Peshawar basin beneath the Kohistan range. The inferred locking line appear to follow the 3.5 km contour as it does elsewhere in the Himalaya, however, this results in a 200 km wide décollement, twice the width of the central Himalaya. The SSE velocity of the Potwar Plateau is 3 mm/yr, significantly slower than the 6-12 mm/yr inferred from geological offsets along the Kalabagh fault in the past 10 My, and hence an inferred slip deficit exists between the Kohistan Range and the Salt Range. No great earthquakes are known in this area, and it is unclear whether the deficit is annulled by accelerated salt-decollement creep or by seismic rupture. A brief period of accelerated creep followed the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Velocities across the Kashmir Valley and Pir Pinjal are suggestive of a locked décollement (no creep) implying possible SE translation of the entire Kashmir Valley in great earthquakes. Were the segment of the Himalaya between the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake, and the Mw7.8 Kangra earthquake to slip 20 m in a single earthquake, it could do so in a Mw=9. No earthquake of this severity is known, although the historical record includes several earthquakes that may account for partial slip of the decollement. Slip on the Reasi fault north of the frontal Pir Pinjal range front can account for less than half the observed convergence at this longitude, and although no surface slip has been detected in the ranges fronting the Punjab plains, we deduce that the frontal folds, and associated blind thrusts, may

  9. Oblique convergence and slip partitioning in the NW Himalaya: Implications from GPS measurements (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bali, Bikram Singh; Chowdhury, Sonalika; Gahalaut, V. K.


    We report GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the Kashmir Himalaya. We combined these results with the published results of GPS measurements from the Karakoram fault system and suggest that in the Kashmir Himalaya, the motion between the southern Tibet and India plate is oblique with respect to the structural trend. We estimated this almost north-south oblique motion to be 17 ± 2 mm/yr, which is partitioned between dextral motion of 5 ± 2 mm/yr on the Karakoram fault system and oblique motion of 13.6 ± 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N198°E in the northwest-southeast trending Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. Thus, the partitioning of the India-Southern Tibet oblique motion is partial in the Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. However, in the neighboring Nepal Himalaya, there is no partitioning; the entire India-Southern Tibet motion of 19-20 mm/yr is arc normal and is accommodated entirely in the Himalayan frontal arc. The convergence rate in the Kashmir frontal Himalaya is about 25% less than that in the Nepal Himalayan region. However, here the Karakoram fault system accommodates about 20% of the southern Tibet and Indian plate convergence and marks the northern extent of the NW Himalayan arc sliver. The Kaurik Chango rift, a north-south oriented seismically active cross-wedge transtensional fault appears to divide the sliver in two parts causing varying translatory motion on the Karakoram fault on either side of the Kaurik Chango rift.

  10. Aoyitake plagiogranite in western Tarim Block, NW China:Age, geochemistry, petrogenesis and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Chuanlin; YU; Haifeng; YE; Haimin; ZHAO; Yu


    SHRIMPP U-Pb zircon age and geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Aoyitake plagiogranite in western Tarim Block, NW China. The plagiogranite intruded the Middle Proterozoic and Lower Carboniferous with an exposure area of ca. 60 km2 and crystallized at 330.7±4.8Ma. Rock types mainly include tonalite, trondhjemite and minor amounts of diorite and quartz-diorite.Feldspars in the rocks are dominated by oligoclase-andesine, and minor perthite observed locally.The granites are sodic with Na/K ratios (molar) between 4 and 87. Total REE (50-220 ppm) show a clear positive correlation with SiO2. There is no LRRE/HREE fractionation (LaN/YbN=0.5-1.5), medium negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.3-0.6), high Y content and low Sr/Y ratio (~1.0). These granites exhibit relatively juvenile Nd T2DM model ages of 470 to 580 Ma and positive εNd(331 Ma) values of 6.23 to 7.65. The aforementioned characteristics are similar to those of ocean island or ocean ridge plagiogranites. However, the regional geology, especially its scale, precludes that the plagiogranite pluton was derived directly from fractionational crystallization of mantle-derived basaltic magma. We interpreted that the primary magma of the pluton might be tonalitic in composition generated by ca.50% partial melting of the juvenile basaltic crust. The primary magma experienced intensive fractionational crystallization, and intruded into the middle to upper crusts to form the granite pluton. In combination with the previous regional geological data, it is concluded that the plagiogranite pluton was emplaced within the Tarim Block in respond to the Carboniferous continental rifting along the Tianshan orogenic belt.

  11. Structural analysis of Nalagarh lobe, NW Himalaya: implication of thrusting across tectonic edge of NW limb of Nahan salient, Himachal Pradesh, India (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Philip, G.; Suresh, N.


    The Main Boundary Fault (MBF), convex towards southwest, forms the leading edge of the Nahan salient. Near the southern end of an oblique ramp, a lobe-shaped physiographic front, named in this work as Nalagarh lobe, has developed across NW limb of salient. The lobe has formed across the MBF that separates the hanging wall Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks from the footwall Upper Tertiary Siwalik rocks and overlying Quaternaries. In front of lobe, thrust fault splays (Splay-1 and Splay-2) and associated tectonic fabrics have developed within the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. Structural elements developed across the front of Nalagarh lobe are analysed with reference to evolution of lobe. An unweathered 15-m-high hanging wall or wedge top forms the uplifted and rejuvenated bedrock fault scarp of the MBF. Below the MBF, the fan deposit has underthrust along Splay-1. Later the Splay-2 formed within fan deposit near south of Splay-1. Geometry of the overturned limb of tight to isoclinal fault propagation fold, formed on Splay-2 plane, suggests that the fold formed by normal drag, produced by intermittent fault-slips along Splay-2. The displacement along Splay-2 offset the marker bed to 1 m by which some clasts rotated parallel to the traces of brittle axial planes of fold. The variable fold geometry and style of deformation are analysed along length of thrust splays for 5 km. It is revealed that the lobe is bounded by transverse thrust faults along its NW and SE margins. The geometry of salient and oblique ramp suggests that the transverse thrust faults and associated transverse folds formed by right-lateral displacement along the NW limb of the salient. Marking the northern margin of the intermontane piggyback basin of Pinjaur dun, the MBF is interpreted to be an out-of-sequence thrust that has brought up the Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks over the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. The geometry of lobe and its bounding transverse faults suggest that faults are intimately

  12. Coastal inshore waters in the NW Mediterranean: Physicochemical and biological characterization and management implications (United States)

    Flo, Eva; Garcés, Esther; Manzanera, Marta; Camp, Jordi


    The physicochemical and biological characteristics of coastal waters form a gradient extending from land to ocean. In the Mediterranean this gradient is particularly large, due to the sea's weak tides. Within coastal waters, those waters in contact with land are called coastal inshore waters (CIW), defined herein as between 0 and 200 m from the shoreline. Here we present the first physicochemical and biological characterization of CIW of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This case study is based on 19 years of data collected from coastal inshore (CIW; 0-200 m), nearshore (CNW; 200-1500 m), and offshore (COW; >1500 m) waters of the Catalan coast. Analyses of these data showed that the physicochemical and biological characteristics of CIW differ significantly from those of CNW and COW due to: (1) significantly higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate = 11.07 μM, nitrite = 0.52 μM, ammonium = 6.43 μM, phosphate = 0.92 μM, silicates = 5.99 μM) and chlorophyll- a (=2.42 μg/L) in CIW than in either CNW or COW (in some cases up to one order of magnitude); (2) a greater variability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll- a in CIW than in CNW and COW, and (3) the presence of a mostly urban population and the effects of river inflows as a primary source of CIW variability but with minimal impact on CNW or COW. In addition, the risk of eutrophication was found to be highest in CIW, placing human and environmental interests at greater risk than in the outermost coastal waters. The results highlight the importance of considering the distinctive physicochemical and biological properties of CIW in future coastal waters studies. This is of major importance in assessments of eutrophication and coastal water quality, not only to identify the pressure-impact relationships but also to allow the timely detection of local environmental problems and thus avoid endangering the unique communities of CIW and ensuring the sustainability of human activities. In

  13. Living (Rose-Bengal-Stained) benthic foraminifera along the Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea), environmental implications (United States)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Morigi, Caterina; Lucchi, Renata G.; de Vittor, Cinzia; Bazzano, Matteo


    The distribution and composition of benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) were studied in three depositional settings identified on the basis of surface depositional structures, sediment types and present ecosystem characteristics. Sediment samples were collected during the CORIBAR cruise (Hanebuth et al., 2013) aimed at drilling glacigenic sediments in a palaeo-ice stream depositional system in the western Barents Sea. In particular, we report the quantitative data of the living benthic foraminiferal density, biodiversity and vertical distribution in three box-core sediment samples (0-10 cm) collected in two inner trough sites, the drift area and the channel/fault area and one outer shelf site. Rose-Bengal-stained foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two different size fractions (63-150 and >150 micrometres). In the drift area, the living benthic foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by the presence of oxygen-depleted environmental taxa with low foraminiferal density and biodiversity. This area appears a stagnant environment, strongly affected by low-oxygen, stressed environmental conditions in which foraminifera developed a life strategy aimed to increase the efficiency of food utilization and maximum resistance to ecological stress. As a further support to this interpretation, all the sediments recovered in the drift area are rich in organic matter and in Siboglinid-like tubes together with pockmark evidences on the surface of the box-corer. The sedimentation in the channel/fault area is very similar to that described for the drift area, evidencing stressed environmental conditions. Opportunistic species dominate the benthic foraminiferal fauna. The species distribution of the internal trough sites is consistent with the lithology and with data of quantity and biochemical composition (in terms of phytopigment, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and biopolymeric carbon) of the organic matter. Values of biopolymeric carbon

  14. Religion, politics and gender equality in Turkey: implications of a democratic paradox? (United States)

    Arat, Yeşim


    This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However, the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal religious values, sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well as through the educational system and civil society organisations.

  15. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications. (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles


    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed.

  16. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Permian post-collisional granitoids in the Chinese southwestern Tianshan, NW China (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Lu


    Permian porphyritic granite and leucogranite from the Kekesu and Muzhaerte Valleys in the southwestern (SW) Tianshan orogenic belt, NW China have been studied to decipher their petrogenesis and tectonic implications. For porphyritic granite in the Kekesu Valley, in situ LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating yields crystallization ages of 295-291 Ma. The granite is a high potassic calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous type, enriched in large ion lithosphere elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), but depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE). Zircon Hf isotopic analysis (zircon εHf(t) of -5.8 to -0.2, two-stage Hf model ages of 1323-1680 Ma) and Ti-in-zircon thermometry, which yields crystallization temperatures of 744-749 °C, indicate the parent magma was likely formed by partial melting of a Mesoproterozoic crustal source. By contrast, leucogranite in the Kekesu valley yields crystallization ages of 274-267 Ma. It contains muscovite and garnet, has high silicon and potassium, and is strongly peraluminous. Multiple inherited zircon cores and low zircon crystallization temperatures (687-701 °C), combined with negative zircon εHf(t) values (-7.0 to -4.0), indicate its parent magma was sourced from supracrustal metasedimentary rocks by muscovite-breakdown partial melting. In the Muzhaerte Valley, porphyritic granite has similar major and trace elements characteristics to the Kekesu porphyritic granite. However, its higher zircon εHf(t) values (-0.9 to +3.8) and corresponding lower two-stage Hf model ages (1070-1367 Ma) indicate that the parent magma likely included an input from a more juvenile mantle source. Ti-in-zircon thermometry gives lower crystallization temperature of ∼705 °C. The intrusive relationships between the Permian granitoids and Paleozoic arc plutons, and the LP-HT and (U)HP metamorphic belts, combined with geochronological studies, suggest that these Permian granitoids were generated in a post-collisional environment. It is

  17. Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential of various lithologies using static tests: Etili coal mine (NW Turkey) as a case study. (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper


    The Etili neighborhood in Can County (northwestern Turkey) has large reserves of coal and has been the site of many small- to medium-scale mining operations since the 1980s. Some of these have ceased working while others continue to operate. Once activities cease, the mining facilities and fields are usually abandoned without rehabilitation. The most significant environmental problem is acid mine drainage (AMD). This study was carried out to determine the acid generation potential of various lithological units in the Etili coal mine using static test methods. Seventeen samples were selected from areas with high acidic water concentrations: from different alteration zones belonging to volcanic rocks, from sedimentary rocks, and from coals and mine wastes. Static tests (paste pH, standard acid-base accounting, and net acid generation tests) were performed on these samples. The consistency of the static test results showed that oxidation of sulfide minerals, especially pyrite-which is widely found not only in the alteration zones of volcanic rocks but also in the coals and mine wastes-is the main factor controlling the generation of AMD in this mine. Lack of carbonate minerals in the region also increases the occurrence of AMD.

  18. Occurrence of dendritic agate from Dereyalak village (Eskişehir) - NW of Turkey and its relationship to sepiolite nodules in the region (United States)

    Çalık, Ayten; Arzoğulları, Uğur


    This study presents the geology and mineralogy of the agate nodules that occur in the Pliocene polymictic conglomerates, northwest of Dereyalak village, Eskişehir, northwest Turkey, and their relationship to sepiolite nodules. The host-rock of the agates is a layer 5-25 m thick with an outcrop length of more than 1.5 km. This host rock consists of well-rounded pebbles, mainly composed of opal, ultramafics, sandstones, limestones and volcanics. The conglomerates unconformable overlie an Upper Cretaceous ophiolite complex. This tectonic contact, which trends E-W, is accompanied by another NE-SW-trending major fault. Most of the agate nodules are present along these fault zones. The mainly white and black agate nodules range from 5 to 30 cm in diameter and show a zoned macrostructure. The transparent core is surrounded by a translucent white zone, which, in turn, is surrounded by a zone rich in black dendrites. An opal-rich zone is present nearest the outermost rim. XRD analyses revealed alpha quartz (chalcedony), opal-CT (pseudocrystalline cristobalite), opal-C (pseudocrystalline tridymite) and moganite as the main mineral constituents of the agates. Under polarised light, the predominance of microcrystalline, fibrous quartz (“chalcedony”) is observed. The black colour and fabric of the third, outer zone is due to the presence of black pyrolusite and manganite dendrites. SEM images also show different textures in agates that confirm the presence of a zoned structure in the dendritic agates. Nodular sepiolite (Meerschaum) is well known and has been exploited for centuries in Eskişehir region. Major sepiolite nodule deposits are mainly observed northeast and east of the Dereyalak region. The field observations and the mineralogical data, including comparison between the internal texture of agates and sepiolite nodules and additional geochemical analyses, suggest that the Dereyalak dendritic agates could have formed by sepiolite replacement by low-T silica

  19. Extraction of potential debris source areas by logistic regression technique: a case study from Barla, Besparmak and Kapi mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey) (United States)

    Tunusluoglu, M. C.; Gokceoglu, C.; Nefeslioglu, H. A.; Sonmez, H.


    Debris flow is one of the most destructive mass movements. Sometimes regional debris flow susceptibility or hazard assessments can be more difficult than the other mass movements. Determination of debris accumulation zones and debris source areas, which is one of the most crucial stages in debris flow investigations, can be too difficult because of morphological restrictions. The main goal of the present study is to extract debris source areas by logistic regression analyses based on the data from the slopes of the Barla, Besparmak and Kapi Mountains in the SW part of the Taurids Mountain belt of Turkey, where formation of debris material are clearly evident and common. In this study, in order to achieve this goal, extensive field observations to identify the areal extent of debris source areas and debris material, air-photo studies to determine the debris source areas and also desk studies including Geographical Information System (GIS) applications and statistical assessments were performed. To justify the training data used in logistic regression analyses as representative, a random sampling procedure was applied. By using the results of the logistic regression analysis, the debris source area probability map of the region is produced. However, according to the field experiences of the authors, the produced map yielded over-predicted results. The main source of the over-prediction is structural relation between the bedding planes and slope aspects on the basis of the field observations, for the generation of debris, the dip of the bedding planes must be taken into consideration regarding the slope face. In order to eliminate this problem, in this study, an approach has been developed using probability distribution of the aspect values. With the application of structural adjustment, the final adjusted debris source area probability map is obtained for the study area. The field observations revealed that the actual debris source areas in the field coincide with

  20. Tectonic controls on the Karlıova triple junction (Turkey): Implications for tectonic inversion and the initiation of volcanism (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Gudmundsson, Agust


    Few places on Earth are tectonically as active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey which comprises a triple junction (KTJ). Triple junctions result in complex kinematic and mechanical interactions within the lithosphere generating tectonic inversions and uplift, extensive seismicity and volcanism. Here we present new data, and summarize existing data, on the tectonic evolution of the KTJ in eastern Turkey over the past 6 Ma. In particular, we present a kinematic model for the KTJ and the surrounding area as well as new structural maps. The deformation or strain rate has varied over this 6 million year period. The maximum strain rate occurred between 6 Ma and 3 Ma, a period that coincides with the initiation of activity in Varto Volcano. We suggest that increased strain rate and the initiation of activity at the Varto Volcano may be tectonically related. Subsequent to its formation, the Varto Volcano was dissected by active faults associated with the Varto Fault Zone, including reverse, normal and strike-slip faults. During the past 3 Ma, however, the KTJ area was deformed dominantly through dextral crustal movements associated to right-lateral faults. This deformation resulted in the development of a NE-SW-trending extensional/transtensional regime, together with a complementary NW-SE-trending contractional regime. In the past 6 Ma the east end of the KTJ has been subjected to incremental deformation. This deformation has resulted in many episodes of faulting during (i) ongoing shortening phases driven by a regional-scale thrust tectonic regime, and (ii) local-scale transtensional phases caused by westward extrusion.

  1. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira


    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  2. Determination of acid forming potential of massive sulfide minerals and the tailings situated in lead/zinc mining district of Balya (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Çelebi, E. Ender; Öncel, M. Salim


    Weathering of sulfide minerals is a major source of acid production in nature and especially in mining territories. Pyrite is not the only principal mineral that generates acid drainage: other sulfide minerals (sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, etc.) may also be responsible for acid production. In addition to massive sulfide minerals, sulfide-bearing mine tailings may also produce acid drainage due to oxidation and hydrolysis reactions in waste dumps. The lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mining region in Balya and Balıkesir, in Turkey, has operated mines intensively since the 1860s; so that characterization of the sulfide minerals and tailings situated and formed around the mining site is of great importance to secure a sustainable environment. For this purpose, acid production and neutralization potentials of massive sulfide ores of the region, and in the Pb/Zn process facility mine tailings from ten different points of tailings dam, have been determined by applied conventional Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) and Net Acid Generation (NAG) static tests after chemical and mineralogical analysis. The NAG pH and net acid production potential (NAPP) values were compared on a chart in order to classify the samples as either acid generating or non-acid generating. According to the comparisons, the sulfide minerals were classified as potentially acid forming (PAF). Massive pyrite had the highest NAPP and NAG pH value of 1966.6 kg H2SO4/ton and 1.91, respectively and the galena had the lowest NAPP value of 558.9 kg H2SO4/ton. However, the sphalerite NAG leachate pH value of 4.30 was the highest in sulfide minerals so that the sphalerite plotted near the uncertainty reference border in the PAF zone. In the mine tailings, NAPP values of 105.9 kg H2SO4/ton on average and the NAG pH values of over 7.5 were determined. In addition to these tests, water leaching (agitation test) was carried out on tailings in order to generate more information. The tailings did not generate acidic leachates as

  3. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey (United States)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas


    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  4. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication. (United States)

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya


    Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  5. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kennedy Thornton

    Full Text Available Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100 turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata, is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  6. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication (United States)

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya


    Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

  7. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger


    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of atmospheric CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelfs and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent North Atlantic.

    Using model climate projections we found that already a moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 90's the reduction of biological production amounts to 39%. The decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption on the NW European shelf by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere.

    The predicted decline in biological productivity and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from the

  8. Along-strike Deformation in Quaternary Valleys of Tropical NW Borneo: Implications for Active Tectonics, Seismicity and Geomorphology (United States)

    Sautter, B.; Mathew, M. J.; Menier, D.; Pubellier, M. F.; Sapin, F.; Siddiqui, N.


    In the wee hours of 5th June, 2015, NW Borneo was jolted by a 6.0 magnitude earthquake, caused by fault movement at a shallow depth of 10 km. The quake that originated from near the foot of the picturesque Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, was felt as far as 350 km away from the epicentre and has produced more than 90 aftershocks to date; ranging in magnitudes from 1.6 to 5.2. Although the geologically complex NW Borneo has experienced more than 60 mainshocks and numerous aftershocks since 1970 to present; research pertaining to active tectonics, morphotectonics analysis and subsequent geomorphic response to resulting transient dynamic topography remains inadequate.Here, we show evidences of active tectonics in tropical Sabah, NW Borneo, using morphometric indices, geomorphic indicators and report our results of morphotectonic analysis and consequent feedback of landscape and topography. Results from stream length gradient index, normalized channel steepness index and spatial distribution of hypsometric integral showed evidences of fault rejuvenation during Quaternary and recent periods. River longitudinal profiles showed the presence of several knickpoints indicating fault reactivations as the study area lacks lithological contrasts and similar climatic conditions along the channel reach. Field survey revealed the presence of highly elevated Quaternary fluvial terraces illustrating recent and important tectonic uplift rates in the trend of the exhumation rates calculated on Mt. Kinabalu by means of thermochronology. The uplifted terraces show a positive correlation with geomorphic analysis along the main valleys and other areas of active tectonics. Our analysis show the competition between important uplifts related to the dynamics of the NW Borneo Wedge and active normal faulting. These faults are in trend to the major earthquakes that occurred recently in this area, which have a normal faulting mechanism. The cause of the mechanism for recent tectonism and/or decoupling

  9. Environmental boundaries of marine cladoceran distributions in the NW Mediterranean: Implications for their expansion under global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Atienza, Dacha


    We studied the horizontal and vertical distributions of marine cladocerans across the Catalan Sea shelf (NW Mediterranean) in July and September 2003, and in June and July 2004. At the seasonal scale, Penilia avirostris appears first in June in the southern region, where temperatures are warmer, and its populations develop northward during the summer. Evadne-Pseudevadne did not show a clear pattern, likely because several species were pooled. In 2003 successive heat waves affecting southwestern Europe resulted in surface seawater temperatures about 2 °C higher than usual across the whole study region. These high temperatures were associated with much lower abundance of P. avirostris. Overall, the mesoscale distributions of cladocerans were associated with the presence of low salinity, productive and stratified waters of continental origin, and negatively linked to the intrusion of offshore waters. On the vertical scale P. avirostris was located within or above the thermocline, whereas Evadne-Pseudevadne was much shallower; no evidence of diel migration was detected in either group. Our study provides new insights regarding the environmental limits for marine cladocerans in the NW Mediterranean; in the particular case of P. avirostris that knowledge can define the likely boundaries of its new distributions as it expands poleward under climate change. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  10. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger


    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  11. School Principals' Assumptions about Human Nature: Implications for Leadership in Turkey (United States)

    Sabanci, Ali


    This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…

  12. Whole genome comparative studies between chicken and turkey and their implications for avian genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Wilfrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is a powerful means of establishing inter-specific relationships between gene function/location and allows insight into genomic rearrangements, conservation and evolutionary phylogeny. The availability of the complete sequence of the chicken genome has initiated the development of detailed genomic information in other birds including turkey, an agriculturally important species where mapping has hitherto focused on linkage with limited physical information. No molecular study has yet examined conservation of avian microchromosomes, nor differences in copy number variants (CNVs between birds. Results We present a detailed comparative cytogenetic map between chicken and turkey based on reciprocal chromosome painting and mapping of 338 chicken BACs to turkey metaphases. Two inter-chromosomal changes (both involving centromeres and three pericentric inversions have been identified between chicken and turkey; and array CGH identified 16 inter-specific CNVs. Conclusion This is the first study to combine the modalities of zoo-FISH and array CGH between different avian species. The first insight into the conservation of microchromosomes, the first comparative cytogenetic map of any bird and the first appraisal of CNVs between birds is provided. Results suggest that avian genomes have remained relatively stable during evolution compared to mammalian equivalents.

  13. The Last Transition From Extreme Glacial to Extreme Interglacial Climate in NW Patagonia: Regional and Global Implications (United States)

    Moreno, P. I.


    The study of interhemispheric climate linkages during and since the last ice age has benefited from the recent development of high-resolution ice core and marine records from the mid- and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Few paleoclimate records from terrestrial environments in these regions, however, have the temporal continuity, time resolution, and adequate chronologic control to allow a detailed examination of the timing, rates, direction, and phasing of climate change at millennial timescales. Stratigraphic, palynologic, and charcoal records from small, high-sediment accumulating lakes in the Chilean Lake District (41ºS) afford useful data for examining the interval between the LGM to the early Holocene (25-8 ka, ka=cal kyr BP). Millennial-scale changes in glacier extent and vegetation patterns within this interval match key events both in the Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic records, in particular the EPICA Dome C data, highlighting the role of an atmosphere-based conduit for the global propagation of abrupt climate changes. The onset of the last termination in NW Patagonia is marked by glacial collapse and the expansion of rainforest trees at 17.7 ka. An apparent antiphase relationship among the polar hemispheres between 17.7-14.7 ka, might reflect the hemispheric-scale effects of a quasi-total shut down of Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation driven by Heinrich event 1. Extreme glacial and interglacial modes in the position/strength of the westerlies at multi-millennial timescales in the southern westerlies accompany important shifts in the abundance and composition of rainforest communities during the last termination and the early Holocene. At millennial timescales, this interval is characterised by successive warming pulses interrupted by a generalized reversal in trend with cooling events starting at 14.7 and 13.4 ka. Fires between 12.9-11.5 ka, i.e. Younger Dryas Chron (YDC), led to the expansion of opportunistic rainforest species

  14. Cretaceous to miocene palaeogegraphic evolution of Turkey: implications for hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorur, N. [Tubitak Mam, Gebze (Turkey)


    The Cretaceous to Miocene palaeogeographic development of Turkey in general reflects the evolution of the various oceanic branches of Neo-Tethys together with interactions between the Laurasian and Gondwanan margins. At the beginning of the Cretaceous, the first-order palacotectonic units which make up present-day Turkey either formed parts of these supercontinents or were isolated continental blocks within the Neo-Tethys. In Aptian to Albian times, north-dipping subduction commenced along the southern margins of these units and resulted in the development of magmatic arcs and arc-related sedimentary basins. Coeval with the start of subduction, large-scale ophiolite abduction occurred on the units' passive margins. Terminal closure of the oceans' branches took place between the latest Cretaceous and the Miocene, forming the Anatolian orogenic collage whose outline defines present-day Turkey. Post-collisional intra-continental convergence continued until the late Miocene and resulted in north-south shortening of the collage. This shortening led to internal imbrication, thrusting and crustal thickening. It forced the Anatolian landmass westwards, away from east Anatolia where there has been continuous north-south compression since the Miocene between Laurasia and the Arabian Platform. Both the continental and the oceanic palaeotectonic units pose significant problems regarding their original geometry, size, depth, extent, contact relations, motion paths, subduction polarity, stratigraphy and timing of formation. Clarification of these issues is essential if the units' original paleogeographic relationships with respect to Neo-Tethys are to be reconstructed. This paper reviews some of these problems with the aid of a number of palinspastic and non-palinspastic maps. These maps are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the hydrocarbon potential of Turkey. (author)

  15. Turkey’s New Regional Security Role: Implications for the United States (United States)


    with Russia, despite differences over the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty ( CFE ) and Syria, have helped buffer Russia-NATO tensions on many...over Syria, the South Caucasus, Turkey’s de- pendence on Russian energy, Moscow’s noncompli- ance with the CFE Treaty, and other issues. Thanks to...Frictions do exist between Ankara and Moscow. Turkey has criticized Russia’s decision to suspend implementation of the CFE , whose provisions limit

  16. Petrogenesis and tectonic implication of the Late Triassic post-collisional volcanic rocks in Chiang Khong, NW Thailand (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Wang, Yuejun; Feng, Qinglai; Zi, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yuzhi; Chonglakmani, Chongpan


    The volcanic rocks exposed within the Chiang Khong-Lampang-Tak igneous zone in NW Thailand provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. An andesite sample from the Chiang Khong area yields a zircon U-Pb age of 229 ± 4 Ma, significantly younger than the continental-arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks (ca. 238-241 Ma). The Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are characterized by low MgO (1.71-6.72 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.03-17.76 wt.%). They are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in HFSEs, and have 87Sr/86Sr (i) ratios of 0.7050-0.7065, εNd (t) of - 0.32 to - 1.92, zircon εHf (t) and δ18O values of 3.5 to - 11.7 and 4.30-9.80 ‰, respectively. The geochemical data for the volcanic rocks are consistent with an origin from the enriched lithospheric mantle that had been modified by slab-derived fluid and recycled sediments. Based on available geochronological and geochemical evidences, we propose that the Late Triassic Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are equivalent to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks in the Lancangjiang igneous zone in SW China. The formation of these volcanic rocks was possibly related to the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle during the Late Triassic, shortly after slab detachment, which induced the melting of the metasomatized mantle wedge.

  17. Reproductive cycle of Ensis magnus in the Ría de Pontevedra (NW Spain): Spatial variability and fisheries management implications (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, A.; Martínez-Castro, C.; Vázquez, E.; Macho, G.


    Mesoscale differences in the reproductive cycle of the commercial sword razor clam Ensis magnus (Schumacher, 1817) were studied in six shellfish beds in the Ría de Pontevedra (NW Spain) between March 2008 and July 2010. The GCI accurately described the reproductive cycle as indicated by the histological analysis. Both methods showed that the reproductive cycle was similar at different sites and was characterized by a resting stage during summer and early autumn, initiation of gametogenesis in autumn and a period of successive spawning interspersed with gonad recovery during winter and spring. However, a 15-day to one month delay in advanced stages of gametogenesis and maturation was observed between the inner and the outermost site of the ria, as well as an extended spawning period in the outermost area. Lower bottom seawater temperatures at the outermost sites appeared to delay maturation and to prolong the spawning periods, whereas salinity fluctuations at the innermost sites appeared to reduce the length of the cycle. This study provides the first estimation of the size at which E. magnus reaches sexual maturity in the Iberian Peninsula, determined in 79 mm, and it is also the first work in determining the mesoscale variation in gonadal development of any species of the superfamily Solenoidea. The results highlight the importance of carrying out mesoscale studies of the reproductive biology in coastal fisheries resources. Some of the findings of the present study have already been applied in the rotation scheme of the fishery harvesting plan.

  18. An Early Aged Ophiolite in the Western Kunlun Mts.,NW Tibetan Plateau and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xuchang; WANG Jun; SU Li; JI Wenhua; SONG Shuguang


    The early aged ophiolites have attracted attention of many geologists in recent decades, because the early aged ophiolites can provide the information about the ancient oceanic processes relevant to the evolution of plate tectonics in the early period of the earth, and also concern such problems as whether there existed a "Proto-Tethys" and the break-up and convergence of the Rodinian Supercontinent. This paper reveals a definite complete ophiolite of Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic, named Kuda ophiolite in the western Kunlun Mts., NW Tibetan Plateau, and reports the recent reasonable SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 510±4 Ma, and 502±13 Ma for the cumulates of the Kuda ophiolite, using the most powerful dating tool, the SHRIMP-Ⅱ. The geochemical and geochronology data integrating with the geological setting suggest that the Kuda ophiolite might have formed in an archipelago oceanic basin, not in a vast ocean, the so-called "Proto-Tethys",and was tectonically emplaced during the Early Paleozoic.

  19. Late Cretaceous Volcaniclastics in NW Turkey (United States)

    Boehm, Katharina; Wolfgring, Erik; Omer Yilmaz, Ismail; Tüysüz, Okan; Wagreich, Michael


    On the southwestern coast of the Black Sea, in the western Pontides Upper Cretaceous tuff layers are present. The tuffs are intercalated with limestones, marls and turbidites and were investigated with focus on their geochemistry, to get new insights to the arrangement of terranes and ocean basins at this time. In the region two Upper Cretaceous volcanic units can be distinguished, separated by distinct red pelagic limestone successions, belonging to the Unaz Formation. The lower volcanic unit is named Dereköy Formation and is Turonian to Santonian in age. It is thought to be deposited within extension structures, contemporaneously with rifting in the western Black Sea basin. The upper volcanic unit is called Cambu Formation. According to biostratigraphic data it is deposited throughout Campanian, when spreading in the western Black Sea basin started. Interpreted as submarine deposits, element mobility has to be taken into account when interpreting geochemical ICP-MS data of the volcaniclastics. Multiple discrimination diagrams with suitable proxies elucidate the type of volcanism and contribute to reconstruction of the tectonic setting. The classified rock types range from basaltic to rhyodacitic in both volcanic formations. Basically degree of differentiation and alkalinity are the parameters looked at, when determining rock types of the volcanic eruption. Further volcanic series are specified as calc-alkaline to shoshonitic. Moreover, a volcanic arc setting seems to be the most likely case, following several discrimination diagrams, as well as normalized multi-element plots. This tectonic setting can be discussed in connection with paleo-tectonic reconstructions. Most cited in literature nowadays are models favoring a northward subduction of the northern branch of Neotethys, creating an extensional setting north of the Pontides. This kind of back arc extension is interpreted as the reason of a southward drift of the Istanbul continental fragment from Eurasia and the following rifting and opening of the western and eastern Black Sea basin. The existence of a Pontide magmatic arc, as referred to in literature, is not precluded by the back-arc interpretation and should be further looked at, as geochemistry confirms a volcanic arc setting. Correlation of the volcaniclastics with biostratigraphic events and ages from the same outcrops refers to a relative time span between Turonian and Campanian when the magmatic arc was active, at least. Further this correlation contributes to connecting particular outcrops with Dereköy or Cambu Formation. Consequently using these results Cambu Formation can be assigned as less alkaline and acidic then the lower volcanic succession. Furthermore the volcanic series seem to be more tholeiitic in the upper volcanic succession. Generally samples belonging to the Dereköy Formation are enriched in Zr, Th and Nb with respect to samples of Cambu formation. The volcanic arc setting and the chemical characteristics of the volcanism, traced along the southwestern Black Sea coast as distinct tuff layers, are interesting mosaics in understanding paleogeography and paleoenvironmental changes in the Late Cretaceous.

  20. Geochemistry of Archean metasedimentary rocks of the Aravalli craton, NW India: Implications for provenance, paleoweathering and supercontinent reconstruction (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mondal, M. E. A.; Satyanarayanan, M.


    Basement complex of the Aravalli craton (NW India) known as the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) is classified into two domains viz. Archean BGC-I and Proterozoic BGC-II. We present first comprehensive geochemical study of the Archean metasedimentary rocks occurring within the BGC-I. These rocks occur associated with intrusive amphibolites in a linear belt within the basement gneisses. The association is only concentrated on the western margin of the BGC-I. The samples are highly mature (MSm) to very immature (MSi), along with highly variable geochemistry. Their major (SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/K2O and Al2O3/TiO2) and trace (Th/Sc, Cr/Th, Th/Co, La/Sc, Zr/Sc) element ratios, and rare earth element (REE) patterns are consistent with derivation of detritus from the basement gneisses and its mafic enclaves, with major contribution from the former. Variable mixing between the two end members and closed system recycling (cannibalism) resulted in the compositional heterogeneity. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) of the samples indicate low to moderate weathering of the source terrain in a sub-tropical environment. In A-CN-K ternary diagram, some samples deceptively appear to have undergone post-depositional K-metasomatism. Nevertheless, their petrography and geochemistry (low K2O and Rb) preclude the post-depositional alteration. We propose non-preferential leaching of elements during cannibalism as the cause of the deceptive K-metasomatism as well as enigmatic low CIA values of some highly mature samples. The Archean metasedimentary rocks were deposited on stable basement gneisses, making the BGC-I a plausible participant in the Archean Ur supercontinent.

  1. Geochronology and geochemistry of the high Mg dioritic dikes in Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Geochemical features, petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hua-Yong; Hollings, Pete; Cao, Ming-Jian; Fang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Lu, Wan-Jian


    Zircon U-Pb ages of high Mg dioritic dikes in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China indicate that they were emplaced in the Early Carboniferous at 353-348 Ma. The dikes consist of medium-grained plagioclase and hornblende with minor clinopyroxene and trace quartz. They are characterized by intermediate SiO2 (60-62 wt.%), low TiO2 (0.63-0.71 wt.%), relatively high Al2O3 (15.1-15.8 wt.%) and MgO contents (3.45-4.15 wt.%) with Mg# generally higher than 56 (56-59). The geochemistry of the high Mg diorites suggest they were formed by similar magmatic processes to sanukitoid high Mg Andesites such as those of the Setouchi volcanic belt, Japan. Zircons from the high Mg dioritic dikes have εHf(t) values of -6.8 to +14.5. The dominantly positive values suggest a juvenile source, whereas the small number of negative values suggests mature components were also incorporated into the source. Similarly, the positive εNd(t) values (0 to +2.2) are interpreted to reflect a juvenile source whereas the negative values of (-5.2 to 0) suggest participation of old crustal rocks in the petrogenesis of the diorites. The variable εHf(t) and εNd(t) values suggest that the mature material was assimilated during magma ascent rather than in the mantle wedge which would result in more uniform values. Mass balance calculations suggest that the dioritic dikes were derived from sources composed of approximately 97% juvenile mantle-derived material and 3% sediment. Petrographic, elemental, and isotopic evidence suggest that the dioritic dikes were generated by partial melting of depleted mantle that migrated into the shallow crust where it assimilated older sedimentary rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group.

  2. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis L DeVault

    Full Text Available The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck. Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17% resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s, compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%. Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  3. Effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by Turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions. (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; Lima, Steven L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban


    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤ 1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥ 90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions.

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Neo-Tethyan Orhaneli ultramafic suite, NW Turkey: Evidence for the initiation and evolution of magmatic processes in a developing crust-mantle boundary (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kapsiotis, Argyris; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Karsli, Orhan; Müller, Dirk; Aydin, Faruk


    The eastern Orhaneli ophiolitic massif, located in NW Anatolia, Turkey, forms part of the northwestern branch of the so-called Neotethys Ocean across the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. It is comprised mainly of a well preserved ultramafic suite, dominated by voluminous dunite exposures, accompanied by subsidiary harzburgite occurrences. The entire suite is commonly cross cut by a complex network of relatively undeformed clinopyroxenite veins. Clinopyroxene and spinel compositions in harzburgites are moderately depleted, whereas their whole-rock heavy rare earth element (HREE) abundances are consistent with harzburgite formation after approximately 19% dry melting of a spinel-bearing fertile mantle protolith at an extentional geotectonic regime. Nevertheless, textural data indicate that protracted dissolution of pyroxene coupled with precipitation of olivine happened during the transformation of harzburgites to replacive dunites, containing olivine with high Fo [Fo = 100×Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] content (91.3-94.2) and spinel with elevated Cr# [100×Cr/(Cr + Al)] values (78-82). Such highly depleted mineralogical signatures imply that dunite for harzburgite substitution occurred under hydrous melting conditions in the mantle region above a subducted oceanic slab. Enrichments in incompatible elements (e.g., Cs, Rb and Sr) and the characteristic U-shaped chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) profiles exhibited by replacive dunites along with the elevated TiO2 (0.20-0.36 wt.%) contents in their accessory spinels indicate that the reactive melt had an intermediate affinity between boninite and island arc tholeiite (IAT) regimes. The metasomatic reaction triggered an additional 8% melting of the harzburgite residue. The resultant melt fractionated (,almost in situ,) to crystallize cumulate dunites composed of olivine with relatively high Fo content (88.8-92.3), spinel with moderate Cr# values (62-74), as well as clinopyroxene with a depleted composition (low TiO2

  5. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Early Carboniferous to the Late Permian Barleik plutons in the West Junggar (NW China) (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Bao-Fu; Ren, Rong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Zheng, Bo


    The Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis and continental crustal growth in Central Asia are thought to have close relationship with the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). The well-exposed plutons in the northern Barleik Mountains of the West Junggar region, NW China, may provide essential insights into the evolution of the Junggar Ocean, a branch of the PAO, and mechanism of continental crustal growth. Our work on the Barleik plutons indicates an early suite of 324-320 Ma diorite and a late suite of 314-259 Ma quartz syenite and granitic porphyry. All the plutons are characterized by high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic signatures, varying depletion in Nb, Ta, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70241-0.70585), strongly positive εNd(t) values (+ 5.7-+7.7), and young one-stage Nd model ages (390-761 Ma), suggesting that they resulted from different batches of magma that were produced by fractional crystallization of a metasomatized mantle source with minor crustal contamination. The diorite is coeval with the youngest arc magmatic rocks, indicating a subduction-related origin. By contrast, the quartz syenite and granitic porphyry are geochemically similar to A2-type granites, with high Zr, Ga, and FeOT/[FeOT + MgO], and are coeval with the widespread plutons in the West Junggar. This, together with the occurrence of Late Carboniferous fluvial deposits and the lack of < 320 Ma ophiolitic and subduction-related metamorphic lithologies, definitively indicates a post-collisional setting after the closure of the Junggar Ocean. Slab breakoff accompanied by asthenospheric upwelling and basaltic underplating is a possible geodynamic process that is responsible for the post-collisional magmatism and vertical crustal growth in the region. Thus a tectonic switch from subduction to post-collision started at the end of the Early Carboniferous ( 320 Ma), probably as a result of the final closure of the Junggar Ocean.

  6. Biotope mapping in an urban environment and its implications for urban management in Turkey. (United States)

    Mansuroglu, Sibel; Ortacesme, Veli; Karaguzel, Osman


    The biotopes of ecological importance in urban environments worldwide are under the pressure of many negative factors such as urbanization, air pollution, human disturbance, etc. Biotope mapping is an important tool for urban planning and management and of importance for the protection of biotopes for future generations. The biotopes in Antalya city of Turkey, which has faced to a great population pressure due to tourism developments and immigration in the last two decades, were investigated in this study. The selective biotope mapping method was used and major biotope sites were determined by the interpretation of panchromatic aerial photographs, assisted with field verifications. A sensitivity assessment based on two parameters, the rarity and the re-establishment ability of biotopes, was made as it was considered important information for urban planning and management. According to the results of the assessment, the majority of biotopes in Antalya city were found to be very sensitive or sensitive. It was concluded that insufficient legislation, the lack of an ecological urban planning approach and poor urban management are the most important reasons for today's pressures on urban biotopes in Turkey.

  7. A debris avalanche at Süphan stratovolcano (Turkey) and implications for hazard evaluation (United States)

    Özdemir, Yavuz; Akkaya, İsmail; Oyan, Vural; Kelfoun, Karim


    The Quaternary Süphan debris avalanche deposit is located in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The avalanche formed by the sector collapse of a major stratovolcano towards the north, possibly during a single catastrophic event. The deposit has an estimated volume of 4 km3 and ran out over 25 km to cover an area of approximately 200 km2. Products of the collapse are overlain by younger eruptive units from the Süphan volcano. We have tested the numerical code VolcFlow to first reproduce the emplacement of the Quaternary Süphan debris avalanche and then to develop a hazard assessment for potential future sector collapses and subsequent emplacement of debris avalanches and associated tsunami. The numerical model captures the main features of the propagation process, including travel distance, lateral spread, and run up. The best fit obtained for the existing flow has a constant retarding stress of 50 kPa and a collapse scar volume of 4 km3. Analysis of potential future collapse scenarios reveals that northern sector debris avalanches (up to 6 km3) could affect several towns. In the case of a sector collapse towards the south, a tsunami will reach the city of Van and several of the biggest towns on the southern shoreline of Lake Van. Cities most affected by the larger amplitude waves would be Van, Edremit, Gevaş, Tatvan, and, to a lesser extent, Erciş, with wave amplitudes (first waves after the onset of the collapse) between 8 and 10 m.

  8. Differences between rural and urban primary care units in Turkey: Implications on residents′ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Yikilkan


    Full Text Available Context: Family practice training takes place at primary care based training centers linked to Education and Research State Hospitals in Turkey. There is a discussion if these units are adequate to train primary care staff and if the patients of these units reflect the applicants of primary care. Aims: The aim of our study is to investigate the demographic characteristics, the effect of distance on primary care utilization, and most common diagnosis of the patients who applied to two different outpatient clinics: One urban and one rural. Settings and Design: Study was conducted from the electronic health records of the patients applied to outpatient clinics of Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital Department of Family Medicine between 1 January and 31 December 2009. Results: Total number of patients applied to both of the outpatient clinics was 34,632 [urban clinic: 16.506 (47.7%, rural clinic: 18.126 (52.3%]. Leading three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (URTI, general medical examination (GME, and hypertension (HT in the most common 10 diagnosis. Conclusion: In our study, the rural outpatient clinic is regarded as a primary care unit in the neighborhood of living area and the urban clinic as close to working environment. We found statistically meaningful differences in most common diagnosis, gender, age, and consultation time between the rural and urban clinics. According to our results, family practitioners′ field training should take place at different primary care units according to sociodemographic characteristics of each country.

  9. First-aid home treatment of burns among children and some implications at Milas, Turkey. (United States)

    Karaoz, Banu


    This descriptive study was conducted among 130 families in Milas, Turkey, who have children ages 0 to 14 years. Among the 130 families, a total of 53 children (40.8%) experienced a burn event. Twenty-seven subjects (51%) had treated the burn with inappropriate remedies including yogurt, toothpaste, tomato paste, ice, raw egg whites, or sliced potato. Of the 28 subjects (52.8%) who had applied cold water to the burn site, 21 patients (39.6%) applied only cold water and 7 patients (13.2%) used another substance along with cold water. In addition, 13 subjects (24.5%) applied ice directly on the skin at the time of the burn. Excluding the subjects who had treated their burns with only cold water or with only ice, raw egg whites were the most commonly used agent, both alone (n = 3) or accompanied by cold water or ice (n = 6) in a total of 11 subjects (21%) who applied eggs. Based on these observations, it is suggested that educational programs emphasizing first-aid application of only cold water to burn injuries would be helpful in reducing morbidity and mortality rates. A nationwide educational program is needed to ensure that young burn victims receive appropriate first aid and to reduce the use of inappropriate home remedies and burn morbidity.

  10. Assessing the implications of baseline climate uncertainty on simulated water yield within the Himalayan Beas river basin in NW India (United States)

    Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Adeloye, A.; Ojha, C. S.


    baseline hydrological model performance with, for example, calibration Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranging from 0.56 to 0.68 across the precipitation datasets (using CFSR data to derive evapotranspiration) for the river Beas. To evaluate the potential impact of such uncertainty on assessments of future water yield, we further describe the application of a scenario-neutral modelling framework using IPPC AR4 ranges of temperature and precipitation changes to the baseline datasets to assess the differences in their response surfaces. The results show that the uncertainty in the driving hydroclimatological variables, associated with the choice of underlying observational dataset and the choice of evopo-transpiration method, translates into significant temporal and spatial uncertainty in simulated baseline and future water yield with significant implications for our ability to project changes in the water cycle in such sensitive regions.

  11. Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs. (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison


    We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone.

  12. Hymen Tearing in the Treatment of Vaginal Agenesis: Implications on Women in Turkey. (United States)

    Yaman, Şengül; Ayaz, Sultan


    Rupture of the hymen before marriage is a significant problem for a woman and her family. The purpose of this article is to present a case report where hymen membrane perforation was required for vaginal agenesis in a 13-year-old adolescent, identify psychosocial issues related to the torn hymen in the Turkish culture, discuss gender inequality affecting health care of women with a torn hymen, identify the impact of a torn hymen on a Turkish woman's social status, and discuss health care implications for the woman and her family. The girl could not understand the situation and experienced feelings of guilt. The parents displayed an intense reaction of shock and denial after being informed about the disorder and treatment process and felt a sense of hopelessness about the future of their daughter. Nurses are expected to fulfill their training, counseling, and advocacy roles about this issue.

  13. A Paleomagnetic Study of Late Cretaceous Ophiolites in SE Turkey: implications for palaeolatitudes of S Neotethyan spreading centers and emplacement-related tectonic rotations (United States)

    Mualla, Cinku; Timur, Ustaömer; Osman, Parlak; Mumtaz, Hisarli


    Two E-W trending ophiolite belts crop out in SE Turkey, The southerly located ophiolites (Hatay, Koçali) were emplaced onto the Arabian Platform in Late Cretaceous whereas the northerly located ophiolites (Göksun, İspendere, Kömürhan, Guleman) were underthrust the S Tauride margin (i.e. Malatya-Keban Platform) in Late Cretaceous. Different tectonic models exist in the literature for the origin of these different ophiolite belts that we test here by a detailed palaomagnetic study: a) all the ophiolites in Turkey, including those in the study area were rooted from a single ocean basin to the N (i.e. the N Neotethyan Ocean Basin); b) all the ophiolites in SE Turkey were derived from the S Neotethyan Ocean Basin; c) the two ophiolite belts in SE Turkey are believed to have rooted from two different ocean basins; the Berit ocean to the north and the S Neotethys to the S. Our palaeomagnetic study from 72 different sites was focused on to the sheeted dyke complex, cumulate gabbros and extrusive sequences where available of each ophiolite from the N and S belts. We also sampled the unconformable cover units to distinguish emplacement related tectonic rotations from post-emplacement tectonic rotations. Here we report our first results obtained from the Göksun Ophiolite of the northern belt and the Hatay Ophiolite of the southern belt. Rock magnetic experiments showed evidence od magnetite/titanomagnetite as the main magnetic carriers at the majority of sites. Progressive thermal and alternating demagnetization revealed that the characteristic remanent component is removed between 500 and 580 ?C or 30-100 mT, respectively. Our new paleomagnetic results from the ophiolitic rocks emplaced in Arabian platform and the SE Anatolia show important implications to the spreading centre of the former ocean (s). Large counterclockwise rotations up to 100° are obtained from the sheeded dykes of the Hatay ophiolite in the Arabian plate with a paleolatitude of ˜16° , in contrast

  14. The Implications of EU Admittance of Turkey on Turkish-EU Relations and Turkish-U.S. Relations (United States)


    and the EU. 28 39 Brussels European Council, Presidency Conclusions. Brussels, 17 December 2004. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 Bulent Aliriza, Seda Ciftci...www.independent>; Internet; accessed 15 September 2004. Aliriza, Bulent and Ciftci, Seda . “Turkey and the

  15. Turkey's Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Wei


      Turkey, lies southeast of Europe on the tip of western Asia, the country enjoys both a historical bond and deep friendship with China.With their respective locations on the west and east ends of the ancient Silk Road, Turkey and China have a long history of political, cultural and trade relations.……

  16. Turkey's Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Turkey, lies southeast of Europe on the tip of western Asia, the country enjoys both a historical bond and deep friendship with China.With their respective locations on the west and east ends of the ancient Silk Road, Turkey and China have a long history of political, cultural and trade relations.

  17. Paleogeographic and tectonic implications of the first paleomagnetic results from the Middle Late Cambrian Mesón Group: NW Argentina (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Cecilia M.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Astini, Ricardo A.


    The first paleomagnetic data from autochthonous Cambrian rocks in NW Argentina is reported to constrain the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic. The paleomagnetic pole (Lat 4.5°S; Long 359.0°E; dp = 5.5; dm = 8.8; n = 26) was obtained from the red to purple sandstones of the Campanario Formation. These rocks present a characteristic remanence carried by fine-grained hematite. The pole indicates that during the Late Cambrian, rocks now exposed in the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina were deposited at relatively low latitudes (≈26°S), consistent with intense chemical alteration during wet and warm climates, as indicated from petrography of apparent first-cycle quarzites of the Mesón Group. However, the pole position is anomalous with respect to the most accepted apparent polar wander paths for Gondwana, suggesting that the study area (22°50'S, 65°00'W) underwent clockwise rotation of 38° ± 8°, likely related to the Cenozoic central Andes rotation pattern characteristic of the region.

  18. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health


    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy


    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidant...

  19. InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Cakir, Ziyadin


    We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency\\'s Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.

  20. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography (United States)

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.


    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  1. Eohimalayan NE-directed tectonism in the NW Himalaya: Implications for the kinematic evolution of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Epard, Jean-Luc


    In the central parts of the Himalayas, the High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) high-grade rocks are exhumed in the frontal part of the range, as a consequence of a tectonic extrusion controlled by combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). In the NW Himalaya, however, the hanging wall of the MCT in the frontal part of the range consists of low-grade metasediments, whereas the HHC high-grade rocks are exposed in a more internal part of the orogen as a large scale dome structure called the Gianbul dome. Another striking feature of the HHC in NW Indian Himalaya is the occurrence of NE-vergent folds and thrust faults that clearly contrast from the SW-directed folding and thrusting that characterize the Himalayan orogeny since the continental collision between India and Asia 55 Myr ago. Two competing interpretations have been put forward to explain the occurrence of these uncommon NE-verging structures. A first set of interpretations argues that this unusual vergence relates to local heterogeneities of the deformation during to the main SW-directed folding phase (e.g Frank et al., 1987). However, based on structural interference patterns, Steck et al. (1993) contrastingly conclude that these NE-directed structures predate the predominant SW-verging Himalayan deformation and are related to an early NE-directed Eohimalayan tectonic event associated with the emplacement of the so-called Shikar Beh nappe. New structural and geochronological data reveal that these unusual NE-verging structures result from a NE-directed propagation of crustal deformation that initiated 53 Myr ago. As such, the numerous structures showing a top-to-the NE sense of shear observed in Upper Lahul (NW India) cannot just be seen as local heterogeneities of the main SW-verging deformation but rather as evidence of a predominant Eohimalayan deformation manifested by folding and thrusting toward the NE. Although the origin of this

  2. Geochronological, elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Triassic post-collisional granitic rocks in NW Thailand and its Paleotethyan implications (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; He, Huiying; Cawood, Peter A.; Srithai, Boontarika; Feng, Qinglai; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Yuzhi; Qian, Xin


    New U-Pb geochronological, petrologic, elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic data for the granites from the Inthanon and Sukhothai zones in NW Thailand in conjunction with correlations with SW China are presented to constrain the age and position of the Paleotethys Ocean in this region and the associated assembly of Southeast Asia. The geochronological data show that the granitic rocks in the Inthanon and Sukhothai zones, herein named Group 1 and Group 2 granites, respectively, yield similar crystallization ages of 230-200 Ma. Group 1 samples are characterized by monzogranite and granite with I- and S-type geochemical affinity and Group 2 samples by I-type monzogranite and granodiorite. They have generally similar chondrite-normalized REE and PM-normalized multi-element patterns but distinct Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions. Group 1 samples have slightly higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7111-0.7293) but lower εNd(t) values (- 11.1 to - 14.1) than those of Group 2 samples (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7073-0.7278 and εNd(t) = - 8.3 to - 11.0). Group 1 samples show the lower εHf(t) values (- 5.4 to - 18.2), older TDM (1.62-2.40 Ga) and higher δ18O values (+ 7.95 to + 9.94) than those of Group 2 samples (εHf(t) of - 11.1 to + 4.80, TDM of 0.96-1.95 Ga and δ18O of + 4.95 to + 7.98) for the Triassic crystallization zircons. These geochemical signatures are similar to the Kwangsian and Indosinian granites in the South China and Indochina blocks but distinct from those of the Gangdese I-type granite and Sibumasu Paleozoic granite. Our data suggest that Group 1 samples mainly originated from the early Paleozoic supracrustal rocks containing metapelite and metavolcanic components, which had previously experienced the surface weathering. Group 2 samples were derived from a hybridized source of an old metamorphic and a newly underplated mafic component. Synthesis of our data with available regional observations indicates that the Inthanon zone represents the main suture zone of the

  3. Field and Microstructure Study of Transpressive Jogdadi shear zone near Ambaji, Aravalli- Delhi Mobile Belt, NW India and its tectonic implication on the exhumation of granulites. (United States)

    Tiwari, Sudheer Kumar; Biswal, Tapas Kumar


    Aravalli- Delhi mobile belt is situated in the northwestern part of Indian shield. It comprises tectono- magmatic histories from Archean to Neoproterozoic age. It possesses three tectono- magmatic metamorphic belts namely Bhilwara Supergroup (3000 Ma), Aravalli Supergorup (1800 Ma) and Delhi Supergroup (1100 -750Ma). The Delhi Supergroup is divided in two parts North Delhi and South Delhi; North Delhi (1100 Ma to 850 Ma) is older than South Delhi (850 Ma to 750 Ma). The study area falls in the South Delhi terrane; BKSK granulites are the major unit in this terrane. BKSK granulites comprise gabbro- norite-basic granulite, pelitic granulite, calcareous granulite and occur within the surrounding of low grade rocks as meta- rhyolite, quartzite, mica schist and amphibolites. The high grade and low grade terranes share a sheared margin. Granulites have undergone three phases of folding, intruded by three phases of granites and traversed by many shear zones. One of the shear zones is Jogdadi shear zone which consists of granitic mylonites and other sheared rocks. Jogdadi shear zone carries the evidence of both ductile as well as brittle shearing. It strikes NW- SE; the mylonitic foliation dip moderately to SW or NE and stretching lineations are oblique towards SE. The shear zone is folded and gabbro- norite - basic granulite occurs at the core. One limb of fold passes over coarse grained granite while other limb occurs over gabbro- norite- basic granulite. Presence of mylonitic foliation, asymmetric folding, S-C fabrics, porphyroclasts, mica fishes and book shelf- gliding are indicative of ductile deformation. Most of the porphyroclasts are sigmoidal and delta types but there are also some theta and phi type porphyroclasts. Book shelf-gliding structures are at low angle to the C plane. The shear zone successively shows protomylonite, mylonite and ultramylonites from margin to the centre. As the mylonitization increases recrystallized quartz grains appear. Porphyroclasts

  4. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing


    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 ( 3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  5. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing


    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 (~3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  6. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health. (United States)

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy


    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  7. Cocos Plate Seamounts offshore NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua: Implications for large-scale distribution of Galápagos plume material in the upper mantle (United States)

    Herbrich, Antje; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard; Hauff, Folkmar; Bogaard, Paul v. d.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter


    The origin of intraplate volcanism not directly part of a hotspot track, such as diffuse seamount provinces, and the extent of mantle plume influence on the upper mantle remain enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar age data and geochemical (major and trace-element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic) data from seamounts on the Cocos Plate presently located offshore of NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua. The seamounts (~ 7-24 Ma) require mixing of an enriched ocean island basalt composition, similar to that of the Northern Galápagos Domain, with two depleted components. One of the depleted components is similar to East Pacific Rise normal mid-ocean ridge basalt and the other has more depleted incompatible elements, either reflecting secondary melting of MORB or a depleted Galápagos plume component. Seamounts with ages significantly younger than the ocean crust formed in an intraplate setting and can be explained by northward transport of Galápagos plume material along the base of the Cocos Plate up to 900 km away from the hotspot and 250-500 km north of the Galápagos hotspot track. We propose that melting occurs due to decompression as the mantle upwells to shallower depth as it flows northwards, either due to changes in lithospheric thickness or as a result of upwelling at the edge of a viscous plug of accumulated plume material at the base of the lithosphere. The tholeiitic to alkaline basalt compositions of the Cocos Plate Seamounts compared to the more silica under-saturated compositions of Hawaiian rejuvenated and arch (alkali basalts to nephelinites) lavas are likely to reflect the significant difference in age (< 25 vs ~ 90 Ma) and thus thickness of the lithosphere on which the lavas were erupted.

  8. Microstructures and petro-fabrics of lawsonite blueschist in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China: Implications for seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic crust (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang


    We conducted a detailed study on the microstructures and petro-fabrics of massive and foliated lawsonite blueschist (LBS) in North Qilian suture zone, NW China. The lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of glaucophane and lawsonite in foliated lawsonite blueschist (LBS) is considered to be dominantly formed by the deformation mechanism of dislocation creep and rigid-body rotation, respectively. The LPO of glaucophane is mainly characterized by the [001] axis aligning parallel to lineation and the [100] axis and (110) pole plunging perpendicular to foliation. In contrast, the LPO of lawsonite features the maximum [010] axis concentrated close to lineation and the [001] axis strongly clustered normal to foliation. The preferred orientation of [010] axis of lawsonite parallel to lineation is supported by a two-dimensional numerical modeling using the finite-volume method (FVM). The mineral LPOs are much stronger in foliated LBS than in massive LBS. In addition, a kinematic vorticity analysis suggests that both pure shear dominant (Wm = 0.18-0.26) and simple shear dominant (Wm = 0.86-0.93) deformation regimes are present in foliated LBS. The [001] axis and (010) pole of glaucophane, and the [100] and [010] axes of lawsonite, tend to distribute in a foliation-parallel girdle in the pure shear dominant samples, but simple shear dominant samples display more lineation-parallel concentrations of a [001] axis of glaucophane and a [010] axis of lawsonite. Because the whole-rock seismic anisotropies in foliated LBS are significantly higher than those in massive LBS and a counteracting effect on seismic anisotropies occurs between glaucophane and lawsonite, the delay time of fast S-wave polarization anisotropy induced by an actual subducting oceanic crust with a high subducting angle (> 45-60°) is expected to range from 0.03 to 0.09 s (lower bound for massive LBS) and from 0.1 to 0.3 s (upper bound for foliated epidote blueschist).

  9. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min


    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  10. Discovering buried channels of the Yamuna in alluvial plains of NW India using geophysical investigations: implications for major drainage reorganization during Late Quaternary (United States)

    Paul, D.; Khan, I.; Sinha, R.


    Climatic changes and active tectonic movements in the northwestern plains of India during the Late Quaternary have led to the migration and abandonment of drainage systems and formation of a large number of palaeochannels. It has been postulated by previous workers that the Yamuna was flowing along the present-day dry palaeochannels of Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed >120 Ka ago and was relocated to its current position only during the Late Quaternary. However, till date, no conclusive evidence has been provided as to when and why the Yamuna avulsion occurred. This study aims to establish sub-surface existence of buried channels of paleo-Yamuna as possible courses of the paleo-Ghaggar river. Geo-electric studies using vertical electrical resistivity soundings (1D-VES), multi electrode electrical resistivity tomography (2D-ERT) and multi probe well log surveys have been carried out in one of the paleochannels of the Yamuna to map the large-scale geometry and architecture of the palaeochannel system in the subsurface. The main objective is to reconstruct the shallow subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture of the interfluve between the modern Yamuna and Sutlej Rivers, in particular the linkage of the paleocourses of the Yamuna River to the drainage network of the northwestern alluvial plains. The geophysical signatures recorded as VES on two transects trending NW-SE in Karnal and Kaithal districts of Haryana at 9 and 13 locations respectively along with continuous ERT reveals the presence of subsurface fine to coarse sand bodies (20 to 30m thick) interbedded with silty clay layers that are laterally stacked. The occurrence of thick and wide subsurface sand bodies in the subsurface implies that these are the deposits of a large river system and suggests that the Yamuna was connected to the paleo-Ghaggar River as hypothesized by earlier workers based on remote sensing techniques. However, detailed sedimentological and chronological constraints are required to establish

  11. Geometry and thermal structure of the Menderes Massif Core Complex (Western Turkey), implications for thermal evolution of Hellenic subduction zone (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Tuduri, Johann; Bouchot, Vincent; Beccaletto, Laurent; Lahfid, Abdeltif


    The eastern Mediterranean region is one of the most promising geothermal areas, with more than 250 geothermal fields discovered in Turkey (Parlaktuna, 2013), in a region of active tectonics and volcanism. Although the potential of these deep geothermal resources has not been systematically investigated yet, the geothermal activity of the western Turkey area is the most recent signature of the high heat flow (120-140 mW/m²; Aydin, 2005, from Teczan, 1995). Based on Turkish data, 2084 MWt are being utilized for direct applications and most of the energy originates from the Menderes Massif (Baba et al., 2015). This large-scale thermal anomaly at the surface is correlated to a long wavelength east-west increase of surface heat flow that could reflect the thermal state of Aegean subduction zone at depth. In order to better understand and characterize the possible connections between large-scale mantle dynamics and surface processes in space and time, we study the structure and thermal evolution of the Menderes Massif. Both the acceleration of the Aegean extension in the Middle Miocene and the recent escape of Anatolia have been proposed to result from several slab tearing events, the first one being located below western Turkey and the Eastern Aegean Sea. These events have triggered the formation of metamorphic complexes with contrasted exhumation P-T paths. While the extension in the Aegean domain is well-characterized with high-temperature domes in the center and east, the succession of several metamorphic events in the Menderes Massif and their significance in terms of geodynamics is still debated. Hence, the exhumation history is key to understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal signature of the Hellenic slab and its tearing/detachment. The Menderes Massif displays a large variety of metamorphic facies, from the Barrovian type metamorphism in the Eocene (the Main Menderes Metamorphism) to the coeval (?) HP-LT metamorphism on the southernmost

  12. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude


    Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojević Šoštarić et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pamić et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the

  13. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Russell


    Full Text Available Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05 improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato. Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01. However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01 contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  14. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong


    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  15. Geochemistry, geochronology, and cathodoluminescence imagery of the Salihli and Turgutlu granites (central Menderes Massif, Western Turkey): Implications for Aegean tectonics (United States)

    Catlos, E. J.; Baker, C.; Sorensen, S. S.; Çemen, I.; Hançer, M.


    The Menderes Massif (western Turkey) is an important metamorphic core complex located in the Aegean region; geochemical and geochronological data from this extensional domain facilitates our understanding of large-scale extension of the Earth's lithosphere. S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude the Alasehir detachment which bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the granites range from 21.7±4.5 Ma to 9.6±1.6 Ma (±1s). The range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) imagery that document complex textures within the samples. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase (some with shocked cores consistent with magma mixing), plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, clear evidence for fluid infiltration, and multiple generations of microcracks and microfaults. The granites may have evolved from compositionally distinct magma sources, as Salihli samples in general contain allanite as the major accessory mineral, whereas Turgutlu granites contain monazite. However, the CL imagery document similar alteration textures. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate a level of complexity when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to the large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth, and multiple episodes of deformation.

  16. Taphonomic implications from Upper Triassic mass flow deposits: 2-dimensional reconstructions of an ammonoid mass occurrence (Carnian, Taurus Mountains, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayrhofer Susanne


    Full Text Available Ammonoid mass occurrences of Late Triassic age were investigated in sections from A şağlyaylabel and Yukarlyaylabel, which are located in the Taurus Platform-Units of eastern Turkey. The cephalopod beds are almost monospecific, with > 99.9 % of individuals from the ceratitic genus Kasimlarceltites, which comprises more than hundreds of millions of ammonoid specimens. The ontogenetic composition of the event fauna varies from bed to bed, suggesting that these redeposited shell-rich sediments had different source areas. The geographical extent of the mass occurrence can be traced over large areas up to 10 km2. Each of the Early Carnian (Julian 2 ammonoid mass occurrences signifies a single storm (e.g. storm-wave action or tectonic event (e.g. earthquake that caused gravity flows and turbidity currents. Three types of ammonoid accumulation deposits are distinguished by their genesis: 1 matrix-supported floatstones, produced by low density debris flows, 2 mixed floatstones and packstones formed by high density debris flows, and 3 densely ammonoid shell-supported packstones which result from turbidity currents. Two-dimensional calculations on the mass occurrences, based on sectioning, reveal aligned ammonoid shells, implying transport in a diluted sediment. The ammonoid shells are predominantely redeposited, preserved as mixed autochthonous/parautochnonous/ allochthonous communities based on biogenic and sedimentological concentration mechanisms ( = in-situ or post-mortem deposited. This taphonomic evaluation of the Kasimlarceltites beds thus reveals new insights into the environment of deposition of the Carnian section, namely that it had a proximal position along a carbonate platform edge that was influenced by a nearby shallow water regime. The Kasimlarceltites-abundance zone is a marker-zone in the study area, developed during the drowning of a shallow water platform, which can be traceable over long distances.

  17. Taphonomic implications from Upper Triassic mass flow deposits: 2-dimensional reconstructions of an ammonoid mass occurrence (Carnian, Taurus Mountains, Turkey) (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Susanne; Mayrhofer, Susanne


    Ammonoid mass occurrences of Late Triassic age were investigated in sections from A şağlyaylabel and Yukarlyaylabel, which are located in the Taurus Platform-Units of eastern Turkey. The cephalopod beds are almost monospecific, with > 99.9 % of individuals from the ceratitic genus Kasimlarceltites, which comprises more than hundreds of millions of ammonoid specimens. The ontogenetic composition of the event fauna varies from bed to bed, suggesting that these redeposited shell-rich sediments had different source areas. The geographical extent of the mass occurrence can be traced over large areas up to 10 km2. Each of the Early Carnian (Julian 2) ammonoid mass occurrences signifies a single storm (e.g. storm-wave action) or tectonic event (e.g. earthquake) that caused gravity flows and turbidity currents. Three types of ammonoid accumulation deposits are distinguished by their genesis: 1) matrix-supported floatstones, produced by low density debris flows, 2) mixed floatstones and packstones formed by high density debris flows, and 3) densely ammonoid shell-supported packstones which result from turbidity currents. Two-dimensional calculations on the mass occurrences, based on sectioning, reveal aligned ammonoid shells, implying transport in a diluted sediment. The ammonoid shells are predominantely redeposited, preserved as mixed autochthonous/parautochnonous/ allochthonous communities based on biogenic and sedimentological concentration mechanisms ( = in-situ or post-mortem deposited). This taphonomic evaluation of the Kasimlarceltites beds thus reveals new insights into the environment of deposition of the Carnian section, namely that it had a proximal position along a carbonate platform edge that was influenced by a nearby shallow water regime. The Kasimlarceltites-abundance zone is a marker-zone in the study area, developed during the drowning of a shallow water platform, which can be traceable over long distances.

  18. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim


    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (-12.9 to -11.0) values are accompanied by high H2O contents (5.39-6.88 wt.%). High water

  19. 2.6 Ga Gabbro-tonalite-trondhjemite Complex and 2.5 Ga Potassic Granite in Quruqtagh. Geochronology, Geochemistry and Their Implications on the Early Precambrian Tectonic Evolution of the Tarim Block, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-lin; LI Xian-hua; LI Zheng-xiang; YE Hai-min


    @@ Field observation, ages and geochemistry of the Neoarchaean intrusive complex in Quruqtagh in northern mar-gin of the Tarim Block, NW China, are reported to decipher the Neoarchaean tectonic evolution of the Tarim Block.

  20. Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe. (United States)

    Fujii, Toyonobu


    In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments.

  1. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi


    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  2. Quaternary bimodal volcanism in the Niğde Volcanic Complex (Cappadocia, central Anatolia, Turkey): age, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Schmitt, Axel K.; Siebel, Wolfgang; Sönmez, Mustafa; Ersoy, Yalçın; Lermi, Abdurrahman; Dirik, Kadir; Duncan, Robert


    The late Neogene to Quaternary Cappadocian Volcanic Province (CVP) in central Anatolia is one of the most impressive volcanic fields of Turkey because of its extent and spectacular erosionally sculptured landscape. The late Neogene evolution of the CVP started with the eruption of extensive andesitic-dacitic lavas and ignimbrites with minor basaltic lavas. This stage was followed by Quaternary bimodal volcanism. Here, we present geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb and δ18O isotopes) and geochronological (U-Pb zircon and Ar-Ar amphibole and whole-rock ages) data for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Niğde Volcanic Complex (NVC) in the western part of the CVP to determine mantle melting dynamics and magmatic processes within the overlying continental crust during the Quaternary. Geochronological data suggest that the bimodal volcanic activity in the study area occurred between ca. 1.1 and ca. 0.2 Ma (Pleistocene) and comprises (1) mafic lavas consisting of basalts, trachybasalts, basaltic andesites and scoria lapilli fallout deposits with mainly basaltic composition, (2) felsic lavas consisting of mostly rhyolites and pumice lapilli fall-out and surge deposits with dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The most mafic sample is basalt from a monogenetic cone, which is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7038, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5128, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.80, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.68, suggesting a moderately depleted signature of the mantle source. Felsic volcanic rocks define a narrow range of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios (0.5126-0.5128) and are homogeneous in Pb isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.84-18.87, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64-15.67 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93-38.99). 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions of mafic (0.7038-0.7053) and felsic (0.7040-0.7052) samples are similar, reflecting a common mantle source. The felsic rocks have relatively low zircon δ18O values (5.6 ± 0.6 ‰) overlapping mantle values (5.3 ± 0.3 %), consistent with an origin by fractional crystallization

  3. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions (United States)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt


    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45-80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65-81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range from

  4. Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey): Implications of the morphometric analyses (United States)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.


    The Anatolian 'plate' is being extruded westward relative to the Eurasia along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian and the East Anatolian shear zones, respectively making its northern and eastern boundaries. Although the main deformation is localized along these two structures, there is remarkable intra-plate deformation within Anatolia, especially which are characterized by NE-striking sinistral and NW-striking dextral strike-slip faults (Şengör et al. 1985). The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ) and its northeastern member, the Ovacık Fault (OF), is a one of the NE-striking sinistral strike slip faults in the central 'ova' neotectonic province of Anatolia, located close to its eastern boundary. Although this fault zone is claimed to be an inactive structure in some studies, the recent GPS measurements (Aktuǧ et al., 2013) and microseismic activity (AFAD, 2013) strongly suggest the opposite. In order to understand rates and patterns of vertical ground motions along the OF, we studied the certain morphometric analyses such as hypsometric curves and integrals, longitudinal channel profiles, and asymmetry of drainage basins. The Karasu (Euphrates) and Munzur rivers form the main drainage systems of the study area. We extracted all drainage network from SRTM-based Digital Elevation Model with 30 m ground pixel resolution and totally identified 40 sub-drainage basins, which are inhomogeneously distributed to the north and to the south of the OF. Most of these basins show strong asymmetry, which are mainly tilted to SW. The asymmetry relatively decreases from NE to SW in general. The only exception is at the margins of the Ovacık Basin (OB), where almost the highest asymmetry values were calculated. On the other hand, the characteristics of hypsometric curves and the calculated hypsometric integrals do not show the similar systematic spatial pattern. The hypsometric curves with convex-shaped geometry, naturally indicating relatively young morphology

  5. A 3400 year lacustrine paleoseismic record from the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey: Implications for bimodal recurrence behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas


    High-resolution physical, geochemical, and geochronological analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Yeniçağa Lake, located in a fault-bounded basin along the North Anatolian Fault, reveal fingerprints of paleoearthquakes. A robust sediment chronology, spanning the last 3400 years, is constructed by radiocarbon dating and time-stratigraphical correlation with the precisely dated Sofular Cave speleothem record. Yeniçağa sedimentary sequence contains 11 seismically induced event deposits characterized by siliciclastic-enriched intervals. Some of the event deposits are also associated with implications of sudden lake deepening, which may be related to coseismic subsidence. The paleoearthquake series having an average recurrence interval of ca. 260 years are interrupted by two possible seismic gaps of ca. 420 and 540 years.

  6. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)


    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  7. Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-faulting earthquake, eastern Turkey, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening (United States)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.


    The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop fault exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van fault started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay fault initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip faults. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van fault and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van fault is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface faulting based solely on surface folding and faulting in regions of reverse faulting may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of post-seismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona





    Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey is a country located mainly in the south western part of Asia, the Middle East, and partly in the south-eastern Europe. Today, Turkey is a full member of such organizations as the UN, IMF, NATO, OBSE. The multi-vector policy of Turkey is caused by the presence of certain national interests in the formation of a direction of foreign policy. The most priority is the Western orientation.




    This paper aims to discuss the different results of factor analysis used to test construct validity and reliability in SERVQUAL studies, considering the fact that our study measuring service quality of Turk Eximbank, export credit agency in Turkey, resulted in more different -but not unusual- findings than those proposed by the designers of the model. These controversial results observed in both our study and various service quality investigations directed us to look more closely into this is...

  10. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Iznik (W Turkey) and Üçaǧizli Cave (S Turkey) - implications for human dispersal in the Upper Palaeolithic along coastal Anatolia. (United States)

    Viehberg, Finn A.; Assanov, Sergey; Kuhn, Steven; Reed, Jane; Ülgen, Umut B.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Melles, Martin


    Transcontinental dispersal of modern humans from the Near East to the Balkans in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic is expected to have followed the coastline (i.e., Yarımburgaz, Karain and Üçaǧızlı caves). Lake Iznik is situated 80 km south of the Bosphorus (Western Turkey) close to the Marmara Sea. Here we retrieved a continuous sediment record covering the past ~40 ka cal BP. A multiproxy approach enabled us to reconstruct the environmental history. We included biological proxies i.e., diatoms, cladocerans and ostracods as biological proxies, but also physical and geochemical proxies were analysed. Geomorphological findings in the lake basin and geochemical analyses hint to changing lake water levels at least since 40 ka cal BP that lasted until c. 11 cal. kyr BP. This supports the theory of persisting dry climate conditions before the onset of the Holocene also inferred from geochemical sediment proxies (i.e., element analysis), diatoms and ostracod shell chemistry. The Upper Palaeolithic sequences (45-33 ka cal BP) at the Üçaǧızlı Cave (Hatay) yield clear evidence of the technological transition between Initial Upper Palaeolithic and Ahmarian, but also documents major shifts in diet of past hunting community. The identified animal remains in the cave sequence change from larger ungulates to smaller ungulates and increase in fish and shellfish. It is proposed that the compositional change in game is not solitarily caused by technology advances, but also by environmental and climatic changes as inferred from sediment archives of Lake Iznik.

  11. Adult Education in Turkey (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem


    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  12. The Aguilar pluton (23°12‧ S-65°40‧ W; NW Argentina): Petrological implications on the origin of the Late Jurassic intraplate magmatism in the Central Andes (United States)

    Omarini, Ricardo H.; Gioncada, Anna; Vezzoli, Luigina; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Cristiani, Chiara; Sureda, Ricardo J.


    The Late Jurassic Aguilar pluton is located in NW Argentina, about 300-400 Km east of the Tarapacá basin, representing the backarc basin linked to the Jurassic volcanic arc. This small-size and compositionally heterogeneous pluton intruded the metasedimentary rocks of the Ordovician Santa Victoria Group, along the Cobres-Salinas Grandes lineament. A revision of published geochemical data in the light of new field and petrological results, allows us to propose a model concerning the petrogenesis and emplacement mechanisms of Aguilar pluton and to discuss its geodynamic setting. The pluton is mainly composed of metaluminous and nearly peraluminous granitoids, showing the geochemical characteristics of ferroan granites. The volumetrically subordinate mafic rocks are both ne- and hy-normative, and their primary magmas were generated by partial melting of a pristine Proterozoic mantle. Aguilar rocks display a rather limited range in (87Sr/86Sr)i, compared to the entire rift-related plutonic suite, i.e., 0.703198-0.704601, and ɛNdt from -1.06 to 3.82, calculated at 149 Ma. Fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas and crustal contamination processes explain the evolution to produce strongly silica-oversaturated magmas, which emplaced in the continental crust. The petrological data indicate that magma emplacement and cooling occurred at rather shallow depth. Multiple injections of magma batches into the magma chamber caused mingling and mixing processes early in the crystallization history. The Aguilar pluton is one of the several igneous complexes whose formation was associated with the extensional tectonics active during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in NW Argentina. Based on the geological position and the igneous rocks affinity, we exclude that the Late Jurassic magmatism was generated in an orogenic setting and envisage that it was linked to the early extensional phase that preceded the Cretaceous continental rifting, related to the break-up of the South

  13. Aftershock Activity Triggered By the 2014 Earthquake (Mw=6.5), and Its Implications for the Future Seismic Risk in the Marmara Sea, Turkey (United States)

    Polat, O.; Kilic, T.; Turkoglu, M.; Kaplan, M.; Kilicarslan, O.; Özer, Ç.; Gok, E.


    We have performed aftershocks analysis triggered by 24.05.2014 (Mw=6.5) Gokceada Island (GI) earthquake where occurred at the W of North Anatolian Fault zone. Mainshock was widely felt in Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey. Major damage in 228 homes was reported. Other 49 residences suffered moderate or light damage. We have well located 699 events over 1041 by at least 5 stations for one month period after the mainshock. Double difference relocation algorithm allowed us to minimize rms values less than 0.39. Initial results show clear unilateral rupture towards Gallipoli Peninsula at the W of Marmara Sea region. Aftershocks show linearity with an extension of ~110 km length, ~25 km width. Largest aftershock (Mw=5.3) was at the NE end of activation zone. Depths are mainly confined from 5 to 25 km ranges. Two locking depths are detected beneath 8 km in Lemnos Basin and Saros Trough. We also constructed focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor solutions. Digital waveform data obtained from AFAD (Turkey) and HT-AUTH (Greece). Focal mechanisms reflect complex tectonic settings. Nevertheless numerous mechanisms show dominant dextral strike-slip motions aligned NE-SW direction with minor reverse component. State of stress before the mainshock was pure shear regime. But two principal stress axes are observed as oblique for the aftershocks showing ambiguity between compression and shear. It is likely that the mean stress regime has changed after the GI earthquake. If this is so, we may expect that the strike-slip component would slowly increase later in order to recover the conditions existing before. Coulomb stress values rise at the edges of the fault segment due to accumulation of slip. We observed strong spatial correlation between the static stress change after 2014 GI earthquake and the segment that ruptured during the 1912 Murefte-Ganos (Mw=7.4) earthquake. The analysis showed that the areas of positive static stress changes reach to seismic gap in the Marmara

  14. Coulomb static stress changes before and after the 23 October 2011 Van, eastern Turkey, earthquake (MW= 7.1: implications for the earthquake hazard mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utkucu


    Full Text Available Coulomb stress changes before and after the 23 October 2011 Van, eastern Turkey, earthquake have been analysed using available data related to the background and the aftershock seismicity and the source faults. The coseismic stress changes of the background seismicity had slightly promoted stress over the rupture plane of the 2011 Van earthquake, while it yielded a stress shadow over the Gürpı nar Fault which has been argued to have produced the 7 April 1646 Van earthquake. The stress shadow over the Gürpi nar fault has become more pronounced following the occurrence of the 2011 Van earthquake, meaning that the repetition of the 1646 Van earthquake has been further suppressed. Spatial distribution and source mechanisms of the 2011 Van earthquake's aftershocks have been utilised to define four clusters with regard to their relative location to the mainshock rupture. In addition, the aftershock sequence covers a much broader area toward the northeast. Correlations between the observed spatial patterns of the aftershocks and the coseismic Coulomb stress changes caused by the mainshock are determined by calculating the stress changes over both optimally oriented and specified fault planes. It is shown here that there is an apparent correlation between the mainshock stress changes and the observed spatial pattern of the aftershock occurrence, demonstrating the usefulness of the stress maps in constraining the likely locations of the upcoming aftershocks and mitigating earthquake hazard.

  15. Middle Triassic back-arc basalts from the blocks in the Mersin Mélange, southern Turkey: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Northern Neotethys (United States)

    Sayit, Kaan; Bedi, Yavuz; Tekin, U. Kagan; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Okuyucu, Cengiz


    The Mersin Mélange is a tectonostratigraphic unit within the allochthonous Mersin Ophiolitic Complex in the Taurides, southern Turkey. This chaotic structure consists of blocks and tectonic slices of diverse origins and ages set in a clastic matrix of Upper Cretaceous age. In this study, we examine two blocks at two different sections characterized by basaltic lava flows alternating with radiolarian-bearing pelagic sediments. The radiolarian assemblage extracted from the mudstone-chert alternation overlying the lavas yields an upper Anisian age (Middle Triassic). The immobile element geochemistry suggests that the lava flows are predominantly characterized by sub-alkaline basalts. All lavas display pronounced negative Nb anomalies largely coupled with normal mid-ocean basalt (N-MORB)-like high field strength element (HFSE) patterns. On the basis of geochemical modelling, the basalts appear to have dominantly derived from spinel-peridotite and pre-depleted spinel-peridotite sources, while some enriched compositions can be explained by contribution of garnet-facies melts from enriched domains. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest generation of these Middle Triassic lavas at an intra-oceanic back-arc basin within the northern branch of Neotethys. This finding is of significant importance, since these rocks may represent the presence of the oldest subduction zone found thus far from the Neotethyan branches. This, in turn, suggests that the rupturing of the Gondwanan lithosphere responsible for the opening of the northern branch of Neotethys should have occurred during the Lower Triassic or earlier.

  16. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas


    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  17. Energy Security and Turkey (United States)


    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  18. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption. (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan


    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  19. Structural characteristics of the Lake Van Basin, eastern Turkey, from high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and multibeam echosounder data: geologic and tectonic implications (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Krastel, Sebastian; Tomonaga, Yama; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari; Meydan, Ayşegül Feray; Çağatay, M. Namık; Toker, Mustafa; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kong, Gee-Soo; Horozal, Senay


    The structural evolution of Lake Van Basin, eastern Turkey, was reconstructed based on seismic reflection profiles through the sedimentary fill as well as from newly acquired multibeam echosounder data. The major sub-basins (Tatvan Basin and Northern Basin) of Lake Van, bound by NE-trending faults with normal components, formed during the past 600 ka probably due to extensional tectonics resulting from lithospheric thinning and mantle upwelling related to the westward escape of Anatolia. Rapid extension and subsidence during early lake formation led to the opening of the two sub-basins. Two major, still active volcanoes (Nemrut and Süphan) grew close to the lake basins approximately synchronously, their explosive deposits making up >20 % of the drilled upper 220 m of the ca. 550-m-thick sedimentary fill. During basin development, extension and subsidence alternated with compressional periods, particularly between 340 and 290 ka and sometime before 14 ka, when normal fault movements reversed and gentle anticlines formed as a result of inversion. The 14 ka event was accompanied by widespread uplift and erosion along the northeastern margin of the lake, and substantial erosion took place on the crests of the folds. A series of closely spaced eruptions of Süphan volcano occurred synchronously suggesting a causal relationship. Compression is still prevalent inside and around Lake Van as evidenced by recent faults offsetting the lake floor and by recent devastating earthquakes along their onshore continuations. New, high-resolution bathymetry data from Lake Van reveal the morphology of the Northern Ridge and provide strong evidence for ongoing transpression on a dextral strike-slip fault as documented by the occurrence of several pop-up structures along the ridge.

  20. Zircon U-Pb age and geochemical constraints on the origin and tectonic implication of Cadomian (Ediacaran-Early Cambrian) magmatism in SE Turkey (United States)

    Beyarslan, Melahat; Lın, Yu-Chin; Bingöl, A. Feyzi; Chung, Sun-Lin


    The Bitlis-Pütürge Massifs and Derik volcanics that crop out in the Southeast Anatolian Belt are parts of the Cadomian domain in Anatolia where relicts of the oldest continental crust of Turkey are exposed. The Bitlis-Pütürge Massifs contain a Neoproterozoic basement, with overlying Phanerozoic rocks that were imbricated, metamorphosed and thrust over the edge of Arabia during the Alpine orogeny. The basement consists mainly of granitic to tonalitic augen gneisses and metagranites, associated with schists, amphibolites and paragneisses. Based on whole-rock geochemical data, the augen gneisses are interpreted to have protoliths crystallized from subduction zone magmas. This study conducted the first zircon dating on two augen gneisses that gave 206Pb/238U dates of 551 ± 6 and 544 ± 4 Ma, interpreted as the formation ages of the Pütürge Massif, broadly coeval to those of the Bitlis metagranites and the Derik volcanics that occurred from ca. 581 to 529 Ma (the Ediacaran-early Cambrian). The ɛHf(t) values (+1.2 to -5.3) of the dated zircons, with crustal model ages (TDMC) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga, indicate that formation of the Pütürge Massif involves an older, most likely the Mesoproterozoic, continental crust component. Similar to the Bitlis-Pütürge gneisses, coeval basement rocks are widespread in the Tauride-Anatolide platform (e.g., the Menderes Massif). All these dispersed Cadomian basement rocks are interpreted as fragments of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian continental arcs bordering the active margin of northern Gondwana.

  1. Structural characteristics of the Lake Van Basin, eastern Turkey, from high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and multibeam echosounder data: geologic and tectonic implications (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Krastel, Sebastian; Tomonaga, Yama; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari; Meydan, Ayşegül Feray; Çağatay, M. Namık; Toker, Mustafa; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kong, Gee-Soo; Horozal, Senay


    The structural evolution of Lake Van Basin, eastern Turkey, was reconstructed based on seismic reflection profiles through the sedimentary fill as well as from newly acquired multibeam echosounder data. The major sub-basins (Tatvan Basin and Northern Basin) of Lake Van, bound by NE-trending faults with normal components, formed during the past ~600 ka probably due to extensional tectonics resulting from lithospheric thinning and mantle upwelling related to the westward escape of Anatolia. Rapid extension and subsidence during early lake formation led to the opening of the two sub-basins. Two major, still active volcanoes (Nemrut and Süphan) grew close to the lake basins approximately synchronously, their explosive deposits making up >20 % of the drilled upper 220 m of the ca. 550-m-thick sedimentary fill. During basin development, extension and subsidence alternated with compressional periods, particularly between ~340 and 290 ka and sometime before ~14 ka, when normal fault movements reversed and gentle anticlines formed as a result of inversion. The ~14 ka event was accompanied by widespread uplift and erosion along the northeastern margin of the lake, and substantial erosion took place on the crests of the folds. A series of closely spaced eruptions of Süphan volcano occurred synchronously suggesting a causal relationship. Compression is still prevalent inside and around Lake Van as evidenced by recent faults offsetting the lake floor and by recent devastating earthquakes along their onshore continuations. New, high-resolution bathymetry data from Lake Van reveal the morphology of the Northern Ridge and provide strong evidence for ongoing transpression on a dextral strike-slip fault as documented by the occurrence of several pop-up structures along the ridge.

  2. Source parameters of the 2005-2008 Balâ-Sırapınar (central Turkey) earthquakes: Implications for the internal deformation of the Anatolian plate (United States)

    Çubuk, Yeşim; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay


    Active tectonics of central Anatolia is mainly governed by the collision of the African, Arabian and Anatolian plates, which causes westward escape of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian Fault zones, and the counterclockwise rotation of the Kırşehir block with insignificant internal deformation. The formation of the present-day tectonic processes in this region can be deduced from geophysical prospecting and seismological data. Although the seismicity in central Anatolia is distinctively lower than that in the northern and eastern parts of the Anatolian plate, small and moderate earthquakes (2.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0) mostly occurred in the region in the past decades or so. For example, intense earthquake activity was observed in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar (Ankara, central Anatolia) region in the period of 2005 to 2008 with destructive earthquakes of July 30, 2005 (Mw = 5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw = 5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw = 5.6). Therefore, these earthquakes are crucial to analyze the shallow crustal deformation in the central Anatolian block. In the present study, we obtained source parameters of 2005-2008 earthquake sequence using the regional moment tensor (RMT) inversion method. We analyzed complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-field distances (0.45° ≤ Δ ≤ 3.6°). Our results reveal NW-SE directed right-lateral strike-slip faulting and NE-SW directed left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, which are clearly correlated with the conjugate fault systems in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar region. However, some earthquakes also have E-W directed normal faulting components. We suggest that the major characteristics of 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 earthquake activity could have been dominantly associated with left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, respectively. The seismogenic depth is found to be about 8-10 km. This result implies that earthquakes in the study region occurred mostly in the upper crust, which

  3. Repeated use of an abandoned vehicle by nesting Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.


    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) lay their eggs on an existing substrate in the dark recesses of a variety of natural sites (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Although an important requirement of Turkey Vulture nest-site selection is isolation from human disturbances (Kirk and Mossman 1998), their nests have been reported in abandoned buildings since at least the early 1800s (Nuttall 1832). Depopulation of rural areas in North America in recent decades has resulted in many abandoned buildings within the Turkey Vulture's breeding range (Peck 2003). Increased use of abandoned buildings by nesting Turkey Vultures has been implicated in the species' recent northward range expansion (Peck 2003, Nelson et al. 2005, Houston et al. 2007). Although abandoned or inoperative vehicles also are widespread in rural areas, we found no published literature documenting Turkey Vultures' use of these potential nest sites. Herein, we summarize the first documented incidence of a Turkey Vulture nesting in an abandoned vehicle.

  4. Generation of the Early Cenozoic adakitic volcanism by partial melting of mafic lower crust, Eastern Turkey: Implications for crustal thickening to delamination (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Uysal, İbrahim; Aydin, Faruk; Kandemir, Raif; Wijbrans, Jan


    Early Cenozoic (48-50 Ma) adakitic volcanic rocks from the Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey, consist of calc-alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline andesite and dacite, with SiO 2 contents ranging from 56.01 to 65.44 wt.%. This is the first time that Early Eocene volcanism and adakites have been reported from the region. The rocks are composed of plagioclase, amphibole, quartz, and Mg-rich biotite. They have high and low-Mg# values ranging from 55 to 62 and 13 to 42, respectively. High-Mg# rocks have higher Ni and Co contents than low-Mg# samples. The rocks exhibit enrichments in large ion lithophile elements including the light rare earth elements, depletions in Nb, Ta and Ti and have high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios. Their relative high ISr (0.70474-0.70640) and low ɛNd (50 Ma) values (- 2.3 to 0.8) are inconsistent with an origin as partial melts of a subducted oceanic slab. Combined major- and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data suggest that the adakitic magmas are related to the unique tectonic setting of this region, where a transition from a collision to an extension stage has created thickening and delamination of the Pontide mafic lower crust at 50 Ma. The high-Mg adakitic magmas resulted from partial melting of the delaminated eclogitic mafic lower crust that sank into the relatively hot subcrustal mantle, and its subsequent interaction with the mantle peridotite during upward transport, leaving garnet as the residual phase, elevates the MgO content and Mg# of the magmas, whereas low-Mg# magmas formed by the melting of newly exposed lower crustal rocks caused by asthenospheric upwelling, which supplies heat flux to the lower crust. The data also suggest that the mafic lower continental crust beneath the region was thickened between the Late Cretaceous and the Late Paleocene and delaminated during Late Paleocene to Early Eocene time, which coincides with the initial stage of crustal thinning caused by crustal extensional events in the Eastern Pontides and rules out the

  5. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat


    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  6. Petrogenesis of Permian A-type granitoids in the Cihai iron ore district, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Constraints on the timing of iron mineralization and implications for a non-plume tectonic setting (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Chai, Fengmei; Yang, Fuquan


    The geochronology and geochemistry of granitoids in the Eastern Tianshan, NW China provide important constraints on the timing of iron mineralization, as well as in understanding evolution history of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here we present results from a detailed study on granitoid rocks from the Cihai iron ore district in the Beishan region, southern part of the Eastern Tianshan. The granitoid rocks are composed of granodiorite, quartz monzonite, granite, and monzonite. Zircon U-Pb analyses yielded the ages of 294.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 286.5 ± 0.7 Ma, 284.3 ± 3.3 Ma, and 265.6 ± 3.0 Ma, respectively, suggesting they were formed in Early-Middle Permian. Among these granitoid rocks, the ages of quartz monzonite and granite are close to the timing of iron mineralization (~ 282 Ma), indicating they may provide a source of iron in the Cihai ore district. Geochemically, the granodiorite, granite, and quartz monzonite samples are characterized by high FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) and Ga/Al ratios (0.84-0.94 and 2.28-3.27, respectively), as well as high zircon saturation temperatures (781-908 °C), similar to those of typical A-type granitoids. Isotopically, they display consistently depleted Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = + 1.18 to + 15.37). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Cihai A-type granitoids were derived from melting of juvenile lower crust. Some Early Permian A-type granitoids were recently identified in the Tarim and Eastern Tianshan with the ages between 294 and 269 Ma. The A-type granitoids in the Eastern Tianshan formed earlier between 294-284 Ma and exhibit characteristics of A2 type granitoids, whereas the A-type granitoids in the Tarim formed later between 277-269 Ma and show A1 granitoids affinity. We suggest that the Permian Tarim mantle plume does not account for the formation of the A-type granitoids in the Eastern Tianshan area, and the Eastern Tianshan was in a non-plume tectonic setting during Early Permian

  7. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013 (United States)

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.


    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 ( and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  8. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Mujanovic


    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  9. Genesis of the Doğankuzu and Mortaş Bauxite deposits, Taurides, Turkey: separation of Al, Fe, and Mn and implications for passive margin metallogeny (United States)

    Öztürk, Hüseyin; Hein, James R.; Hanilçi, Nurullah


    The Taurides region of Turkey is host to a number of important bauxite, Al-rich laterite, and Mn deposits. The most important bauxite deposits, Doğankuzu and Mortaş, are karst-related, unconformity-type deposits in Upper Cretaceous limestone. The bottom contact of the bauxite ore is undulatory, and bauxite fills depressions and sinkholes in the footwall limestone, whereas its top surface is concordant with the hanging-wall limestone. The thickness of the bauxite varies from 1 to 40 m and consists of böhmite, hematite, pyrite, marcasite, anatase, diaspore, gypsum, kaolinite, and smectite. The strata-bound, sulfide- and sulfate-bearing, low-grade lower part of the bauxite ore bed contains pyrite pseudomorphs after hematite and is deep red in outcrop owing to supergene oxidation. The lower part of the bauxite body contains local intercalations of calcareous conglomerate that formed in fault-controlled depressions and sinkholes. Bauxite ore is overlain by fine-grained Fe sulfide-bearing and calcareous claystone and argillaceous limestone, which are in turn overlain by massive, compact limestone of Santonian age. That 50-m-thick limestone is in turn overlain by well-bedded bioclastic limestone of Campanian or Maastrichtian age, rich with rudist fossils. Fracture fillings in the bauxite orebody are up to 1 m thick and consist of bluish-gray-green pyrite and marcasite (20%) with böhmite, diaspore, and anatase. These sulfide veins crosscut and offset the strata-bound sulfide zones. Sulfur for the sulfides was derived from the bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate, and Fe was derived from alteration of oxides in the bauxite. Iron sulfides do not occur within either the immediately underlying or overlying limestone. The platform limestone and shale that host the bauxite deposits formed at a passive margin of the Tethys Ocean. Extensive vegetation developed on land as the result of a humid climate, thereby creating thick and acidic soils and enhancing the transport of

  10. Functional Significance Of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues In Wild Turkeys. (United States)

    Werner, Scott J; Buchholz, Richard; Tupper, Shelagh K; Pettit, Susan E; Ellis, Jeremy W


    WERNER, S. J., R. BUCHHOLZ, S. K. TUPPER, S. E. PETTIT AND J. W. ELLIS. Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00:000-000, 2013.- Most birds are able to sense ultraviolet (UV) visual signals. Ultraviolet wavelengths are used for plumage signaling and sexual selection among birds. The aim of our study was to determine if UV cues are also used for the process of food selection in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). We used avoidance conditioning to test the hypothesis that UV feeding cues can be used functionally for foraging behavior in wild turkeys. Female turkeys exhibited no avoidance of untreated food and 75-98% avoidance of food treated with an UV-absorbent, postingestive repellent (0.5-4% anthraquinone; wt/wt) during repellent exposure. Male turkeys exhibited 78-99% avoidance of food treated with 0.5-4% anthraquinone. Female and male turkeys that consumed more than 200mg and 100mg of anthraquinone, respectively, subsequently avoided food treated only with an UV-absorbent cue. In contrast, unconditioned females consumed 58% more food treated with the UV-absorbent cue than untreated food. Thus, wild turkeys do not prefer foods associated with UV wavelengths regardless of feeding experience. We also observed 1) a weak negative correlation between body condition and intestinal parasite infection and 2) moderate, positive correlations between consumption of food treated with the conditioned UV cue and intestinal parasite infection among male turkeys. The UV feeding cue was used to maintain food avoidance during the four days subsequent to postingestive conditioning. Moreover, the consequences of consuming food treated with the postingestive, UV-absorbent repellent were necessary for conditioned avoidance of the UV-absorbent cue. These findings suggest functional significance of UV feeding cues for avian foraging behavior, the implications of which will enable subsequent investigations regarding the sensory physiology and

  11. Terrorism in Turkey. (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan


    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  12. Osteomyelitis in turkeys (United States)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  13. Axiom turkey genotyping array (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  14. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  15. Wind energy and Turkey. (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan


    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  16. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition (United States)


    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...G. DeWolf, SDI and Arms Control, November 1989. 5. Martin C. Libicki, What Makes Industries Strategic, November 1989. 6. Melvin A. Goodman

  17. Content Analysis of Selected Features of K-8 Environmental Education Research Studies in Turkey, 1997-2007 (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Tom; Ok, Ahmet


    This study aimed to analyze environmental education research (EER) in Turkey conducted in Grades K-8 and published over the years 1997-2007. Due to the fact that there had been no systematic reviews of EER in Turkey prior to this time period, it was more appropriate to explore the implications of the results of this review for research policies…

  18. Developing international market entry strategy for cultural tourism of Turkey

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    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu


    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to examine potential international markets for culture tourism of Turkey and to determine a mode of entry strategy for it. The structure of this paper includes screening, identification, and selection stage based on applied various analysis, techniques, methods, and statistics. The major findings here suggest that South Korea and Canada are two possible foreign markets to penetrate. After deeply analysis of South Korea and Canada outbound tourism market, opening overseas tourism promotion office and applying agency are recommended as an appropriate mode of entry strategy for them, respectively. In this regard, practical implications are also mentioned for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey.

  19. Water Policies of Turkey

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    Hakan Istanbulluoglu


    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman


    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  1. Turkey and PKK terrorism


    Zehni, Tevfik


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In this thesis, Turkey’s struggle against PKK terrorism is analyzed to find an answer to the main research question of this thesis: “Why has Turkey not overcome the PKK and its terrorism after thirty years of struggle?” To accomplish this, two subquestions are asked. The first sub-question deals with the perceptions and consequences of terrorism. Consequently, the thesis seeks a comprehensive understanding the motivations of ...

  2. Authoritarianism in Turkey (United States)


    against Kurdish nationalism and the Kurdistan Worker’s Party ( PKK ), but in response to an armed offensive.56 The dichotomy makes it difficult to...classify the military’s actions towards the PKK as authoritarian, except to point out that repression of Kurdish desire to make public use of the Kurdish...129 Ibid., 229. 130 Zürcher, Turkey: A Modern History, 163–72. 131 Attorney-General’s Department, “Kurdistan Workers Party ( PKK ),” accessed May 9

  3. Refugee movements and Turkey. (United States)

    Kirisci, K


    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  4. Turkey and European Security Institutions (United States)


    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...Turkish model , as it is this author’s experience that Turkish military personnel are less likely than their American counterparts to state their...field and other propaganda items (although lately this has disappeared from the website). 68

  5. Alkali Basalts From the Galatia Volcanic Complex, NW Central Anatolia, Turkey


    Tankut, Ayla; GÜLEÇ, Nilgün


    Alkali basalts occur as small lava flows associated with the andesitic lava flows and pyroclastics of Early to Middle Miocene age which are the main constituents of the Galatia volcanic complex. The northern margin of the complex is bordered by the North Anatolian Fault wher eas the southern margin is surrounded by a continental sedimentary sequence which interfingers with the volcanics. New K-Ar age determinations of the basalts reveal that alkali basalts erupted at two differ ent periods ...

  6. Attenuation Characteristics of the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) Using Coda Q (United States)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Woith, Heiko; Gottfried Lühr, Birger; Barış, Şerif


    Attenuation characteristic of seismic waves was determined using coda Q in the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417). Data from 82 earthquakes recorded in 2013-2014 in the Armutlu Peninsula and its vicinity by 9 ARNET seismic stations were used for processing. The earthquake magnitudes (Ml) and depths vary from 1.5 to 3.7 and 1.2-16.9 km, respectively. Epicentral distances closer than 90 km were selected to ensure better signal-to-noise ratios. Lapse times between 20 seconds and 40 seconds at intervals of 5 seconds were used for the calculation of the coda wave quality factor. The coda windows were filtered at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Hz bandpass filter. To obtain reliable results, only data with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5 and correlation coefficents higher than 0.7 were used. The SEISAN software and one of its subroutines (CODAQ) were used for data processing and analyses. In the whole study area, Qc=(51±4)f^(0.91±0.04) for 20 seconds, Qc=(77±7)f^(0.80±0.04) for 30 seconds and Qc=(112±13)f^(0.72±0.06) for 40 seconds lapse times are obtained for coda wave quality factor. The observed quality factor is dependent on frequency and lapse time. The results indicate that the upper lithosphere is more heterogeneous and seismically more active than the lower lithosphere as expected in the region which is tectonically complex refering to the effects of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. By considering earthquake clusters and recorded stations, the scattering area was drawn. The intersection of the scattered areas for 20 seconds lapse time is covering all stations. Quality factor in 1 Hz and frequency dependent values were calculated separately and for the intersection of all scattered areas. Calculated Qo and n values of the intersection area are 50 and 0.89, respectively. Hence, the Qo and n values which are calculated using all stations and both values of the intersection area are very close to each other. Additionally, in the detailed review of TRML station which located in Yalova Province Termal District; Qc=(46±3)f^(0.97±0.04) for 20 seconds, Qc=(61±6)f^(1.03±0.06), for 30 seconds and Qc=(74±6)f^(1.06±0.05) for 40 seconds lapse times are obtained for coda wave quality factor. With these results, both the lower Qo values increasing with lapse times demonstrate high tectonic activity. Furthermore, the increasing n value with lapse times is conformable with the geothermal sources, next to the TRML station.

  7. The Urban Moss Flora of the Çankırı City (NW, Turkey

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    Azize YAVUZ


    Full Text Available The mosses found in the urban area of Çankırı city was investigated at five zones depending on the human activities. Two hundreds and thirty five specimens were randomly collected in sampling locations within the zones. As a result of the identification, 66 taxa were recorded. The results were compared with the explored urban floras of the other countries. Data on life forms, frequency of occurrence, presence of sporophytes, habitats and substrata preferences of the mosses were discussed. Detailed topographical features including slope, aspect and altitude analysis of the study area were illustrated and taxa occurrence was evaluated based on these properties. Chi-square analysis revealed that 45 moss species of 235 were correlated with the categorical variables at 0.05 significance level. Moss taxa occurrence within the urban area was mainly correlated with life forms and gametophyte structures, respectively.

  8. Alteration geochemistry of the volcanic-hosted Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Cu-Fe mineralization, Northern part of Gökçedoǧan Village, Çorum-Kargi Region, Turkey: Implications for the rare earth elements geochemical characteristics (United States)

    Ozturk, Sercan; Gumus, Lokman; Abdelnasser, Amr; Yalçin, Cihan; Kumral, Mustafa; Hanilçi, Nurullah


    This study deals with the rare earth element (REE) geochemical behavior the alteration zonesassociated with the volcanic-hosted Cu-Femineralization at the northern part of Gökçedoǧan village, Çorum-Kargi region (N Turkey) which are Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar mineralization. The study areacomprises Bekirli Formation, Saraycık Formation, Beşpınar Formation, and Ilgaz Formation. Saraycık Formation consists ofUpper Cretaceous KargıOphiolites, pelagic limestone, siltstone, chert and spilitic volcanic rocks. Fe-Cu mineralization occurred in the spiliticvolcanic rocks of Saraycık Formation representing the host rockand is related with the silicification and sericitizationalteration zones. Dedeninyurdu and Yergen mineralization zone directed nearly N75-80oEis following structural a line but Fındıklıyar mineralization zone has nearly NW direction. The ore mineralogy in these zonesinclude pyrite, chalcopyrite, covellite, hematite with malachite, goethite and a limonite as a result of oxidation. The geochemical characteristics of REE of the least altered spiliticbasalt show flat light and heavy REE with slight positive Eu- and Sr-anomalies according to their chondrite-, N-type MORB, and primitive mantle-normalized REE patterns. While the REE geochemical features of the altered rocks collected from the different alteration zones show that there are negative Eu and Sr anomalies as a result of leaching during the alteration processes.There are positive and negative correlations between K2O index with LREE and HREE, respectively. This is due to the additions of K and La during the alteration processes referring to the pervasive sericitization alteration is the responsible for the Cu-Fe mineralization at the study area. Keywords: Cu-Fe mineralization, Spilitic volcanic rocks, alteration, Rare earth elements (REE) geochemistry.

  9. Human cyclosporiosis in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S(u)leyman Yazar; Saban Yalcln; izzet Sahin


    Six patients infected with Cyclospora cayetanensis who sought medical care at three different hospitals in Turkey are herein presented. Four patients were male and the others were female and their ages ranged from 7 to 62 years. The first patient was HIV-positive and presented with watery diarrhea with a frequency of up to 18 times a day for more than ten months and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 1996.The second patient was also HIV positive and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 2000. The third patient was an acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patient and diagnosed in Istanbul, 2000. The fourth patient was idiopathic hepatic cirrhosis complaining of diarrhea and weakness and diagnosed in Kayseri, 2001. The fifth and sixth patients were immunocompetent patients complaining of diarrhea and diagnosed in Izmir and Kayseri, 2002. Diarrhea occurring from one to ten times a day continued for 7 to 70 d in the last 5 patients. Treatment with a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole compound was done for all patients. Both symptomatic and parasitologic improvements were quickly observed. In summary, C. cayetanensis infection is rare in Turkey and most patients infected with this pathogen tend to be immunosuppressive individuals at present.

  10. Internet censorship in Turkey

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    Mustafa Akgül


    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger,, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  11. Pathogenicity and transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza A viruses is attenuated following Turkey embryo propagation. (United States)

    Raghunath, Shobana; Pudupakam, Raghavendra Sumanth; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Tevatia, Rahul; Leroith, Tanya


    Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged. The predominant changes associated with Turkey embryo passage were A223V, V226A and T248I mutations in the receptor-binding and glycosylation sites of the HA molecule. Furthermore, Turkey embryo propagation altered receptor specificity in SIV strain 07-1145. Embryo passaged 07-1145 virus showed a decrease in α2, 6 sialic acid receptor binding compared to the wild type virus. Intranasal infection of wild type SIVs in one-week-old Turkey poults resulted in persistent diarrhea and all the infected birds seroconverted at ten days post infection. The 07-1145 wild type virus also transmitted to age matched in-contact birds introduced one-day post infection. Turkeys infected with embryo passaged viruses displayed no clinical signs and were not transmitted to in-contact poults. Our results suggest that Turkey embryo propagation attenuates recent TR SIVs for infectivity and transmission in one week old Turkeys. Our findings will have important implications in identifying molecular determinants that control the transmission and virulence of TR SIVs in Turkeys and other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 3-D crustal velocity structure of western Turkey: Constraints from full-waveform tomography (United States)

    Çubuk-Sabuncu, Yeşim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas


    The Sea of Marmara and western Turkey are characterized by intense seismicity and crustal deformation due to transition tectonics between the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the extensional Aegean. Seismic imaging of the crust and uppermost mantle in W-NW Turkey is crucial to obtain a better understanding of its seismotectonics and geodynamics. So far, the Sea of Marmara and surroundings were considered in various active and passive seismic experiments providing significant information on crustal properties. Here, we further investigate the 3-D seismic velocity structure in this rapidly deforming region using non-linear full-waveform tomography based on the adjoint method. Our model is constrained by complete waveforms of 62 regional earthquakes (epicentral distance data uncertainties. Furthermore, quantitative resolution analyses yield 15 to 35 km horizontal resolution lengths in the shallow and deep crust beneath well-covered areas of W-NW Turkey. Our full-waveform tomography results indicate the presence of strong lateral and vertical velocity variations (2.55 ≤ VS ≤ 4.0 km/s) down to depths of ∼35 km. The seismic velocity distribution is characteristic of highly deformed and distributed crustal features along major fault zones (e.g. NAFZ and its branches), historic and recent regional volcanism (e.g. Kula volcanic province), and metamorphic core complex developments (e.g. Menderes and Kazdağ massifs). Radial anisotropy is very strong (around 20%) throughout the crust, further attesting to strong deformation and heterogeneity. Generally, our 3-D model is overall consistent with the active tectonics of western Turkey.

  13. Organophosphate toxicity in wild turkeys. (United States)

    Nettles, V F


    An accidental poisoning of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) by O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl] phosphorothioate is reported. Diagnosis was achieved by history, clinical observations, postmortem lesions, diagnostic therapy and pesticide analysis.

  14. Environmental Assessment of Wild Turkey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the environmental assessment and proposed restocking of Wild Turkey at Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Santee Refuge proposes,...

  15. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  16. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

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    Nazmi Bilir


    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  17. Edible Snails (Terrestrial) of Turkey


    YILDIRIM, M. Zeki


    Edible species and their distribution in Turkey were studied. The absence of Helix pomatia, a species reported to occur in Turkey in resources in various disciplines, is mentioned, while 7 species of edible snails determined (Theba pisana, Eobania vermiculata, Cryptomphalus aspersus, Cantareus apertus, Helix asemnis, Helix cincta and Helix lucorum) are described in detail by means of morphology, distribution, systematical positions, and a key to the species is given. Additionally, problems ab...

  18. Equine glanders in Turkey. (United States)

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W


    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  19. Histomoniasis in wild turkeys in Mississippi. (United States)

    Hurst, G A


    Blackhead (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis) was diagnosed as the cause of death for three wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) found in widely separated areas in Mississippi. The turkeys came from areas with high turkey population densities and supplemental feeding programs. Finding three sick and/or dead wild turkeys in a year's period suggests that the disease is more prevalent than generally believed. Recommendations for management programs are presented.

  20. EU-Turkey Relations: Changing Approaches


    Tamás Szigetvári


    The enlargement policy is important for the EU not only to extend its zone of peace, stability and prosperity, but also to increase its global competitiveness. Among the potential EU candidates, Turkey has a special place. As the only candidate that belongs to the group of newly emerging economic powers, Turkey may contribute significantly to the economic prosperity of Europe. Since its creation in 1923, Turkey showed an eager wish to belong to the European nations. Turkey adopted deep reform...

  1. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan


    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  2. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan


    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  3. An Exploratory Analysis of Online Shopping Behavior in Turkey

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    Adnan Veysel Ertemel


    Full Text Available Alongside the technologic developments, transformation in user behavior and business models has been observed. New areas and models are emerged in a lot of grounds like the communication of people or daily activities. So a new face put for shopping behavior by the e-commerce, which is one of the novelties. This study tries to research online shopping behavior in Turkey. With a quantitative research, device usage, the reasons behind to shop or not to shop online, online shopping category and e-commerce site preferences, payment methods, international e-commerce and online marketplace usage is investigated. As implications of the research, “saving time“ is found to be the foremost reason for shopping online in Turkey and “travel and bookings” category is found as the most shopped category among the results of the survey.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Extreme Saharan Dust Event over Turkey in March 2016

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    Hakki Baltaci


    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of an extraordinary Saharan dust episode over Turkey on 23–24 March 2016 and the atmospheric conditions that triggered this event were evaluated in detail. PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm observations from 97 air quality stations, METAR (Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report observations at 64 airports, atmospheric soundings, and satellite products were used for the analysis. To determine the surface and upper levels of atmospheric circulation, National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Reanalysis data were applied to the extreme dust episodes. On 23 March 2016, high southwesterly winds due to the interaction between surface low- and high-pressure centers over Italy and Levant basin brought thick dust particles from Libya to Turkey. The daily PM10 data from 43 stations exceeded their long-term spring means over Turkey (especially at the northern and western stations. As a consequence of the longitudinal movement of the surface low from Italy to the Balkan Peninsula, and the quasi-stationary conditions of the surface high-pressure center allowed for the penetration of strong south and southwesterly winds to inner parts of the country on the following day. As a consequence, 100%, 90%, 88%, and 87% of the monitoring stations in Marmara (NW Turkey, central Anatolia, western (Aegean and northern (Black Sea regions of Turkey, respectively, exhibited above-normal daily PM10 values. In addition, while strong subsidence at the low levels of the atmosphere plays a significant role in having excessive daily PM10 values in Black Sea, dry atmospheric conditions and thick inversion level near the ground surface of Marmara ensured this region to have peak PM10 values ~00 Local Time (LT.


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    Güven ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aims to assess the geographical distribution of trout farming and trout fish consumption in Turkey.

  6. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

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    Ayhan ATASEVER


    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  7. Miocene to Quaternary tectonostratigraphic evolution of the middle section of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, south-western Turkey: Implications for the wide inter-plate shear zones (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk


    The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) is a 75- to 90- km wide and 300-km-long transtensional left-lateral shear zone which is located in one of the most tectonically active regions in south-western Turkey. A considerable number of studies suggested contradictory models of the evolution and Neogene stratigraphy of the BFSZ and in most cases, the local river and alluvial fan deposits were mapped together with the lacustrine sediments and assigned a Pliocene age. We present new field data, fault kinematic analyses, and DEM and earthquake data to characterize the tectonic controls and extent of the middle section of the BFSZ including Acıpayam, Çameli and Gölhisar basins. Our field observations revealed two distinct sedimentary sequences that unconformably overlie the pre-Neogene basement. The first sequence begins with middle-upper Miocene meandering- and braided-river sediments of the Gölhisar Formation, which transition upward into lacustrine sediments of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene İbecik Formation. This sequence is overlain by upper Pliocene-lower Quaternary alluvial fan conglomerates, mudstones and claystones of the Dirmil Formation. The basin deposits located in the middle section of the BFSZ consist of lacustrine sediments of a late Miocene lake that likely evaporated due to the Messinian salinity crisis. Fault kinematic analysis and DEM and earthquake data indicate that the middle BFSZ can be characterized as a heterogeneous left-lateral transtensional shear zone rather than a major fault system. Our findings suggest that the middle section of the BFSZ developed under the influence of progressive counter clockwise rotation of south-western Turkey, the Aegean graben system and the Cyprus and Hellenic arcs since the middle Miocene.

  8. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil. (United States)

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino


    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases.

  9. The demand for private tutoring in Turkey: unintended consequences of curriculum reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.


    This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school

  10. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.


    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  11. Capillariasis in penned wild turkeys. (United States)

    Hurst, G A; Turner, L W; Tucker, F S


    Capillariasis caused by Capillaria annulata was associated with dilated crops, emaciation and mortality of 23 juvenile wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in a captive flock. Gross lesions in the crops ranged from slithtly-thickened lining folds to a thick necrotic diphtheritic membrane covering the entire inside surface. The parasites were in the squamous epithelium. Hygromycin controlled the outbreak.

  12. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi


    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  13. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey. (United States)

    Canatan, Duran


    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  14. Three Grasses New to Turkey


    SCHOLZ, Hildemar


    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  15. Three Grasses New to Turkey


    SCHOLZ, Hildemar


    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil


    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  17. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)


    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  18. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain. (United States)

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S


    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  19. Geochemistry and geochronology of late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey): Implications for the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Özdamar, Şenel


    This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb age data, Sr-Nd isotopes, whole-rock and mineral compositions of Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Ordu area of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (EPOB) in northeastern Turkey. The volcanic rocks exhibit a wide compositional range: basalt, basaltic-andesites, andesites and a rhyodacite suite; they are characterized by subparallel light rare earth element (LREE)-enrichment, relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns with Eu anomalies and moderate fractionation [average (La/Yb)N = 8.55]. The geochemical results show that the volcanic rocks have calc-alkaline affinity consistent with arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values vary between 0.70569 and 0.70606, while initial 143Nd/144Nd values lie between 0.51244 and 0.51249. Crustal contamination affected the mantle-originated primary magma, as indicated by increased 87Sr/86Sr and decreased 143Nd/144Nd ratios with increasing SiO2. New precise laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) 206Pb-238U age analyses of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar age data of plagioclase from the volcanics enable a more precise reconstruction of the EBOP. The ages provide insight into the timing of arc formation in this region, constrain the volcanic activity between 86 My (Coniacian) and 75 My (Campanian) and constrain the timing of closure of the Neo-Tethys.

  20. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.


    There is an enduring requirement to improve our ability to detect potential threats and discriminate these from the legitimate commercial and recreational activity ongoing in the nearshore/littoral portion of the maritime domain. The Northwest Maritime Information and Littoral Operations (NW-MILO) Program at PNNL’s Coastal Security Institute in Sequim, Washington is establishing a methodology to detect and classify these threats - in part through developing a better understanding of acoustic signatures in a near-shore environment. The purpose of the acoustic data collection described here is to investigate the acoustic signatures of small vessels. The data is being recorded continuously, 24 hours a day, along with radar track data and imagery. The recording began in August 2008, and to date the data contains tens of thousands of signals from small vessels recorded in a variety of environmental conditions. The quantity and variety of this data collection, with the supporting imagery and radar track data, makes it particularly useful for the development of robust acoustic signature models and advanced algorithms for signal classification and information extraction. The underwater acoustic sensing system is part of a multi-modal sensing system that is operating near the mouth of Sequim Bay. Sequim Bay opens onto the Straight of Juan de Fuca, which contains part of the border between the U.S. and Canada. Table 1 lists the specific components used for the NW-MILO system. The acoustic sensor is a hydrophone permanently deployed at a mean depth of about 3 meters. In addition to a hydrophone, the other sensors in the system are a marine radar, an electro-optical (EO) camera and an infra-red (IR) camera. The radar is integrated with a vessel tracking system (VTS) that provides position, speed and heading information. The data from all the sensors is recorded and saved to a central server. The data has been validated in terms of its usability for characterizing the

  1. Informal payments in the health sector: a case study from Turkey. (United States)

    Tatar, Mehtap; Ozgen, Hacer; Sahin, Bayram; Belli, Paolo; Berman, Peter


    The practice of making informal payments in the health sector is common in a number of countries. It has become an important policy issue around the world. These payments can jeopardize governments' attempts to improve equity and access to care and policies targeted to the poor. It is widely believed that a considerable amount of out-of-pocket payment in the health sector in Turkey is informal. To examine this issue, we used a questionnaire adopted from a wider international study. We concluded that informal payments in Turkey are significant and have important implications for health care reform.

  2. Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare. (United States)

    Schwean-Lardner, Karen; Vermette, Catherine; Leis, Marina; Classen, Henry L


    Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender.

  3. Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schwean-Lardner


    Full Text Available Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender.

  4. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks. (United States)

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N


    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  5. Turkey in Cyprus: Changing the Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas


    Full Text Available With few prospects for the resolution of the Cyprus dispute, the costs of the status quo are rising for Turkey. This article argues that Turkey could regain initiative without sacrificing its national interests by withdrawing its military forces stationed on the island and organizing a referendum on the future of the TRNC. The removal of the military would terminate Turkey's status as an occupying power, while a referendum could add legitimacy to the TRNC and put pressure on Cyprus.

  6. K-Ar dating, whole-rock and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks around the Gümüşhane area: implications for post-collisional volcanism in the Eastern Pontides, Northeast Turkey (United States)

    Aslan, Zafer; Arslan, Mehmet; Temizel, İrfan; Kaygusuz, Abdullah


    Volcanic rocks from the Gümüşhane area in the southern part of the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey) consist mainly of andesitic lava flows associated with tuffs, and rare basaltic dykes. The K-Ar whole-rock dating of these rocks range from 37.62 ± 3.33 Ma (Middle Eocene) to 30.02 ± 2.84 Ma (Early Oligocene) for the andesitic lava flows, but are 15.80 ± 1.71 Ma (Middle Miocene) for the basaltic dykes. Petrochemically, the volcanic rocks are dominantly medium-K calc-alkaline in composition and show enrichment of large ion lithophile elements, as well as depletion of high field strength elements, thus revealing that volcanic rocks evolved from a parental magmas derived from an enriched mantle source. Chondrite-normalized rare-earth element patterns of the volcanic rocks are concave upwards with low- to-medium enrichment (LaCN/LuCN = 3.39 to 12.56), thereby revealing clinopyroxene- and hornblende-dominated fractionations for andesitic-basaltic rocks and tuffs, respectively. The volcanic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70464 to 0.70494) and ɛNd(i) values (+1.11 to +3.08), with Nd-model ages (TDM) of 0.68 to 1.02 Ga, suggesting an enriched lithospheric mantle source of Proterozoic age. Trace element and isotopic data, as well as the modelling results, show that fractional crystallization and minor assimilation played an important role in the evolution of the volcanic rocks studied. The Eocene to Miocene volcanism in the region has resulted from lithospheric delamination and the associated convective thinning of the mantle, which led to the partial melting of the subduction-metasomatized lithospheric mantle.

  7. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)


    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  8. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas


    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  9. Women and leprosy in Turkey. (United States)

    Cakiner, T; Yüksel, A; Soydan, M; Saylan, T; Bahçeci, E


    Women in Turkey have many social, cultural and economical problems. Women with leprosy have problems in common with other women as well as those related to physical and social consequences of leprosy. There are 2,414 patients with leprosy in Turkey, registered to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital and 829 of them are females. The mean age and duration of disease of our female leprosy patients are high. Most women with leprosy were born in eastern part of Turkey where prevalence of leprosy is higher and most have moved to western regions. The proportion of women who have some kind of social security is very low. Their economic status is also not good and 79% of patients had stigma about their disease. Three fourths of these cases have been hospitalized some time, for different reasons. Most of them (97.2%) have inactive disease at present. Disability degrees of patients are high. Patients with disability degrees over one constitute 54% of total for eyes, 55% for hands and 51% for feet. High percentage of multibacillary form and long duration of disease, delayed diagnosis, insufficient self-care of patients due to low socio-economic and cultural status and failure of health personnel to control patients periodically may be among the reasons for such high ratios of moderate and severe disabilities. In the light of the data obtained in our study, some measures to alleviate the problems of patients resulting from their socio-economic, cultural and social status have been suggested.

  10. Geothermal energy utilisation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K. [Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU), Regensburg (Germany)


    The following article highlights some of the outcomes derived from a survey which has been conducted by an international consortium under the auspices of the German consultancy Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU) in the frame of a cooperative action entitled 'Promotion of Geothermal Energy Utilisation in Turkey'. The project which has been carried out under the umbrella of the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development also featured a European business forum and technical site visit about 'Geothermal Energy Opportunities in Turkey' and a site visit tour to successful European geothermal utilisation schemes aiming to foster exchange of experience and to initiate business contacts between Turkish and European market actors. Special consideration has been given to investigate the potential of geothermal electricity generation with future-oriented binary cycle processes (e.g. based on Kalina technology) specifically suitable to exploit Turkey's low temperature geothermal reservoirs. Following up the activities ZREU has entered into a co-operation scheme with e.terras AG and leading technology providers to develop high efficient European turn-key solutions for promising goethermal markets worldwide. (orig.)

  11. Banning reproductive travel: Turkey's ART legislation and third-party assisted reproduction. (United States)

    Gürtin, Zeynep B


    In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example.

  12. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates. (United States)

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher


    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates.

  13. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding. (United States)

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent


    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey.

  14. Continental rift-setting and evolution of Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin in NW-India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stefan Schöbel; Kamal K Sharma; Thorsten Hörbrand; Theresa Böhm; Ines Donhauser; Helga de Wall


    The Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin, NW India, and its surrounding area represent a half graben structure situated between the undeformed Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) in the west and a corridor of coeval Cryogenian ductile deformation, anatexis and granite intrusion in the east. The main lithologies observed in the basin are conglomerate, fanglomerate, debris flow and lake deposits derived from a nearby continental provenance, intercalated with concurrent mafic and felsic lava flows. Based on geological traverses across the strike of the basin, we propose a three-fold classification comprising Lower Clastic Unit and an Upper Clastic Unit and a Bimodal (basalt–rhyolite) Volcanic Unit separating the two. Tilting due to basin inversion and faulting has been observed; however, the rocks are unmetamorphosed and show undisturbed primary sedimentary features. The stratigraphic record of the basin is characteristic for deposition and magmatism in a fault-related continental setting. Implications of the findings have been discussed in the context of Neoproterozoic crustal dynamics in NW India. This study provides conclusive evidence for a continental setting for Sindreth Basin evolution and contests the recent models of active subduction setting (either back-arc basin or accretionary sediments over a subduction zone).

  15. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey. (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q


    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey.

  16. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting (United States)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.


    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  17. FHF-2 in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). (United States)

    Reed, K M


    A cDNA clone homologous to the fibroblast growth factor homologous factor (FHF-2) was isolated and sequenced from the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The DNA sequence of the turkey was almost identical to that of the chicken (99% similarity) differing at only 8 of 770 nucleotides in the coding region resulting in a single amino acid difference between these poultry species. The 3'UTR of the turkey FHF-2 gene was 445 nucleotides in length and included an imperfect CT microsatellite (ms) repeat. The sequence of the 3'UTR was amplified from genomic DNA of the chicken and found to be highly conserved differing at only three nucleotides when compared to the turkey. Length of the CT repeat was indifferent in a sample of 52 turkeys (monomorphic) however, the number of CT repeats was greater in the turkey than in the chicken. No inter-individual polymorphism was detected in multiple sequences of the 3'UTR of the FHF-2 gene in the turkey. Based on comparison of the turkey and chicken sequences, the mutation rate for coding and associated non-coding (3'UTR) regions of FHF-2 are approximately equal.

  18. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  19. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara


    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  20. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.


    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  1. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan


    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  2. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara


    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector. The article argues, among other ... Keywords: Turkey, Africa, Sustainable Development .... 25.03.2011). Following the First Ministerial Review Conference of Turkey-Africa ..... Such centres aim to contribute to the development of literature on Africa by ...

  4. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive (United States)

    Ince, Basak


    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  5. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey (United States)

    Anameric, Hakan


    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  6. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob


    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  7. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems? (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian


    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  8. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 9): Wild Turkey (United States)

    James G. Dickson


    A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...

  9. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey. (United States)

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet


    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  10. Seismotectonics and Neotectonics of the Gulfs of Gökova-Kuşadasi-Siǧacik and Surrounding Regions (SW Turkey): Earthquake Mechanisms, Source Rupture Modeling, Tsunami Hazard and Geodynamic Implications (United States)

    Yolsal-Cevikbilen, Seda; Karaoglu, Özgür; Taymaz, Tuncay; Helvaci, Cahit


    The mechanical behavior of the continental lithosphere for the Aegean region is one of the foremost interesting geological disputes in earth sciences. The Aegean region provides complex tectonic events which produced a strong heterogeneity in the crust (i.e. large thrusts and exhumation shear zones or extensional detachments) as such in among most continental regions. In order to investigate mechanical reasons of the ongoing lithospheric-scale extension within the region, we must tackle all of the existing kinematic and dynamic agents: (1) roll back of the subduction slab and back arc extension; (2) westward extrusion of the Anatolian micro-plate; (3) block rotations of the Aegean region and western Anatolia; and (4) transtensional transform faults. Furthermore, seismological studies, particularly earthquake source mechanisms and rupture modeling, play important roles on deciphering the ongoing deformation and seismotectonic characteristics of the region. Recently, many moderate earthquakes occurred in the Gulfs of Gökova, Kuşadası, Sıǧacık and surroundings. In the present study, we examined source mechanisms and rupture histories of those earthquakes with Mw > 5.0 in order to retrieve the geometry of active faulting, source characteristics, kinematic and dynamic source parameters and current deformations of the region by using teleseismic body-waveform inversion of long-period P- and SH-waves, and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by GDSN and FDSN stations. We also checked first motion polarities of P- waveforms recorded at regional and teleseismic stations and applied several uncertainty tests to find the error limits of minimum misfit solutions. Inversion results revealed E-W directed normal faulting mechanisms with small amount of left lateral strike slip components in the Gulf of Gökova and NE-SW oriented right lateral strike slip faulting mechanisms in the Gulf of Sıǧacık. Earthquakes mostly have N-S and NW-SE directed T- axes directions which are

  11. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.


    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for eco

  12. Development of pathology in Turkey

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    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU


    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.



    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl


    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  14. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus (United States)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred large/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  15. A Macroanatomic Study on Larynx Cranialis of Turkeys in Thrace Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the differences and similarities between larynx cranialis of turkey and other species of poultry. For this purpose, 8 female and 8 male adult turkeys were used for the anatomical measurements. Furthermore, histological examinations were performed on larynx cranialis of 2 turkeys. Cartilago thyroidea and epiglottis were not observed in the larynx cranialis, in our study. Besides, larynx cranialis were found to constitute from paired cartilago arytneoidea and unpaired cartilago cricoidea and cartilago procricoidea. Crista ventralis was detected on larynx cranialis of turkeys. According to our results, it has been determined that in turkey; the width of glottis in female turkeys were larger than males. Cartilago procricoidea were observed bigger than cartilago arytenoidea and crista ventralis were found to be more prominent than in other birds.

  16. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

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    Kadir Alpaslan Demir


    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  17. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.


    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  18. [Current malaria situation in Turkey]. (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S


    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  19. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys. (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H


    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  20. Treatment cost of metastatic colon cancer in Turkey

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    Guvenc Kockaya


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Colon cancer is the third most common in the top cancer incidence list in Europe. In Europe 212,000 patients die every year due to colon cancer. In Turkey 120,000-130,000 new cancer patients are diagnosed every year, 7.1% of whom are diagnosed to have developed colon cancer. Metastases will occur in up to 50% of the patients who are newly diagnosed. Survival appears to be further prolonged to more than 20 months with new pharmaceuticals; however, these new pharmaceuticals increase the total cost of care. The aim of this study is to estimate the cost implications of new colon cancer treatment options for Turkey.METHODS: Gazi University Hospital treatment protocols for colon cancer treatment were used. Cost of FUFA (5 FU/LV, FOLFIRI, FOLFOX, bevacizumab/FUFA, bevacizumab/FOLFIRI, bevacizumab/FOLFOX, irinotecan and irinotecan/cetixumab protocols were calculated. The cost of combination of protocols were calculated depending on a Markov analysis. The exchange rate was US$ 1 for TL 1.5.RESULTS: Depending on the life expectancy the lowest total cost was established by FUVA (US$ 5,359. It was followed by FOLFIRI then FOLFOX and FOLFOX, US$ 14,144 and US$ 16,553, respectively. The lowest cost for each week of life expectancy was established by FUVA with US$ 98.CONCLUSIONS: Only FUFA, FOLFIRI followed by FOLFIX, FOLFIRI/bevacizumab then FOLFOX then cetuximab, FOLFOX/bevacizumab then irinotecan then cetuximab/irinotecan and FOLFIRI/bevacizumab then FOLFOX then cetuximab/irinotecan were under the cost effectiveness curve. In addition no treatments ICER was under the WHO`s threshold for Turkey, except FOLFIRI then FOLFOX compared with FUVA.

  1. Postharmostomiasis in wild turkeys in New Mexico. (United States)

    Pence, D B


    Postharmostomum gallinum (Trematoda: Digenea; Brachylaimidae) is reported for the second time from the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in North America. Seventy-six, 14 and three sexually mature specimens, respectively, were removed from the ceca of three of five wild turkeys collected in south-eastern New Mexico (USA). Local transmission of this infection was inferred since 10 immature specimens of P. gallinum also were collected from one host. In the turkey with the greatest intensity of mature trematodes, a concurrent hemorrhagic inflammation of the cecum apparently was associated with this infection. Specimens of P. gallinum from these wild turkeys were morphologically indistinguishable from, but their body and egg measurements were larger than, specimens described from the usual Eurasian galliform and columbiform hosts.

  2. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin


    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan


    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  4. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül


    and Lake Yarisli are comprised of Methanobacteria (51.7%, 76.1% and 61.2%; respectively), Halobacteria (48%, 21.4% and 38.5%; respectively), Thaumarchaeota (0.002%, 1.4% and 0.02%; respectively), Thermoplasmata (0.1%, 0.8% and 0.1%; respectively) and Methanomicrobia (0.1%, 0.06% and 0.2%; respectively). Numerous numbers of bacterial and archaeal classes determined in the lakes are indicators of diverse biogeochemical cycles in such extreme conditions. Elucidating survival strategies of microorganisms in such extreme conditions may provide valuable information about extraterrestrial life. In this respect, Carnobacterium viridians, previously used as model microorganism for Mars (Nicholson et al., 2013),identified in sediments of Lake Salda may hold important implications for extraterrestrial research. Key words: Lake Acigol, Lake Salda, Lake Yarisli, Turkey, extreme lakes, biogeochemistry, carbonate biomineralization, Next-Generation Sequencing, extremophiles References Balci et al. (2013). Experimental investigation of microbial influences on carbonat precipitation in evaporatic environments: A Case Study, Acı gol, Denizli. TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) Grant to N. BALCI (113Y464). Nicholson, W.L., Krivushin, K., Gilichinsky, D., Schuerger, A.C. (2013). Growth of Carnobacterium spp. from permafrost under low pressure, temperature, and anoxic atmosphere has implications for Earth microbes on Mars. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 110(2), 666-671, January 8.

  5. Economic Implications of International Tourism on Turkish Economy



    This study outlines, with a review of earlier studies, the effects of international tourism by showing developments in tourism-related economic parameters and discusses the implications of such tourism on the economy of Turkey. It asks how far international tourism contributes to the economic growth and development of Turkey; how far the country fully values its tourism potential by varying the focus of tourism facilities beyond the sun-sea-sand type of tourism, in order to lead to developmen...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available  Here we describe 41 brachiopod species belonging to the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, Spiriferinida, and Terebratulida coming from the Guadalupian lower-middle part of the Pamuçak Formation at Çürük Dað, Antalya (Western Taurus, Turkey. Associated conodonts are also reported and illustrated. The brachiopod taxa are either pedicle attached genera, with one genus also stabilized by penetration of its elongate umbo, or free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that the energy of the environment was never very high, as in settings just below the fair weather wave-base or in a back-reef, more protected inner platform. The brachiopods from the Pamuçak Formation are very similar to the Wordian fauna of southeastern Oman, and they are similar to the Guadalupian assemblages of Chios, North Iran, South Thailand, and Salt Range. In comparison they share only a few taxa with the Guadalupian faunas of Central Afghanistan and Karakorum. Therefore the biotic affinity of the Guadalupian brachiopods of the Pamuçak Formation is clearly peri-Gondwanan. The brachiopod record at Çürük Dað has implications for understanding the pattern of the end-Guadalupian (pre-Lopingian biotic crisis. The pre-Lopingian crisis assemblages are quite diverse and nearly totally consist of Guadalupian genera and species except for a single Lopingian incomer. Their stratigraphic range terminates rather abruptly and the following 120 metres of shallow water limestones are barren of brachiopods, after which there is the first occurrence of Lopingian brachiopod taxa, which show a much lower biodiversity.  This pattern is different from that observed in South China and it shows that the end-Guadalupian crisis is not only characterized by taxonomic selectivity, but also by a strong local control on the extinction/recovery pattern of some groups. 

  7. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat (United States)


    product (23). This procedure provides the turkey state. meat with an inoculum of spoilage organisms as well as Indirect aspects of transmission become...Comminuted turkey, a furtheir-processed product Standard plate counts. coliform plate and most probable number prepared from the dark meat of the fowl...being meat products . The adopted standards for ground and encouraged to try other comminuted meat products such whole cuts of red meats established a





    Alyssum hinrrrtnm Bieb. (Brassicaceae), Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaediw(Boiss.) Engler (Anacardiaceae) Lamirim album L. (Lamiaceae) and Eziphorbianlaclaclada Boiss. (Er(phor6iaceae) have been added to the flora of European Turkey, following the collection of specimens from Al(E) Edime and Canakkale. In addition, two taxa, Pistacia terebinthus subsp. palaestina and Eriphorbia macroclada represent new records for the flora of Europe.Key words: Flora of European Turkey, flora of Europe, ...

  9. Chemo-probe into the mantle origin of the NW Anatolia Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks: Implications for the role of, crustal accretion, subduction, slab roll-back and slab break-off processes in genesis of post-collisional magmatism (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Palmer, Martin R.; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelević, Dejan; Akal, Cüneyt; Uysal, İbrahim


    Post-collisional Cenozoic magmatic activity in NW Anatolia produced widespread volcanism across the region. In the Biga Peninsula, in the west, medium-K calc-alkaline to ultra-K rocks with orogenic geochemical signature were emplaced at 43-15 Ma (Biga orogenic volcanic rocks; BOVR). Volcanic activity in the Central Sakarya region, to the east, is mainly restricted to 53-38 Ma, but also continued during the Early Miocene with small basaltic extrusives (Sakarya orogenic volcanic rocks; SOVR). This study presents a new set of geochemical data (whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions), obtained from the Cenozoic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from these two regions. While there is considerable overlap in the emplacement time of volcanism in the two areas, the post-collisional volcanic rocks of these two regions differ in terms of their geochemical compositions: (1) the BOVR show an age-dependent increase in K and other large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), coupled with an increase in radiogenic Sr and Pb compositions from the Eocene to Miocene; whereas (2) the SOVR are characterized by more sodic compositions with lower K and less radiogenic Sr contents with respect to the BOVR, which were unchanged in Eocene and Miocene. We conclude that these geochemical features were principally related to the distinct modes of subduction-related mantle enrichment processes. We suggest that the Eocene to Miocene progressive enrichment in the BOVR mantle was related to successive subduction of oceanic and crustal materials in the western Aegean, while the SOVR mantle was dominantly enriched during the pre-collisional events. Magma generation in the western region was related to subduction roll-back processes associated with post-collisional extension. In the east, thermal perturbation of the mantle in response to asthenospheric upwelling due to slab break-off process was responsible for the magma generation. The time-dependent increase of K (and other

  10. An artificial neural network application to produce debris source areas of Barla, Besparmak, and Kapi Mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Tunusluoglu


    Full Text Available Various statistical, mathematical and artificial intelligence techniques have been used in the areas of engineering geology, rock engineering and geomorphology for many years. However, among the techniques, artificial neural networks are relatively new approach used in engineering geology in particular. The attractiveness of ANN for the engineering geological problems comes from the information processing characteristics of the system, such as non-linearity, high parallelism, robustness, fault and failure tolerance, learning, ability to handle imprecise and fuzzy information, and their capability to generalize. For this reason, the purposes of the present study are to perform an application of ANN to a engineering geology problem having a very large database and to introduce a new approach to accelerate convergence. For these purposes, an ANN architecture having 5 neurons in one hidden layer was constructed. During the training stages, total 40 000 training cycles were performed and the minimum RMSE values were obtained at approximately 10 000th cycle. At this cycle, the obtained minimum RMSE value is 0.22 for the second training set, while that of value is calculated as 0.064 again for the second test set. Using the trained ANN model at 10 000th cycle for the second random sampling, the debris source area susceptibility map was produced and adjusted. Finally, a potential debris source susceptibility map for the study area was produced. When considering the field observations and existing inventory map, the produced map has a high prediction capacity and it can be used when assessing debris flow hazard mitigation efforts.

  11. Understanding Determinants of Organic Food Consumption: Turkey Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu İlter


    Full Text Available The demand for organic products is growing, however in Turkey although the interest to organic products has grown; the growth of demand is relatively low. So it is important for producers of organic products to understand who the organic customers are, and what are their attitudes and behaviors regarding organic food products as well as why people do not prefer them. This is the main aim of this article. This study presents the results of a survey regarding consumer perceptions of organic foods in Turkey. The survey was conducted to determine consumer attitudes towards organic foods and the reasons for consumption or non-consumption of organic foods. A total of 882 consumers that makes food shopping for their families, living in İzmir participated the research. The results of the survey revealed that health issue is an important consideration in the consumption of organic products, however respondents stated that they find organic products expensive and hard to find everywhere, and they have some doubts about the reliability of the organic foods. Also five types of behaviour regarding organic food consumption behavior have been identified. The findings have practical implications especially for governments. More support and education should be given to organic producers so that supply of organic food products would increase, and there should be strict control on those products as to reduce consumers’ negative attitudes.

  12. World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur; Sari, Ramazan [Middle East Technical University, Department of Business Administration, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Drexel University, LeBow College of Business, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hacihasanoglu, Erk [Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)


    We examine the long- and short-run transmissions of information between the world oil price, Turkish interest rate, Turkish lira-US dollar exchange rate, and domestic spot gold and silver price. We find that the world oil price has no predictive power of the precious metal prices, the interest rate or the exchange rate market in Turkey. The results also show that the Turkish spot precious metals, exchange rate and bond markets do not also provide information that would help improve the forecasts of world oil prices in the long run. The findings suggest that domestic gold is also considered a safe haven in Turkey during devaluation of the Turkish lira, as it is globally. It is interesting to note that there does not seem to be any significant influence of developments in the world oil markets on Turkish markets in the short run either. However, transitory positive initial impacts of innovations in oil prices on gold and silver markets are observed. The short-run price transmissions between the world oil market and the Turkish precious metal markets have implications for policy makers in emerging markets and both local and global investors in the precious metals market and the oil market. (author)

  13. Gondwana to Pangea: a detrital zircons tale from NW Iberia (United States)

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Brendan Murphy, J.; Fernández-Suárez, Javier; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf


    The Cantabrian Zone of NW Iberia preserves a voluminous, almost continuous, sedimentary sequence that ranges from Neoproterozoic to Early Permian in age. Its tectonic setting is controversial and recent hypotheses include (i) passive margin deposition along the northern margin of Gondwana or (ii) an active continental margin or (iii) a drifting ribbon continent. In this paper we present detrital zircon U-Pb laser ablation age data from 13 samples from the Cantabrian Zone sequence ranging from Early Silurian to Early Permian in depositional age, which, together with previously published detrital zircon ages from Ediacaran-Ordovician strata, allow a comprehensive analysis of changing provenance through time. Laser ablation U-Pb geochronological analysis of detrital zircons in thirteen samples of the Cantabrian Zone of the NW Iberian Variscan belt reveal that this portion of Iberia was part of the northern passive-margin of Gondwana from the Ordovician to Late Devonian, until the onset of collision between Gondwana and Laurentia. Zircon populations in these samples show important similarities with zircons found in coeval detrital rocks from central North Africa. Additionally, the populations found in NW Iberia are coherent with a Saharan source. We suggest that NW Iberia was situated from Ordovician to Late Devonian along the Gondwana northern passive margin close to the paleoposition of central North Africa and Saharan craton. Additionally, the Carboniferous-Permian samples studied record the provenance changes produced during the Variscan collision and basement exhumation, the Cantabrian orocline formation and the subsequent detachment of the lithospheric mantle. The provenance changes reflect major topographic variations due to the afore mentioned processes during Late Devonian to Early Permian times. Detrital zircon studies are a useful tool that can complement regional syntheses in deducing paleogeographic locations, the occurrence of major tectonic events such

  14. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)


    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  15. Ideology, religion and the army in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan


    Full Text Available Turkey has a strategic place in world politics. As Ahmad (1991: 226 and 1993 said, Turkey's strategic location on the Straits and on the cross-roads between Europe and Asia will remain unchanged. Turkey is a meeting point between Europe and Asia not only geographically, but also ideologically between Eastern and Western civilisation The Turkish secular and democratic system has provided a model to both the Islamic Middle East and the new Turkish states of the former Soviet Union.     The new state was created from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire in 1920s. Turkey has turned her face completely to the west since the foundation of the Republic. The economic and social development, as Hale examined (Hale, 1981, have proceeded in a predominantly liberal competitive political system since the 1940s.    This paper will concern itself with the Turkish political leaders. Firstly, a brief information about the political structure of contemporary Turkey will be given. Then, the major findings on Turkish top political elites will be presented. The top political elites comprise all the presidents, presidents of the TGNA, prime ministers, and ministers who served in three or more cabinets during the whole modern Republican history of Turkey. In doing this, the variables of age, educational level, education type, occupation, foreign languages, gender and marital status, family size were used.

  16. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A., E-mail: [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kucukomeroglu, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)


    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h{sup -1} and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: {yields} {yields}The study highlights activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil. {yields} The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. {yields} The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. {yields} Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. {yields} The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  17. Candidate gene expression analysis of toxin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). (United States)

    Lin, K-C; Gyenai, K; Pyle, R L; Geng, T; Xu, J; Smith, E J


    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a heart disease, affects many vertebrates including humans and poultry. The disease can be either idiopathic (IDCM) or toxin-induced (TIDCM). Although genetic and other studies of IDCM are extensive, the specific etiology of TIDCM is still unknown. In this study, we compared mRNA levels of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and phospholamban (PLN) in turkeys affected and unaffected by TIDCM. Cardiac TnT and PLN were chosen because their altered expression has been observed in IDCM-affected birds. A total of 72 birds, 44 affected and 28 unaffected with TIDCM, were used. Differences in the mRNA levels of cTnT and PLN between affected and unaffected turkeys were significant only for cTnT. The sequence of the turkey PLN showed significant similarity at the nucleotide level to the reference chicken sequence and to those of other species. In addition to implicating cTnT in TIDCM, the present work describes a partial turkey PLN coding sequence that could be useful for future studies.

  18. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat


    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  19. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek


    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  20. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.;


    from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48......) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C...

  1. Late Cenozoic stress state distributions at the intersection of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, SW Turkey (United States)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Pınar, Ali; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Kamacı, Züheyr; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can


    The history of the Late Cenozoic stress regime was determined for an area between the gulfs of Fethiye and Antalya. Fault kinematic analysis and inversion of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes reveal significant evolution of the regional stress regime in SW Anatolia, i.e., the area of interaction between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs, from the Mio-Pliocene to the present time. Fault kinematic analysis yields two different normal faulting stress regimes along the southwestern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault zone, e.g., in and around Çameli Basin (Zone A1) and two different strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes characterized by a roughly orthogonal set of extensional axes between Fethiye and Demre (Zone B) with an older NW-SE σ3 axis for Mio-Pliocene and a younger NE-SW σ3 axis for Plio-Quaternary time. Inversion of focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring in Zone A1 provides an extensional stress state with approximately N-S σ3 axis. Inversion of those occurring in Zone B, south of Zone A1, yields a dominantly strike-slip stress state with a NE-SW σ3 axis and a NW-SE σ1 axis respectively. The inversion slip vectors from fault planes yield a consistent normal faulting stress regime in Burdur Basin and its surroundings (i.e., along the northeastern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, (Zone A2)) during Plio-Quaternary, continuing into recent time as indicated by earthquake focal mechanism inversions. Both states have a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. Fault kinematic analysis indicates NW-SE extension acting in Zone C (subarea between Demre and Antalya), south of Zone A2, during Mio-Pliocene time. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields normal faulting also characterized by a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. The nearly orthogonal extensional stress regimes (NW-SE and NE-SW) obtained by inversion of both measured and seismic faults seem to have been acting contemporaneously with each other at different intensities from the Mio-Pliocene onwards in SW Turkey. This

  2. Assessment of forest roads and firebreaks in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... transportation and forest fire prevention in Turkey. In recent years, Turkey ... greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2 and CH4 (Guido et al., 2004). ..... human and mechanical resources, sometimes including aerial support: ...

  3. DNA sequence and haplotype variation in two candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo. (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-chin; Xu, Jun; Kamara, Davida; Geng, Tuoyu; Gyenai, Kwaku; Reed, Kent M; Smith, Edward J


    Determining variation in genes is fundamental to understanding their function in the disease state. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and phospholamban (PLN) genes have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in human and model species. To investigate the role of these 2 candidate genes in DCM in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo, understanding sequence variants and map position distribution is necessary. To this end, a total of 1854 and 1771 bp of cTnT and PLN gene sequences, respectively, were scanned for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a randomly bred population. A total of 15 SNPs was identified in the cTnT and PLN genomic sequences. Nine haplotypes, 5 in cTnT and 4 in PLN, were identified. Observed heterozygosities (0.02-0.39) in the turkey population were low for both genes. Within each gene, 1 SNP corresponding to a restriction enzyme site was identified and used to develop a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping assay. The PLN gene was genetically mapped to turkey chromosome 2, equivalent to Gallus gallus chromosome 3, and cTnT mapped to a turkey microchromosome. Although limited because of the relatively small sample size of 55 birds, the data from this SNP analysis of PLN and cTnT provide a foundation from which to evaluate the function of cTnT and PLN in the turkey. Information about the distribution of the SNPs and haplotypes will facilitate future association and linkage studies.

  4. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan


    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  5. Improved marine reservoir age estimation and palaeoclimate synchronisation of the early Holocene Levantine/NW-Arabian region based on identification of the S1 tephra in Dead Sea and Tayma palaeolake sediments (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Wulf, Sabine; Schwab, Markus J.; Serb, Johanna; Plessen, Birgit; Appelt, Oona; Brauer, Achim


    Due to a lack of tephras identified in marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records from the Levantine-Arabian area, this region is still not sufficiently connected to the eastern Mediterranean tephrostratigraphical lattice. Here we report on the first finding of cryptotephra in the Holocene lacustrine sediment records of the Dead Sea and the Tayma palaeolake (NW Arabian Peninsula). The major elemental chemistry of the rhyolitic glass shards proves this tephra identical to the distal 'S1 tephra' identified in the Yammoûneh palaeolake, Lebanon (Develle et al, 2009), in a marine sediment record from the SE Levantine basin (Hamann et al., 2010) and in the Sodmein Cave archaeological site in Egypt (Barton et al., 2015). The 'S1 tephra', most likely corresponding to the early Holocene 'Dikkartın' dome eruption of the Erciyes Daǧ volcano in central Anatolia, Turkey, has been dated in the marine record at 8830 ± 140 cal yr BP. We present new age estimates of the 'S1 tephra' based on radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant remains (Migowski et al., 2004) and pollen concentrates (Dinies et al., 2015), which reveal modelled ages of 8939 ± 83 cal yr BP in the Dead Sea sediments and 9041 ± 254 cal yr BP in Tayma. This allows the estimation of an early Holocene marine reservoir age of ca. 320 years in the SE Levantine Sea. The timing of the volcanic eruption during the early Holocene humid period, which led to the formation of sapropel S1 in the Mediterranean Sea, and the identification of the 'S1 tephra' more than 1200 km to the south are crucial for the synchronisation of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records in the eastern Mediterranean region. References: Barton et al., 2015. The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 118, 151-169. Develle et al., 2009. Early Holocene volcanic ash fallout in the Yammoûneh lacustrine basin (Lebanon): Tephrochronological

  6. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews...

  7. Banking Sector Crises and Related New Regulations in Turkey


    Aykut Kibritcioglu


    In Turkey, the financial sector is traditionally dominated by banking activities, and the banking sector experienced several systemic crises since late 1970s. This paper reviews and summarizes the major banking sector problems in the country. It also outlines the latest regulations and reform attempts in Turkey, with particular reference to Turkey's future EU membership.

  8. Rural settlement policies in Turkey and the Kurdish areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, J.P.


    The adament refusal of Turkey to admit to a Kurdish question is a major source of human rights violations, social tension, political and economic instability, and an irritant in Turkey's relations with neighboring countries and the European Union. In the 1980s and 1990s Turkey, and in particular the

  9. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin


    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  10. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)


    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin


    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  12. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.


    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  13. Experimental and serologic observations on avian pneumovirus (APV/turkey/Colorado/97) infection in turkeys. (United States)

    Panigrahy, B; Senne, D A; Pedersen, J C; Gidlewski, T; Edson, R K


    An avian pneumovirus (APV) was isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado (APV/Colorado) showing clinical signs of a respiratory disease. The results of virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent antibody tests showed that the APV/Colorado was partially related to APV subgroup A but was unrelated to APV subgroup B. Turkeys experimentally inoculated with the APV/Colorado were observed for signs, lesions, seroconversion, and virus shedding. Thirty-six 7-wk-old turkeys were distributed into three groups. Eighteen turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with APV/Colorado, six were placed in contact at 1 day postinoculation (DPI), and 12 served as noninoculated controls. Tracheal swabs and blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 DPI. Tissues were collected from three inoculated and two control turkeys on aforementioned days for pathologic examination and APV isolation. Inoculated turkeys developed respiratory disease, yielded APV at 3, 5, and 7 DPI, and seroconverted at 10 DPI. Contact turkeys yielded APV at 7 and 10 DPI. No gross lesions were observed in the turbinates, infraorbital sinuses, and trachea. However, microscopic examination revealed acute rhinitis, sinusitis, and tracheitis manifested by congestion, edema, lymphocytic and heterophilic infiltration, and loss of ciliated epithelia. The inflammatory lesions were seen at 3 DPI and became extensive at 5 and 7 DPI. Active regenerative changes in the epithelia were seen at 10 and 14 DPI. Serologic survey for the presence of antibodies in commercial turkeys (24,504 sera from 18 states) and chickens (3,517 sera from 12 states) to APV/Colorado showed seropositive turkeys in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota and no seropositive chickens. This report is the first on the isolation of an APV and APV infection in the United States.

  14. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey! (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan


    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.


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    Z. Bilgen Susanli


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on data from the Household Labor Force Surveys over the period 2004-2013, it examines the determinants of the NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training status for the Turkish youth. This is particularly important for Turkey as it has the highest NEET rate among the OECD countries. Second, it describes the movement of the youth across four states: education, employment, unemployment and inactivity. Probit results indicate that gender and educational attainment are key factors for explaining the NEET status. Findings also show that a greater number of household members that are in employment is associated with a lower likelihood of NEET. Transition analyses reveal that the state of inactivity remains highly persistent despite the substantial fall over the sample period. In addition, the rise in the persistence of education between 2007 and 2009 underlines the choice of the youth to stay in education in response to the fall in labor market prospects.

  16. Metaheuristic Technique for Finding Earthquake Locations in NW Himalayan Region (United States)

    Yadav, Anupam; Deep, Kusum; Kumar, Sushil; Sushil, Rama

    In this article, we have used a new metaheuristic technique particle swarm optimization (PSO) for development of the earthquake location models. Two models of different crustal structures has been taken based on the arbitrary tardiness structure that defines the heterogeneity of the earth’s crust. The problem of earthquake location is modeled as a least square function of travel times and solved by using the randomized search algorithm PSO. We have solved the problem by using an advanced version of PSOs. A real life data of earthquake in the NW Himalayan region has been taken for testing these developed models. The new locations are better than the existing results.


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    Full Text Available The present paper presents descriptions of 11 trepostome bryozoan species from the material deposited at the Geological Centrum Göttingen, Germany, and Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (Naturalis, Leiden, Netherlands. The studied material comes from the Lower to Middle Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian deposits of different localities in Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain. Three species are new: Leptotrypella maculata n. sp., Anomalotoechus tabulatus n. sp. and Eifelipora tenuis n. sp. The genus Mongoloclema is reported for the first time from the Devonian of Europe. The described fauna displays palaeobiogeographic relations to the Lower Devonian (Pragian of Bohemia and to the Middle Devonian of Kazakhstan and Michigan (USA. 

  18. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys. (United States)

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A


    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.


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    Necati DEMİR


    Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.


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    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  1. Dollarization and External Sustainability of Turkey

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    Amira Karimova


    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to explain that expanding current account deficit of Turkey can be a highlighting signal of its dependency on foreign capital inflows. When private non-financial firms borrow in foreign currency, they face currency mismatch in their balance sheets. Statistical analyses of aggregated balance sheet data of non-financial sector revealed that the negative gap between firms’ dollarized assets and liabilities has been increasing considerably in Turkey. This creates financial exposure by private non-financial sector. Given a high level of liability dollarization by firms in Turkish economy, it is exposed dramatically to the changes in external and domestic conditions.

  2. Turkey: Enduring Partner or Emerging Foe? (United States)


    de Gaulle in the 1960s, Turkey may opt for its own “force de frappe” – a nuclear deterrent – and its own “Realpolitik” with countries such as China...India, and Russia. It could even contemplate leaving, as France under de Gaulle did, the military structure of NATO, while maintaining its...President Obama to treat a Gaullist Turkey as President Kennedy treated de Gaulle in France in the 1960s—demonizing foreign policy and national grandeur as

  3. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

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    Giuseppe Sironi


    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  4. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

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    Tiziana Rampin


    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  5. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings. (United States)

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak


    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  6. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey. (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut


    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  7. Defense Implications of a Nuclear Iran for Turkey (United States)


    the purchase of Popeye -1 air to ground stand-off missiles were also within the agreement. But it is argued that in fact the military agreement between...AWACS) systems, Popeye -II air-to-ground precision stand-off missile co-production and the purchase of additional tanker airplanes. On top of that

  8. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali


    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  9. Obesity prevalence in Gaziantep, Turkey

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    Ozcirpici Birgul


    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. Environmental effects, especially feeding habits may cause hyperinsulinemia and obesity. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese to 15%. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1647 persons in a sample representing Gaziantep, Turkey. Over the selected 329 houses, 310 houses were reached (94.2% and data about 1315 related persons was collected. The body mass index (BMI shows the relationship between the weight and the height of people, calculated by the ratio of mass by kg over the square value of height measure. In statistical analyses chi-square, student′s t -test and logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The mean BMI increased with time for both sex, whereas decreased for 60+ age group. The fastest increase for both sex was seen while transition from 18 year to 19-29 age groups occurred. Another increase in women was in 30-39 age group; BMI=25.08±4.39 in 19-29 ages whilst BMI=29.02±5.79 in 30-39 ages. The increases in both sex in other age groups were not as much as in this group. Conclusion: Obesity is not only a problem in the Gaziantep but is also a major health concern in Europe and other regions of the world. As an accepted method against obesity, life-style changes should be put into use from childhood supported in school and family life.

  10. Joining together the volunteer and the youth tourism: An implication for Eskişehir/TurkeyGönüllü ve gençlik turizminin birlikte ele alınması: Eskişehir’e yönelik bir öneri

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    Begüm İlbay


    Full Text Available The volunteer and the youth tourism that are among the important types of the social tourism are not desired levels in Turkey. The volunteer tourism that the major participants are youth is interraleted with youth tourism owing to participants’profiles and motivations, and the need for institutional support. Handling together thevolunteer and youth tourism, this study aims to investigate the aims of youth and the institutional authorities, and thus suggesting a proposal for future implementation. In this purpose, a mixed-method study was carried out in Eskişehir/Turkey. First, the data from the 384 college students derived by questionnaire method. Secondly, the data 9 represantatives of local governments and Non-Governemental Organizations’ as institutional authorities derived by interview method. The quantitaive data was analysed mainly by factor analysis, while the qualitative data analysed by content analysis. Findings suggest that participation the tourism among young people are not much higher, however, many of them are willing to participate to the volunteer tourism. Institutional authorities are also positive considerations towards volunteer and youth tourism, however their support is relatively on supplying. Thus, the need for intermediary individual or institution, and the support of universities and the local people are among the other important aspects in planning and implementing. In sum, the findings of the study generally demonstrate that young people and the institutional authorities relatively have positive aims regarding volunteer and youth tourism, and thus a practical implication was provided.   Özet Sosyal turizmin önemli türlerinden gönüllü ve gençlik turizmi Türkiye’de beklenen düzeyde değildir. Başlıca katılımcılarını gençlerin oluşturduğu gönüllü turizmi, katılımcıların profili, motivasyonları ve ayrıca ihtiyaç duyulan kurumsal destek açısından gençlik turizmi ile yakın ili


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    Hacer TOR


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes numerical data and sectoral distribution relating to child labor in Turkey. The information is taken the labor force research data collected by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several attempts have been made to resolve the problems of child workers in Turkey. The first stage was the implementation of the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO/IPEC. After introduction of the program, many organizations started various activities directed towards children workers in Turkey. Since these initiatives were coordinated and complementary activities there were remarkable developments in the fight against problems of the child workers. The Turkish Statistical Institute examined the child labor force proportion by means of three separate statistical components and the results revealed that number of the child workers has a tendency to decrease. Despite some statistical research carried out in Turkey, the precise number of children that are working cannot be determined. Some of the leading factors can be listed as paucity of research carried out in this area, inaccurate official statistical data regarding the number of children who are working illegally, employed as unpaid family workers, working in the streets, working on the temporary or seasonal basis, and other related factors.

  12. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults (United States)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  13. The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey (United States)


    London), November 27, 1995. 11 Chart of statements by Virtue Party leaders on social issues, cited in Seda Demiralp and Todd A. Eisenstadt, Prisoner...Turkey’s Foreign Policy Vision: An Assessment of 2007,” Insight Turkey, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2008. Demiralp, Seda , and Todd A. Eisenstadt, Prisoner Erdogan’s

  14. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda


    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  15. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)


    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  16. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)


    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing relatively prosperous

  17. On a collection of Opisthobranchia from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.


    This paper deals with the Opisthobranchia collected by the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey 1959. The collection is deposited in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. The material was chiefly collected in three areas, viz. the Bay of Antalya and the Bay of Mersin (formerly

  18. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey (United States)

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla


    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  19. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian


    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  20. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey (United States)

    Aydin, Kemal


    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  1. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys. (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G


    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  2. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.


    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either


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    Kadir TEMURÇİN


    Full Text Available Migrations from Turkey to abroad for half a century have proceeded in the recent times by undergoing important changes. Moreover, it has been observed that there exist various types and ways of foreigner migration from abroad to Turkey which began from 1980 onwards and became clarified in the 2000s. This study is aimed to focus on who migrated from abroad to Turkey and where they migrated later on the basis of the 2000 General Census.As in the internal migration, the external migration tends towards the western part of the country, particularly big cities. Thusly, % 44 of the migration occurred in big cities; % 33.4 in the centre of towns and provinces; the rest % 22.5 in the countryside. The fact that % 51.9 of immigrants were born in Turkey gives rise to "comeback migration" thought with regard to the external migration. Moreover, that % 77.7 of them are Turkish nationals supports this judgment. On the other hand, the foreign nationals whose number has reached to 50.251 (% 21.5 are non-negligible. The big cities where the external nationals are grouped and the touristic centers on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts are also the areas immigrants of foreign origin have settled down.

  4. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian


    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  5. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz


    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  6. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey (United States)

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan


    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  7. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman


    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  8. Devaluation experiences in Turkey (1923 - 2000)


    Çelebi, Esat


    Devaluation, has been examined in details in terms of its applications in Turkey. Firstly, the content and application of devaluation have been explained. After these explanations have been clarified in details and these applications of the devaluation has been stated between 1923-2000.

  9. Toward a phenology network in Turkey (United States)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.


    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  10. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

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    Melih Akyol


    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  11. The genome of turkey herpesvirus. (United States)

    Afonso, C L; Tulman, E R; Lu, Z; Zsak, L; Rock, D L; Kutish, G F


    Here we present the first complete genomic sequence of Marek's disease virus serotype 3 (MDV3), also known as turkey herpesvirus (HVT). The 159,160-bp genome encodes an estimated 99 putative proteins and resembles alphaherpesviruses in genomic organization and gene content. HVT is very similar to MDV1 and MDV2 within the unique long (UL) and unique short (US) genomic regions, where homologous genes share a high degree of colinearity and their proteins share a high level of amino acid identity. Within the UL region, HVT contains 57 genes with homologues found in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), six genes with homologues found only in MDV, and two genes (HVT068 and HVT070 genes) which are unique to HVT. The HVT US region is 2.2 kb shorter than that of MDV1 (Md5 strain) due to the absence of an MDV093 (SORF4) homologue and to differences at the UL/short repeat (RS) boundary. HVT lacks a homologue of MDV087, a protein encoded at the UL/RS boundary of MDV1 (Md5), and it contains two homologues of MDV096 (glycoprotein E) in the RS. HVT RS are 1,039 bp longer than those in MDV1, and with the exception of an ICP4 gene homologue, the gene content is different from that of MDV1. Six unique genes, including a homologue of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2, are found in the RS. This is the first reported Bcl-2 homologue in an alphaherpesvirus. HVT long repeats (RL) are 7,407 bp shorter than those in MDV1 and do not contain homologues of MDV1 genes with functions involving virulence, oncogenicity, and immune evasion. HVT lacks homologues of MDV1 oncoprotein MEQ, CxC chemokine, oncogenicity-associated phosphoprotein pp24, and conserved domains of phosphoprotein pp38. These significant genomic differences in and adjacent to RS and RL regions likely account for the differences in host range, virulence, and oncogenicity between nonpathogenic HVT and highly pathogenic MDV1.

  12. Shifts in value chain governance and upgrading in the European periphery of automotive production: evidence from Bursa, Turkey


    Güldem Ãzatagan


    This paper examines shifts in value chain governance and upgrading in the automotive component production node of Bursa in Turkey. Component suppliers in Bursa have gained design and product-development competences, one result of which is that European and global firms have turned to the creation of modular value chains for the sourcing of components from these suppliers. This paper considers the implications of the insertion of Turkish suppliers into modular value chains on suppliers’ upgrad...

  13. Chronology and origin of VMS deposits in Xinjiang, NW CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fuwen(陈富文); LI; Huaqin(李华芹); WANG; Denghong(王登红); XIE; Caifu(谢才富); LU; Yuanfa(路远发)


    VMS deposits in Xinjiang, NW China are widespread in the Altay, Tianshan and West Kunlun orogenic belt, mainly formed during the Proterozoic rifting and Phanerozoic post-orogenic extension and are related to the bimodal volcanism. The VMS deposits are middle and small in scale. According to assemblages of metallogenetic elements, they can be divided into four types (Cu-Zn, Cu-S, Pb-Zn-Cu and Pb-Zn types) with the Cu-Zn and Pb-Zn types being the most important ones. Research of isotopic chronology shows that the VMS deposits in Xinjiang were formed during the Proterozoic, Ordovician, Deovonian, Carboniferous and Permian periods and usually underwent multi-stage mineralization, especially the large-sized deposits usually have post- volcanic superimposed mineralization by tectonomagmatic or metamorphic hydrothermal metallogenic fluids.

  14. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards (United States)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  15. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  16. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten


    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  17. Testing the EKC hypothesis by considering trade openness, urbanization, and financial development: the case of Turkey. (United States)

    Ozatac, Nesrin; Gokmenoglu, Korhan K; Taspinar, Nigar


    This study investigates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the case of Turkey from 1960 to 2013 by considering energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and financial development variables. Although previous literature examines various aspects of the EKC hypothesis for the case of Turkey, our model augments the basic model with several covariates to develop a better understanding of the relationship among the variables and to refrain from omitted variable bias. The results of the bounds test and the error correction model under autoregressive distributed lag mechanism suggest long-run relationships among the variables as well as proof of the EKC and the scale effect in Turkey. A conditional Granger causality test reveals that there are causal relationships among the variables. Our findings can have policy implications including the imposition of a "polluter pays" mechanism, such as the implementation of a carbon tax for pollution trading, to raise the urban population's awareness about the importance of adopting renewable energy and to support clean, environmentally friendly technology.

  18. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  19. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia) (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.


    and paleogeographic evolution of the southern part of the northwestern Anatolia. Geologica Romana 27, 13-80 Bingöl, E. (1971) Classification of age determination methods and application of Rb/Sr and K/Ar methods in Kazdağ. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey 14, 1-16 (in Turkish) Duru, M., Pehlivan, Ş., Şentürk, Y., Yavaş, F. ve Kar, H. (2004) New results on the lithostratigraphy of the Kazdağ Massif in northwest Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 13, 177-186 Okay, A.I and Monie, P. (1997) Early Mesozoic subduction in the eastern Mediterranean: Evidence from Triassic eclogite in northwest Turkey. Geology 25, 595-598 Okay, A.I and Satır, M. (2000) Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwestern Turkey. Geological Magazine 137, 495-516 Okay, A.I, Siyako, M and Burkan, K.A. (1991) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Turkey. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul 44, 191-256 Okay, A.I, Monod, O and Monie, P. (2002) Triaasic blueschists and eclogites from northwestern Turkey: vestiges of the Paleo-Tethyan subduction. Lithos 64, 155-178 Okay, A.I, Satır, M., Maluski, H., Sıyako, M., Monie, P., Metzger, R., Akyüz, S., (1996) Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: Geologic and geochronologic constrains. The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, 420-441 Topuz, G, Altıner, D, Satır, M, and Schwartz, W.H. (2004) Low-grade metamorphic rocks from the Pulur Complex, NE Turkey: implications for the pre-Liassic evolution of the Eastern Pontides. International Journal of Earth Science, 93, 72-91 Yaltırak C. and Okay A.İ (1994) Geology of the Paleo-Tethyan units in the north of Edremit Bay. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul , 3/1, 67-79 (in Turkish)

  20. Immigration Control in Transit States: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Sahin Mencutek


    Full Text Available Transit countries exhibit many similarities with respect to state-led anti-transit and more restrictive actions toward contemporary transit migration flows. This paper examines the changes after 1990s in state concerns, behaviors, and policies regarding transit migration by taking Turkey as a case study. Which factors led to Turkey's increased attention to immigration, specifically transit migration in spite of its long history of immigration, emigration and the transit migration. Why has Turkey employed restrictive policies and projects to regularize immigration since 1993? How can we explain the anti-transit immigration projects in Turkey? I argue that two driving forces can explain the restrictive policies of Turkey as a transit state. First, Turkey attempts to reconfigure its state authority in different forms to respond to the challenges of irregular migration through immigration control. Second, the Turkish state`s concern is based upon the externalization/adoption of European Union's immigration control policies.

  1. Turkey-USA relations in an age of regional and global turmoil: challenges and prospects introduction


    Öniş, Ziya; Yılmaz, Şuhnaz


    TURKEY-US RELATIONS IN AN AGE OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TURMOIL: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Ziya Öniş and Şuhnaz Yılmaz This special issue on Turkish-American relations with a specific focus on the Middle East aims to analyze a complex web of relations at a critical regional and global juncture, with important implications well beyond bilateral relations. The idea for this special issue emerged during the “Turkish-American Alliance in a Volatile Region: ...



    KONONOVA, Alexandra; KORNİLOV, Alexander


    AbstractThe article deals with peculiarities of contemporary United Kingdom-Turkey relations. The authors consider strategic (conceptual) dimension of the bilateral relations, do research on the most important joint projects of the two states and pay a special attention to the EU accession of Turkey process influence on the relations between Britain under Prime Minister David Cameron and the Republic of Turkey under Prime Minister Recep Erdogan.Keywords: Strategic partnership, bilateral relat...

  3. Turkey and European Union. problems and prospects for membership


    Zilidis, Paschalis.


    For Turkey, Europe was the model for modernization since the era of Kemal Ataturk. Turkey's relations with Europe started with the Ankara agreement and the opening of the custom union. Since then, the country has strived for integration with the community. The Commission rejected Turkey's application in 1989 while stating for the first time that political reasons affected this decision over concerns about the Cyprus issue. The integration of new members highlighted the shift of Europe towards...

  4. Schistidium sordidum new to Turkey and southwest Asia

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    Batan Nevzat


    Full Text Available Schistidium sordidum I. Hagen (Grimmiaceae is recorded for the first time in Southwest Asia (Turkey. The specimen was collected in the south (Ağrı Mountain of Iğdır province, East Anatolia Region of Turkey. The nearest locality to Turkey for this species is Russia. A site description, illustrations, ecology, distribution and diagnostic characters of the species are presented.



    KONONOVA, Alexandra; KORNİLOV, Alexander


    The article deals with peculiarities of contemporary United Kingdom-Turkey relations. The authors consider strategic (conceptual) dimension of the bilateral relations, do research on the most important joint projects of the two states and pay a special attention to the EU accession of Turkey process influence on the relations between Britain under Prime Minister David Cameron and the Republic of Turkey under Prime Minister Recep Erdogan.

  6. Nanotechnology research in Turkey: A university-driven achievement


    Berna Beyhan; M. Teoman Pamukçu


    We deal with nanotechnology research activities in Turkey. Based on publication data retrieved from ISI Web of SSCI database, the main actors and the main characteristics of nanotechnology research in Turkey are identified. Following a brief introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology research, it goes on with a discussion on nanotechnology related science and technology policy efforts in developing countries and particularly in Turkey. Then using bibliometric methods and social network an...

  7. The impact of electricity market liberalization in Turkey. 'Free consumer' and distributional monopoly cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahce, Serdal [Department of Public Finance, Ankara University, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Taymaz, Erol [Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)


    Electricity sector has grown substantially in Turkey since the early 1960s as a result of rapid industrialization and urbanization. The vertically integrated state-owned company had a legally established monopoly on the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Turkey. With the support and encouragement of international organizations like the World Bank, Turkey has initiated a comprehensive program to liberalize and privatize the electricity market in 2001. The liberalization of the electricity market in Turkey started in the distribution side of the market. The distribution network was divided into 21 distribution regions and in each of these, separate - initially state-owned - distribution companies have been authorized to distribute and sell electricity. The plan envisaged to complete privatization of all distribution companies until the end of 2006. This study compares the welfare implication of privatization of the distribution networks by comparing two extreme cases, a pure regional distributional monopoly case and a representative pure 'free' consumer case, with a benchmark case of administered price regulation. For this purpose, we develop a simulation model of the Turkish electricity system, and use the data on generation and distribution costs. Our simulation analysis shows that substantial welfare losses occur if the distributional companies behave as regional monopolists. Our findings reiterate the importance of regulation and market design. (author)

  8. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges (United States)


    officials and analysts pay insufficient attention to changes in the alliance’s dynamics: As France did under Charles de Gaulle in the 1960s, Turkey may...dosyalar/ files/71-82.pdf. 75 For an argument that appears to support this position, see Robert Wexler , “United States and Turkey: Allies at Odds...Insight Turkey, vol. 13, no. 1, winter 2011. Wexler is a former Member of Congress. 76 Field and Zahedi, op. cit. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation

  9. The Contradictions in the EU's Policy towards Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian


    @@ On December 17, 2004, after hard negotiations, the European summit finally reached an agreement to launch the negotiations with Turkey on its accession to the EU in October 2005. This is a very important change in the EU's policy towards Turkey. Under the background of so-called "war on terror" and "conflict of civilizations," the EU's above-mentioned decision is especially arresting. Through analyzing the dominant factors in the EU's policy towards Turkey, this paper tries to make a judgment on the future development of Turkish- EU relationship, the prospect of Turkey's accession to the EU and the influences over the development of European integration.

  10. Association and in silico assignment of sequences from turkey BACs. (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Faile, Gretchen M; Kreuth, Stacy B; Chaves, Lee D; Sullivan, Laura M


    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) provide an important resource in genetic mapping. An initial set of BACs corresponding to microsatellite markers in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was isolated from the CHORI-260 turkey BAC library. The selected markers were distributed on both macro- and microchromosomes and included a genetically unlinked marker. End sequences were obtained for a subset of the recovered BACs and compared to the chicken whole genome sequence. Close association of the turkey BAC-end sequences and original marker sequences was generally conserved in the chicken genome. Gene content of the turkey BACs is predicted from the comparative sequence alignments.

  11. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa (United States)

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.


    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali


    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  13. The history of psychosurgery in Turkey. (United States)

    Zahmacioğlu, Oğuzhan; Dinç, Gülten; Naderi, Sait


    The modern age of psychosurgery can be said to have started with Moniz and Lima. Freeman and Watts subsequently revised and popularised the lobotomy procedure. Moniz shared the 1949 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses, which accelerated the worldwide popularisation of lobotomy, particularly during the years from 1948 to 1953. In Turkey, psychosurgical interventions were first performed in the early 1950s, and were applied in almost 400 cases. These operations gradually ceased after the discovery and worldwide clinic applications of a modern antipsychotic drug named Chlorpromazine in 1950s, paralleling a similar trend in other countries. Our paper reviews the clinical, psychometric and histopathological results of psychosurgery performed in Turkey in the 1950s.

  14. Inflation Differentials across Regions in Turkey

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    Duran Hasan Engin


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analyze the convergence of regional inflation rates in Turkey from 2004 to 2015 by adopting sigma convergence and distribution dynamics approaches. The outcomes of our research can be summarized in two groups. First, inflation disparities tend to decline over time, especially during the post-crisis period after 2010. Hence, the aggregate price stabilization and disinflation process in Turkey is coupled with convergence in inflation rates across regions. Second, in addition to the findings in the literature, we find that regions change their relative inflation rate positions quite often. This indicates that regional inflation behavior is random and non-structural, as the relatively high and low inflationary places tend to change their quintiles frequently. The results imply several policy suggestions. First, achieving inflation convergence is a harder task than initially understood, as it seems to show random behavior. Second, trade integration can be an option to foster regional price convergence.

  15. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery


    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  16. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  17. Internet censorship in Turkey: University students' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozkan, Arda Arikan


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study university students’ opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio‐political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey,the opinions of university students (n=138 are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire aimed to collect dataon some chosen aspects of censorship which are internet access regulation by legal authorities, online pornographiccontent, websites distributing illegal and crime related information and the political and religious aspects of the internetcensorship. The findings about these four basic aspects toward the online censorship revealed that despite the highproportion of approval, participants have a confused and inconsistent attitude towards the issue especially within theapplication and the idea of censorship. In a broader aspect, the findings can be interpreted as a sign of university students’insufficient knowledge and understanding towards the current situation and the possible future of online censorship inTurkey

  18. China Knitting Delegation Visiting Turkey and Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mr.Zhao Hong,V.President of China National Knitting Industry Association,also the chief editor of this magazine,will visit Turkey and Egypt,taking with him a delegation from Zhutang Town,one of the most important knitting industry clusters in China.The purpose of the visit is to strengthen the business relationship with lzmir area,one of the textile clustering areas in Turkey,to encourage bilateral investment and cooperation between the two industries despite Turkish trade remedy cases against textile imports from China.Observers view the regular visits between the two industries as a positive and optimistic signal for"burying the hatchet"to shake hands for more successful investment promotion and business cooperation.Egypt is famous for its long-staple cotton,and the yarn made of it is always an interest to Chinese knitters.

  19. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey. (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  20. Is crime in Turkey economically rational?



    The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.


    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  3. Is crime in Turkey economically rational?


    Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Zeren, Fatma; Ari, Ayse


    The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  5. Turkey and Stability in East Asia (United States)


    and the sources for the unrealized benefits that could force China to be aggressive and the lack of systematical evaluation of costs and advantages of... unfair treaties, and the history of war crimes have caused problems and the situation of disputed territories among these countries. Worse, the...perspective, “Turkey offers a number of advantages to the Chinese in terms of its access to the EU [European Union], the Middle East and North Africa

  6. Is nursing a profession in Turkey? (United States)

    Celik, Serpil; Kececi, Ayla; Bulduk, Serap


    Nursing has been a dynamic process since the existence of humanity on Earth. As a part of this process, whether nursing is an occupation or a profession has been a long-lasting question. There exist different sets of criteria and schemes of classification that are used to define professions. In this article the authors inquire into the professionalism of nursing in Turkey in view of the criteria for nursing professionalism first set by B. K. Miller et al. (1993).

  7. Regional Differences in Equivalence Scales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Betti


    Full Text Available Equivalence scales have a crucial role in poverty measurement. For Turkey, there are no available up-todate equivalence scales, representing Turkish data. There were no efforts for calculation of equivalence scales at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to calculate and propose an equivalence scale for Turkey and estimate regional differences. Besides the models with Engel method, different equivalence scales were estimated by Almost Ideal Demand System. The results of the first model of AIDS approach composed of 5 age groups, is proposed for Turkey, but for simplicity the results of the second AIDS model could be used as well. In this model, the equivalence scale for Turkey is calculated as 0.65 for each additional adult after the first one and 0.35 for each child. For regional equivalence scales, we use two methods and comare the results. In the first one, regressions were run for each region separately and in the second one, dummy variables introduced. The highest difference in the results of the two methods was observed in Istanbul region. The findings for the regional scales are less reliable as the household size is bigger. This limitation is due to the relatively small size of the data sets. Having surveys with higher sample sizes would enable better results. After getting the results some conclusions could be drawn especially with regard to child cost differences among regions. It was expected to have higher costs for children in poorer regions and the regional results have confirmed this hypothesis.

  8. New Stratigraphic and Palaeogeographic Results from the Palaeozoic and Early Mesozoic of the Middle Pontides (Northern Turkey) in the Azdavay, Devrekani, Küre and Inebolu Areas: Implications for the Carboniferous-Early Cretaceous Geodynamic Evolution and Some Related Remarks to the Karakaya Oceanic Rift Basin


    Kozur, H.W.; Aydin, M.; Demir, O; Yakar, H.; Göncüoglu, M.C.; Kuru, F.


    The Küre Complex of the Middle Pontides, northern Turkey, is not a remnant of the Palaeotethys but consists of three different units with differing geological history, the Küre Ridge Unit, the Küre Ocean Unit and the Çalça Unit. The Küre Ridge Unit consists of the Serveçay Group, a pre-Permian, low-grade metamorphic Variscan oceanic sequence, and the Sirçalik Group, a Lower and Middle Triassic shallow-water sequence of North Alpine facies and event succession which disconformably overlies the...

  9. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey. (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin


    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  10. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  11. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz TUTAR


    Full Text Available Among the global problems since we met the phenomenon of globalization, the water has also taken its place. Economic analysis of water have become a topic of examination by many economist in recent years. Water is one of the important needs of human life. Water has an important place in respect of its role in maintaining a healty way of life. However, our country’s water resources are getting polluted day by day and the amount of water need the per capita is inceasing fast year by year due to population growth. Water quality can not be observed in Turkey and the necessarydata bank is unable to be formed. Protection of water resources and the evaluation of if in accordance with beneficial use can be only done with an integrated management mechanism. The purpose of this study is to make economic analysis of water located in natural resources. In this context the analysis of water supply and demand, the place of water in the economy, water resources and use of them in Turkey, in the World and EU, finally SWOT analysis of Turkey in terms of water resources were performed.

  13. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey. (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet


    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  14. Export-led Growth Hypothesis: Turkey Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey using quarterly data in period from 2003:Q1 to 2015:Q1. Hypothesis argues that there is causality relationship from real export to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Johansen cointegration test, Gregory-Hansen cointegration test, Toda-Yamamoto causality test, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS, Canonical cointegrating regression (CCR and Dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS methods were used in this study. Findings can be summarized as follows: a According to Johansen cointegration test there is no relationship among variables in the long-run whereas Gregory-Hansen cointegration test has determined relationship in the long-run; b According to Toda-Yamamoto causality test there is bidirectional causality between real export and real GDP. This finding proves the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey; c According to FMOLS, CCR, DOLS methods a 1% increase in the real export increases the real GDP by 1.5195%, 1.5552%, 1.3171% respectively in the long-run. These methods prove the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey.

  15. History of forensic medicine in Turkey. (United States)

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal


    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  16. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan


    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  17. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey (United States)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.


    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  18. A Holocene speleothem record from Morocco, NW Africa (United States)

    Wassenburg, Jasper; Fietzke, Jan; Richter, Detlev; Immenhauser, Adrian


    A well dated Holocene speleothem (stalagmite) from the Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco has been investigated for its continental climate record. The aim is to compile an improved understanding of the climatically complex triple point of the North Atlantic, Mediterranean and Saharan / Monsoonal climate realms in NW Africa. At present, only few studies concerning continental climate reconstructions from NW Africa have been published (Lamb et al. 1995, Cheddadi et al. 1998, Genty et al. 2006). Given the significance of this region, this lack of data forms a strong motivation for additional, well dated climate records. The speleothem (GP2) was sampled in the 'Grotte de Piste' (ca 800 m above sea level), mean annual precipitation is about 930 mm (mainly falling in the winter season) and the mean annual temperature is about 13° C. GP2 is 60 cm tall and grew - based on U/Th MC-ICP-MS data - continuously between 11.5 kyr BP (early Holocene) and 2.9 kyr BP (late Holocene). X-Ray Diffraction data indicate a mainly aragonitic mineralogy. 'Hendy tests' suggest that CaCO3 precipitation was close to isotopic equilibrium with respect to oxygen isotopes, however kinetic effects might have influenced carbon isotopes. Carbon and oxygen isotope data have been measured along a transect with increments of approximately 1 mm representing a resolution of about 15 yrs. Highly covariant oscillations in δ13C and δ18O with an average cyclicity of about 410 yrs. are observed. These oscillations coincide with macroscopically visible high density and low density layers, possibly reflecting a higher or lower amount of inclusions and perhaps higher and lower growth rates. Geochemical analysis of speloan aragonite is accompanied by cave monitoring that has started in November 2009. Parameters quantified include: drip water parameters, cave air humidity, pCO2 and cave air temperature. Precipitation experiments using watch glasses will also be performed. References Cheddadi, R., Lamb, H. F

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  20. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Laysan, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 3 sites around Laysan in the NW...

  2. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Midway, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway in the NW...

  4. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  5. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Lisianski, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Lisianski in the NW...

  6. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  7. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Midway, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Midway in the NW...

  8. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Maro Reef in the NW...

  9. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Midway, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Midway in the NW...

  11. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  12. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Laysan, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the NW...

  13. Structural deformation pattern within the NW Qaidam Basin in the Cenozoic era and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Mao, Liguang; Xiao, Ancheng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wu, Zhankui; Wang, Liqun; Shen, Ya; Wu, Lei


    The Qaidam Basin is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and provides an excellent field laboratory in understanding the history and mechanism of the plateau growth. It deformed widely over the northwest during the Cenozoic but with little thrust loading along the margins, where no foreland depression is observed. Based on satellite images, seismic and borehole data, we investigated the structural deformation pattern (including the structural style and timing of deformation) and its formation mechanism within the northwestern Qaidam Basin during the Cenozoic era. Mapping of surface geology shows that the modern Qaidam Basin is characterized by five SE-trending anticlinal belts. Each belt consists of several right-step en echelon anticlines with plenty of normal and strike-slip faults crossing the crests. Those anticlines are generally dominated by double fault systems at different depths: an upper thrust fault system, controlling the anticlines identified on the surface and a lower dextral transpressional fault system characterized by typical flower structures. They are separated by weak layers in the upper Xiaganchaigou or the Shangganchaigou formations. The upper system yields shortening strain 2-5 times larger than that of the lower system and the additional strain is interpreted to be accommodated by hinge-parallel elongation in the upper system. Growth strata indicate that deformation within the Qaidam Basin initiated in the middle Miocene ( 15 Ma) and accelerated in the late Miocene ( 8 Ma). A simple Riedel-P-Shear model is used to explain the deformation mechanism within the northwestern Qaidam Basin.

  14. Large-diameter burrows of the Triassic Ischigualasto Basin, NW Argentina: paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina E Colombi

    Full Text Available Large-diameter ichnofossils comprising three morphotypes have been identified in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto and Los Colorados formations of northwestern Argentina. These burrows add to the global record of the early appearance of fossorial behavior during early Mesozoic time. Morphotypes 1 and 2 are characterized by a network of tunnels and shafts that can be assigned to tetrapod burrows given similarities with previously described forms. However, differences in diameter, overall morphology, and stratigraphic occurrence allow their independent classification. Morphotype 3 forms a complex network of straight branches that intersect at oblique angles. Their calcareous composition and surface morphology indicate these structures have a composite biogenic origin likely developed due to combined plant/animal interactions. The association of Morphotypes 1 and 2 with fluvial overbank lithologies deposited under an extremely seasonal arid climate confirms interpretations that the early appearance of burrowing behavior was employed by vertebrates in response to both temperature and moisture-stress associated with seasonally or perpetually dry Pangean paleoclimates. Comparisons of burrow morphology and biomechanical attributes of the abundant paleovertebrate fauna preserved in both formations permit interpretations regarding the possible burrow architects for Morphotypes 1 and 2. In the case of the Morphotype 1, the burrow constructor could be one of the small carnivorous cynodonts, Ecteninion or Probelesodon. Assigning an architect for Morphotype 2 is more problematic due to mismatches between the observed burrow morphology and the size of the known Los Colorados vertebrates.

  15. Along-Fault Deformation Partitioning of NW Haiti:Implication on Fluid Transfer (United States)

    Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Schmitz, J.; Battani, A.; Leroy, S. D.; Monplaisir, R.; Ruffine, L.


    The area of Western Haiti located in between two major fault systems, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF) and Ciabao-Oriente Septentrional fault system has been surveyed during the 2012 and 2013 Haiti-SIS cruises. From seismic interpretation and mapping the two bordering transform faults systems, EPGF (to the South) and Oriente-Septentrional (to the North), we document the deformation partitioning and the fault segmentation at different scales. A common tectonic evolution has been registered in S. Eastern Cuba and Western Hispaniola (Haiti area), up to early Miocene times. From the effective Hispaniola-Cuba separation at Oligocene/Miocene transition times, left lateral strike-slip motion was registered along large crustal faults cross-cutting different domains versus time. Rooted on these crustal/lithospheric discontinuties tectonic stress is also released on secondary fault systems where both deep and basin, even meteoric fluids may migrate. Sedimentation processes and sequence deposition have been also analyzed both offshore and onshore in the same area showing the strong tectonic-sedimentation processes interaction. A tentative calendar of this deformation, coupled with Present-Day evaluation of the draining areas along Septentrional fault, Transhaitian Ranges and Gonave Bay will be presented on regional seismic profiles and cross-sections.

  16. Methane emissions from the upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kock


    Full Text Available Coastal upwelling regions have been identified as sites of enhanced CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The coastal upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa is one of the most biologically productive regions of the world's ocean but its CH4 emissions have not been quantified so far. More than 1000 measurements of atmospheric and dissolved CH4 in the surface layer in the upwelling area off Mauritania were performed as part of the German SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene study during two cruises in March/April 2005 (P320/1 and February 2007 (P348. During P348 enhanced CH4 saturations of up to 200% were found close to the coast and were associated with upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water. An area-weighted, seasonally adjusted estimate yielded overall annual CH4 emissions in the range from 1.6 to 2.9 Gg CH4. Thus the upwelling area off Mauritania represents a regional hot spot of CH4 emissions but seems to be of minor importance for the global oceanic CH4 emissions.

  17. Eruptive Variable Stars and Outflows in Serpens NW

    CERN Document Server

    Hodapp, Klaus W; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland


    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser) and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broad-band K and in a narrow-band filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of molecular hydrogen allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify a molecular hydrogen jet emerging ...

  18. Mammalian fauna of the Temessos National Park, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Marinis


    Full Text Available The National Park of Termessos, Southern Turkey, is one of the Turkey’s biggest national park not only with its archeological richness but also with its great natural wild life. We provided a checklist of the mammalian fauna of the park on the base of direct observations, interviews and a comparative analysis of the available literature. Sixteen species have been reported in the park. Hedgehogs, hares, porcupines and Persian squirrels and, among flying mammals, Egyptian rousette and Mouse-eared bat have been recorded. Carnivores are represented by Golden jackal, Wolf, Red fox, Stone marten, Badger, Otter and Wild cat. Very recently (2005 the presence of the Caracal in the park has been confirmed, whereas no signs of the presence of the Lynx were detected. The last Anatolian leopards seems to have definitively disappeared from the region. The occurrence in the area of striped hyaenas and brown bears is documented up to a few decades ago. The Park is regarded as the only geographical range in the whole world where the European or Common fallow deer has persisted as a native form. Other ungulates too, such as Wild goat and Wild boar are dispersed within the boundary of the park. Management implications are discussed.

  19. Occurrence and seasonal transmission of hematozoa in wild turkeys. (United States)

    Stacey, L M; Couvillion, C E; Siefker, C; Hurst, G A


    The occurrence and seasonal patterns of transmission of the blood protozoa of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) were studied at Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA). Blood smears obtained from wild turkeys in winter, spring and summer, and from sentinel domestic turkeys throughout the year were examined for Haemoproteus meleagridis and Leucocytozoon smithi. Whole blood from wild turkeys captured in summer was subinoculated into malaria-free domestic turkey poults and recipient birds were examined for Plasmodium spp. The prevalence of H. meleagridis and L. smithi were not different (P greater than 0.05) between adults and juveniles or between male and female turkeys in any season. Leucocytozoon smithi was not detected in poults in summer or in juveniles examined in winter. Sentinel studies and information from wild birds revealed that transmission of H. meleagridis and L. smithi did not overlap. Haemoproteus meleagridis was transmitted from May through November, while L. smithi was transmitted only from January through April. The onset of transmission of H. meleagridis coincided with peak hatching (mid-May) and brood-rearing (May-November) of turkey poults. Plasmodium spp. were not found in turkeys from TWMA (n = 27) nor in birds from three widely separated counties (n = 28) in Mississippi.

  20. Mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, Plasmodium hermani. (United States)

    Young, M D; Nayar, J K; Forrester, D J


    Culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted Plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Florida. The mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. The resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.

  1. Serologic incidence of some diseases in Kansas wild turkeys. (United States)

    Veatch, J K; Applegate, R D; Osborne, S J


    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, n = 1164) were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella pullorum from 1990 to 1997. Although 3.3% of the turkeys were suspect for one or more diseases, only 0.9% were serologically positive for M. gallisepticum. These 11 positives were all from one country in south-central Kansas.

  2. Microsatellite loci for genetic mapping in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). (United States)

    Reed, K M; Chaves, L D; Hall, M K; Knutson, T P; Rowe, J A; Torgerson, A J


    New microsatellite loci for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) were developed from two small insert DNA libraries. Polymorphism at these new loci was examined in domestic birds and two resource populations designed for genetic linkage mapping. The majority of loci (152 of 168) was polymorphic in domestic turkeys and informative in two mapping resource populations and thus will be useful for genetic linkage mapping.

  3. Turkey as a U.S. Security Partner (United States)


    new groups have 1 For a comprehensive discussion, see Bulent Aliriza and Seda Ciftci, “The Train to Europe Stalls,” Turkey Update, Washington, D.C...political process in the future. 33 Bibliography Aliriza, Bulent, and Seda Ciftci, “The Train to Europe Stalls,” Turkey Update, Washington, D.C

  4. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey. (United States)

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M


    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  5. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim


    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  6. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey (United States)

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  7. Sustainable tourism development: the case study of Antalya, Turkey (United States)

    Latif Gurkan Kaya; Richard Smardon


    This paper discuss ideas about how tourism can be made base for sustainable tourism development in Antalya, Turkey. The introduction is a general overview of sustainable tourism development in coastal areas. The paper also addresses the role of NGOs in the course of development. Information is given about coastal tourism facilities in Turkey. Finally, sustainable...

  8. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey (United States)

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu


    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  9. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey. (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi


    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  10. New Records for the Myxomycetes Flora of Turkey


    ERGÜL, C. Cem; DÜLGER, Başaran


    Thirty myxomycetes species are new records for Turkey. Among these species, Craterium minutum (Leers) Fries, Dianema repens G.Lister & Cran., Lindbladia tubulina Fries and Tubifera ferrruginosa (Batsch) J.F.Gmel. are also new genus record taxa for the myxomycetes flora of Turkey.

  11. English Language Teacher Education in Turkey: Policy vs Academic Standards (United States)

    Mahalingappa, Laura J.; Polat, Nihat


    This qualitative study examines curriculum frameworks in English language teacher education (ELTE) programs in Turkey in light of current second language (L2) teaching standards and research vs Turkey's Higher Education Council (HEC) mandates. It also investigates program directors' perceptions about the current situations of their programs with…

  12. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey. (United States)

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza; Wagner, David M


    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey.

  13. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.


    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  14. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys (United States)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  15. University Students' Perception of Discrimination on Campus in Turkey (United States)

    Gokce, Asiye Toker


    This study explores discrimination on campus in Turkey. The participants were 164 university students from the first, third, and fourth classes of two departments in a university in Turkey. The data was gathered through a questionnaire developed by the author. The results revealed that students were discriminated against because of their clothing…

  16. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan


    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  17. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future (United States)

    Demirbilek, Muhammet


    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  18. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya


    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  19. Image acts and visual communities: everyday nationalism in contemporary Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kuryel


    In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart f

  20. The Use of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Turkey. (United States)

    Oczelik, Durmus Ali; And Others


    Use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (TEO) (B. S. Bloom, 1956) in Turkey is reviewed, highlighting curriculum development, teaching and teacher education, and measurement and evaluation of learning. Developments in TEO use in the United States are followed in Turkey with a gap of 5 to 10 years. (SLD)

  1. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Kang Xu


    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  2. Globalisation, indigenous tourism, and the politics of place in Amaicha (NW Argentine Andes

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    Rainer, Gerhard


    Full Text Available Argentina is a country that has represented itself over centuries as white and European. Over the last decades, however, indigenous movements have increased strongly in visibility and importance. This investigation considers this background in analysing the complex relationship between the growing importance of tourism and indigenous politics for self-determination and autonomy in the Andean village of Amaicha (NW-Argentina. The annual Pachamama celebration held by the indigenous Amaicha community presents the ideal setting for this research as it has simultaneously become a ‘national tourist festivity’ in the context of recent government efforts to promote a culturally diverse Argentina for tourism development. Through long-term ethnographic field work and by applying a methodological framework that combines the interpretation of visual material with careful empirical research this study presents a differentiated analysis of the political implications of indigenous tourism. The findings show that conflicts between the indigenous community and governmental institutions tend not to be about tourism and place promotion as such, but rather tourism has become a central arena where struggles over political control are manifested and mediated. Furthermore, cultural politics in Amaicha have recently been reassembled through both embodied practices and the use of cultural symbols during the Pachamama festivity. Finally, while relational conceptualisations of place as constituted through wider connections have gained momentum in academia, the results from this investigation show that an essentialised understanding of culture and identity as rooted in place is promoted for tourism, and emphasised by the indigenous community in order to legitimise claims for territorial and political rights. The goal of the paper is thus to contribute to a nuanced picture of emergent indigenous geographies in Argentina.

  3. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders (United States)


    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  4. Toxoplasmosis in wild turkeys: a case report and serologic survey. (United States)

    Quist, C F; Dubey, J P; Luttrell, M P; Davidson, W R


    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a free-ranging wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from West Virginia (USA) in June 1993. Gross findings included emaciation, splenomegaly, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis, and crusting dermatitis on the head and neck. Histologically, multifocal necrosis with mononuclear inflammation was present in kidney, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed in sections of liver by avidin-biotin immunohistochemical analysis. Subsequently, a retrospective serosurvey of wild turkeys for T. gondii antibodies was conducted using turkey sera collected between 1984 and 1989. An antibody prevalence of 10% was detected in 130 birds from 21 locations in the southeastern United States. While wild turkeys in the Southeast have T. gondii antibodies, this is only the second natural case of fatal toxoplasmosis reported; it appears that wild turkeys infrequently develop clinical disease when infected with T. gondii.

  5. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Native Turkeys in Amol, Iran

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    RanjbarBahadory Sh


    Full Text Available Native turkeys are kept as domestic bird in rural environments and can be infected with bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Capillaria and Ascaridia are nematodes of small intestines of domestic birds such as turkey. Small intestine trematod of birds like echinostomiasis need intermediate hosts for evolution. Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida are parasites in small intestines of birds. These parasites can cause economic loss and create problems for turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the genus and species, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Gastrointestinal of 60 slaughtered turkeys of Amol city were necropsied and examined. 25% of the samples were not contaminated and 75% of samples were infected with nematode, cestode and trematode. Prevalence and parasite species, including: 20% Capillaria, 51% A. gali, 8% R. tetragona, 8% R. echinobothrida and 11% Echinostoma. The results indicated that the highest prevalence of helminth parasites in turkeys of Amol and north of Iran was nematode.

  6. Immigration Control in Transit States: The Case of Turkey

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    Zeynep Sahin-Mencütek


    Full Text Available Transit countries exhibit many similarities with respect to state-led anti-transit and more restrictive actions toward contemporary transit migration flows. This paper examines the changes after 1990s in state concerns, behaviors, and policies regarding transit migration by taking Turkey as a case study. Which factors led to Turkey’s increased attention to immigration, specifically transit migration in spite of its long history of immigration, emigration and the transit migration. Why has Turkey employed restrictive policies and projects to regularize immigration since 1993? How can we explain the anti-transit immigration projects in Turkey? I argue that two driving forces can explain the restrictive policies of Turkey as a transit state. First, Turkey attempts to reconfigure its state authority in different forms to respond to the challenges of irregular migration through immigration control. Second, the Turkish state`s concern is based upon the externalization/adoption of European Union’s immigration control policies.

  7. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.


    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA


    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  9. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes. (United States)

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós


    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  10. Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape Evolution in the NW Himalayas (United States)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S.; Gloaguen, R.


    The terrain between Main Mantle Thrust to Salt Range Thrust in the NW Himalayas has been characterized by surface and subsurface features with variable tectonic activity. These features show relatively variable tectonic activity, existence of blind faults and basement faulting. In the present study, we use seismological and remote sensing analysis backed by field observations to investigate the relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and landscape evolution. We use nonlinear analysis to understand the earthquake dynamics in relation to surface faults and blind faults. The fractal analysis of the seismicity in three subsurface features of the area is used to characterize the roughness of the faults' surface. We find a high fault surface roughness in the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). It is concluded that the area is in the process of being uplifted and landscape is evolving. This evolution is further investigated using a set of geomorphological analyses consisting of extracting a drainage network from digital elevation models (DEM). The extracted streams are analysed using to calculate geomorphic indices and relative uplift rates. These analyses were applied on Indus, Swat, Kabul, Kunhar, Kishanganga, Poonch, Jehlum, Swan and Kurram, Kabul Rivers and their associate tributaries. The analyses provide us with the spatial variation of relative uplift based upon specific streams. We found that the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis and Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif are subject to a relatively high uplift. It is observed that the neotectonic activities are linearizing the drainage network from meandering pattern. We analyse the complete drainage texture using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. The analysis of the fractal dimension (D) employing box counting methods is calculated with a moving window approach and the lower values of D demonstrate the effect of neotectonic activity. The locations with lower but similar D values are further differentiated using

  11. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

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    Daniela V. Morales


    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  12. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

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    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  13. Safinamide: FCE 26743, NW 1015, PNU 151774, PNU 151774E. (United States)


    Safinamide [NW 1015, PNU 151774E; FCE 26743] is a potent anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian compound that is being developed by Newron Pharmaceuticals in Europe. It has been shown to antagonise the calcium and sodium channels, as well as inhibit monoamine oxidase type-B (MAO-B). Phase III trials for the treatment of Parkinson's disease are underway in Germany and Europe, while phase II trials in patients with epilepsy are ongoing in Italy. Newron Pharmaceuticals was founded at the end of 1998 after Pharmacia & Upjohn announced its worldwide restructuring programme. Newron obtained the rights to safinamide, which Pharmacia Corporation (now Pfizer) had been developing as PNU 151774E. Safinamide was originated by Farmitalia-CarloErba in Italy. Newron now owns all intellectual property associated with the drug.A multinational phase II trial for Parkinson's disease in Europe has shown positive results in slowing the progression of the disease; however, due to the placebo-effect seen in this study, a longer (6-month) phase IIb study is planned for the second quarter of 2003. In July 2003, Newron received an IND from the US FDA authorising a phase I trial to confirm that no dietary restrictions are needed in patients while being treated with safinamide. This study is be conducted in 12 healthy volunteers at the University of Vienna, Austria, and will be followed by efficacy studies in Parkinson's disease in the US. Five phase I trials were completed in April 2001 in Switzerland. Safinamide combines sodium and calcium channel modulatory activity with monoamine oxidase B inhibition.

  14. Deformation and Fluid Flow in the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia (United States)

    Salomon, Eric; Koehn, Daniel; Passchier, Cees; Davis, Jennifer; Salvona, Aron; Chung, Peter


    We studied deformation bands in sandstone and breccia veins in overlying basalts of the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia, regarding their development and history of fluid flow within. The studied deformation bands can be divided into disaggregation bands and cataclastic bands. The former appear to develop in unsorted sandstone, whereas the latter form in well sorted sandstone. We estimated the porosity of the bands and host rock in thin sections using a simple image analysis software (ImageJ). Results show, that no or only a minor decrease in porosity occur in disaggregation bands, while the porosity in cataclastic bands is decreased by up to 82 % with respect to the host rock. These observations are in agreement with results of existing studies (e.g. Fossen et al., 2007). Hence the cataclastic bands form a seal to fluid flow in the host rock, yet it is observed in outcrops that deformation bands can develop into open fractures which in turn increase the permeability of the rock. Breccia veins in the overlying basalts show intense fracturing where the basalt is locally fractured into elongated chips. Mineral precipitation in these breccia veins indicates a hydrothermal origin of the fluids since the precipitates consist of extremely fine-grained quartz aggregates. Secondary mineralization with large crystals indicates that a long-lived fluid circulation through tubular networks was active at a later stage, which eventually sealed the veins completely. We propose that the Etendeka basalts on top of the sandstone formation produced a localized deformation along deformation bands and heated up fluid below the lavas. At a later stage fluid pressures were either high enough to break through the basalt or fracturing due to ongoing extension produced fluid pathways. References Fossen, H., Schultz, R., Shipton, Z. and Mair, K. (2007). Deformation bands in sandstone: a review. J. Geol. Soc., 164, 755-769.

  15. Miocene to recent extension in NW Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert L.; Hall, Robert; White, Lloyd T.; Watkinson, Ian M.; Rudyawan, Alfend; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.


    The Malino Metamorphic Complex (MMC) in the western part of the North Arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia) has previously been suggested to be a metamorphic complex exhumed in the Early - Middle Miocene. This idea was based on limited K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age data, but no structural data were presented to provide evidence for the mechanism of exhumation. Here we present new field observations, micro-structural analyses and a revised stratigraphy of NW Sulawesi based on new age data, to provide better constraints on the timing and mechanism of exhumation. The data presented here suggest that the MMC is a metamorphic core complex which underwent lithospheric extension during the Early - Middle Miocene. Although the MMC experienced significant extension, there is no evidence that it was exhumed during this time. There is no contact between the MMC and the Pliocene Ongka Volcanics, contradicting a previously inferred unconformable contact. Pliocene undeformed granitoids intruding the MMC indicate the complex was still at depth during their emplacement. Furthermore, Pliocene and Pleistocene cover sequences do not contain metamorphic detritus. A second phase of extensional uplift was accommodated by brittle faulting from the Late Miocene-Pliocene onwards, during which the MMC was exhumed. This extension is widespread, as indicated by synchronous exhumation of the adjacent Palu Metamorphic Complex in West Sulawesi, and rapid subsidence offshore in Gorontalo Bay. It is linked to northward slab rollback of the southward-subducting Celebes Sea since the Pliocene. GPS data show rapid northward motion of the North Arm of Sulawesi with respect to the Celebes Sea, indicating that this process is ongoing at present day.

  16. Turkey and Turks in the German media

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    Necla Mora


    Full Text Available It is known that the prejudices, which have emerged in the historical process, are engraved in the social memory of the nations; conveyed from the past to the future in language, art, literature, history and many other fields; and reproduced via media especially in the periods of crisis.Firstly, Turkish-German relations must be examined in the historical process in order to understand how Turkey and Turks are represented in the German media. Accordingly, Turkish-German relations are also important in terms of drawing a general framework on how the West, which has been preserving its topicality for centuries, sees Turkey.How the subjects and groups are represented in the media texts and what kind of an image are formed in relation with them reveals the social memory of the countries in which the media texts are produced.The prejudices which have emerged in the social memory of the German people in the historical process have an effect in forming the negative image of Turks by being reproduced via active media especially in the periods of crisis. A negative image of Turks is brought forward with the concepts such as human rights violations, fundamentalism, oppression against the women and the minorities, Kurdish-Turkish discrimination and Alawi-Sunni discrimination.German media uses as evidence and tries to emphasize their justness on the publications, photographs and images that take place in the Turkish media in terms of especially the concepts mentioned above.Media texts are dialogues which are formed between the target audience and the narrator who reflects the opinions of the authority elites that are the sources of news. For that reason, representation forms of Turkey and Turks will be associated with the historical prejudices and analyzed with the critical discourse analysis approach in the scope of this study.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey. (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer


    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  18. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.


    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.


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    Özgür Bor


    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  20. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    provides annual security-related aid to Turkey of approximately $3-$5 million.  Domestic Stability and Human Rights. Including the government’s... Population : 78,741,053 (2015) Most populous cities: Istanbul 14.4 mil, Ankara 5.2 mil, Izmir 4.1 mil, Bursa 2.8 mil, Antalya 2.2 mil (2014) % of... Population 14 or Younger: 25.5% (2015) Ethnic Groups: Turks 70%-75%; Kurds 18%; Other minorities 7%-12% (2008) Religion: Muslim 99.8% (Sunni 75%-88

  1. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism. (United States)

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar


    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  2. The Influence of Islam in Turkey. (United States)


    must be considered evidence of some popular chord beinq struck. The question then of this paper is: "Is Islam an influ- ence in Turkey today?" By tracing...34 Middle East Journal vol. 30 #2 (Spring, 1976), p. 187; and Gunaydin 16 Oct 1979, p. 1. 50 Labor was never a particularly vocal force in the leadership...the 1960 coup, students too were not a major political force, but became more vocal and impatient after- ward. At the same time, the students, following

  3. Basic design in architectural education in Turkey

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    Makaklı Elif Süyük


    Full Text Available Creative activity is one of the most significant parts of architectural education. In the architectural curriculum organisation ‘design studio’ is the unique and preeminent subject. Freshman students encounter ‘design’ first in basic design course, before they know what designing incorporates. The Basic Design is the starting point of initiating creativity in architecture education. It helps each student to understand architecture as a creative and innovative practice in the first year of education. This study analyzes the characteristics of basic design course, the topics of the course contents and its significance in the architectural curriculum in Turkey as well.

  4. Biogerontology in Turkey: a brief report. (United States)

    Kutsal, Yesim; Kabaroglu, Ceyda; Aslan, Dilek


    In this brief report, aging in biogerontology science perspective has been discussed based on the Turkish literature review with major key recommendations for future studies. Biogerontology in Turkey has focused on general retardation of the aging process giving priority to caloric restriction and oxidative stress mechanisms. The most popular investigation area for the scientists has been the oxidant and anti-oxidant systems in different tissues. However, the Turkish biogerontology science needs more manpower, economical and infrastructural and other resources for the promising studies in the future.

  5. A Glance to Turkey-EU Relations from the Security Perspective: Incorporation of Turkey into the EU is Necessary for European Security would Strengthen the Prospects of Turkey's Integration

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    Umit Kurt


    Full Text Available This study argues that Turkey's inclusion into the EU is important for the EU's security role. An essential reason behind the European Council decision to raise Turkey's status to that of candidate country is the EU's evolving security role. In other words, the estimates of the potential benefits of Turkey's inclusion into the EU's Common European Security and Defense Policy (CESDP and the costs entailed by its exclusion essentially shape the EU's policy towards Turkey.

  6. Experimental inoculation of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with Mycobacterium bovis. (United States)

    Clarke, K R; Fitzgerald, S D; Hattey, J A; Bolin, C A; Berry, D E; Church, S V; Reed, W M


    Although avian species are known to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium spp. organisms, much remains unknown about the susceptibility of birds to infection with M. bovis. The objective of this current study was to determine if wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be infected with M. bovis when inoculated by the oral or intratracheal route. Six turkeys were orally inoculated and another six were inoculated via the trachea with a high dose of M. bovis, 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Six turkeys were sham-inoculated controls. Two turkeys from each treatment group were sacrificed on days 30, 60, and 90 postinoculation. There were no gross or microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis in the 23 inoculated turkeys over the 90-day duration of this study. Fecal cultures were also consistently negative for M. bovis when sampled before inoculation and on days 1, 30, and 60 postinoculation. Two intratracheally inoculated turkeys were positive for M. bovis in visceral tissues at 30 days postinoculation. However, this finding was only indicative of passive persistence of mycobacteria in the tissues and not of infection, as there were no attendant lesions or clinical compromise to support infection. Thus, it can be concluded that young wild turkeys are resistant to infection with M. bovis and, therefore, pose minimal threat as reservoir or spillover hosts for this organism.

  7. Mycoplasmas in wild turkeys living in association with domestic fowl. (United States)

    Hoffman, R W; Luttrell, M P; Davidson, W R; Ley, D H


    One hundred and nineteen Merriam's wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) and 31 domestic chickens coexisting on a ranch in west-central Colorado (USA) were surveyed for mycoplasmosis by serologic and cultural methods. Although no clinical signs were apparent in any wild turkeys tested, 51 (43%) had positive rapid plate agglutination (RPA) reactions for M. gallisepticum (MG) and/or M. synoviae (MS); 37% of 56 adults and 48% of 63 subadults were classified as positive reactors to MG and/or MS. No turkeys tested in 1992 (n = 61) and 17 (29%) of 58 turkeys tested in 1993 were RPA-positive for M. meleagridis (MM). Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test results were negative for MG, MS and MM as were most enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test reactions (MG = 99%, MS = 93%, MM = 87%). Immunoblotting showed mild to moderate reactivity to MG proteins in 49% of 41 samples tested. Most chickens were strongly positive for MS by RPA (81%), HI (58%) and ELISA (87%); 48% also were positive for MG by RPA but all were MG-negative by HI and ELISA. No pathogenic mycoplasmas were isolated from either group of birds. Mycoplasma gallopavonis was commonly identified from the wild turkeys, and M. gallinaceum was isolated from both the chickens and wild turkeys. In a transmission study conducted in 1994, disease-free domestic turkeys failed to seroconvert when co-housed with wild turkeys from this population that were RPA-positive for MG. Collectively, the results of this study were inconclusive regarding the status of pathogenic mycoplasmas within this wild turkey population.

  8. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures (United States)

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.


    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195


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    Çağlar Özdemir


    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is recommended by the medical community, because it offers the potential to reduce the incidence of coronary events. On the other hand, vigorous exertion may act as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in susceptible individuals. Death during sports activities differs among sports disciplines and countries. In Turkey, soccer attracts more spectators than any other sports activity and the attention of the press and media, and is preferred over other sports by many young and middle-aged individuals. As autopsy-based studies are infrequent in literature and there is a lack of data detailing sudden death during physical activity in Turkey, we present a Turkish series of sudden deaths that occurred during soccer games based on data provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine. We identified 15 male cases of soccer-related sudden death aged from 10 to 48 years. Coronary artery disease was identified as the cause of sudden death in 11 cases

  10. Pharmacy in Turkey: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Tekiner, H


    Pharmacy in Turkey underwent a radical change within the last decade. Introduction of the Health Transformation Program in 2003 has had a significant impact on Turkey's pharmacy system in accordance with objectives of the program to establish new pricing regulations for pharmaceuticals based on reference prices, and to develop better computer based health information/record systems. In this context, Pharmaceutical Tracking (Track-and-Trace) System using two dimensional matrix barcodes was initiated to prevent not only drug counterfeiting, but also fraud against the medical insurance system and off-record transactions within the pharmaceutical sector; and the process of recording prescriptions in an electronic format was launched. Some other improvements have also been made with respect to pharmacy education, law and practice. In contrast with all these positive outcomes, Turkish pharmacy sector is currently in a deep financial struggle. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the recent developments in Turkish pharmacy system and to discuss future roles and challenges of the profession.

  11. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures. (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W


    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  12. Genetic screening services provided in Turkey. (United States)

    Erdem, Yurdagül; Tekşen, Fulya


    In Turkey, the rate of consanguineous marriage is quite high (22-24 %) and as a result, the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital anomalies is also very high and gives rise to a serious public health problem. In the last three decades, great effort has been made to avoid increases in the prevalence of these hereditary diseases. For this purpose, population-based premarital, prenatal, neonatal and adult genetic screening programs are performed in various centers such as Community Health Centers, Early Diagnosis of Cancer and Education Centers (KETEM), Prenatal and Neonatal Departments of Universities and State Hospitals and Thalessemia Screening Centers. Such centers are staffed by health professionals including physicians, family physicians, nurses, midwives, biologists and medical geneticists. Genetic counseling is also provided to patients attending these centers after screening tests are performed. Since there are no specialized training programs for genetic counselors, genetic counseling is generally provided by doctors or medical geneticists. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the genetic screening services provided in Turkey, the prevalence of genetic diseases and the design of intensive educational programs for health professionals.

  13. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo. (United States)

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I


    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates.


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    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  15. Absence of avian pox in wild turkeys in central Mississippi. (United States)

    Couvillion, C E; Stacey, L M; Hurst, G A


    Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (n = 1,023), obtained during winter, spring, and summer from 1983 to 1988 on Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA) were examined for avian pox lesions. Domestic turkey poults (n = 152) maintained on the area for 1 to 2 wk periods from 1987 to 1989 also were examined. Neither wild nor domestic birds showed gross evidence of pox virus infection. This study indicated that avian pox was not endemic in wild turkeys at TWMA.

  16. In silco mapping of ESTs from the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Knutson, Todd P; Krueth, Stacy B; Sullivan, Laura R; Chaves, Lee D


    Sequence similarity was used to predict the position of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the genome of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Turkey EST sequences were compared with the draft assembly of the chicken whole-genome sequence and the chicken EST database by BLASTN. Among the 877 ESTs examined, 788 had significant matches in the chicken genome sequence. Position of orthologous sequences in the chicken genome and the predicted position of the EST loci in the turkey genome are presented Genetic assignments suggest a high level of accuracy for the COMPASS predictions.

  17. The Kurds in Turkey: Context and Current Status

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    Simon Haddad


    Full Text Available The paper proposes to examine two variables in connection with the Kurdish presence in Turkey: 1 the intensity of expression of Kurdish nationalism, and 2 repercussions of the Kurdish question on Turkey. Three components pertaining to the Kurdish case in Turkey were constructed from the literature: distinct cultural identity, political demands and socio-economic development. The paper concludes that despite radical shifts on both sides, it is still questionable whether a solution to the enduring conflict could be reached in the near future.

  18. Twin Crises in Turkey: A Comparison of Currency Crisis Models

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    Hakan Yilmazkuday


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the twin crises in Turkey experienced in 2000 and 2001. After a detailed survey of currency crisis models, together with a brief descriptive overview of the crises in Turkey, the similarities among the twin crises in Turkey and the models that have been developed to explain preceding crises in the world are investigated. It is found that the Turkish twin crises cannot be explained by using any individual generation of models, namely first generation models, second generation models or third generation models. Instead, a combination of these models is more appropriate to explain the details of the twin crises.

  19. A Social Studies Education Lesson from Turkey: Human Rights

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    Mehmet Acikalin


    Therefore, an example of a social studies lesson from Turkish educational context is provided for the special issue of Journal of Social Science Education. This may be the first recorded and transcribed social studies lesson from Turkey.  To my knowledge there is no other example to date of a completely recorded and transcribed social studies lesson from Turkey. Thus, this study provides an example of a social studies lesson from Turkey in order to facilitate comparison with examples of social studies lessons from other parts of the world.

  20. SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar


    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M

  1. Structure of the Rangel alkaline complex (Salta, NW Argentina) (United States)

    Vegas, Nestor; Hongn, Fernando; María Tubía, José; Menegatti, Nilda; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodriguez-Méndez, Lidia


    The alcaline complex of the Sierra de Rangel is a Cretaceous granitoid emplaced in the Puna Region, at the province of Salta (NW Argentina). This granitoid spreads over 9 km2 and is elongated following a NE-SW trend. The Rangel complex intrudes Quaternary sediments of the Salinas Grandes salt flat towards the east and Ordovician quartzites and metapelites to the west. There are three main facies in the Rangel granitoid: the easternmost part of the intrusion is composed by sienites that crop out in three hills isolated into the salt flat; the central part of the stock made of alkaline granites and quartz-sienites; and the westernmost side composed by alkaline granites. The available rubidium-strontium ages point out two magmatic pulses: 134±1,6Ma for the granites and quartz-sienites and the sienites of the central and eastern part and 122±1,5 Ma for the alkaline granites of the western border. The most common structure in the host quartzites and metapelites is N55oE-trending schistosity that dips around 60o to the SE. This schistosity is parallel to the axial surface of asymmetric folds with axes plunging to the east. The sharp western contact of the Rangel complex with the host rocks display a N30oE strike and dips around 40o to the SE. This contact is parallel to the intra-magmatic contact between the western and central facies and to the NE-SW elongation of the granitoid. The study of the magnetic fabrics carried on 52 sites of the Rangel complex outline the presence of two sets of tabular intrusions: a main group of overlapping NE-trending sheets that dip to the SE; and a minor group roughly perpendicular to the previous one. The integration of the magnetic fabrics results and the structural data suggest that the former set of intrusions are feeder dykes of the NE-trending sheeted intrusions. Moreover, the radiometric data suggest that the oldest pulse corresponds to the upper part of the granitoid. This fact would imply that the emplacement was controlled by

  2. Active tectonics coupled to fluvial erosion in the NW Himalaya (United States)

    Vannay, J.-C.; Grasemann, B.; Rahn, M.; Frank, W.; Carter, A.


    Both syntaxial extremities of the Himalaya show a spatial correlation between active exhumation of deep crustal rocks and the presence of powerful rivers, the Indus and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, cutting across the range two of the deepest gorges on Earth. These features strongly suggests that vigorous fluvial erosion can locally enhance isostatic and tectonic uplift, which in turn contributes to heat advection and weakening of the crust, as well as to maintain steep topographic gradients [Zeitler et al., 2001]. In order to test this positive feedback model, we combined structural and geochronological data to constrain the tectono-thermal evolution along the Sutlej (NW India), the third largest river cross-cutting entirely the Himalaya. The Himalayan crystalline core zone exposed along the Sutlej Valley is composed of two gneiss sheets, that were successively underthrusted and tectonically extruded as a consequence of the foreland-directed propagation of deformation in the Indian plate margin. During Early to Middle Miocene, combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the Sangla Detachment induced the rapid exhumation and cooling of the amphibolite facies to migmatitic High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence [Vannay &Grasemann, 2001]. Underthrusting beneath the MCT led to the creation of the amphibolite facies Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS). The LHCS cooled rapidly from Late Miocene to Pleistocene, as a consequence of tectonic extrusion controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust, and extension in the MCT hanging wall. This phase is still active, as indicated by: (1) cooling rates in excess of 100^oC/Myr during the past ˜3 Myr in the LHCS; (2) Holocene neo-tectonic activity; (3) present-day hydrothermal activity testifying to elevated near-surface geothermal gradients; and (4) seismic activity along the Munsiari Thrust. Modelling of fluvial erosion in the Himalaya indicate that the Sutlej Valley corresponds to the main

  3. Distribution Strategies for Solar and Wind Renewables in NW Europe (United States)

    Smedley, Andrew; Webb, Ann


    Whilst the UNFCCC Paris Agreement Climate change was ratified in November, 2016 saw the highest global temperature anomaly on record at 1.2°C above pre-industrial levels. As such there is urgent need to reduce CO2 emissions by a move away from fossil fuels and towards renewable electricity energy technologies. As the principal renewable technologies of solar PV and wind turbines contribute an increasing fraction to the electricity grid, questions of cumulative intermittency and the large-scale geographic distribution of each technology need to be addressed. In this study our initial emphasis is on a calculation of a relatively high spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) daily gridded dataset of solar irradiance data, over a 10 year period (2006-2015). This is achieved by coupling established sources of satellite data (MODIS SSF level2 instantaneous footprint data) to a well-validated radiative transfer model, here LibRadTran. We utilise both a morning and afternoon field for two cloud layers (optical depth and cloud fraction) interpolated to hourly grids, together with aerosol optical depth, topographic height and solar zenith angle. These input parameters are passed to a 5-D LUT of LibRadTran results to construct hourly estimates of the solar irradiance field, which is then integrated to a daily total. For the daily wind resource we rely on the 6 hourly height-adjusted ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis wind fields, but separated into onshore, offshore and deep water components. From these datasets of the solar and wind resources we construct 22 different distribution strategies for solar PV and wind turbines based on the long-term availability of each resource. Combining these distributions with the original daily gridded datasets enables each distribution strategy to be then assessed in terms of the day-to-day variability, the installed capacity required to maintain a baseline supply, and the relative proportions of each technology. Notably for the NW European area

  4. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain) (United States)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.


    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  5. Geochemistry and petrology of nephrite from Alamas, Xinjiang, NW China (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Deng, Jun; Shi, Guanghai; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Zhang, Guibin; Abuduwayiti, Maituohuti; Yang, Liqiang; Sun, Xiang


    The Hetian nephrite deposit is one of the largest nephrite deposits worldwide. Located within the Hetian deposit, Xinjiang, Northwest China, the Alamas ore body occurs as veins on the contact between the Late Variscan granodiorite and Precambrian dolomitic marble. Petrographic studies and electronic microprobe analyses reveal two possible nephrite formation processes: (1) dolomitic marble → tremolite and (2) dolomitic marble → diopside → tremolite. Nephrite veins show continuous coloration zones, ranging from white and white-green zones to a green zone towards the granodiorite, with increasing concentrations of Cr, FeO and TFe 2O 3. All these nephrite samples have quite low Cr and Ni contents (8.95-178.7 ppm and 0.05-3.95 ppm, respectively) relative to serpentinite-related nephrite (Cr 2O 3, 0.07-0.43 wt.%; NiO, 0.08-0.36 wt.%). Their bulk-rock REE patterns exhibit strong negative Eu anomalies (0.03-0.21) with declined LREE, flat HREE and low ΣREE concentration (2.84-84.81 ppm), similar to those of host dolomitic marble samples with negative Eu anomalies (0.15-0.23), declined LREE, flat HREE and lower ΣREE concentration (8.48-11.1 ppm), indicating a close genetic relationship between them. Homogenization temperatures analyses on the fluid inclusions in tremolite yield a minimum temperature 293 °C for the nephrite formation. Nephrites have oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the range from +3.2 to +6.2 per mil and -83.0 to -94.7 per mil, respectively. The corresponding equilibrated fluids have isotope compositions of δ 18O = +3.1 to +6.1 (293 °C). Combined with field observation, there are at least three possible fluid sources: meteoric water, magmatic water and CO 2 derived from decarbonation of dolomite, and a metasomatic and dolomite-related origin is suggested for the Alamas ore body in the Hetian nephrite deposit, Xinjiang, NW China.

  6. Glacimarine sedimentation in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait, NW Greenland (United States)

    Hogan, Kelly; Jakobsson, Martin; Mayer, Larry; Mix, Alan; Nielsen, Tove; Kamla, Elina; Reilly, Brendan; Heirman, Katrina An; Stranne, Christian; Mohammed, Rezwan; Eriksson, Bjorn; Jerram, Kevin


    thinning and acceleration of NW Greenland's marine-terminating outlet glaciers.

  7. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for economically important traits. A linkage map of turkey is essential not only for the mapping of quantitative trait loci, but also as a framework to enable the assignment of sequence contigs to specific chromosomes. Comparative genomics with chicken provides insight into mechanisms of genome evolution and helps in identifying rare genomic events such as genomic rearrangements and duplications/deletions. Results Eighteen full sib families, comprising 1008 (35 F1 and 973 F2 birds, were genotyped for 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Of the 775 SNPs, 570 were informative and used to construct a linkage map in turkey. The final map contains 531 markers in 28 linkage groups. The total genetic distance covered by these linkage groups is 2,324 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (81 loci measuring 326 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 28 linkage groups is 4.6 cM. Comparative mapping of turkey and chicken revealed two inter-, and 57 intrachromosomal rearrangements between these two species. Conclusion Our turkey genetic map of 531 markers reveals a genome length of 2,324 cM. Our linkage map provides an improvement of previously published maps because of the more even distribution of the markers and because the map is completely based on SNP markers enabling easier and faster genotyping assays than the microsatellitemarkers used in previous linkage maps. Turkey and chicken are shown to have a highly conserved genomic structure with a relatively low number of inter-, and intrachromosomal rearrangements.

  8. Petrography, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks, NW Ghonabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Zirjanizadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in NW Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, northern Lut block and eastern Iran north of the Lut Block. Magmatism in NW Gonabad produced plutonic and volcanic rock associations with varying geochemical compositions. These rocks are related to the Cenozoic magmatic rocks in Iran and belong to the Lut Block volcanic–plutonic belt. In this study, petrogenesis of volcanic units in northwest Gonabad was investigated. The volcanic rocks are andesites/trachyandesites, rhyolites, dacites/ rhyodacites and pyroclastics.These rocks show porphyritic, trachytic and embayed textures in phenocrysts with plagioclase, sanidine and quartz (most notably in dacite and rhyolite, hornblende and rare biotite. The most important alteration zones are propylitic, silicification and argillic.Four kaolinite- bearing clay deposits have been located in areas affectedby hydrothermal alteration of Eocene rhyolite, dacite and rhyodacite. Analytical techniques Five samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF and six samples were analyzed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Laboratories, Vancouver (Canada.Sr and Nd isotopic compositions were determined for four whole-rock samples at the Laboratório de GeologiaIsotópica da Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal. Results Petrography. The rocks in this area are consist of trachyte, andesite/ trachyandesite, dacite/ rhyodacite, principally as ignimbrites and soft tuff. The textures of phenocrysts are mainly porphyritic, glomerophyric, trachytic and embayed textures in plagioclase, hornblende and biotite. The groundmasses consist of plagioclase and fine-grainedcrystals of hornblende. Plagioclase phenocrysts and microlitesare by far the most abundant textures in andesite - trachyandesites (>25% and in size from 0.01 to 0.1mm. Euhedral to subhedral hornblende phenocrysts areabundant (3-5%and 0.1 to 0

  9. A preliminary study of NW Zhejiang foreland fold and thrust belt in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文交; 李继亮; 何海清; 陈海泓


    The Upper Permian Dalong Formation (P2d) and Changxing Formation (P2c), and the Lower Tri-assic Zhengtang Formation (Tiz) are of deep-water turbidites. The sedimentary features of the NW Zhejiang are of SE-dipping passive continental margin from the Paleozoic to the early Triassic. Together with the foreland molasse basin during the late Triassic (T3w), the tectonics of the NW Zhejiang is characterised by a tectogenesis which took place in the middle Triassic. From SE to NW, the structural style varies from multi-duplex, antiformal stack to imbricate fans, and then to Jura Mountain-type fold zone with fold-style varying gradually from large-scale tight fold to mid-scale chevron fold, then to cylindrical fold, reviewing a preliminary scenario of foreland fold and thrust belt. The space-distributed structures and the tectonic vergence indicate the significance of deformation in (T1-T3).

  10. Evaluation of geriatric suicides in Turkey. (United States)

    Özer, Erdal; Gümüş, Burak; Balandiz, Hüseyin; Kırcı, Güven Seçkin; Aydoğdu, Halil İlhan; Tetikçok, Ramazan


    Suicide is defined as an individual taking action towards themselves with the intention of terminating their own life. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 800,000 deaths per year worldwide are due to suicide. In 2012, suicide cases constituted 1.4% of all the deaths worldwide. In most countries throughout the world, the suicide rates of the elderly are higher than those of other age groups. Epidemiological studies have concluded that suicide rates increase with advancing age in all societies, this increase accelerates after the age of 65 years and the highest rates are reached after the age of 75 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic features, suicide methods and reasons for suicide in geriatric suicide cases between 2009 and 2013 using the data of the Turkish Statistics Institute (TUIK). A retrospective evaluation was made of the TUIK data related to proven suicide cases aged 65 years and older in the 5-year period of 2009-2013. A total of 1723 geriatric suicides were determined in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. These comprised 1284 (74.5%) males and 439 (25.5%) females, showing a rate of males approximately 3 times higher than that of females. An increase of approximately 10% was seen in the deaths by suicide in 2013 compared to 2009. The highest rate of geriatric suicides within total geriatric deaths was observed to be in 2012 (15.2%) and the lowest rate was in 2010 (12.4%). The most common method of suicide in both genders was hanging. In the majority of cases of geriatric suicide of both genders, the reason could not be determined. In those cases where the reason was known, the most common reason was illness. It has been reported that the most significant factors in suicide prevention are friends and family. As there continues to be an extensive family structure and family connections are strong in Turkey, this can be considered to be one of the reasons for lower rates of geriatric suicide compared to other countries. As

  11. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II. (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H


    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  12. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Gurpinar


    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  13. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok


    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  14. Quail, pheasant, & turkey brood survey 2012 : performance report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 quail, ring-necked pheasant, and wild turkey statewide survey. This survey provides Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks, and Tourism...

  15. New species of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerova, M.; Seryogina, L.; Çam, H.


    Five new species belonging to the family Eurytomidae (Chalcidoidea) are described from Turkey: Tetramesa anatolica spec. nov., Eurytoma turkezia spec. nov., E. brevicoxa spec. nov., Systole minima spec. nov. and S. brunnicornis spec. nov.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malhan, S; Tulunay, FC


    ... health care costs for patients with HSDD, prescription medication costs were also signifi cantly higher than matched controls. PIH22 ESTIMATING DIRECT COST OF VAGINITIS IN TURKEY Tulunay FCy 1 , Ma...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KAVAKLI


    Full Text Available Laz (South Caucasian language, which is spoken primarily on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in Turkey, is being threatened by language endangerment. Having no official status, Laz language is considered to be an ethnic minority language in Turkey. All Laz people residing in Turkey are bilingual with the official language in the country, Turkish, and use Laz most frequently in intrafamilial conversations. In this article, Laz language is removed from the dusty pages of Turkish history as a response to the threat of language attrition in the world. Accordingly, language endangerment is viewed in terms of a sociolinguistic phenomenon within the boundaries of both language-internal and -external factors. Laz language revitalization acts have also been scrutinized. Having a dekko at the history of modern Turkey will enlighten whether those revitalization acts and/or movements can offer a novus ortus (new birth for the current situation of Laz language.

  18. Cultural Tourism Tours and Main Routes Towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL


    Full Text Available Today, the tourism has become a important industry. Certainly, the most important international actors af this industry are tour operators. The tour operators which realize about 75 percent of the total tourism activity to Turkey have taken a very important mission from the point of Turkey tourism. The, Germany, Netherlands, England and USA tour operators, which have made the important part of the tours to our country, have also an important position in organizating cultural tour. When the cultural tours, which have been planned to Turkey by this countries, have been studied it is seen that these tours have containied more mass tourism areas or near areas of these region. It can be said that Turkey’s not marketing its tourism correctly has be effective in this subject. With this research, it has been studied how the cultural attractions in Turkey have been perceived, consumed and marketed by abroad tour operators.

  19. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano


    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  20. In Search for a Pronatalist Population Policy for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf YÜKSEL


    Full Text Available Turkey has witnessed high fertility rates and low mortality rates until 2000s. Young population structure, need for infrastructure for growing population and reproductive health issues were always on the agenda of policy makers throughout the history of Turkey. After the decline in total fertility rate below replacement level, vibrant discussions and search for a new policy framework began to be visible in the recent years. After the establishment of new Republic in Turkey in 1923 pronatalist policies were active until the beginning 1960s. After the First Development Plan in 1962, policy shift was towards an antinatalist direction until 2000. After a short period between 2000 and 2012 which can not be put any category in terms of fertility policy government clearly declared its position favouring pronatalist policies and mobilised bureaucracy for developing new policy options. This paper summarizes the fertility policies and demographic transition of Turkey and evaluates possible policy options

  1. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... 1Department of Biology, Science and Art Faculty, Celal Bayar University, Muradiye-Manisa, Turkey. ... Chromosome number within the genus shows great variation (2n = 6, 8, .... Chromosome atlas of flowering plants. London ...

  2. Strategic Analysis of Medical Tourism in Turkey and Strategy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Barca


    Full Text Available This study is to identify the current state of health tourism in Turkey, to assess the developments, and to advise on strategic studies future developments in the assessment and aims to advice on strategic studies to be done in the future. An annual picture of Turkey in terms of health tourism is put forward by analyzing data (public-private rate, the separation of health tourists, health-tourists, the service industry, country of origin, etc. for 2011 collected offial channels from Provincial Health Directorates of the Ministry of Health (about public and private hospitals. Furthermore, strategic assessments and recommendations on the need for the future regarding medical tourism in Turkey are made in the light of developments in the World and Turkey.

  3. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.


    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  4. Analysis of forest product trade relationships between Turkey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 19, 2010 ... Competition advantage is experienced in the board sector but not in ... Turkey's resource base and production capacity would ... sustainable development of the EU. ... Forest product firms are scattered all over the region, and.

  5. Tandheelkunde in Turkije en Marokko [Dentistry in Turkey and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs, A.H.B.; Verrips, G.H.


    Some information is given on the number of dentists in Turkey and Morocco and the dental condition of the inhabitants. This information concerns prevention, caries, periodontic diseases as well as other dental diseases and diseases of the mouth.

  6. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and A. ... Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. .... Fish preda- tion could ... is lack of the information about zooplankton diversity and.

  7. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  8. The Role of the Family in Attributing Meaning to Living With HIV and Its Stigma in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Öktem


    Full Text Available Stigma attached to HIV/AIDS remains a global problem, with severe negative consequences for people living with HIV (PLHIV. Family support is fundamental for PLHIV’s psychological and physical well-being. HIV-related stigma is high in Turkey, where HIV/AIDS prevalence is low and the epidemic is not considered a priority. Based on qualitative data generated with HIV-positive women and men, this article explores the process of stigmatization, as experienced and perceived by PLHIV in Turkey, focusing on the institution of the family. Results indicated that enacted stigma from family members is lower than anticipated. While most participants’ narratives showed patterns of support rather than rejection from families, the strong expectations around the cultural value attributed to “the family” are found to be the main facilitators of internalized stigma. The article critically discusses the meaning and implications of family support, addressing the role of patriarchal values attributed to womanhood, manhood, and sexuality in Turkey.

  9. Turkey's EU Quest and Political Cleavages under AKP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali


    This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi-AKP) elec......, ‘privileged partnership’ seems to represent a new pragmatic synthesis of Realpolitik that both Ankara and Brussels should reconsider....

  10. Transformation of Minarets in Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Turkey


    Urey, Ozgur


    This study aims to explore the usage, the formal and functional transformation of minarets in contemporary mosque architecture in Turkey, through a survey of the selected cases. The selected cases are the outstanding examples of Turkish contemporary mosque architecture. Their architects are innovative in their design decisions and displayed their own design approach and interpretation outside the main stream contemporary mosque design in Turkey. In this study, six mosques for every decade beg...

  11. Transformation of Minarets in Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Turkey


    Urey, Ozgur


    This study aims to explore the usage, the formal and functional transformation of minarets in contemporary mosque architecture in Turkey, through a survey of the selected cases. The selected cases are the outstanding examples of Turkish contemporary mosque architecture. Their architects are innovative in their design decisions and displayed their own design approach and interpretation outside the main stream contemporary mosque design in Turkey. In this study, six mosques for every decade beg...

  12. Status and Future Outlook of Cultivated Mushroom Sector in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Eren


    Full Text Available Mushroom production that started in 1960's in Turkey gained economic value from the 1990's and it started improving as a commercial sector after that time. While Turkey mushroom production was 80 tons in 1973, it increased up to 45.000 tons in 2014. There is a rapid changes and improvement in cultivated mushroom production and consumption in Turkey. The object of the study is to reveal current status of mushroom production in the world and Turkey, and the problems of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the necessary precautions and ways to solve these problems. The data obtained from the inspections of the mushroom enterprises that in mushroom production regions of Turkey, and the secondary data obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK and Union of Antalya Exporters (AIB and also national and international publication’ data has been used in this study. In Turkey, Mediterranean and Marmara Regions rank first in mushroom production and consumption with the share of 61.5 and 40%, respectively. It has been determined that big enterprises producing mushroom and compost established in the Central Anatolia in this study. The number of enterprises producing mushroom by using technology increases and 15-20% of the total production are provided by the big enterprises having 2000 m2 and over mushroom production areas. Recent years, there are serious increases in the production of different mushroom species such as especially Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, precision agriculture applications are widespread with the time. For the continuation of growth of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the solving of the sector problems, there are needs both in making the necessary changes in legislation and to be given priority researches related to mushroom production in university and public research institutions and also to support them.

  13. High mortality of domestic turkeys associated with Ascaridia dissimilis. (United States)

    Norton, R A; Hopkins, B A; Skeeles, J K; Beasley, J N; Kreeger, J M


    Third- and fourth-stage Ascaridia dissimilis larvae were isolated from commercial white turkey intestinal scrapings from two farms that were experiencing high mortality. Lesions consisted of a necrotic-like enteritis that was most severe in the jejunum. Subsequent bacteriological isolation yielded heavy growth of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. The rate of mortality declined rapidly when the turkeys were administered 18 ppm fenbendazole for 7 days.

  14. Supplementary Education in Turkey: Recent Developments and Future Prospectss


    Tansel, Aysit


    This paper aims to provide the recent developments on the supplementary education system in Turkey. The national examinations for advancing to higher levels of schooling are believed to fuel the demand for Supplementary Education Centers (SEC). Further, we aim to understand the distribution of the SECs and of the secondary schools across the provinces of Turkey in order to evaluate the spacial equity considerations. The evolution of the SECs and of the secondary schools over time are describe...

  15. Supplementary Education in Turkey; Recent Developments and Future Prospects


    Tansel, Aysit


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide the recent developments on the supplementary education system in Turkey. The national examinations for advancing to higher levels of schooling are believed to fuel the demand for Supplementary Education Centers (SEC). Further, we aim to understand the distribution of the SECs and of the secondary schools across the provinces of Turkey in order to evaluate the spacial equity considerations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The evolution of the SECs and o...

  16. Social cleavages and electoral support in Turkey -- toward convergence?


    Hazama, Yasushi


    Studies on Western democracies have shown that deep-seated social cleavages stabilize the electoral behavior and thus reduce electoral volatility. But how do social cleavages affect a party system that is undergoing democratic consolidation, such as in Turkey? In this study, investigations were carried out on long- and short-term relationships between social cleavages (religiosity, ethnicity, and sectarism) and electoral volatility in Turkey during the 1961-2002 period. Cross-sectional multip...

  17. Team Leadership: Leadership Role Achievement in Supervision Teams in Turkey


    Ali Sabanci; Izzet Ozdemir


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of team leaders and team members of supervision teams about the extent that team leaders achieve their team leadership roles in Turkey. This research was conducted as a survey. The population of the study consisted of approximately 2650 supervisors (inspectors) working in 81 provinces distributed to seven geographical regions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 563 supervisors which were selected out by random sampling. The data were gathered b...

  18. The Winds of Change: Turkeys Evolution Toward Authoritarianism (United States)


    emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria that has increased the strategic and tactical value of Turkey. The newly enacted Syrian Train and...Equip program is a significant aspect of the US-Turkish relationship and underscores the strengths of each partner: Turkish geopolitical value and...century old. This duality is an integral component of Turkey’s geopolitical history and “is among its key original qualifications.”1 Turkey

  19. Construction of a Regional Financial Inclusion Index in Turkey



    This paper examines a multidimensional measurement of financial inclusion to gauge the extent of financial system across time in Turkey. A multidimensional index of financial inclusion has been developed to allow for comparison among regions and provinces of Turkey in terms of financial inclusion for policymakers. Financial access indicators are used to construct and index lying between 0 and 1. The normalized indicators are than extracted by the Euclidean distance formula. The empirical resu...

  20. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias


    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  1. Groundwater hydrochemistry evolution in cyclone driven hydrological regimes, NW Australia (United States)

    Skrzypek, G.; Dogramaci, S.; Grierson, P.


    Groundwater reserves supply the water needs of many arid regions around the world. Aquifer recharge in these regions is primarily depended on the amount and distribution of rainfall, coupled with exceedingly high rates of evaporation and interactions with both local and regional geomorphology and geology. In semi-arid northwest Australia, the majority of rainfall is delivered by large but infrequent cyclonic events and relatively more frequent but low intensity frontal systems. Changes to rainfall patterns due to global climate change may impact hydrological regimes, recharge rates and groundwater hydrochemistry. These changes may significantly restrict freshwater resources in the future. Between 2008 and 2012, we analysed >400 groundwater, surface and rainwater samples for stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) and major ion chemistry. We then developed conceptual geochemical models of groundwater evolution for the Hamersley Basin (>100,000 km2) and a salt inventory for the Fortescue Marsh (the largest wetland in NW Australia) [1,2]. Fresh groundwater from the alluvium (-8.02 × 0.83‰) and fractured aquifers (-8.22 × 0.70‰) were hydrochemically similar and characterised by a very narrow range of δ18O [1]. In contrast, δ18O of saline and brine groundwater (TDS >10 g L-1) varies in wide range from +2.5 to -7.2‰ [2]. Most of the fresh and brackish groundwater reflects modern recharge and is evaporated by water and older deep groundwater. The Fortescue Marsh primarily acts as a terminal basin for surface water from the upper Fortescue River catchment [2]. The stable isotope composition of the deep brine groundwater under the Marsh suggests a complex evolution, which cannot be explained by evaporation under current climatic conditions. The observed salinity and δ18O values may result from progressive evaporation from highly saline lake that existed in the past, as the dynamic fractionation from brine is much different compared to that in fresh and

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor and outdoor window organic films in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Banu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)


    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations of outdoor and indoor organic films on window glasses were measured at different locations (offices, laboratories, and homes in urban, suburban, rural, and industrial sites) in Izmir, Turkey. {Sigma}{sub 7}PBDE concentrations were dominated by technical penta and deca-BDE mixture components. Average total outdoor PBDE ({Sigma}{sub 7}PBDE) concentrations for suburban, urban, and industrial sites were 43.5, 45.5, and 206 ng m{sup -2}, respectively. This spatial gradient (industrial > urban > suburban concentrations) was similar to one observed for ambient air concentrations recently in Izmir, Turkey. The highest concentrations measured in the industrial area were attributed to the significant PBDE emissions from several steel plants located in the area. Air-organic film partitioning modeling results have suggested that organic films can be used in conjunction with the dynamic uptake model to approximate the gas-phase ambient air concentrations. Modeling results have also indicated that congeners in the gas-phase with very large octanol-air partition coefficients (i.e., BDE-154, -153, and -209) will require several months to approach equilibrium with the surface films. This finding may have important implications for gas-particle and gas-film partitioning, transport, and photolytic degradation of atmospheric PBDEs.

  3. Export product diversification and the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Turkey. (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis


    Countries try to stabilize the demand for energy on one hand and sustain economic growth on the other, but the worsening global warming and climate change problems have put pressure on them. This paper estimates the environmental Kuznets curve over the period 1971-2010 in Turkey both in the short and the long run. For this purpose, the unit root test with structural breaks and the cointegration analysis with multiple endogenous structural breaks are used. The effects of energy consumption and export product diversification on CO2 emissions are also controlled in the dynamic empirical models. It is observed that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in Turkey in both the short run and the long run. The positive effect on energy consumption on CO2 emissions is also obtained in the long run. In addition, it is found that a greater product diversification of exports yields higher CO2 emissions in the long run. Inferences and policy implications are also discussed.

  4. Anticoccidial action of monensin in turkey poults. (United States)

    McDougald, L R


    Monensin was effective within the range 60-100 p.p.m. in control of coccidiosis in turkey poults in a series of laboratory experiments. Under conditions of heavy infections with Eimeria meleagrimitis and E. adenoides, 100 p.p.m. of monesin was significantly more effective than 60 p.p.m. in protecting weight gains. When light or moderate infections with E. meleagrimitis, E. adenoides and E. gallopavonis were used, there were no significant differences among monesin-medicated treatments. In all instances the monensin-medicated treatments gained significantly more weight than noninfected, nonmedicated controls, when measured at 7 days post-inoculation. Similarly, oocyst, passage was reduced, feed conversion was protected and mortality was controlled in monensin-treated poults.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem


    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  6. Evaluation of Timber Extraction Machines in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Senturk


    Full Text Available In forestry, like every kind of production, production works require a productive power. This productive power can be provided by both human power or animal and machines which are used by human beings. The production of wood raw material are formed various stages that continues from the productive place to market center. These work stages depend on each other like rings of a chain. Success and failures in each stage effect the next stage. However the increasing of forest product that is formed in our country recently, now hauling has been still made with old patterns, such as sliding, throwing, circling, transport with human, skidding with animals on direct ground. Besides special forest tractors and skylines are used in some areas. In this study researched technical features and work performances of MB Trac tractors and skylines in Turkey.

  7. [Problems in cardiology specialty training in Turkey]. (United States)

    Altun, Armağan


    Cardiology Specialty Training in our country should be made in accordance with the law numbered 1219 on the Practice of Medicine and Related Arts, and according to the Medical and Dental Specialist Training Regulation which is published according to the 9th article of this law. The duration of Cardiology Specialist Training has been defined as 4 years in our country. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), and the European Cardiology Section Foundation (ECSF) define the duration of Cardiology Specialist Training as 6 years. Therefore, insufficient Cardiology residency training occurs in our country due to the shortened length of time. In this report, the problems of the Cardiology Specialist Training in Turkey will be addressed under different headings.

  8. Late evening artificial insemination of turkey hens. (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Renner, P A


    Turkey hens were artificially inseminated at three times (0800, 1100, or 2200 hr) under conditions where high or low fertility would be expected. Four trials were conducted and the same two persons collected semen and inseminated the hens in all trials. Each hen was inseminated with .025 cc undiluted semen. There was no significant difference in fertility when hens were inseminated at different times of the day in the first three trials. In a fourth trial, where high fertility was expected, hens inseminated at 0800 hr had lower fertility than those inseminated at 2200 hr. There was no significant difference between inseminating at 0800 or 1100 hr and 1100 or 2200 hr. The results of this study indicate that late evening insemination is not necessary for high fertility.

  9. Spatial Evolution of Openstreetmap Dataset in Turkey (United States)

    Zia, M.; Seker, D. Z.; Cakir, Z.


    Large amount of research work has already been done regarding many aspects of OpenStreetMap (OSM) dataset in recent years for developed countries and major world cities. On the other hand, limited work is present in scientific literature for developing or underdeveloped ones, because of poor data coverage. In presented study it has been demonstrated how Turkey-OSM dataset has spatially evolved in an 8 year time span (2007-2015) throughout the country. It is observed that there is an east-west spatial biasedness in OSM features density across the country. Population density and literacy level are found to be the two main governing factors controlling this spatial trend. Future research paradigms may involve considering contributors involvement and commenting about dataset health.

  10. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey. (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U


    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled.

  11. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet


    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  12. Hydrogen is not an utopia for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiktas, Melih Soner [EBILTEM, Ege University Science and Technology Research Center, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Kocar, Gunnur (Solar Energy Institute of Ege University, Izmir Turkey)


    The aim of this study was to explore how the future of technological developments in hydrogen will be shaped in Turkey by using a two-round Delphi method undertaken to determine and measure the expectations of the sector representatives through online surveys where a total of 60 experts responded from 18 different locations. The article discusses not only the expert sights on hydrogen technologies but also all bibliometrical approaches. The results showed that the hydrogen economy will enhance innovations as well as economic prosperities with the support of appropriate policies. Formulating such policies requires a timely and detailed understanding of the latest R and D trends and developments in science and technology policy in all developed countries, and the comprehensive analysis of these developments to enable accurate predictions of future science and technology trends. Therefore, we hope that this study can shed a light on the future use of hydrogen technologies, especially for policy makers. (author)

  13. Factors Affecting Lipid Oxidation Due to Pig and Turkey Hemolysate. (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jianhao; Richards, Mark P


    Turkey hemolysate promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than pig hemolysate, which was partly attributed to the greater ability of H2O2 that formed during auto-oxidation to oxidize the avian hemoglobin (Hb). Turkey and pig hemolysate (2.5 μM Hb) exposed to 10 μM H2O2 oxidized to 48% and 4% metHb, respectively. Catalase activity, which converts H2O2 to water, was elevated in the pig hemolysate. The larger difference in Hb oxidation when comparing turkey and pig hemolysate in washed muscle (relative to their auto-oxidation rates) suggested that lipid oxidation products facilitated formation of metHb. Turkey metHb released hemin more readily than pig metHb, which coincided with turkey metHb promoting lipid oxidation more effectively than pig metHb. Ferryl Hb was not detected during storage of turkey or pig hemolysate in washed muscle, which suggested a minor role for hypervalent forms of Hb in the oxidation of the lipids.

  14. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga


    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  15. Formation mechanism of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Carbonate cemented zones are normally adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China.Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrological investigations of carbonate cements in the carbonate cemented zones indicate that:(1) carbonate cements are composed dominantly of ferrocalcite,ferroan dolomite,and ankerite;(2) carbonate cements are formed under a high temperature circumstance in the subsurface,and organic fluid migration has an important effect on the formation of them;and(3) carbon and oxygen ions in the carbonate cements migrate from the underlying overpressured system.This suggests that the occurrence of carbonate cemented zones in this region results from multiple phases of organic fluid expulsion out of the overpressure compartment through geological time.This study provides a plausible mechanism of the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the clastic sedimentary basins,and has an important implication for understanding the internal correlation between the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to top overpressured surface and geofluids expulsion out of overpressured system.

  16. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of Tertiary volcanism in the Güvem area, Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Tankut, Ayla; Wilson, Marjorie; Yihunie, Tadesse


    Detailed field mapping in the Güvem area in the Galatia province of NW Central Anatolia, Turkey, combined with K-Ar dating, has established the existence of two discrete Miocene volcanic phases, separated by a major unconformity. The magmas were erupted in a post-collisional tectonic setting and it is possible that the younger phase could be geodynamically linked to the onset of transtensional tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault zone. The Early Miocene phase (18-20 Ma; Burdigalian) is the most voluminous, comprising of over 1500 m of potassium-rich intermediate-acid magmas. In contrast, the Late Miocene volcanic phase (ca. 10 Ma; Tortonian) comprises a single 70-m-thick flow unit of alkali basalt. The major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the volcanics suggest that the Late Miocene basalts and the parental mafic magmas to the Early Miocene series were derived from different mantle sources. Despite showing some similarities to high-K calc-alkaline magma series from active continental margins, the Early Miocene volcanics are clearly alkaline with higher abundances of high field strength elements (Zr, Nb, Ti, Y). Crustal contamination appears to have enhanced the effects of crystal fractionation in the petrogensis of this series and some of the most silica-rich magmas may be crustal melts. The mantle source of the most primitive mafic magmas is considered to have been an asthenospheric mantle wedge modified by crustally-derived fluids rising from a Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Tethyan subduction zone dipping northwards beneath the Galatia province. The Late Miocene basalts, whilst still alkaline, have a Sr-Nd isotope composition indicating partial melting of a more depleted mantle source component, which most likely represents the average composition of the asthenosphere beneath the region.

  17. Turkey model for flexor tendon research: in vitro comparison of human, canine, turkey, and chicken tendons. (United States)

    Kadar, Assaf; Thoreson, Andrew R; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng


    Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study. Six digits in each of four species were studied in detail, comparing anatomy of the flexor apparatus, joint range of motioņ tendon excursion, tendon cross-sectional area, work of flexion, gliding resistance at the level of the A2 pulley, modulus of elasticity, suture retention strength, and histology across species. Anatomically, the third digit in the four species displayed structural similarities; however, the tendon cross-sectional area of the turkey and human were similar and larger than canine and chicken. Furthermore, the turkey digit resembles the human's finger with the lack of webbing between digits, similar vascularization, tendon excursion, work of flexion, gliding resistance, mechanical properties, and suture holding strength. More importantly, human and turkey tendons were most similar in histological appearance. Turkey flexor tendons have many properties that are comparable to human flexor tendons which would provide a clinically relevant, economical, nonhuman companion large animal model for flexor tendon research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Restraining Stepovers And Releasing Bends Along The Active East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey: Celikhan Region As A Case Study (United States)

    Isik, V.; Seyitoglu, G.; Herece, E.; Saber, R.; Caglayan, A.


    The Arabia-Eurasia convergence involves intracontinental shortening in SW Turkey. Two active fault zones in Turkey, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), divide the area into the Anatolian micro-plate accommodating SSW-directed movement. The EAFZ is a crustal-scale strike-slip fault, represents a sinistral NE-striking zone, characterized by numerous, complex faults and segmented surface ruptures. The Celikhan region, selected for this study, is located approximately 30 kilometers north of the city of Adiyaman. Although two segments representing the latest seismic activity of the EAFZ have been mapped, named Siro and Erkenek segments, the region contains many segments that become more complex fault pattern. The Celikhan region form part of geology of SE Turkey and is hosted by metamorphic rocks (Poturge metamorphites and Malatya metamorphites), ophiolitic and volcanic units (Kocali complex and Maden complex), limestone with fossils (Midyat formation) and Plio-Quaternary deposits. These rocks are transected by series of steeply dipping to subvertical the EAFZ preserving good indications to sinistral displacement with or/and without normal and reverse component associated with fault rock development. In the northern portion of the study area, the EAFZ is defined by relatively straight, polished recrystallized limestone of the Malatya metamorphites slip surface, which strike N50°-55°E and dip 80°-88° NW. Well-develeoped slickenlines with rakes between 10°-15°, corrugations and some brittle kinematic indicators marks on the slip-surface, indicating strike-slip displacement with minor dip-slip component. This fault create a restraining stepover with the fault near to Celikhan and Akdag can be interpreted as push up structure. At the southwest of Celikhan, the EAFZ create a releasing bend and several strike-slip fault strands with normal component striking N40°-60°E. These subsidiary faults containing centimeter

  19. Stages of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic magmatism in the Song Ma belt, NW Vietnam: evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope composition (United States)

    Hieu, Pham Trung; Li, Shuang-Qing; Yu, Yang; Thanh, Ngo Xuan; Dung, Le Tien; Tu, Vu Le; Siebel, Wolfgang; Chen, Fukun


    The Song Ma zone in NW Vietnam bears important tectonic implications as a potential subduction corridor between the Indochina and South China blocks. On the basis of U-Pb ages, the Hf isotopic characteristics of zircons and the geochemical composition of granitoids, a two-stage magmatic evolution process of the Song Ma zone at ~290-260 and ~245-230 Ma can be proposed. Isotopic analyses indicate magmatic contributions from Neoproterozoic oceanic island basalt, Proterozoic continental crust, and depleted mantle or juvenile lithosphere. By combining geochronological and geochemical data from the granitoid rocks, we suggest that the staged magmatic processes of Song Ma zone may be related to a long-lasting period of ocean subduction (ca. 290-260 Ma) and subsequent syn-/post-collisional evolution (ca. 245-230 Ma).

  20. Effect of ocean warming and acidification on a plankton community in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugendre, L.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Louis, J.; de Kluijver, A.; Marro, S.; Soetaert, K.; Gazeau, F.


    The effect of ocean warming and acidification was investigated on a natural plankton assemblage from an oligotrophic area, the bay of Villefranche (NW Mediterranean Sea). The assemblage was sampled in March 2012 and exposed to the following four treatments for 12 days: control (~360 µatm, 14°C),