WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuts excluding infant

  1. Eye disorders in newborn infants (excluding retinopathy of prematurity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michael J; VanderVeen, Deborah K

    2015-05-01

    A screening eye examination is an essential part of the newborn assessment. The detection of many ocular disorders in newborn infants can be achieved through careful observation of the infant's visual behaviour and the use of a direct ophthalmoscope to assess the ocular structures and check the red reflex. Early diagnosis and subspecialty referral can have a critical impact on the prognosis for many ocular conditions, including potentially blinding but treatable conditions such as congenital cataracts, life-threatening malignancies such as retinoblastoma and harbingers of disease elsewhere such as sporadic aniridia and its association with the development of Wilms tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Infant Feeding Practices and Nut Allergy over Time in Australian School Entrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Paton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure the association between infant feeding practices and parent-reported nut allergy in school entrant children. Method. The Kindergarten Health Check Questionnaire was delivered to all 110 Australian Capital Territory (ACT primary schools between 2006 and 2009. Retrospective analyses were undertaken of the data collected from the kindergarten population. Results. Of 15142 children a strong allergic reaction to peanuts and other nuts was reported in 487 (3.2% and 307 (3.9%, children, respectively. There was a positive association between parent reported nut allergy and breast feeding (OR=1.53; 1.11–2.11 and having a regular general practitioner (GP (OR=1.42; 1.05–1.92. A protective effect was found in children who were fed foods other than breast milk in the first six months (OR=0.71; 0.60–0.84. Conclusion. Children were at an increased risk of developing a parent-reported nut allergy if they were breast fed in the first six months of life.

  3. Can absence of pyuria exclude urinary tract infection in febrile infants? About 2011 AAP guidelines on UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Heon; Lyu, Soo Young; Kim, Hye Young; Park, Su Eun; Kim, Su Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe clinical and laboratory characteristics of urinary tract infection (UTI) without significant pyuria in young children aged 2-24 months. The subjects consisted of infants and young children with febrile UTI treated at Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Korea. Group A included 283 patients with definite UTI who fulfilled the revised American Academy of Pediatrics diagnostic criteria, and group B included 19 patients with presumed UTI who had significant culture of uropathogens without pyuria, bacteriuria or other focus of infection. Duration of fever before hospital visit in group B was significantly shorter than in group A (17.7 ± 14.0 vs 34.5 ± 30.7 h). Most patients in group B (17/19, 89.5%) came to the hospital within 24 h of onset of fever. Acute scintigraphic lesions were found in 47.8% of patients in group A and 50% in group B. Underlying urological abnormalities such as vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy were found in 24.5% of patients in group A and in 33.3% of patients in group B (P = 0.74). Clinicians cannot exclude UTI on the absence of pyuria in young children aged 2-24 months. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  5. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein and crude fiber contents with values of 1.85%, 2.75% and ... wooden mortar and pestle until a fine powder was obtained to .... from tiger nut so as to boost economic.

  6. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Nut and Peanut Allergy What's ... getting worse. How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  7. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    Hence a serious of silvicultural and genotype testing have been carried out in the Central Rift Valley of. Ethiopia. The result indicated that physic nut has a very narrow genetic ... physic nut as a source of raw material for biodiesel industry. .... such level of seed yield per hectare was achieved through good management and.

  8. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    seed production. Although, physic nut is thought to have least disease and insect incidence, it ... A serious of experiments has been carried out at Melkassa Agriculture Research ... productive and high value to cover the cost of irrigation.

  9. Taub-Nut Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazato, Harunobu; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Yata, Masaya

    We consider the Gibbons-Hawking metric for a three-dimensional periodic array of multi-Taub-NUT centers, containing not only centers with a positive NUT charge but also ones with a negative NUT charge. The latter are regarded as representing the asymptotic form of the Atiyah-Hitchin metric. The periodic arrays of Taub-NUT centers have close parallels with ionic crystals, where the Gibbons-Hawking potential plays the role of the Coulomb static potential of the ions, and are similarly classified according to their space groups. After a periodic identification and a Z2 projection, the array is transformed by T-duality to a system of NS5-branes with the SU(2) structure, and a further standard embedding yields, though singular, a half-BPS heterotic 5-brane background with warped compact transverse dimensions. A discussion is given on the possibility of probing the singular geometry by two-dimensional gauge theories.

  10. Nuts and Your Heart: Eating Nuts for Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits of nuts if they're covered with chocolate, sugar or salt. Here's some nutrition information on ... disease. Clinical Cardiology. 2015;38:570. Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010;2:652. Suggested ...

  11. Bolt and nut evaluator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James J.; Burkhardt, Raymond; White, Steven

    1994-02-01

    A device for testing fasteners such as nuts and bolts is described which consists of a fixed base plate having a number of threaded and unthreaded holes of varying size for receiving the fasteners to be tested, a torque marking paper taped on top the fixed base plate for marking torque-angle indicia, a torque wrench for applying torque to the fasteners being tested, and an indicator for showing the torque applied to the fastener. These elements provide a low cost, nondestructive device for verifying the strength of bolts and nuts.

  12. Hydraulic nuts (HydraNuts) for reactor vessel tensioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The paper will present how the introduction of hydraulic nuts - HydraNuts, has reduced critical path times, dose exposure for workers and improved working safety conditions around the reactor vessel during tensioning or de-tensioning operations. It will focus upon detailing the advantages realized by utilities that have introduced the technology and providing examples of the improvements made to the process as well as discussing the engineering design change packages required to make the conversion to the new system. HydraNuts replace the traditional mechanical nut/stud tensioning equipment, combining the two functions into a single system, designed for easy installation and operation by one individual. The primary components of the HydraNut can be assembled without the need for external crane or hoist support and are designed so that each sub assembly can be fitted separately. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the Rx vessel studs and are sitting on the main Rx vessel head flange, then a system of flexible hydraulic hoses is connected to them, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, which will allow for simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a hydraulic pumping unit and the resultant load generated in each HydraNut is transferred to the stud and main flange closure is obtained. While maintaining hydraulic pressure, a locking ring is rotated into place on the HydraNut assembly that will support the tensioned load mechanically when the hydraulic pressure is released from the hose harness assembly. The hose harness is removed and the HydraNut is now functioning as a mechanical nut retaining the tensioned load. The HydraNut system for Rx vessel applications was first introduced into a plant in the U.S. in October 2006 and based upon the benefits realized subsequent projects are under way within the Asian and U.S. operating fleet. (author)

  13. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of peanut and tree nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, G; Anagnostou, K; Boyle, R J; Brathwaite, N; Ewan, P; Fox, A T; Huber, P; Luyt, D; Till, S J; Venter, C; Clark, A T

    2017-06-01

    Peanut nut and tree nut allergy are characterised by IgE mediated reactions to nut proteins. Nut allergy is a global disease. Limited epidemiological data suggest varying prevalence in different geographical areas. Primary nut allergy affects over 2% of children and 0.5% of adults in the UK. Infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy have a higher risk of peanut allergy. Primary nut allergy presents most commonly in the first five years of life, often after the first known ingestion with typical rapid onset IgE-mediated symptoms. The clinical diagnosis of primary nut allergy can be made by the combination of a typical clinical presentation and evidence of nut specifc IgE shown by a positive skin prick test (SPT) or specific IgE (sIgE) test. Pollen food syndrome is a distinct disorder, usually mild, with oral/pharyngeal symptoms, in the context of hay fever or pollen sensitisation, which can be triggered by nuts. It can usually be distinguish clinically from primary nut allergy. The magnitude of a SPT or sIgE relates to the probability of clinical allergy, but does not relate to clinical severity. SPT of ≥ 8 mm or sIgE ≥ 15 KU/L to peanut is highly predictive of clinical allergy. Cut off values are not available for tree nuts. Test results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. Diagnostic food challenges are usually not necessary but may be used to confirm or refute a conflicting history and test result. As nut allergy is likely to be a long-lived disease, nut avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Patients should be provided with a comprehensive management plan including avoidance advice, patient specific emergency medication and an emergency treatment plan and training in administration of emergency medication. Regular re-training is required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  15. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  16. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jong, de N.W.; Wijk, van R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical

  17. A Kerr-NUT metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.C.; Patel, L.K.; Bhatt, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Using Galilean time and retarded distance as coordinates the usual Kerr metric is expressed in form similar to the Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) metric. The combined Kerr-NUT metric is then investigated. In addition to the Kerr and NUT solutions of Einstein's equations, three other types of solutions are derived. These are (i) the radiating Kerr solution, (ii) the radiating NUT solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = sigmaxisub(i)xisub(k), xisub(i)xisup(i) = 0, and (iii) the associated Kerr solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = 0. Solution (i) is distinct from and simpler than the one reported earlier by Vaidya and Patel (Phys. Rev.; D7:3590 (1973)). Solutions (ii) and (iii) gave line elements which have the axis of symmetry as a singular line. (author)

  18. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttagi, Sidramesh Shivanand; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Gaikwad, Rohith; Singh, Bikramjit; Pawar, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut's deleterious effects. Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.

  19. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  20. Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Bulló; Patricia López-Uriarte; Patricia Casas-Agustench; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó

    2009-01-01

    Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review In recent years, nuts have received special attention because of their potential role in preventing cardiovascular disease. Because nuts are very rich in total fat that can potentially be oxidized and their skins contain several antioxidants, studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress. This review evaluates the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals or humans to analyze the effect of...

  1. Decontamination of nuts and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...

  2. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... Brazil nut products, including oil, cake and flour, milk extract and extruded products. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS. Brazil nut has high content of proteins, carbohydrates, unsaturated ... nuts, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce ..... products since it enables the mixing of different raw.

  3. Hydraulic nuts (hydranuts) for critical bolted joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, S.

    2008-01-01

    HydraNuts replace the original nut and torquing equipment, combining the two functions into one system. Designed for simple installation and operation, HydraNuts are fitted to the stud bolts. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the application, flexible hydraulic hoses are connected, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, allowing simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a pumping unit and the resultant load generated is transferred to the studs and flange closure is obtained. Locking rings are rotated into place, supporting the tensioned load mechanically after hydraulic pressure is released. The hose harness is removed. (author)

  4. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nuclear fuel element nut retainer cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups are partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant

  6. Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk in Older Chinese: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbo Sun

    Full Text Available In Western contexts nut consumption is associated with better health. We examined the associations of nut consumption with cardiovascular disease risk in the non-Western setting of Southern China.In the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study we used multivariable linear regression to examine the associations of baseline nut (mainly peanuts consumption (none (n = 6688, <3 portions/week (n = 2596 and ≥3 portions/week (n = 2444 with follow-up assessment of Framingham cardiovascular disease score (excluding smoking and its components in older Chinese (≥50 years (follow-up 57.8%.Nut consumption was not associated with Framingham score (≥3 portions/week compared to none: 0.02 95% confidence interval (CI -0.11 to 0.15, systolic blood pressure (-0.66 mmHg 95% CI -1.94, 0.62, diastolic blood pressure (-0.69 mmHg 95% CI -1.44, 0.07, HDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/L 95% CI -0.02, 0.005, LDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/L 95% CI -0.05, 0.02 or fasting glucose (0.04 mmol/L 95% CI -0.02, 0.09, adjusted for baseline values, energy intake, age, sex, phase of recruitment, socio-economic position, lifestyle and baseline health status.Observations concerning the benefits of nut consumption may be contextually specific, perhaps depending on the type of nut consumed.

  7. Optimum drying time for palm nuts for efficient nut cracking in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...

  8. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; Bouche, R.E. (R. el); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans); H.J. Wichers; A.E.J. Dubois; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  9. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Bouche, el R.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Groot, de H.; Wichers, H.J.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Jong, de N.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  10. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; el Bouche, R.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; de Groot, H.; Wichers, H. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment

  11. Design and Performance Test of Locking Curved-Nut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min Cheol; Kang, Ho Sung; Kim, Do Yeop; Lee, Suk Yong; Lee, Eung Suk [Chungbuk Nat’l Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hui Jong [Viblock Company, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Many types of locking nut are commercializing in the various industries where has heavy vibration. Because Nut's loosing causes a serious accident. But the most locking nuts are too expensive as the complicate manufacturing process. In this study, we design the new type of locking nut, 'Curved-Nut' that is relatively simple making process. We study a relation between the elastic energy and the nut loosing mechanism. So it is analysed, the elastic energy of Curved-Nut comparing with the locking test. The Curved-Nut was manufactured on the commercial nut using a milling tool with horizontal cutting, one or two time under the nut. As the result, the more elastic energy the more prevent the loosing of the nut. We verified the performance of the loosing nut using the vibration testing equipment (NAS3350).

  12. Pistachio nut allergy: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Silva, Isa; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-09-19

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera) is highly appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and potential health benefits. However, this tree nut is also responsible for triggering moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions in allergic individuals. Currently, pistachio nut allergy has gained some special attention, mainly due to its intrinsic relation with cashew nut allergy. Like for other nuts, the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy seems to be increasing at a global scale. Until now, there are five allergenic proteins officially listed for pistachio nut (Pis v 1, Pis v 2, Pis v 3, Pis v 4 and Pis v 5). Relevant data on their biochemical classification has become available, enabling establishing a correlation with the respective clinical symptoms. The establishment of an effective allergen risk assessment is a key issue for the food industry, policy makers and regulatory agencies. Thus, the availability of fast, specific and sensitive methods to detect trace amounts of allergens in processed foods is crucial. In the specific case of pistachio nut, there are some protein- and DNA-based methods for its detection/quantification in foods, which can aid to verify label information. Accordingly, all relevant research advances on this topic were summarised, updated and critically discussed in this review.

  13. Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed

  14. NUT carcinoma presenting in the palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornstrup, Libana Raffoul; Reibel, Jesper; Kiss, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    NUT carcinomas (NC) are rare and aggressive tumours characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the gene encoding for nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) located on chromosome 15q14. This article presents a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with NC presenting as a fast growing primary tumo...

  15. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; French, C A; Josiassen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on ...

  16. Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic inflammatory and antioxidant metabolism activity in rats fed high-fat diets. ... that “sapucaia” could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and as a protector agent for the examined animals. Keywords: Sapucaia nuts, inflammation, oxidative stress, gene expression ...

  17. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  18. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... approaches different technologies applied in the Brazil nut products process. Key words: ... forest and adjacent areas in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru (Ferreira et al., 2011). ... ''Scientific evidence suggests”, but does not prove, that.

  19. The Effects of Chewing Betel Nut with Tobacco and Pre-pregnancy Obesity on Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Palauan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katherine E; Masterson, James; Mascardo, Joy; Grapa, Jayvee; Appanaitis, Inger; Temengil, Everlynn; Watson, Berry Moon; Cash, Haley L

    2016-08-01

    The small Pacific Island nation of Palau has alarmingly high rates of betel nut with tobacco use and obesity among the entire population including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the effects of betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse birth outcomes. This study used retrospective cohort data on 1171 Palauan women who gave birth in Belau National Hospital in Meyuns, Republic of Palau between 2007 and 2013. The exposures of interest were pre-pregnancy obesity and reported betel nut with tobacco use during pregnancy. The primary outcomes measured were preterm birth and low birth weight among full-term infants. A significantly increased risk for low birth weight among full-term infants was demonstrated among those women who chewed betel nut with tobacco during pregnancy when other known risk factors were controlled for. Additionally, pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk for preterm birth when other known risk factors were controlled for. Both betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity were associated with higher risks for adverse birth outcomes. These findings should be used to drive public health efforts in Palau, as well as in other Pacific Island nations where these studies are currently lacking.

  20. Retrospective dosimetry using salted snacks and nuts: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansson, M.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using ordinary household table salt for dosimetry is suggested by its high sensitivity to ionising radiation, which generates a readout of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). However, to exploit this finding for retrospective human dosimetry, it would be needed to find salt in close proximity to the exposed individual. Finding salty snacks frequently tucked into handbags, backpacks or pockets seemed to be a possibility; these items therefore became the test materials of the present study. The aluminium or cardboard packages used to exclude the moisture that makes crisps and nuts go soft and stale also helps to retain the induced OSL signal. Therefore, different snacks, either their salt component alone or mixed with the snack, are exposed to ionising radiation and then were assessed for their dosimetric properties. The results indicate the feasibility of using some salty snacks for dosimetry, with a minimum detectable dose as low as 0.2 mGy (authors)

  1. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. [52 FR 4581, Feb. 12...

  2. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.49 Excluded services. (a... individual's dialysis, are excluded from coverage under the Medicare home health benefit. (f) Prosthetic... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 409.49 Section 409.49 Public...

  3. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  4. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Efficiency measurement of cashew nut marketing in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency measurement of cashew nut marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. ... were the multiple regression analysis to measure the profit function of cashew nut marketing inputs, Marketing margin, Lorenz curve, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  7. 21 CFR 164.110 - Mixed nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Almonds, black walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, English... the Spanish, Valencia, Virginia, or similar varieties, or any combination of two or more such varieties. (c) The optional nonnut ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section consist of...

  8. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequ...

  9. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  10. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the species recovered induced detectable loss in weights of the milled nuts, though to varying extents and would be expected to cause considerable spoilage of the nuts. Key words: Cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, fungal count, mycology, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., spoilage. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  11. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast extracts enhanced growth. Pseudomanas strain G9 degraded 71.25% shea nut cake, while Pseudomonas strain G38 degraded 50.35% shea nut cake within 48 h. Pseudomonas G9 can be used to degrade shea nut cake. G9 and G38 are different species of Pseudomonas and molecular typing such as PCR can be ...

  12. Tiger nut: as a plant, its derivatives and benefits | Bamishaiye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thrombosis and colon cancer, among others. The presence of anti-nutrients like polyphenols and tannins can be eliminated by boiling in water. The tiger nut, though under-utilized, is still a good food snack for all. There is a need for awareness creation on tiger nut's inherent nutritional properties. Key words: nut, nutrition, ...

  13. BETEL-NUTS AS CONTAMINATED WITH A CANCER PRODUCING FUNGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Betel nuts prematurely harvested and allowed to dry in heaps contain moisture which permits Aspergillus flavous to enter and spread over the central portions. Such betel – nuts consumed with betel leaves can cause cancer of the mouth since A. flavus is a carcinogen. Samples collected showed that the most betel – nuts were contaminated.

  14. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  15. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  16. Play It Again: Neural Responses to Reunion with Excluders Predicted by Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lars O.; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reunion behavior following stressful separations from caregivers is often considered the single most sensitive clue to infant attachment patterns. Extending these ideas to middle childhood/early adolescence, we examined participants' neural responses to reunion with peers who had previously excluded them. We recorded event-related potentials…

  17. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari.

  18. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  19. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  20. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  1. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    Dried fruits are considered a major source of income and foreign exchange in many countries. The spoilage of dried fruits and nuts by insect infestation, colour deterioration and chemical changes during storage are the serious problems especially under humid tropical conditions. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of irradiation in combination with different modified storage environments on insect infestation as well as chemical and sensory quality indices. The affect of gamma radiation dose of 1 KGy and storage environments such as air vacuum and carbon dioxide on insect infestation of dry fruits and nuts. In the case of un-irradiated samples, insect infestation progressed throughout the storage period especially in those kept under air. The vacuum storage was found better in checking infestation followed by CO/sub/2 and air. (orig./A.B.)

  2. Nuts for Physical Health and Fitness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are rich in various nutrients. Recent evidence suggests that nut consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipid profile, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that nut consumption improves body composition without causing weight gain, despite total energy intake increases. However, evidence regarding nut consumption and physical fitness is limited. The aim of this mini review is to summarize the evidence regarding effects of nuts on physical health, fitness, and exercise performance. Almond supplementation improves exercise performance, but pistachio supplementation does not. The effect of nuts on exercise performance was controversial. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid-enriched nuts had a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle mass and oxygen consumption. A diet enriched with nuts also improved physical fitness, which was enhanced by exercise. Although the characteristics of the study participants and the interventions used in the studies are heterogeneous, nuts have a potential to improve physical fitness. However, further studies are required to reveal the effects of nuts on physical fitness, exercise performance, and endurance capacity.

  3. What is the Right to Exclude Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    It is normally taken for granted that states have a right to control immigration into their territory. When immigration is raised as a normative issue two questions become salient, one about what the right to exclude is, and one about whether and how it might be justified. This paper considers...... the first question. The paper starts by noting that standard debates about immigration have not addressed what the right to exclude is. Standard debates about immigration furthermore tend to result either in fairly strong cases for open borders or in denials that considerations of justice apply...... to immigration at all, which results in state discretion positions. This state of debate is both theoretically unsatisfactory and normatively implausible. The paper therefore explores an alternative approach to the right to exclude immigrants from the perspective of recent debates about the territorial rights...

  4. Irradiation disinfestation and biochemical quality of dry nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Wahid, M.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation disinfestation of Pakistani nuts such as almond, groundnut, pine nut and walnut, was studied. Species of insects involved were determined. Concentration of potential nutrients, phytate, total phosphorus and iron contents were determined. The data on the influence of gamma irradiation on the extent and nature of insect infestation in dry nuts revealed that only higher dose (1.0 kGy) was effective to completely check infestation in almond, groundnut, pine nut and walnut. Low doses (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 kGy) decreased insect infestation differentially depending on the dose level and the type of dry nut. It was concluded that these nuts although contained high amount of potential nutrients, they also have appreciable amount of phytate which can reduce bioavailability of essential metals. (author) 17 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  5. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  6. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Ren-Hau; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Betel nut (or areca) is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for ob...

  7. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria José da; Paim, Ana Paula S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg −1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg −1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg −1 , respectively

  8. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  9. Allowable stem nut wear and diagnostic monitoring for MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburne, P.

    1994-01-01

    After a motor-operated valve (MOV) stem nut failure in 1991 that contributed to a forced plant shutdown, the FitzPatrick Plant staff developed criteria to check for excessive stem nut wear in MOVs. Allowable stem nut wear monitoring uses both direct dimensional measurement and diagnostic test data interpretation. The wear allowance is based on the recommended permitted backlash discussed in the Electric Power Research Institute/Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center Technical Repair Guideline for the Limitorque SMB-000 Motor Actuator. The diagnostic analysis technique measures the time at zero load and compares this with a precalculated allowable zero force time. Excessive zero force time may be the result of other MOV problems, such as a loose stem nut lock nut or excessive free play in the drive sleeve bearing. Stress levels for new or nominal stem nuts and stem nuts with the full wear allowance were compared. Bending and shear stresses at the thread root increase for the maximum wear condition when compared with a open-quotes newclose quotes stem nut. These stresses are directly related to the thread root thickness. For typical MOV loading and common stem threading (with two diameters of thread engagement), the thread stresses are well within acceptable limits for ASTM B584-C86300 (formerly B147-863) manganese bronze (typical stem nut material)

  10. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  11. Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and transmitters of indegenous values: ecomaternalistic approach. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... It further calls for the retrieval of the said hidden histories of women which would hopefully be a lesson for the contemporary and future women.

  12. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13...

  13. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a RNHCI. (c) A nurse who is not providing RNHCI home nursing services under arrangement with a RNHCI... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  14. Chemical Characterization of Major and Minor Compounds of Nut Oils: Almond, Hazelnut, and Pecan Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the major and minor compounds of laboratory-extracted and commercial oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut. Oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut were obtained by means of an expeller system, while the corresponding commercial oils were provided from Vital Âtman (BR. The contents of triacylglycerols, fatty acids, aliphatic and terpenic alcohols, desmethyl-, methyl-, and dimethylsterols, squalene, and tocopherols were determined. Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were the main fatty acids. Desmethylsterols were the principal minor compounds with β-sitosterol being the most abundant component. Low amounts of aliphatic and terpenic alcohols were also found. The major tocopherol in hazelnut and sweet almond oils was α-tocopherol, whereas γ-tocopherol prevailed in pecan nut oil. Principal component analysis made it possible for us to differentiate among samples, as well as to distinguish between commercial and laboratory-extracted oils. Heatmap highlighted the main variables featuring each sample. Globally, these results have brought a new approach on nut oil characterization.

  15. Electromagnetic fields of rotating magnetized NUT stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Khugaev, A.V.; Ahmedov, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Analytic general relativistic expressions for the electromagnetic fields external to a slowly-rotating magnetized NUT star with nonvanishing gravitomagnetic charge have been presented. Solutions for the electric and magnetic fields have been found after separating the Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating NUT star into angular and radial parts in the lowest order approximation. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with different models for stellar magnetic field: i) monopolar magnetic field and II) dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of rotation. We have shown that the general relativistic corrections due to the dragging of reference frames and gravitomagnetic charge are not present in the form of the magnetic fields but emerge only in the form of the electric fields. In particular, we have shown that the frame-dragging and gravitomagnetic charge provide an additional induced electric field which is analogous to the one introduced by the rotation of the star in the flat spacetime limit

  16. Excluding joint probabilities from quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Danageozian, Arshag

    2018-03-01

    Quantum theory does not provide a unique definition for the joint probability of two noncommuting observables, which is the next important question after the Born's probability for a single observable. Instead, various definitions were suggested, e.g., via quasiprobabilities or via hidden-variable theories. After reviewing open issues of the joint probability, we relate it to quantum imprecise probabilities, which are noncontextual and are consistent with all constraints expected from a quantum probability. We study two noncommuting observables in a two-dimensional Hilbert space and show that there is no precise joint probability that applies for any quantum state and is consistent with imprecise probabilities. This contrasts with theorems by Bell and Kochen-Specker that exclude joint probabilities for more than two noncommuting observables, in Hilbert space with dimension larger than two. If measurement contexts are included into the definition, joint probabilities are not excluded anymore, but they are still constrained by imprecise probabilities.

  17. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  18. Extended Excluded Volume: Its Origin and Consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbeda, Ivo; Rouha, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2013), s. 201-210 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference on Solution Chemistry (ICSC-32) /32./. La Grande Motte, 28.08.2011-02.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : excluded volume * partial molar volume * primitive models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2013

  19. Taub-NUT black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Dehghani, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the existence of Taub-NUT solutions in third order Lovelock gravity with cosmological constant, and obtain the general form of these solutions in eight dimensions. We find that, as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and in contrast with the Taub-NUT solutions of Einstein gravity, the metric function depends on the specific form of the base factors on which one constructs the circle fibration. Thus, one may say that the independence of the NUT solutions on the geometry of the base space is not a robust feature of all generally covariant theories of gravity and is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We find that when Einstein gravity admits non-extremal NUT solutions with no curvature singularity at r=N, then there exists a non-extremal NUT solution in third order Lovelock gravity. In 8-dimensional spacetime, this happens when the metric of the base space is chosen to be CP 3 . Indeed, third order Lovelock gravity does not admit non-extreme NUT solutions with any other base space. This is another property which is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We also find that the third order Lovelock gravity admits extremal NUT solution when the base space is T 2 xT 2 xT 2 or S 2 xT 2 xT 2 . We have extended these observations to two conjectures about the existence of NUT solutions in Lovelock gravity in any even-dimensional spacetime

  20. A baseline survey of tiger nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a minor but important crop in Ghana. In a survey conducted on the production and marketing of the crop at Aduamoa in the Kwahu South District of Ghana, it was observed that tiger nut production was predominantly the work of women, with 70 per cent of farmers being women and 30 per ...

  1. Radiation technology in ground nut improvement and societal deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, G.S.S.; Badigannavar, A.M.; Kale, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The best way to summarize the impact of mutation research in ground nut for societal deployment is for 1) developing suitable varieties for different agro-climatic zones in the country, 2) providing a source material for developing new varieties by other universities, 3) replacing traditional crops with TG varieties, 4) transforming socioeconomic status of peanut peasants and 5) enhanced ground nut productivity

  2. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  3. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  4. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  5. Analysis of acetal toilet fill valve supply line nut failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Timpanaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of product liability cases involving the failure of toilet water supply line acetal plastic nuts. These nuts can fail in service, causing water leaks that result in significant property and financial losses. This study examines three possible failure modes of acetal plastic toilet water supply nuts. The three failure modes tested were all due to over load failure of the acetal nut and are as follows: (1 Overtightening of the supply line acetal nut, (2 Supply line lateral pull and, (3 Embrittled supply line lateral pull. Additionally, a “hand-tight” torque survey was conducted. The fracture surfaces and characteristics of these failure tests were examined with Stereo Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The failure modes were compared and contrasted to provide guidance in determination of cause in these investigations.

  6. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Design Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18–60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Results Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). Conclusion The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. Implication If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success. PMID:25678943

  8. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  9. Pesticide residues in nut-planted soils of China and their relationship between nut/soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Mo, Runhong; Yuan, Xinyue; Zhong, Donglian; Tang, Fubin; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine pesticide residues in nut-planted soils from China were investigated. One organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) was detected in 5.3% soils, and the residue levels of 7.2 μg/kg to 77.2 μg/kg. The concentrations of six organochlorines (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) detected in 78.9% soils were 0.6 μg/kg to 90.1 μg/kg. The residue levels of six pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) detected in 65.8% soils were 1.5 μg/kg to 884.3 μg/kg. Triadimefon and buprofezin were found in 71.1% and 52.6% samples, respectively, with the corresponding concentrations of 9.8 μg/kg to 193.7 μg/kg and 87.9 μg/kg to 807.4 μg/kg. The multiple residues were found in 76.3% soils. A significant correlation between pesticide residues in nuts and soils was observed, with the correlation coefficient (r) 0.83 (P < 0.001). In addition, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for the explanation of pesticides from soils into nuts were ranged from 0.8 to 16.5. The results showed that some pesticides could accumulate in nut by the uptake effect from soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  11. Nuts as part of a healthy cardiovascular diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Stephen D; Nash, David T

    2008-12-01

    The increasing trend of obesity has been associated with a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may lead to more vascular disease. Nuts, a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids and fiber, have been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have demonstrated that nuts favorably affect serum lipids. They also exhibit a number of nonlipid benefits, including improved weight management, greater insulin sensitivity, and favorable endothelial effects, as well as having anti-inflammatory properties. Incorporating nuts into the diets of more people may lead to a variety of cardiovascular benefits.

  12. Pneumatic wrench retains or discharges nuts or bolts as desired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouille, J. R.

    1966-01-01

    Pneumatic wrench grips, screws or unscrews, and discharges a nut or bolt as desired. The device consists of a standard pneumatic wrench modified with a special hex bolt head socket assembly and a diaphragm air cylinder.

  13. Evaluation of Dyestuff Removal by Shea Nut (Vitellaria paradoxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    degree of adsorption is an indication that using shea nut shells as a low cost ... water treatment. ... determines its adsorption capacities (ii) chemical ... textile dyeing industry wastewater. .... samples were filtered after one hour, using watt man.

  14. Production and Quality Evaluation of Candies from Date Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin composition of the candies ranged from 4.34 –12.11 mg/100 g for vitamin A which reduced as groundnut paste substitution increased, with 100% date nut having the highest value. However, 100% date nut candy had least values in vitamin B1 (0.08 mg/100 g), vitamin B2 (0.10 mg/100 g) and vitamin B3 (0.99 ...

  15. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants.

  16. Elemental analysis of Taiwanese areca nut and limes with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Y.; Chung, C.

    1997-01-01

    The popular areca nuts were sampled and their stuffed white and red lime were collected simultaneously from four marketplaces in Taiwan in different growing seasons. Samples of areca nut were treated via homogenizer prior to freeze drying, about 100-150 mg each of the areca nut and lime were packed into PE bag. Samples were irradiated with neutron flux about 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 . A total of 17, 18, and 13 elements was analyzed with INAA for white lime, red lime, and areca nut, respectively. The results indicated that Ca have the highest concentration in both limes. Most elements in collected samples have wide range of concentrations among different seasons and marketplaces. It is suggested that the elemental concentration of areca nut and limes exists in divergence originated from various farms in Taiwan. In addition, four elements of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Sc are probably overtaken by persons having chewing habit of areca nut and their effects on oral cancer are discussed. (author)

  17. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F. [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States); Parvin, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  18. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in x-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Parvin, Bahram; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non- destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper uses film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  19. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  20. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational Dermatoses Among the Cashew Nut Workers in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five female workers employed in the cashew nut industry in Karnataka to slice off the outer hard shells from the nuts and thus exposed to the chashew nut shell oil had a characteristic cauterization type of reaction manifesting as brownish-black, thickened sheets of dead skin covering the dorsal as well as the palmar aspects of hands including the fingers and feet. Smaller but similer lesions were also seen on these parts of the forearms, abdomen, neck and face which were not covered with clothes. The fingers were thinned and tapering and several nails of the hands and feet were thickened, discolored and eaten away. The other changes included loss of the dermatoglyphic patterns, maceration of the hands, small pits on the finger tips and pitted keratolysis seen in some cases only. Similar changes were also seen on the feet of both the male workers exposed to the same oil, in the section which extracts the oil from the sliced shells. In contrast 29, feamle wokers engaged to peel off the thin reddish covering on the cashew nut had normal hands and feet, except for the two callosities on the flexural aspect of the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger and proximal interphalangeal joint of the right index finger respectively, caused by the friction of the peeling knife. An open patch test with the cashew nut shell oil used as such in 17 workers produced a cauterization type of reaction in 32 workers irrespective of the nature of their duties, while the standard occluded patch test with 10% cashew nut shell oil in polyethylene glycol showed a mild cauterization type of reaction in only 6 workers. Patch tests with 1% and 0.1% concentrations of the shell oil were negative in all the workers. Two barrier creams tested to protect the workers from the cashew nut shell oil produced reasonably effective results within a week.

  3. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan BAO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  4. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses.

  6. 31 CFR 19.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 19.950 Section 19.950 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an...

  8. 29 CFR 778.225 - Talent fees excludable under regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section... Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Talent Fees in the Radio and Television Industry § 778.225 Talent fees excludable under regulations. Section 7(e)(3) provides for the exclusion from the...

  9. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  10. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  12. Neural net classification of x-ray pistachio nut data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Sipe, Michael A.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Keagy, Pamela M.; Le, Lan Chau

    1996-12-01

    Classification results for agricultural products are presented using a new neural network. This neural network inherently produces higher-order decision surfaces. It achieves this with fewer hidden layer neurons than other classifiers require. This gives better generalization. It uses new techniques to select the number of hidden layer neurons and adaptive algorithms that avoid other such ad hoc parameter selection problems; it allows selection of the best classifier parameters without the need to analyze the test set results. The agriculture case study considered is the inspection and classification of pistachio nuts using x- ray imagery. Present inspection techniques cannot provide good rejection of worm damaged nuts without rejecting too many good nuts. X-ray imagery has the potential to provide 100% inspection of such agricultural products in real time. Only preliminary results are presented, but these indicate the potential to reduce major defects to 2% of the crop with 1% of good nuts rejected. Future image processing techniques that should provide better features to improve performance and allow inspection of a larger variety of nuts are noted. These techniques and variations of them have uses in a number of other agricultural product inspection problems.

  13. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  14. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  15. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM counts (5.34 log 10 CFU g -1 were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger , relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log 10 CFU g -1 . The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts.

  17. Symptoms with betel nut and betel nut with tobacco among Micronesian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K; Gallen, Marcelle; Mancl, Lloyd; Spillane, Nichea; Chi, Donald L; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Betel nut has been stated to be addictive, but evidence is lacking. This study describes dependence symptoms among adolescents using betel alone or with tobacco. In the first study, participants were 151 9th graders in Saipan. In the second study, participants were 269 9th graders in Pohnpei and Yap. Participants completed a confidential questionnaire adapted from the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use and Health, which measured dependence symptoms. The 15 items were summed to form a scale, with a range of 0-15, where higher scores indicated greater endorsement of dependence symptoms. In the first study, 39.1% had used betel. More than two-thirds of all users (69.5%) used betel in the previous month: 87.8% also used tobacco with the betel. The mean (SD) dependence symptoms scale score among tobacco users was 8.2±4.0 versus 3.4±2.9 among those who used betel alone [t(7)=3.3, p=0.015]. In the second study, 38% from Pohnpei and 85% from Yap had used betel and most of the current users used it in the previous month (67% from Pohnpei, 91% from Yap). Among those who had used betel in the previous month, 90% from Pohnpei and 64% from Yap were using betel with tobacco. The dependence score was positively associated with frequency of tobacco use (e.g., mean (SD)=11.3 (±2.4) among most frequent users versus a mean (SD)=4.8 (±3.5) among the never users [F(3109)=28.8, pBetel nut users who also use tobacco may benefit from tobacco cessation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum anomalies for generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotaescu, Ion I; Moroianu, Sergiu; Visinescu, Mihai

    2005-01-01

    The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the original Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Staeckel-Killing tensors as products. We have found that for axial anomalies, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the presence of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. In order to evaluate the axial anomalies, we compute the index of the Dirac operator with the APS boundary condition on balls and on annular domains. The result is an explicit number-theoretic quantity depending on the radii of the domain. This quantity is 0 for metrics close to the original Taub-NUT metric but it does not vanish in general

  19. Thermogravimetric characterization and gasification of pecan nut shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Hugo; Lozano, Francisco J; Acevedo, Joaquín; Mendoza, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of pecan nut shells as an alternative source of energy through pyrolysis and gasification. The physicochemical characteristics of the selected biomass that can influence the process efficiency, consumption rates, and the product yield, as well as create operational problems, were determined. In addition, the thermal decomposition kinetics necessary for prediction of consumption rates and yields were determined. Finally, the performance of a downdraft gasifier fed with pecan nut shells was analyzed in terms of process efficiency and exit gas characteristics. It was found that the pyrolytic decomposition of the nut shells can be modeled adequately using a single equation considering two independent parallel reactions. The performance of the gasification process can be influenced by the particle size and air flow rate, requiring a proper combination of these parameters for reliable operation and production of a valuable syngas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry M Zee

    Full Text Available Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC, which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  1. Image processing for x-ray inspection of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.

    2001-03-01

    A review is provided of image processing techniques that have been applied to the inspection of pistachio nuts using X-ray images. X-ray sensors provide non-destructive internal product detail not available from other sensors. The primary concern in this data is detecting the presence of worm infestations in nuts, since they have been linked to the presence of aflatoxin. We describe new techniques for segmentation, feature selection, selection of product categories (clusters), classifier design, etc. Specific novel results include: a new segmentation algorithm to produce images of isolated product items; preferable classifier operation (the classifier with the best probability of correct recognition Pc is not best); higher-order discrimination information is present in standard features (thus, high-order features appear useful); classifiers that use new cluster categories of samples achieve improved performance. Results are presented for X-ray images of pistachio nuts; however, all techniques have use in other product inspection applications.

  2. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cozollino, Silvia M.F., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: msaiki@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: smfcozzo@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  3. Preparation and physicochemical of microemulsion based on macadamia nut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xinghao; Chen, Hong; Du, Liqing

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the preparation, optimization and characteristic of nanostructured lipid carriers(NLCs) based on macadamia nut oil. NLC with various macadamia nut oil content were successfully prepared by an optimized microfluidization method using stearic acid as solid lipid and pluronic F68 as surfactant. As a result, NLC with particle size about 286nm were obtained, and the polydispersity index(PI) of all developed NLC were below 0.2 which indicate a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capability were investigated as well. Physical stability of NLC demonstrated that particles of system were stable at room temperature and low temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) investigation show that the inner structure and recrystallinity of lipid matrix within NLC were greatly influenced by the content of macadamia nut oil.

  4. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cozollino, Silvia M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  5. [Epidemiological investigation of chewing fresh or dried betel nut and oral mucosal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.

  6. The classical double copy for Taub–NUT spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Andrés, E-mail: a.luna-godoy.1@research.gla.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Ricardo, E-mail: monteiro@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG, England (United Kingdom); O' Connell, Donal, E-mail: donal@staffmail.ed.ac.uk [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); White, Chris D., E-mail: Christopher.White@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-12

    The double copy is a much-studied relationship between gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Recently, this was generalised to an infinite family of classical solutions to Einstein's equations, namely stationary Kerr–Schild geometries. In this paper, we extend this to the Taub–NUT solution in gravity, which has a double Kerr–Schild form. The single copy of this solution is a dyon, whose electric and magnetic charges are related to the mass and NUT charge in the gravity theory. Finally, we find hints that the classical double copy extends to curved background geometries.

  7. On the construction of the Taub-NUT congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, P.A.; Criss, T.

    1976-01-01

    It is described how the null congruence tangent to the multiple Debever-Penrose direction of the Taub-NUT solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations may be constructed emanating into the future from a timelike world tube having normal cross sections. The curious shapes of the cross sections of the world tube are plotted, using a computer, for critical ranges of the parameter b/R 0 where b is the Taub-NUT parameter and R 0 is the 'radius' of the world tube. It is found that these cross sections can be maintained spatially compact only for some values of b/R 0 . (author)

  8. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  9. The ethics of betel nut consumption in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Joseph; Sem, Geoffrey; Sit, Eugene; Tai, Michael Cheng-Tek

    2017-11-01

    The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M.; Cozzolino, S.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y -1 for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y -1 per individual. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 164.120 - Shelled nuts in rigid or semirigid containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific... plane representing the average height of the product, read the volume of the nuts, and record as the...

  12. Beyond the Distributional Input? A Developmental Investigation of Asymmetry in Infants' Categorization of Cats and Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Stephanie D.; Younger, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments are reported using a visual familiarization categorization procedure. In both experiments, infants were familiarized with sets of stimuli previously shown to contain asymmetric feature distributions that support an asymmetry in young infants' categorization of cats and dogs (i.e. infants' cat category excludes dogs but their dog…

  13. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  14. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  15. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  16. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your infant has symptoms of botulism. Prevention In theory, the disease might be avoided by preventing exposure ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh; Seyed Ali Mortazavi; Mojtaba Sankian; Fakhri Shahidi; Mohsen Tehrani; Farahzad Jabbari Azad; Fatemeh Behmanesh; AbdolReza Varasteh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity be...

  18. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation of Raw Bambara Nut ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-week study was conducted to investigate the effects of graded levels of raw Bambara nut waste (RBW) and supplementary enzyme (Roxazyme G) on nutrient utilization and hematological parameters of broiler finishers. Ninety-six 6-week old broiler birds were randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 birds each. The groups ...

  19. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet

  20. Thermal particle production in two Taub-Nut type spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapedes, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    The Hartle-Hawking method of deriving black hole radiance has been extended to non-asymptotically flat de Sitter spacetime by Gibbons and Hawking. We extend this work to Taub-Nut spacetime and a related and more physical spacetime constructed from it by Siklos. (orig./BJ) [de

  1. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... nut oil extracts against biofilm bacteria and green mussel Perna ... prevent photo and thermal degradation during the transport to the laboratory. ... 40°C. The resultant extractives were collected in air-tight plastic vials and ...

  2. Taub-NUT spinless particles and Schwarzschild spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; La Sapienza Univ., Rome

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a small gravitomagnetic monopole on (accelerated) circular orbits in the equatorial plane of the Taub-NUT space-time is compared to the corresponding (accelerated) orbits pushed slightly off the equatorial plane in the absence of the monopole (Schwarzschild space-time)

  3. Elemental composition of betel nut and associated chewing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, C.; Akanle, O.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Betel nut chewing (Area catechu), Whether plain or wrapped inside a betel leaf 'quid' together with other substances including tobacco, has been reported as a cause of the high incidence of oral and oesophageal cancers in Asian communities worldwide. Chewing of such substances results in the formation of nitrosamines, some of which may be diabetogenic to man. The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent amongst Asian immigrants living in the UK and as part of a larger study we have analysed a number of popular betel nut based chewing materials to determine their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for determination of elemental concentrations of short-lived radionuclides. Ag, Al. Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti, and V were detected, some of which are implicated in diabetes. Concentrations of these, expect for Ag, Dy and Ti, are reported and compared with values found in betel-nut and chewing materials from Taiwan. It is indicated that for certain elements the amount ingested by betel-nut chewers may be a significant fraction of their daily dietary intake. (author)

  4. Radium-224, 226 and 228 activity in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Martins, Maristela; Pacheco, Ariane Mendonca

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recently, Brazil nuts have received a special attention because they contain large quantities of omega 6, antioxidant fat and selenium. Omega 6 and antioxidant fat prevent body cells inflammation and selenium combats cellular aging, guaranteeing a long and healthy life. One cashew per day is sufficient to assure the minimum amount of selenium necessary to the body. The aim of this work was to study radium (224, 226 and 228) concentration in Brazil nuts of the Amazon region. Thirty samples of different size (10 small, 10 medium and 10 large) exportation-type Brazil nuts, peeled and dehydrated, from the 2009 harvest, were analysed. Each sample, with 1.8 kg mass, was milled and then incinerated, resulting in 48 grams of ashes, that were placed in a 300 ml cylindrical recipient for gamma-ray spectrometry. Ra-224, Ra-226 and Ra-228 activities were determined using the gamma-rays of 234 keV following Pb-214 decay, 352 keV and 609 keV from Pb-212 and Bi-212, and the 911 keV from Ac-228, respectively. The incinerated samples average activities were 1100 Bq/kg for Ra-224, 4500 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 3500 Bq/kg for Ra-228, corresponding to activities of 29.3 Bq/kg for Ra-224, 120 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 93.9 Bq/kg for Ra-228 in raw Brazil nuts. (author)

  5. Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop improvement. ... smallholder households to obtain improved seed and invest more of their land and labour in the crop. ... is to make a greater contribution to household income and rural development in SSA. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. The Health Effects of Kava/Sakau and Betel Nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harvey

    For generations Pacific Islanders have used kava root and betel nut for a variety of cultural, medicinal, and ceremonial purposes: to overcome social barriers and lubricate social interactions; to cure bodily afflictions; and to accompany traditional and religious rituals. Kava, also known as ava, sakau, and yaqona has a long tradition as a…

  7. Penicilllium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.; Rassing, Birgitte A.

    1997-01-01

    The new species Penicillum discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol...

  8. Ecology and behaviour of Palm-nut Vultures Gypohierax angolensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines. In Africa, 82% are threatened and although research on vultures has increased, the biology and ecology of several species is still poorly known. The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm ...

  9. Positioning device for screwing or unscrewing screw nut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevelinge, G.

    1987-01-01

    This automatic positioning device for screwing or unscrewing a screw nut on a closure stud has a drawed socket and means for axially centre and angularly by wedge the socket on the closure stud and generate a continuous spiral between the socket and the closure stud [fr

  10. A NUT-like solution with fluid matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Newman, E.T.; Sparling, G.; Winicour, J.

    1982-08-01

    Stationary solutions of the Einstein equation are investigated when the source is a rigidly rotating fluid. Using the three-dimensional spin coefficient method the angular dependence of the metric tensor can be analytically calculated if the eigenray congruence is geodesic and shearfree. The nonstatic solutions of this class do not describe physically realistic bodies, but instead, bodies with NUT-type geometry. (author)

  11. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stand, farmer's market, and permitting the general public to enter the orchard for the purpose of... orchard with the nut meats in the shells after removal of the husk but prior to being dried. 2. Unit... orchard or trees require establishment of the yield by another method. In the event of such damage or...

  12. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Compression tests were performed on heat-treated Shea-butter nuts to study the effects of ... the only source of vegetable oil. It was also .... the longitudinal axis, while in the lateral loading position ... Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to.

  13. Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mariella

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... antioxidant and anti-inflamatory effects of this nut after its introduction into a control (AIN-93G) or ... fat diets increases the total amount of body lipids, and ..... physical exercise on lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant.

  14. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review | Kluczkovski | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential enables the development of various products. Among its nutrients, emphasis is given to the amino acid-rich proteins, lipid content and selenium, ...

  15. Effects of raw bambara nut ( Voandzeia subterranea l) waste and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of graded levels of raw bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea L) waste and supplementary enzyme (Roxayzme G) on performance of broiler chicks were investigated. One hundred and twenty 14-day old unsexed commercial broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into eight groups of 15 birds each.

  16. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  17. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut sampl...

  18. Cashew nut shell liquid: an agricultural by-product with great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that further work be done to scale‐up production of CNSL based products and demonstrate feasibility of the same. Production and local processing of the cashew nuts accompanied by recovery of CNSL should be enhanced. Key words: Cashew nuts, CNSL utilization, cashew nut production, Kenya ...

  19. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents (excluding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.

  20. The challenges for nut-allergic consumers of eating out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, J; Barnett, J; Muncer, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Hazel Gowland, M; Lucas, J S

    2011-02-01

    For individuals with a nut allergy, the avoidance of allergens is particularly challenging in situations where they are not preparing their own food. Many allergic reactions occur when eating outside the home. To identify and explore the challenges faced by nut-allergic individuals (NAIs) when they are eating in restaurants and other eating establishments. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 32 adults with a clinical history of allergy to peanuts and/or tree nuts. The main strategies that participants adopted to manage the risk of allergic reactions when eating outside the home were avoidance and communication. They avoided types of restaurants, meal courses or particular foods. Seeking familiarity was a key strategy that enabled NAIs to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. Language differences were a major barrier to confident communication about food content. The need to check whether the food on offer may contain nuts was a source of social embarrassment for many participants and the desire to avoid this sometimes led to increased risk taking. Some did not disclose their allergy to restaurant staff as they feared a conservative reaction that would further constrain food choices. NAIs often have to plan where to eat out. The consequent lack of spontaneity was a source of regret to some. Communication patterns of nut-allergic adults are often grounded in legitimate everyday social considerations around embarrassment, choice and spontaneity. Education and training strategies are needed that recognize and take account of this. Focusing on communication deficits of NAIs may be unhelpful; responsibility for food safety must be shared with the food industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. 48 CFR 733.103-73 - Protests excluded from consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests excluded from consideration. 733.103-73 Section 733.103-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... excluded from consideration. (a) Contract administration. Disputes between a contractor and USAID are...

  2. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens...

  3. The Value of the Right to Exclude: An Empirical Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Klick (Jonathan); G. Parchomovsky (Gideon)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractProperty theorists have long deemed the right to exclude fundamental and essential for the efficient use and allocation of property. Recently, however, proponents of the progressive property movement have called into question the centrality of the right to exclude, suggesting that it

  4. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias, E-mail: mkfranco@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yokaichiya, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.yokaichiya@helmholtz-berlin.de [Department Quantum Phenomena in Novel Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay, E-mail: kardjilov@helmholtz-berlim.de [Institut Angewandte Materialforschung, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlim für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ferraz, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: carlos@feagri.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola

    2015-07-15

    Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. 'sound' nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify 'sound' kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time. (author)

  5. Physicochemical properties and composition of lipid fraction of selected edible nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derewiaka, D.; Szwed, E.; Wolosiak, R.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the characteristics of oil fraction of 8 types of edible nuts available on the Polish market. All tested nuts were characterized with high content of dry matter. Fatty acid and sterol composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Squalene and tocopherol profiles were examined by HPLC with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence detectors (FLDs). The highest level of fat was found in macadamia (75.4 g/100 g) and the lowest in cashew nuts (46.9 g/100 g). Fatty analysis showed that nuts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in most cases, with the exception of Brazilian nuts, walnuts and pine nuts which were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sitosterol was the main sterol of nuts, and its content ranged from 96.9 mg/100 g of oil (in macadamia) to 474.8 mg/100 g of oil (in pistachio). Tocopherol homologue was predominant among its fraction with the largest content determined in pistachio (8.3 mg/100 g of oil) and walnuts (8.6 mg/100 g of oil). The presence of squalene was confirmed in seven types of nuts, and the richest source of it were Brazilian nuts (145.8 mg/100 g of oil). The study proofs the variation of nut oil composition, especially phytosterol and tocopherol content and can be used for better characterization of nuts derived from different geographic areas or cultivars. (author)

  6. Physicochemical properties and composition of lipid fraction of selected edible nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derewiaka, D.; Szwed, E.; Wolosiak, R. [Warsaw Univ. of Life Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2014-01-15

    The study presents the characteristics of oil fraction of 8 types of edible nuts available on the Polish market. All tested nuts were characterized with high content of dry matter. Fatty acid and sterol composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Squalene and tocopherol profiles were examined by HPLC with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence detectors (FLDs). The highest level of fat was found in macadamia (75.4 g/100 g) and the lowest in cashew nuts (46.9 g/100 g). Fatty analysis showed that nuts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in most cases, with the exception of Brazilian nuts, walnuts and pine nuts which were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sitosterol was the main sterol of nuts, and its content ranged from 96.9 mg/100 g of oil (in macadamia) to 474.8 mg/100 g of oil (in pistachio). Tocopherol homologue was predominant among its fraction with the largest content determined in pistachio (8.3 mg/100 g of oil) and walnuts (8.6 mg/100 g of oil). The presence of squalene was confirmed in seven types of nuts, and the richest source of it were Brazilian nuts (145.8 mg/100 g of oil). The study proofs the variation of nut oil composition, especially phytosterol and tocopherol content and can be used for better characterization of nuts derived from different geographic areas or cultivars. (author)

  7. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Microfocus X-ray imaging of Brazil nuts for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Margareth Kazuyo Kobayashi Dias; Yokaichiya, Fabiano; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Ferraz, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive quality assessment of food prior to processing is desirable in commercial facilities due to its non-invasive nature, for economic reasons and for its safety appeals. Grading Brazil nuts in this way allows for the separation of undesirable nuts to avoid contamination during the automatic nut shelling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of X-ray phase contrast enhanced imaging in assessing nut quality. For this goal, details of the imaging technique are described and phase contrast X-ray and microtomography imaging of nut samples are investigated. Both high quality (i.e. 'sound' nuts as well as treated nuts were examined. It was concluded that both the X-ray imaging and tomography techniques have the potential to discriminate morphological features of the nut and to identify 'sound' kernels from atypical ones. Larger nuts and nuts with a larger gap area between shell and kernel were concluded to have more atypical formations. Both techniques also seemed promising for use in automatic sorting lines. However, by using microtomography, the visualization of finer formations not noticeable in the X-ray images was possible. Further studies shall be carried out to investigate the nature of these formations, how they affect nut quality and their evolution with storage time. (author)

  9. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  10. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S; Siddique, N; Rahman, A [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.

    2007-07-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  11. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  12. Role of fruits, nuts, and vegetables in maintaining cognitive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marshall G; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Population aging is leading to an increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive dysfunction and, with it, the health care burden of caring for older adults. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits, nuts, and vegetables is positively associated with cognitive ability; however, these foods, which contain a variety of neuroprotective phytochemicals, are widely under-consumed. Surprisingly few studies have investigated the effects of individual plant foods on cognitive health but recent clinical trials have shown that dietary supplementation with individual foods, or switching to a diet rich in several of these foods, can improve cognitive ability. While additional research is needed, increasing fruit, nut, and vegetable intake may be an effective strategy to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive dysfunction during aging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Electromagnetic device of the safety screw-nut type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaucheux, Jean; Guedj, Freddy.

    1981-01-01

    System providing for the vertical displacement of nuclear reactor control rods in a non-magnetic and cylindrical leak tight containment. This device is composed of a stator located around the upper part of the containment and, inside this containment, a rotor also in the upper part of this containment, which is free in axial translation along its shaft which it drives rotationally but which is fixed in translation. This shaft drives a threaded rod working in conjunction with a nut and able to slide vertically without turning inside the containment and supporting the reactor control rods. When the stator is not powered, the threaded rod and nut assembly falls to the bottom of the containment and may be easily raised by powering the stator [fr

  14. Polypropylene reinforced with organophilic clay and brazilian nut fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha-Gomes, L.V.; Mondelo-Garcia, F.J.; Vaccioli, K.; Valera, S.T.; Silva-Valenzuela, M.G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have been shown to possess better properties when compared with traditional composites. This study aims to investigate the effects of the addition of organophilic clay and Brazilian nut fiber on the polypropylene (PP). First, 5%, 10% and 20% PP/compatibilizer maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) by weight was added to Pure PP, respectively. From the results, 5% PP-g-MA was defined for preparing the nanocomposites. Samples were prepared containing 5% PP / PP-g-MA reinforced with 5% organophilic Brazilian smectite clay and 5%, 10% and 15% Brazilian nut fiber. Specimens were tested for tensile strength and impact. The materials were characterized by laser diffraction particle size and X-ray diffraction, and the nanocomposites, by mechanical strength and impact. The best result was obtained by inserting 15% fiber. (author)

  15. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two samples of retail cashew nuts from Lagos, Nigeria were examined on two media. The pH values (5.1-6.3) of all the samples were conducive for fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Moisture content levels ranged between 4.1 and 6.8%. Fifteen samples had moisture contents up to or above 5.8%, the highest ...

  16. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  17. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  18. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-07-01

    Decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates (Mazafaty, Zard and Sayer variety) with Tribolium Confusum, Oryzaephilus Surinamensis and Ephestia Cautella in different stages studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they have received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. Finally the sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have compared. In this study, we have also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus. The first sequence involved, the freshly harvested pistachio nuts inoculated with A. Flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a environmental chamber, set at temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second sequence during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts have analyzed.

  19. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on the microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates was studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that the microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have been compared. In this study, we also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by the toxogenic Aspergillus flavus. The freshly harvested pistachio nuts were inoculated with A. flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then samples were retained in an environmental chamber, set at a temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second batch during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts were analysed. (author)

  20. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  1. Particularities in a Child With Cashew Nut Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Soares MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy affects many young children and tree nut allergy is accountable for a large number of severe, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Cross-reactivity can occur not only with foods that are in the same biological family but also between certain fruits or vegetables and latex (latex–fruit syndrome. We present the case of a previous healthy 5-year-old girl referred to Pediatric/Allergology Consultation after an episode of sialorrhea, perioral urticarial rash, tongue swelling, and immediate vomiting after oral contact with cashew nut. Investigation revealed the following: positive skin prick test to walnut and positive specific IgE for cashew nut, walnut, hazelnut, and almond. ImmunoCAP ISAC was positive for storage proteins of walnut and hazelnut (Jug r 1 e Cor a 9 and for a specific allergen of latex (Hev b 3. It is interesting that anaphylaxis was the first manifestation of allergy in a healthy child. Also, we emphasize the importance to latex sensitization with potential future clinical relevance and the sensitization to Hev b 3, which is not documented to be involved in cross-reactivity phenomena/latex–fruit syndrome or present in an otherwise healthy child.

  2. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Volpe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail point for flour, grains, paste, chocolate covered nuts and spreadable cream produced from almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts grown and transformed in Italy and for peanuts grown in Argentina and transformed in Italy. Data from literature was used to evaluate CFP of raw materials, emissions from transport and packing were calculated using existing models, while emissions deriving from transformation were calculated empirically by multiplying the power of production lines (electrical and/or thermal by its productivity. All values were reported in kg of CO2 equivalent for each kg of packed product (net weight. Resulting values ranged between 1.2 g of CO2/kg for a 100 g bag of almond to 4.8 g of CO2/kg for the 100 g bag of chocolate covered almond. The calculation procedure can be well used for similar cases of large consumer food productions.

  3. Quality of Brazil nuts stored in forced aeration silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aquino da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional system of collection and storage of Brazil nut compromises seriously the quality of these almonds as it contributes to the high incidence of contaminants, like fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which can produce aflatoxins. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the storage period in studied conditions, on the physicochemical characteristics and on the microbiological contamination of Brazil nuts. The experimental was designed as completely randomized, considering as treatments the storage period (0 - control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days with four replicates of 3 kg of Brazil nuts each. The samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. It was observed that almonds submitted to the storage had their moisture content reduced by 78.2% at 150 days of storage, however, this reduction was not fast enough to avoid surface contamination by filamentous and potentially aflatoxins producing fungi. The critical period of contamination occurred on the first 30 days of storage when there was an increase of the studied fungi, as well as B1 and total aflatoxin. The studied storage conditions were four times more effective in reducing the product moisture content than the traditional methods, however, pre-drying is necessary to avoid contamination of the product.

  4. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using

  5. Office of Inspector General List of Excluded Individuals and Entities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The objective is to ensure that providers who bill Federal health care programs do not submit claims for services furnished, ordered or prescribed by an excluded...

  6. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  7. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  8. Congenital Malformations in Singleton Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Singleton Infants by Natural Conception in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mozafari Kermani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies occur more frequently in assisted reproductive technology (ART compared to normal conception (NC. It is known that the risk of congenital malformations in a multiple pregnancy are higher than single pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare congenital malformations in singleton infants conceived by ART to singleton infants conceived naturally. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, we performed a historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM in 820 singleton births from January 2012 to December 2014. The data for this analysis were derived from Tehran’s ART linked data file. The risk of congenital malformations was compared in 164 ART infants and 656 NC infants. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for the independent association of ART on each outcome. Results: We found 40 infants with MCM 29 (4.4% NC infants and 14 (8.3% ART infants. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 2-fold increased risk of MCM (P=0.046. After adjusting individually for maternal age, infant gender, prior stillbirth, mother’s history of spontaneous abortion, and type of delivery, we did not find any difference in risk. In this study the majority (95.1% of all infants were normal but 4.9% of infants had at least one MCM. We found a difference in risk of MCMs between in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. We excluded the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Conclusion: This study reported a higher risk of MCMs in ART singleton infants than in NC singleton infants. Congenital heart disease, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and urogenital malformations were the most reported major malformations in singleton ART infants according to organ and system classification.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of resistance projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Projection welding of nuts to sheets is a widely utilized manufacturing process in the automotive industry. The process entails challenges due the necessity of joining different sheet thicknesses and nut sizes made from dissimilar materials, and due to the fact of experiencing large local deforma...... of the square nut to the sheet under different operating conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  10. Potential of aqueous ozone to control aflatoxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Otniel Freitas; Morales-Valle, H.; Venâncio, Armando

    2011-01-01

    The Brazil nut (Bertholethia excelsa) is an important non timber forest product (NTFP) from the Amazonian forest. Despite their nutritious value, Brazil nuts are susceptible to contamination with Aspergillus section Flavi fungi and consequently with aflatoxins. Since aqueous ozone reduces microorganisms population and has oxidant effect on aflatoxins, the effect of ozone on. Both natural and artificially contaminated Brasil nuts were studied in the present work. The former were inoculated wit...

  11. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD.

  12. Oral lichenoid contact lesions induced by areca nut and betel quid chewing: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, Peter A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut chewing is widely prevalent in many parts of Asia and Asian-migrant communities throughout the world. Global reports estimate 600 million users. Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity has been found for BQ and its main ingredient, areca nut. BQ areca nut users have an increased risk of potentially malignant disorders. Among chewers, BQ remains in contact with the oral mucosa for prolonged periods. This review examines the clinical and pathological aspects of lichenoid lesions caused by areca nut and BQ, a condition that has received little attention in the published literature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. GUILT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS ARE NOT EXCLUDING RESPONSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity in different areas of law, and address the question of whether this interdisciplinary institute.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the knowledge about the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, to analyze the content of this institution in various areas of law, and to conclude that the cross-sectoral character.The author uses formal-legal, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the provisions of the Russian legislation on the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, concluding that the criminal law of guilt people with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, the most developed and taken into account as a circumstance affecting the punishment. In other areas of the law said institution worked shallow.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in the industrial discipline "Criminal Law" and the general theoretical discipline "Theory of State and Law"; in science - by picking up information about the features of the Institute of guilt, and in practice - said the work can be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, in order to understand the meaning and importance of the category of guilt, including - the guilt of persons

  14. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2012-01-03

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle distribution function, with excluded-volume effects enhancing the overall collective diffusion rate. An expression for the effective (collective) diffusion coefficient is obtained. Stochastic simulations of the full particle system are shown to compare well with the solution of this equation for two examples. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  15. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wever, Diego-Armando Z.; Heeres, H.J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet chemical analysis of wood components offered a clear procedure to isolate the main components in Physic nut shells (a). The fractions obtained were: polar extract (b), non-polar extract (c), Acid Insoluble Lignin (d), Holocellulose (e), α-Cellulose (f). The total Lignin content present in the shells equaled 48.84%. IR and NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the non-polar extract is Lignin, which corresponds to the extractable Lignin (1.24%) in the Physic nut shells and the Acid Insoluble Lignin was 47.60%. Elemental analysis showed no Sulfur present in the investigated materials. Furthermore both 1 H and 13 C NMR of the non-polar extract showed the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains. The α-Cellulose content (22.29%) and the Hemicelluloses content (23.84%) were in line with that of agricultural residues. The water content and the fixed carbon content (+ash [2.8%]) equal 5–6% and 35.6%, respectively. GPC showed that the polydispersity of the non-polar extract (3.6) lies between Alcell Lignin and Kraft Lignin. The polar extract contains a variety of metals, with especially a high amount of the alkali metals K and Na. The extraction with water is proposed to generate a fertilizer fraction and may be applied to reduce potential sintering issues during eventual combustion or gasification of the shells. -- Highlights: ► Physic nut shell is a potential source of value added chemicals due to its high lignin content (48.8 wt%). ► Lignin extracted from Jatropha curcas L. shells is rich in aliphatic linkages. ► Water extraction of the shells yields a potential fertilizer fraction rich in alkali metals and phosphorous. ► Pre-extraction is recommended to eliminate

  17. Gravitational radiation reaction in the NUT-de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1988-07-01

    The equations for gravitational perturbation in the NUT-de Sitter spacetime are obtained. Using these equations, some preliminary calculations have been made with a view to constructing the retarded Green functions. Then with the help of the retarded Green functions, the radiative Green functions have been constructed. With the aid of these radiative Green functions, the reaction force on a particle is computed and this reaction force is then shown to account correctly for the energy and the angular momentum carried away by gravitational radiation to infinity and to the horizon. (author). 9 refs

  18. Smooth Gowdy-symmetric generalized Taub–NUT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Florian; Hennig, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    We study a class of S 3 -Gowdy vacuum models with a regular past Cauchy horizon which we call smooth Gowdy-symmetric generalized Taub–NUT solutions. In particular, we prove the existence of such solutions by formulating a singular initial value problem with asymptotic data on the past Cauchy horizon. We prove that also a future Cauchy horizon exists for generic asymptotic data, and derive an explicit expression for the metric on the future Cauchy horizon in terms of the asymptotic data on the past horizon. This complements earlier results about S 1 ×S 2 -Gowdy models. (paper)

  19. Circular motion and Polish Doughnuts in NUT spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefremov, Paul I.

    The astrophysical relevance of the NUT spacetime(s) is a matter of debate due to pathological properties exhibited by this solution. However, if it is realised in nature, then we should look for the characteristic imprints of it on possible observations. One of the major sources of data on black hole astrophysics is the accretion process. Using a simple but fully analytical ``Polish Doughnuts'' model of accretion disk one gets both qualitative and quantitative differences from the Kerr spacetime produced by the presence of the gravitomagnetic charge. The present paper is based on our work Jefremov & Perlick (2016).

  20. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... least one-half of your time in the pay period is in covered work. If you spend most of your time in a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included-excluded rule. 404.1013 Section 404.1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...

  1. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  2. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... other information about persons who are ineligible. The EPLS system includes the printed version...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  4. The Education Act and Excluded Children. Policy Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Rachel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the negative assumptions and outcomes of provisions in Britain's Education Act of 1997 dealing with expulsion of students. Presents some statistics on excluded children; discusses likely outcomes such as increased delinquency, parent-school acrimony, and disparity in schools. Describes the role of teachers' unions in drafting the bill…

  5. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... arts in public affairs or public administration. The Foundation may at its discretion, upon request of... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP...

  6. 48 CFR 52.247-7 - Freight Excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Excluded. 52.247-7... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-7 Freight... contracts for transportation or for transportation-related services when any commodities or types of...

  7. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with traces of tree nuts and other adulterants, which might result in unintentional ingestion of nuts by the sensitised population. Hence, the need for an in-line system to detect nut traces at the early stages of food manufacturing is of crucial importance. In this present work, a feasibility study of a spectral index for revealing adulteration of tree nut and peanut traces in wheat flour samples with hyperspectral images is reported. The main nuts responsible for allergenic reactions considered in this work were peanut, hazelnut and walnut. Enhanced contrast between nuts and wheat flour was obtained after the application of the index. Furthermore, the segmentation of these images by selecting different thresholds for different nut and flour mixtures allowed the identification of nut traces in the samples. Pixels identified as nuts were counted and compared with the actual percentage of peanut adulteration. As a result, the multispectral system was able to detect and provide good visualisation of tree nut and peanut trace levels down to 0.01% by weight. In this context, multispectral imaging could operate in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to save time, money and skilled labour on product quality control. This approach could enable not only a few selected samples to be assessed but also to extensively incorporate quality control surveyance on product processing lines.

  8. Genetic gains in physic nut using selection indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lopes Bhering

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate genetic gains in physic nut (Jatropha curcas using selection indexes and to establish the best selection strategy for the species. Direct and indirect selection was carried out using different selection indexes, totalizing 14 strategies. One hundred and seventy five families from the active germplasm bank of Embrapa Agroenergy, Brasília, Brazil, were analyzed in a randomized complete block design with two replicates. The evaluated traits were: grain yield; seeds per fruit; endosperm/seed ratio; seed weight, length, width, and thickness; branches per plant at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m; plant height; stem diameter; canopy projection on rows and between lines; canopy volume; juvenility (days to the first flowering; and height of the first inflorescence. Evaluations were done during the second year of cultivation. The use of selection indexes is relevant to maximize the genetic gains in physic nut, favoring a better distribution of desirable traits. The multiplicative and restrictive indexes are considered the most promising for selection.

  9. SYNTHESIS ALKANOLAMIDE TETRAHIDROXY OCTADECANOATE COMPOUND FROM CANDLE NUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Candle nut oil could be transesterificated by methanol with concentrated H2SO4 as a catalyst to form fatty acid methyl esther. Methyl linoleate could be separated by Column Chromatography mechanism technic partition from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME mixture, then it was treated by ethanolamine at base condition in benzene as solvent and sodium methylate as a catalyst at reflux condition for 6 hours to form an alkanolamide. Alkanolamide could be epoxydized by tert-buthyl hydroperoxyde and peroxygenase as a catalyst and it was refluxed for 6 hours at 40 °C and nitrogen gas condition to form the epoxy alkanolamide octadecanoate, and then it was hydrolyzed by HCl 0.1 M to form alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate (Polyol. Alkanolamide tetrahidroxy octadecanoate could be separated by Column Chromatography using silica gel H 40 and the eluent was the mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, formic acid in a ratio 90:10:1 (v/v/v/. Determination of HLB value from alknolamide tetrahydroxy octadecanoate is 13.096. Therefore, this compound was particularly suitable for application as an o/w emulsifiers. All af the reaction steps were confirmed by using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS, Gas Chromatography and TLC.   Keywords: Esterification, Candle nut oil, Surfactant, Amidation, Polyol.

  10. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Thevetia Nut Cracking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Odewole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia seed contains about 64 percent of non-edible oil in its oily kernel and this oil can be used for various purposes such as biofuel and bio-oil; making of paints, insecticides, cosmetics, lubricants and cooling oil in electrical transformers. The cakes obtained after oil extraction are incorporated on the field as manure. In order to get quality oil kernels from the hard nuts, there is need to properly crack them; this process of cracking is still a great challenge. As result of the aforementioned problem, this work focused on the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a thevetia nut cracking machine. The machine works based on the principle of attrition force. Some of the parts designed for were diameter of shaft (13 mm solid shaft and length of belt (A55, power required to operate the machine (2.5 hp, speed of operation (9.14 m/s and the appropriate dimension of angle iron bar of 45 mm × 45 mm × 3 mm was used for the structural support. The fabrication was done systematically followed by the performance evaluation of the machine. The result of the overall cracking efficiency and throughput capacity of the machine were evaluated to be 96.65 % and 510 g⁄min respectively.

  11. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which ...

  12. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  13. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Johanna P. M.; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; de Jong, Nicolette W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to

  14. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  15. Influence of cultivar and processing on the allergenicity of pistachio nut assessed in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinction between different cultivars of pistachio nut, and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio pro...

  16. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  17. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Betel Nut Chewing Behavior among Adolescents in Eastern Taiwan: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…

  19. Occurrence and fumonisin B2 producing potential of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa S.; Correa, Benedito; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.

    2017-01-01

    and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0.273 to 0...

  20. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  1. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  2. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Brown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6 body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9, and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8 (all p for linear trend < 0.001. Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011. Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group.

  3. evaluation of growth of young coconut and nut yield of old coconut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    nutrient status under coconut-cassava intercropping systems. Experiment I was ... farmer's income/ food security base and helps in weed control ... GenStat Discovery Edi- tion 3 statistical ..... nut, it did not impact on nut yield since it was not a limiting ... Evaluation of crop management options ... (1996). Manual on standard-.

  4. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  5. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  6. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  7. Chemical characterization of the oil of Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naud nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mariana H.; Barbosa, Andrea S.; Moita Neto, Jose M.; Aued-Pimentel, Sabria; Lago, Joao Henrique G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes total lipid content, unsaponifiable fraction and the acid, refractive, saponification and iodine indices of the oil of Sterculia striata nuts. The fatty acids, the sterols and the triterpene alcohols were determined. The percentage of cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA), determined by NMR 1 H (15,5%), makes the nuts of this species unsuitable for human consumption. (author)

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Pomegranate Juice Reduces IgE Binding to Cashew Nut Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew nut allergy is mediated by IgE binding to seed-storage proteins including Ana o 1, 2, and 3. Cashew nuts commonly cause severe reactions and only small amounts are needed. Polyphenol rich juices and polyphenol compounds have been demonstrated to complex with peanut allergens. The interacti...

  9. An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties.

  10. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of brazil-nut allergen Ber e 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu, E-mail: zhangy@iit.edu [Department of Biology, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The crystallization of the brazil nut allergen Ber e 2 is reported. Peanut and tree-nut allergies have attracted considerable attention because of their frequency and their lifelong persistence. Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa) allergies have been well documented and the 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ber e 2 (excelsin) is one of the two known brazil-nut allergens. In this study, Ber e 2 was extracted from brazil-nut kernels and purified to high purity by crystalline precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  11. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  12. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  13. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  14. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  15. Hyperbilirubinemia with urinary tract infection in infants younger than eight weeks old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ta Chen

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of UTI in the admitted infants with hyperbilirubinemia was as high as approximately 5.5%. The most common cultured bacterium in urine was E coli. Therefore, performing urinary tests to exclude the possibility of coincidental UTI may be necessary for admitted jaundiced infants younger than 8 weeks old.

  16. Bronchiolitis-associated encephalopathy in critically-ill infants: an underestimated complication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Roberto; Chiappe, Stefano; Porcella, Annalisa; Rosatelli, Daniela; Fanos, Vassilios

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the bronchiolitis-associated encephalopathy in critically ill infants. The records of infants with severe bronchiolitis admitted to our intensive care unit between 1991 and 2003 were reviewed. Subjects with underlying neurological disorders were excluded. Encephalopathy was defined as occurrence of seizures or at least two nonconvulsive neurologic manifestations. A semistructured telephone interview investigated long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Twenty-one infants (11 newborns) were enrolled. All patients required oxygen supplementation and 14 required mechanical ventilation. Encephalopathy occurred in 10 infants, six of whom developed seizures. Encephalopathic infants frequently (six of nine) showed transient EEG abnormalities, and occasionally (one of nine) cranial ultrasound abnormalities. A positive respiratory syncytial virus test was found in five of nine encephalopathic infants. One encephalopathic patient died, while 20 infants clinically normalised before discharge and showed a good neurodevelopmental outcome. Acute encephalopathy was frequently observed in our patients with severe bronchiolitis. Long-term prognosis of encephalopathic infants was good.

  17. Pistachio allergy-prevalence and in vitro cross-reactivity with other nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Tehrani, Mohsen; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2011-12-01

    Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts, including almond, peanut, and cashew in pistachio allergic patients. A survey was conducted to determine whether the prevalence of pistachio allergy is affected by exposure to this nut in pistachio cultivation regions, as well as possible cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts including cashew, almond, and peanut. Inhibition Western blot and inhibition ELISA studies were conducted to assess the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and the other tree nuts. Our results revealed that the prevalence of pistachio allergy is twice as much in pistachio cultivation regions than other areas. Western blotting and inhibition ELISA presented high percentages of inhibition with pistachio and cashew, followed by almond and, to some degree, peanut which indicates different levels of allergenic cross-reactivity. The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  18. Empowering the digitally excluded: learning initiatives for (invisible groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that some digitally excluded groups of learners are receiving more attention than others. Discussions regarding why some digitally excluded learners are more visible than others and therefore worthy of more committed digital inclusion interventions raises important questions about how we define and conceptualise digital inclusion and digital inclusion practice; particularly in relation to empowerment. In this article, we draw on a range of research, practice and policy literature to examine two important questions: what is empowerment and in whose hands does empowerment lie? We argue that empowerment involves making informed choices about technology use, but that learners often require support- human intervention- to make these choices. However, current digital inclusion research has failed to produce a detailed critique of what constitutes empowering support from educational institutions and their staff. A lack of open and reflexive accounts of practice means that we are no closer to identifying and understanding the kinds of empowering practices that are required to challenge the kinds of prejudices, stereotypes, risk-aversiveness and low aspirations associated with the most invisible of digitally excluded learners.

  19. Colony structure and spatial partitioning of cavity dwelling ant species in nuts of eastern US forest floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nut-bearing trees create islands of high efficiency, low cost housing opportunities for ant colonies. Fallen nuts in leaf litter from previous seasons provide ready-made nest sites for cavity dwelling ant species, as well as affording protection from the elements. Suitable nuts for nests require an ...

  20. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-03-07

    Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary measures of diet quality. Food pattern modeling was implemented in the nationally representative 2009-2012 National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) in a population of 17,444 children and adults. All between-meal snacks, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis with a weighted tree nut composite, reflecting consumption patterns in the population. Model 1 replaced all snacks with tree nuts, while Model 2 exempted whole fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and whole grains (>50% of total grain content). Additional analyses were conducted using almonds only. Outcomes of interest were empty calories (i.e., solid fats and added sugars), saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, protein, sodium, potassium and magnesium. The Healthy Eating Index-2010, which measures adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, was used as a summary measure of diet quality. Compared to observed diets, modeled food patterns were significantly lower in empty calories (-20.1% and -18.7% in Model 1 and Model 2, respectively), added sugars (-17.8% and -16.9%), solid fats (-21.0% and -19.3%), saturated fat (-6.6% and -7.1%)., and sodium (-12.3% and -11.2%). Modeled patterns were higher in oils (65.3% and 55.2%), monounsaturated (35.4% and 26.9%) and polyunsaturated fats (42.0% and 35.7%), plant omega 3 s (53.1% and 44.7%), dietary fiber (11.1% and 14.8%), and magnesium (29.9% and 27.0%), and were modestly higher in potassium (1.5% and 2.9%). HEI-2010 scores were significantly

  1. Effect of roasting on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of whole cashew nuts, kernels, and testa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Neel; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-05-11

    The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied. Whole cashew nuts, subjected to low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) treatments, were used to determine the antioxidant activity of products. Antioxidant activities of cashew nut, kernel, and testa phenolics extracted increased as the roasting temperature increased. The highest activity, as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC), and reducing power, was achieved when nuts were roasted at 130 °C for 33 min. Furthermore, roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) in both the soluble and bound extracts from whole nut, kernel, and testa but decreased that of the proanthocyanidins (PC) except for the soluble extract of cashew kernels. In addition, cashew testa afforded a higher extract yield, TPC, and PC in both soluble and bound fractions compared to that in whole nuts and kernels. Phenolic acids, namely, syringic (the predominant one), gallic, and p-coumaric acids, were identified. Flavonoids, namely, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin, were also identified, and their contents increased with increasing temperature. The results so obtained suggest that HT-short time (HTST) roasting effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of cashew nuts and testa.

  2. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Kalliola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nuts are harvested from the primary rainforests in the Amazonian lowlands as a direct form of sustainably using the region’s biological resources. We analyze the ecological economics of Brazil nut production in the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios where nut extraction occurs on hundreds of small-holder concessions operating under long-term agreements. This activity sustains locally important economies that suffer from small volumes and high seasonality. The size and the remoteness of the NTFP concession determine much of its profitability to concessionaires. Seasonality of the harvest generates short-term income peaks for the majority of collectors. The fragility of the Brazil nut economy in the region is compounded by volatile market prices and the overall development pressures in Amazonia, which usually involve deforestation. Although the current regulatory mechanisms in Peru encourage long-term Brazil nut production in concessions, the income level is seldom high enough to help concession-owners to rise from poverty. Auxiliary financial support based on compensations for the non-valued ecosystem services provided by the forest-covered Brazil nut concessions could change the picture. Funds for these could come from international instruments like those of carbon emission control or debt for nature swaps. Green marketing could be developed to consider payments supporting ecosystem values as well as mechanisms supporting indigenous communities working with Brazil nuts. Appropriate indicators are needed to optimize those management, policy and trading conditions that best help to preserve the invaluable ecosystem functions and services.

  3. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  4. Effect of Oxygen-Reducing Atmospheres on the Safety of Packaged Shelled Brazil Nuts during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildes Maria Scussel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the application of oxygen-(O2- reducing atmosphere methods on stored shelled Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. packs aiming to evaluate the degree of aflatoxin degradation, nuts lipid oxidative stability, fungi control, and hygienic conditions improvement. The methods applied were (a ozone: O3, (b carbon dioxide: CO2, and (c O2 absorber pads with and without vacuum. From all modified atmospheres evaluated, the best performance was obtained with O3, either with or without vacuum. It was the only nut treatment that was able to degrade aflatoxins. None of the spiked (AFLs: 15 μg·kg−1 nut samples O3- treated had aflatoxins detected up to the LC-MS/MS method LOQ (0.36 μg·kg−1 for total AFLs, thus producing safer nuts. Also it kept the fatty acid oxidation indicator—malondialdehyde stable and improved the sensory attributes for consumer acceptance. In addition, the destruction of fungi and yeast was observed since the O3 application (from 1.8×104 cfu/g to NG = no growth. All other treatments stabilized and/or inhibited microorganisms' growth only. By adding CO2 gas also played an important role in the nut quality. Regarding cost, gaseous O3 showed to be of low cost for application in the nut packs.

  5. 3D finite element analysis of tightening process of bolt and nut connections with pitch difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Noda, N.-A.; Sano, Y.; Huang, Y. T.; Takase, Y.

    2018-06-01

    In a wide industrial field, the bolt-nut joint is unitized as an important machine element and anti-loosening performance is always required. In this paper, the effect of a slight pitch difference between a bolt and nut is studied. Firstly, by varying the pitch difference, the prevailing torque required for the nut rotation, before the nut touches the clamped body, is measured experimentally. Secondly, the tightening torque is determined as a function of the axial force of the bolt after the nut touches the clamped body. The results show that a large value of pitch difference may provide large prevailing torque that causes an anti-loosening effect although a very large pitch difference may deteriorate the bolt axial force under a certain tightening torque. Thirdly, a suitable pitch difference is determined taking into account the anti-loosening and clamping abilities. Furthermore, the chamfered corners at nut ends are considered, and it is found that the 3D finite element analysis with considering the chamfered nut threads has a good agreement with the experimental observation. Finally, the most desirable pitch difference required for improving anti-loosening is proposed.

  6. Technique for determining cesium-137 in milk excluding ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.A.; Prokof'ev, O.N.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of simplification of the method of milk sample preparation for the radiochemical analysis for 137 Cs in laboratory sanitary and higienic investigations rapid analysis technique excluding sample ashing is developed. The technique comprises sample mixing with silica gel during an hour, 137 Cs desorption from silica gel into the 1N solution of hydrochloric acid, radiochemical analysis of hydrochloric solution for determining 137 Cs. The comparison of the results obtained by the above method and that with ashing provides perfect agreement. For taking into account the incompleteness of 137 Cs adsorption by silica gel a correction factor is applied in calculation formulae

  7. GUILT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS ARE NOT EXCLUDING RESPONSIBILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a m...

  8. Verification of Carbon Sink Assessment. Can We Exclude Natural Sinks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.; Yamagata, Y

    2004-01-01

    Any human-induced terrestrial sink is susceptible to the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, climate variability and other natural or indirect human-induced factors. It has been suggested in climate negotiations that the effects of these factors should be excluded from estimates of carbon sequestration used to meet the emission reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper focuses on the methodologies for factoring out the effects of atmospheric and climate variability/change. We estimate the relative magnitude of the non-human induced effects by using two biosphere models and discuss possibilities for narrowing estimate uncertainty

  9. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  10. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-01-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states

  11. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C.K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 o C for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a

  12. Direct-acting DNA alkylating agents present in aqueous extracts of areca nut and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2012-11-19

    Areca nut is a carcinogen to humans and has been strongly associated with oral premalignant and malignant diseases. Previous studies speculated the presence of unknown direct-acting mutagens present in aqueous extracts of areca nut. We hypothesized whether any direct-acting alkylating agents are present in areca nut and its commercial products. In this study, calf thymus DNA was treated with four different aqueous extracts obtained from unripe and ripe areca nuts or their commercial products, namely, pan masala (without tobacco) and gutkha (with tobacco). Three N-alkylated purines including N7-methylguanine (N7-MeG), N3-methyladenine (N3-MeA), and N7-ethylguanine (N7-EtG) were detected using sensitive and specific isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. The results showed that four types of aqueous extracts significantly induced the formation of N7-MeG and N3-MeA in a linear dose-response manner. Extracts from unripe areca nut exhibited higher methylating potency than those of ripe areca nut, while gutkha had higher methylating potency than pan masala. Meanwhile, gutkha made with areca nut and tobacco, was the only extract found to induce the formation of N7-EtG. Overall, this study first demonstrated that the presence of direct-acting alkylating agents in areca nut and its commercial products exist at a level that is able to cause significant DNA damage. Our findings may provide another mechanistic rationale for areca nut-mediated oral carcinogenesis and also highlight the importance and necessity of the identification of these direct-acting alkylating agents.

  13. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Ferronato

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP.

  14. Hawking radiation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of charged Dirac particles on the horizons of the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime is studied in this paper. To this end, we obtain the radial decoupled Dirac equation for the electron in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime. Next we solve the Dirac equation near the horizons. Finally, by analytic continuation, the Hawking thermal spectrum formula of Dirac particles is obtained. The problem of the Hawking evaporation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman background is thus solved. (orig.)

  15. Gnomoniopsis castanea is the main agent of chestnut nut rot in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca G. DENNERT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuts of sweet chestnut have been an important food source for the alpine population in Switzerland since the Middle Ages and are still valued today for the preparation of traditional food commodities. Nut quality is reduced by insect damage and by various pathogenic fungi. In the last few years, producers and consumers perceived an increase of brown nut rot; while the nut rot agent Gnomoniopsis castanea was reported locally in southern Switzerland, its presence has not been investigated over large areas until now. This study assessed the incidence of brown nut rot and identified the causal agent present in Switzerland. Fully ripened nuts were collected from the main sweet chestnut growing areas of Switzerland. A filamentous fungus morphologically identified as G. castanea was isolated from 10 to 91% of the sampled nuts, despite only 3 to 21% of the sampled nuts showing brown rot symptoms. This fungus was isolated from symptomatic chestnuts as well as from apparently healthy chestnuts. Our results suggest a possible endophytic lifestyle in ripened nuts as well as in branches, leaves and unripe nuts as previously found. Species identity of 45 isolates was confirmed by EF-1alpha, beta-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Concatenation of β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences showed that several haplotypes were present at each sampling locality. No other nut rot pathogens could be isolated in this study, suggesting that G. castanea is the main causal agent of nut rot in Switzerland. The presence of this species is reported for the first time in a site in northern Switzerland. Further studies are needed to assess the influence of meteorological conditions and chestnut varieties on the incidence of G. castanea in order to provide prevention strategies for chestnut growers. Normal 0 21 false false false FR-CH X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso

  16. The influence of religious affiliation on heavy drinking, heavy smoking and heavy betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer on Physic nut Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumavip, Amnag; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    The Application of bio-organic fertilizers on Physics nut production were conduction in an area of Agricultural Occupational Promotion and Development Center, Cholburi Province (Plant Cultural) Cholburi. The period of 3 months (August - November 2006), Physic nut production both with and without husk were on the field. Experimental design was RCBD with 5 treatments. Results revealed that no significant difference between treatments (P>0.05). physic nut applied with the microbial fertilizer (OAP) produced greater yields with husks (71.21 Kg/rai) and without husks( 24.30 kg/rai) than chemical treatment 45.18 and 17.22 kg/rai respectively.

  18. Diffusion of multiple species with excluded-volume effects

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic models of diffusion with excluded-volume effects are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of the population may be described by a continuum model based on partial differential equations. In this paper we consider multiple interacting subpopulations/species and study how the inter-species competition emerges at the population level. Each individual is described as a finite-size hard core interacting particle undergoing Brownian motion. The link between the discrete stochastic equations of motion and the continuum model is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The system for two species leads to a nonlinear cross-diffusion system for each subpopulation, which captures the enhancement of the effective diffusion rate due to excluded-volume interactions between particles of the same species, and the diminishment due to particles of the other species. This model can explain two alternative notions of the diffusion coefficient that are often confounded, namely collective diffusion and self-diffusion. Simulations of the discrete system show good agreement with the analytic results. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  20. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  1. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  2. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  3. TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS: SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUG? BRIEF REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elom Seyram Achoribo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, This review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.

  4. Use of Areca nut pericarp as a substrate for the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripheuk, P.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut pericarp and pararubber sawdust were used as a substrates for Volvariella volvacea cultivation. The five formulas of substrates were used as spawing media : entirely Areca nut pericarp, Areca nut pericarp : pararubber sawdust (ratios 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and entirely pararubber sawdust. Five kilograms of each substrates was spread in baskets for 15 days until harvesting time. The average yields obtained were 600.0 (B.E. = 34.20%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25%, 380.0 (B.E. = 21.66%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25% and 330.0 (B.E. = 18.81% g/basket, respectively. Using entirely Areca nut pericarp gave thehighest yield, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from using entirely pararubber sawdust.

  5. Physiology and silviculture of black walnut for combined timber and nut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek; George Rink

    1981-01-01

    Research literature was reviewed for evidence supporting the management of black walnut plantations for combined timber and nut production. The silviculture of the species is discussed in relation to dual cropping. Stimulation and phenology of flowering and fruiting are reviewed.

  6. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Kola Nut (Cola Nitida Rubra) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of ... combination with other drugs (Rall, 1980). Caffeine and some of its ... combination of coffee drinking with smoking ... effects on reproductive functions using male rats.

  7. New Lancet Oncology publication - Defining a research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betel quid and areca nut, typically made up of a mixture of areca nut and slaked lime wrapped in a betel leaf with added flavorings, is a known risk factor for many oral and other associated cancers. There are more than 600 million betel quid or areca nut users worldwide (or 10% of the world’s population), making it a critical global cancer control issue. With its use steeped in culture and tradition, the use of betel quid and areca nut is widely unregulated, and poses a significant and understudied health threat to the Asia-Pacific region where prevalence is high. Unlike many forms of smoked tobacco, the two are widely used by women in regions where common. Betel quid and areca use also extends beyond the Asia-Pacific region to diaspora and migrant communities in the U.S., South Africa, and parts of Europe and the Middle East.

  8. Urinary Imaging Findings in Young Infants With Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pearl W; Abidari, Jennifer M; Shen, Mark W; Greenhow, Tara L; Bendel-Stenzel, Michael; Roman, Heidi K; Biondi, Eric A; Schroeder, Alan R

    2016-11-01

    To describe renal ultrasound (RUS) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) findings and determine predictors of abnormal imaging in young infants with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI). We used retrospective data from a multicenter sample of infants younger than 3 months with bacteremic UTI, defined as the same pathogenic organism in blood and urine. Infants were excluded if they had any major comorbidities, known urologic abnormalities at time of presentation, required intensive unit care, or had no imaging performed. Imaging results as stated in the radiology reports were categorized by a pediatric urologist. Of the 276 infants, 19 were excluded. Of the remaining 257 infants, 254 underwent a RUS and 224 underwent a VCUG. Fifty-five percent had ≥1 RUS abnormalities. Thirty-four percent had ≥1 VCUG abnormalities, including vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, 27%), duplication (1.3%), and infravesicular abnormality (0.9%). Age Pediatrics.

  9. Only MR can safely exclude patients from arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincken, Patrice W.J.; Braak, Bert P.M. ter; Erkel, Arian R. van; Bloem, Johan L.; Bloem, Rolf M.; Luijt, Peter A. van; Coene, L.N.J.E.M.; Lange, Sam de

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with subacute knee complaints and normal standardized physical examination the fraction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showing arthroscopically treatable intra-articular pathology. There were 290 consecutive patients (between 16 and 45 years) with at least 4 weeks of knee complaints and low clinical suspicion of intra-articular pathology based on physical exam. Two hundred seventy-four patients were included. Sixteen patients with prior knee surgery, rheumatic arthritis, or severe osteoarthritis were excluded. MRI was used to assign patients to group 1 (treatable abnormalities) or group 2 (normal or no treatable findings), depending on whether MR demonstrated treatable pathology. Arthroscopy was performed in group 1 patients. If symptoms persisted for 3 months in group 2 patients, cross over to arthroscopy was allowed. MR showed treatable pathology in 73 patients (26.6%). Arthroscopy was performed in 64 patients of 73 patients (group 1). In 52 patients (81.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 71.4-91.1%), arthroscopy was therapeutic. Of the 13 arthroscopies (6.5%) in group 2, four were therapeutic (30.8%, 95% CI 1.7-59.8). The highest fraction of MR studies showing treatable pathology was found in males, aged over 30 years, with a history of effusion (54.5%, six of 11 patients). Authors believe that the negative predictive value of clinical assessment in patients with subacute knee complaints is too low to exclude these patients from MR. MR should at least be considered in male patients aged 30 years and over with a history of effusion. (orig.)

  10. Only MR can safely exclude patients from arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincken, Patrice W.J.; Braak, Bert P.M. ter; Erkel, Arian R. van; Bloem, Johan L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, Rolf M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden (Netherlands); Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Delft (Netherlands); Luijt, Peter A. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Traumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Coene, L.N.J.E.M. [HAGA Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Lange, Sam de [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with subacute knee complaints and normal standardized physical examination the fraction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showing arthroscopically treatable intra-articular pathology. There were 290 consecutive patients (between 16 and 45 years) with at least 4 weeks of knee complaints and low clinical suspicion of intra-articular pathology based on physical exam. Two hundred seventy-four patients were included. Sixteen patients with prior knee surgery, rheumatic arthritis, or severe osteoarthritis were excluded. MRI was used to assign patients to group 1 (treatable abnormalities) or group 2 (normal or no treatable findings), depending on whether MR demonstrated treatable pathology. Arthroscopy was performed in group 1 patients. If symptoms persisted for 3 months in group 2 patients, cross over to arthroscopy was allowed. MR showed treatable pathology in 73 patients (26.6%). Arthroscopy was performed in 64 patients of 73 patients (group 1). In 52 patients (81.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 71.4-91.1%), arthroscopy was therapeutic. Of the 13 arthroscopies (6.5%) in group 2, four were therapeutic (30.8%, 95% CI 1.7-59.8). The highest fraction of MR studies showing treatable pathology was found in males, aged over 30 years, with a history of effusion (54.5%, six of 11 patients). Authors believe that the negative predictive value of clinical assessment in patients with subacute knee complaints is too low to exclude these patients from MR. MR should at least be considered in male patients aged 30 years and over with a history of effusion. (orig.)

  11. Neurologic Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Undergoing Surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for magnetic resonance imaging and developmental follow-up. The infants were categorized retrospectively into either a nonsurgical group (n=178) or a surgical group (n=30). Nineteen infants were excluded because of incomplete or unsuitable data. The surgical and nonsurgical groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data, white matter injury, and brain volume at term. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at age 2 years. RESULTS: Compared with the nonsurgical group, the infants in the surgical group were smaller and more growth-restricted at birth, received more respiratory support and oxygen therapy, and had longer hospital stays. They also had smaller brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Infants who underwent bowel surgery had greater white matter injury. Mental Developmental Index scores were lower in the surgical group, whereas Psychomotor Developmental Index scores did not differ between the groups. The Mental Developmental Index difference became nonsignificant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exposed to surgery and anesthesia had greater white matter injury and smaller total brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Surgical exposure in the preterm infant should alert the clinician to an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcome.

  12. The relationship between nut intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyoo; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-03-07

    Nut consumption is known to reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. However, in previous studies, portion sizes and categories of nut consumption have varied, and few studies have assessed the association between colorectal cancer risk and nut consumption. In this study, we investigated the relationship between nut consumption and colorectal cancer risk. A case-control study was conducted among 923 colorectal cancer patients and 1846 controls recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea. Information on dietary intake was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items, including peanuts, pine nuts, and almonds (as 1 food item). Nut consumption was categorized as none, consumption and colorectal cancer risk, and a polytomous logistic regression model was used for sub-site analyses. High nut consumption was strongly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer among women (adjusted ORs: 0.30, 95%CI: 0.15-0.60 for the ≥3 servings per week group vs. none). A similar inverse association was observed for men (adjusted ORs: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47). In sub-site analyses, adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing the ≥3 servings per week group vs none were 0.25 (0.09-0.70) for proximal colon cancer, 0.39 (0.19-0.80) for distal colon cancer, and 0.23 (0.12-0.46) for rectal cancer among men. An inverse association was also found among women for distal colon cancer (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.48) and rectal cancer (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95). We found a statistically significant association between high frequency of nut consumption and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. This association was observed for all sub-sites of the colon and rectum among both men and women, with the exception of proximal colon cancer for women.

  13. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-05-06

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans.

  14. Thermodynamics of Taub-NUT/bolt black holes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Khodam-Mohammadi, A.

    2006-01-01

    First, we construct the Taub-NUT/bolt solutions of (2k+2)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity, when all the factor spaces of 2k-dimensional base space B have positive curvature. These solutions depend on two extra parameters, other than the mass and the NUT charge. These are electric charge q and electric potential at infinity V. We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT solutions and find that in addition to the two conditions of uncharged NUT solutions, there exist two extra conditions. These two extra conditions come from the regularity of vector potential at r=N and the fact that the horizon at r=N should be the outer horizon of the NUT charged black hole. We find that the NUT solutions in 2k+2 dimensions have no curvature singularity at r=N, when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP 2k . For bolt solutions, there exists an upper limit for the NUT parameter which decreases as the potential parameter increases. Second, we study the thermodynamics of these spacetimes. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, action and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity, and show that the NUT solutions are not thermally stable for even k's, while there exists a stable phase for odd k's, which becomes increasingly narrow with increasing dimensionality and wide with increasing V. We also study the phase behavior of the 4 and 6 dimensional bolt solutions in canonical ensemble and find that these solutions have a stable phase, which becomes smaller as V increases

  15. Initial growth of physic nut as a function of sources and doses of organic fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz,Deisinara Giane; Fey,Rubens; Ruppenthal,Viviane; Malavasi,Marlene de Matos; Malavasi,Ubirajara Contro

    2012-01-01

    Organic fertilization provides low cost, supplemental nutrition for plant production. This study aimed to determine the best source and dose of organic fertilizer on the growth of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a potential biodiesel producer. Physic nut seedlings were transplanted to 18 dm³ black plastic pots filled with soil mixed with four sources of organic fertilizer (chicken, fish, cattle manure or urban waste compost) at four dose levels (50, 100, 200 or 400 L m-3). Fertilized and con...

  16. Cashew nut shell liquid resin used as matrix for compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Nogueira, Ricardo Emilio Ferreira Quevedo

    1996-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid resin a by product of cashew processing industry is a naturally occurring phenol of low cost and are used in Brazil as fuel in the industrial production of cashew nut or as a structural material when associated with coconut fiber or rice shell. A high measured Tg points to noble applications. This paper presents some properties of LCC resin and concludes that it has good perspectives as a composite matrice to work at elevated temperatures. (author)

  17. Production and Evaluation of Ice Cream from Nigerian Tiger-Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ice cream was prepared from water-soluble extracts of the yellow variety of Nigerian tiger-nut. A modified standard method was used for the production of the tiger-nut milk ice cream. The resulting ice cream had pH of 7.10, 35% Brix, specific gravity of 1.0888 and total solids of 45.67%. The proximate composition of the ice ...

  18. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  19. Nuts and Bolts of the Ion Band State Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2005-12-01

    The nuts and bolts of our ion band state theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR's) in palladium-deuteride (PdD) and palladium-hydride (PdH) are the electrons that hold together or tear apart the bonds (or lack of bonds) between deuterons (d's) or protons (p's) and the host material. In PdDx and PdHx, this bonding is strongly correlated with loading. In ambient loading conditions (x ≲ 0.6), bonding inhibits ion band state occupation. As x → 1, slight increases and decreases in loading can induce "vibrations" (which have conventionally been thought to occur from phonons) that can induce potential losses or increases of p/d. Naive assumptions about phonons fail to include these losses and increases. These effects can occur because neither H or D has core electrons and because in either PdD or PdH, the electrons near the Fermi energy have negligible overlap with the nucleus of either D or H. In the past, implicitly, we have used these facts to justify our ion band state theory. Here, we present a more formal justification, based on the relationship between H(D) ion band states (IBS's) and H(D) phonons that includes a microscopic picture that explains why occupation of IBS's can occur in PdD and PdH and how this can lead to nuclear reactions.

  20. Scaling behavior in the convection-driven Brazil nut effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmady, Prakhyat; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

    2012-11-01

    The Brazil nut effect is the phenomenon in which a large intruder particle immersed in a vertically shaken bed of smaller particles rises to the top, even when it is much denser. The usual practice while describing these experiments has been to use the dimensionless acceleration Γ=aω2/g, where a and ω are, respectively, the amplitude and the angular frequency of vibration and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Considering a vibrated quasi-two-dimensional bed of mustard seeds, we show here that the peak-to-peak velocity of shaking v=aω, rather than Γ, is the relevant parameter in the regime where boundary-driven granular convection is the main driving mechanism. We find that the rise time τ of an intruder is described by the scaling law τ˜(v-vc)-α, where vc is identified as the critical vibration velocity for the onset of convective motion of the mustard seeds. This scaling form holds over a wide range of (a,ω), diameter, and density of the intruder.

  1. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  2. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-02-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  4. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Erinfolami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of sociodemographic variables (of the students and their parents with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385 randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  5. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

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    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  6. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  7. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh [Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  8. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Tey, Siew Ling; Chisholm, Alexandra; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet

    2017-11-06

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group.

  9. Defining a global research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Hedieh; Duncan, Kalina; Parascandola, Mark; David, Annette; Gritz, Ellen R; Gupta, Prakash C; Mehrotra, Ravi; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq; Pearlman, Paul C; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Wen, Chi-Pang; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Trimble, Edward L

    2017-12-01

    Betel quid and areca nut are known risk factors for many oral and oesophageal cancers, and their use is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. Additionally, betel quid and areca nut are associated with health effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. Unlike tobacco, for which the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides evidence-based policies for reducing tobacco use, no global policy exists for the control of betel quid and areca nut use. Multidisciplinary research is needed to address this neglected global public health emergency and to mobilise efforts to control betel quid and areca nut use. In addition, future research is needed to advance our understanding of the basic biology, mechanisms, and epidemiology of betel quid and areca nut use, to advance possible prevention and cessation programmes for betel quid and areca nut users, and to design evidence-based screening and early diagnosis programmes to address the growing burden of cancers that are associated with use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on salivary cortisol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S

    2015-09-01

    Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P  0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yu, Si-Yi; Lv, Zheng-Tao; Yao, Ying

    2018-06-01

    To investigate and quantify the potential association between betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We searched five online databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI to identify observational studies that published prior to May, 1, 2017. The primary outcome was the association between betel nut chewing and CKD expressed as odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) after adjustment for other covariates. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software; the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was used to confirm the stability of drawn conclusion. Five studies comprising a total of 10,562 CKD patients and 34,038 subjects without CKD that analyzed the relationship between betel nut chewing and CKD were included in our study; all the included studies were performed in Taiwan. After the adjustment for covariates, the combined adjusted ORs showed that betel nut used had 1.44 times higher risk to develop CKD compared with non-chewers (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.08-1.92). Betel nut chewing could significantly increase the risk of CKD, indicating that betel nut chewing may exist as an independent risk factor for CKD. Further investigation should be warranted.

  12. Betel nut chewing behaviour and its association with oral mucosal lesions and conditions in Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the practices and behaviour among Betel nut users in Ghaziabad and to detect the clinically associated oral mucosal lesions and conditions. A community-based survey was conducted in Ghaziabad among 332 betel nut users. Data on betel nut use was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Oral mucosal lesions and conditions were recorded using WHO criteria. Out of 332 betel nut users, 32.8% consumed Gutkha. 62.3% users used betel nut with tobacco. Most of the study population started chewing betel nut because of peer pressure and the habit started at the workplace or school. A majority found that there was no physical discomfort due to the habit. The significant oral diseases detected were oral leukoplakia in 11.7% and oral submucous fibrosis in 6.1% of individuals. The findings of the present study revealed that 74.7% of the participants were current chewers. 30.4% of all participants had oral mucosal lesions and conditions.

  13. Maternal intake of cashew nuts accelerates reflex maturation and facilitates memory in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Marília Ferreira Frazão Tavares; Pereira, Diego Elias; Sousa, Morgana Moura; Medeiros, Dilian Maise Ferreira; Lemos, Leanderson Tulio Marques; Madruga, Marta Suely; Santos, Nayane Medeiros; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; de Menezes, Camila Carolina; Soares, Juliana Késsia Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Essential fatty acids, being indispensable during the stages of pregnancy, lactation and infancy influence the transmission of nerve impulses and brain function, and cashew nuts are a good source of these fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cashew nut consumption on reflex development, memory and profile of fatty acids of rat offspring treated during pregnancy and lactation. The animals were divided into three groups: Control (CONT), treated with 7% lipid derived from soybean oil; Normolipidic (NL) treated with 7% lipids derived from cashew nuts; and Hyperlipidic (HL) treated with 20% lipids derived from cashew nuts. Reflex ontogeny, Open-field habituation test and the Object Recognition Test (ORT) were assessed. The profile of fatty acids in the brain was carried out when the animals were zero, 21 and 60days old. Accelerated reflex maturation was observed in animals treated with cashew nuts (pacids and less Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in animals of the HL. The data showed that maternal consumption of cashew nuts can accelerate reflex maturation and facilitate memory in offspring when offered in adequate quantities. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of betel nut chewing on contour and object masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2011-11-01

    The betel nut is a common stimulant in many Asian countries. We employed the masking task developed by Enns and Di Lollo (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-352, 1997) to investigate the effects of betel nuts on sensory and attentional processing. In the masking task, participants needed to identify a target that was masked by either a contour mask or an object mask. Sensory processing was assessed by examining target identification in the contour mask condition when the target was presented only centrally, whereas attentional processing was assessed by examining target identification in the object mask condition when the target was presented randomly in either a central or a parafoveal location. The results showed that chewing betel nut and chewing gum produced significant contour masking with a large effect size, similar to the pure control condition, in which participants chewed nothing, and the placebo control condition, in which what participants chewed was disguised. This suggests that neither betel nut nor gum affects sensory processing. Alternatively, betel nut chewing could produce a reduction in object masking for the habitual chewers and the nonchewers, suggesting an effect of betel nut on attentional processing. This concentrated attention was also observed in the placebo control condition; thus, it cannot be exclusively driven by the expectation effect. Also, chewing per se reduced the attentional distribution foveally.

  15. Characterization of plasma cytokines in an infant population cohort of challenge-proven food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D; Tang, M L K; Koplin, J J; Licciardi, P V; Eckert, J K; Tan, T; Gurrin, L C; Ponsonby, A-L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization to food allergens indicates the production of food-specific IgE; however, sensitization is not a definite indicator of allergic reaction upon ingestion (N Engl J Med, 344, 2001, 30: J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120, 2007, 491). Currently, food challenge is the best approach to identify the presence or absence of allergy. While 95% positive predictive values (PPVs) thresholds for sIgE can assist with identifying increased likelihood of allergy among those who are sensitized, there are no specific biological markers that differentiate between allergic and sensitized individuals. To determine whether plasma serum cytokine profiles predict (i) sensitization to peanut and egg and (ii) food allergy among sensitized infants. Peanut-sensitized (PT) and egg-sensitized 14-month-old infants and nonsensitized controls enrolled in HealthNuts, a population-based study of food allergy, underwent an oral food challenge (OFC). Blood was collected within 1 h after OFC. Serum levels of Th1, Th2 and regulatory cytokines were determined in allergic (n = 79), sensitized (n = 40) and nonsensitized, nonallergic (n = 37) infants by multiplex assay. Food-sensitized infants had significantly higher plasma IL-4, IL-13, IL-12p70 and lower IL-10 levels compared to nonsensitized infants. IL-10 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in sensitized compared with allergic infants. Egg-allergic infants had significantly higher IL-13 and IL-12p70 levels compared to peanut-allergic (PA) infants. Levels of Th2-related cytokines in plasma are higher in food-sensitized infants, irrespective of clinical food allergy status. In contrast, IL-10 levels appear to predict food allergy among sensitized infants. Differences in IL-13 and IL-12p70 between egg- and peanut-allergic infants could help explain the different resolution rates of the allergies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinical update: understanding jaundice in the breastfed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary

    2013-06-01

    Breastfed infants are more likely to be jaundiced than infants who are formula fed. Community practitioners need to understand the physiology of jaundice and the issues associated with breastfeeding so that they can support parents. Visible jaundice is a result of hyperbilirubinaemia and, in most cases, is harmless and caused by normal physiological processes. It does, however, require detection monitoring and sometimes treatment to prevent rare but serious health complications. Although some debate remains over the association between breastfeeding and jaundice, the literature suggests that in the breastfed infant, early onset jaundice may be a result of insufficient intake of breast milk and prolonged jaundice may be related to a constituent of breast milk itself (breast milk jaundice). Early breastfeeding support to promote good positioning, attachment and baby-led feeding may help prevent early onset jaundice. Management of jaundice in the breastfed infant involves referral to local services to determine bilirubin levels and exclude pathologies.

  17. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  18. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Pervez, Shahid; Azam, Iqbal

    2012-10-24

    Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut) chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12) and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination.Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) - a marker of inflammation. When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day) had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach) was observed.Mean serum/plasma levels of folate

  19. Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajka Relja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a Mediterranean population, in Croatia, and to investigate the association of nut intake and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Subjects from the Island of Vis, Island of Korčula and the City of Split were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 4416 in total; 4011 without known cardiovascular disease. Survey responses, medical records and clinically relevant measurements were utilized. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regression models were used in the analysis, adjusting for known confounding factors. Results: As low as 5% of all subjects reported daily, and 11% reported weekly, nut consumption. The characteristics associated with more frequent nut intake were female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.19–1.62, highest level of education (1.42; 1.15–1.76 and material status (1.58; 1.29–1.93, smoking abstinence (1.21; 1.04–1.42 in never-smokers and 1.22; 1.02–1.46 in ex-smokers, Mediterranean diet adherence (1.87; 1.62–2.15, and absence of central obesity (1.29; 1.09–1.53, absence of diabetes (1.30; 1.02–1.66 and metabolic syndrome (1.17; 1.01–1.36. Subjects who consumed nuts had more favorable waist-to-height (overall p = 0.036 and waist-to-hip ratios (0.033, lesser odds of elevated fibrinogen (p < 0.001 in both weekly and monthly nut consumers and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.026, compared to non-consumers. Conclusions: It appears that frequent nut consumption is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle and better socioeconomic status. A beneficial association of nut intake with cardiovascular risk factors was confirmed in this study.

  20. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Cara A.; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) is one of the world’s most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity) on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013) in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80%) of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1–2 timber trees removed per ha). In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09) P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil nut rich

  1. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara A Rockwell

    Full Text Available Although many examples of multiple-use forest management may be found in tropical smallholder systems, few studies provide empirical support for the integration of selective timber harvesting with non-timber forest product (NTFP extraction. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae is one of the world's most economically-important NTFP species extracted almost entirely from natural forests across the Amazon Basin. An obligate out-crosser, Brazil nut flowers are pollinated by large-bodied bees, a process resulting in a hard round fruit that takes up to 14 months to mature. As many smallholders turn to the financial security provided by timber, Brazil nut fruits are increasingly being harvested in logged forests. We tested the influence of tree and stand-level covariates (distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity on total nut production at the individual tree level in five recently logged Brazil nut concessions covering about 4000 ha of forest in Madre de Dios, Peru. Our field team accompanied Brazil nut harvesters during the traditional harvest period (January-April 2012 and January-April 2013 in order to collect data on fruit production. Three hundred and ninety-nine (approximately 80% of the 499 trees included in this study were at least 100 m from the nearest cut stump, suggesting that concessionaires avoid logging near adult Brazil nut trees. Yet even for those trees on the edge of logging gaps, distance to nearest cut stump and local logging intensity did not have a statistically significant influence on Brazil nut production at the applied logging intensities (typically 1-2 timber trees removed per ha. In one concession where at least 4 trees ha-1 were removed, however, the logging intensity covariate resulted in a marginally significant (0.09 P value, highlighting a potential risk for a drop in nut production at higher intensities. While we do not suggest that logging activities should be completely avoided in Brazil

  2. Transference to the analyst as an excluded observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John

    2008-02-01

    In this paper I briefly review some significant points in the development of ideas on transference which owe so much to the discoveries of Freud. I then discuss some of the subsequent developments which were based on Freud 's work and which have personally impressed me. In particular I mention Melanie Klein's elaboration of an internal world peopled by internal object and her description of the mechanisms of splitting and projective identification, both of which profoundly affect our understanding of transference. Using some clinical material I try to illustrate an important transference situation which I do not think has been sufficiently emphasized although it is part of the 'total situation' outlined by Klein. In this kind of transference the analyst finds himself in an observing position and is no longer the primary object to whom love and hate are directed. Instead he is put in a position of an excluded figure who can easily enact rather than understand the role he has been put in. In this situation he may try to regain the position as the patient's primary object in the transference or avoid the transference altogether and make extra-transference interpretations and in this way enact the role of a judgemental and critical super-ego. If he can tolerate the loss of a central role and understand the transference position he has been put in, the analyst can sometimes reduce enactments and release feelings to do with mourning and loss in both himself and his patient.

  3. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts.

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    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  4. One negative polysomnogram does not exclude obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T J; Eveloff, S E; Kline, L R; Millman, R P

    1993-03-01

    Night-to-night variability of apneas on overnight polymnography exists in patients with documented obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this study, we evaluated the possibility that this variability may be severe enough to miss the diagnosis of OSA in patients clinically at risk for the disease. We prospectively studied 11 patients who were deemed on clinical grounds to have probable OSA, but had a negative result on overnight polysomnography. Six of the 11 patients were found to have a positive second study with a significant rise in the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) from 3.1 +/- 1.0 to 19.8 +/- 4.7 (mean +/- SEM, p cause of the negative first study in these patients is unclear, but it does not seem related to risk factor pattern, sleep architecture, or test interval. The change in AHI was not found to be rapid eye movement (REM)-dependent. This study demonstrates that a negative first-night study is insufficient to exclude OSA in patients with one or more clinical markers of the disease.

  5. Determinants of prosocial behavior in included versus excluded contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eCuadrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of prosocial behavior. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation on prosocial behavior under neutral contexts (Study 1, and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2. Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of prosocial behavior. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of prosocial behavior. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. We showed that the investigated variables predicted prosocial behavior; this suggests that to promote prosocial behavior one could (1 foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2 try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on prosocial behavior. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  6. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  7. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-07

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status.

  8. The association between hyperuricemia and betel nut chewing in Taiwanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tsai-Sung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Hsu, Yueh-Han

    2013-12-05

    Studies have associated betel nut chewing with cancers, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, chronic kidney disease, and proteinuria. This study investigated whether hyperuricemia is associated with betel nut chewing in men who participated in a health check-up program. From hospital records, we identified a total of 11,991 men who participated in the health check-up program from 2003 to 2009. They were divided into hyperuricemic group and non-hyperuricemic group. Laboratory tests, medical history, and status of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing were compared between the 2 groups. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hyperuricemia in association with betel nut consumption and other factors. Compared with the non-hyperuricemic group, the hyperuricemic group was slightly older (59.4 vs. 58.6 years) but less prevalent with betel nut use (11.8 vs. 13.6%, p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was negatively associated with betel nut chewing (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84), older age (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), and diabetes mellitus (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.50-0.64). On the other hand, hyperuricemia was positively associated with body mass index (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.62-1.90), drinking (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25-1.49), hypertension (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.30-1.52), mixed hyperlipidemia (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.54), chronic kidney disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.94-3.65), and proteinuria (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38). Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia had no significant association with hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that betel nut chewing is negatively associated with hyperuricemia.

  9. Betel Nut Chewing Is Associated With Reduced Tacrolimus Concentration in Taiwanese Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W-Y; Lee, C-Y; Lin, P-Y; Hsieh, C-E; Ko, C-J; Lin, K-H; Lin, C-C; Ming, Y-Z; Chen, Y-L

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that arecoline, the major alkaloid component of betel nuts, alters the activity of enzymes in the cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) family. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that protects against organ rejection in transplant recipients, not only is mainly metabolized by CYP3A enzymes but also has a narrow therapeutic range. We aimed to investigate whether dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus differed over time between betel nut-chewing and non-betel nut-chewing liver transplant recipients. In this retrospective case-control study, 14 active betel nut-using liver recipients were matched at a 1:2 ratio to 28 non-betel nut-using liver recipients by sex, age, graft source, duration of follow-up after liver transplantation, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Differences in liver function index, renal function index, and dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus over an 18-month period were compared between the 2 groups by using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach. Dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus tended to be significantly (P = .04) lower in betel nut chewers (mean = 0.81, medium = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 0.90) than in nonchewers (mean = 1.12, medium = 0.88, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.22) during the 18-month study period. However, there was no significant difference in renal and liver function index between the 2 groups. Liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus tend to have lower blood trough levels of the drug over time if they chew betel nuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  11. Pre-shelling parameters and conditions that influence the whole kernel out-turn of steam-boiled cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Sunday Ogunsina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of moisture content (MC, nut size distribution and steam exposure time (SET on the whole kernel out turn (WKO of cashew nuts during shelling using a 3 x 5 x 4 factorial experiment. Three nut sizes: small (18–22 mm, medium (23–25 mm and large (26–35 mm; five levels of MC: 8.34%, 11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40%, 16.84% (wet basis and four levels of steam exposure time (SET: 28, 30, 32, and 34 min were considered. Nuts were conditioned with warm water to the desired moisture content of 8.34%,11.80%, 12.57%, 15.40% and 16.84% (wb; and steam-boiled at 700 kPa for 28, 30,32, and 34 min. The pre-treated nuts were shelled using a hand-operated cashew nuts shelling machine. The results showed that the single effect of MC, steam exposure time (SET or nut size distribution is not enough for estimating WKO; it is rather by an interaction of these parameters. The optimum WKO of steam-boiled nuts was 91.74%, 90.94% and 87.98% for large, medium and small sized nuts at MC∗SET combination of 8.34%∗30 min, 11.80%∗32 min and 8.34%∗30 min, respectively. Pre-treatment of cashew nuts by steam boiling was found to improve whole kernel out-turn of the cashew nut. Whole kernel out-turn decreased as MC increased, thereby limiting the need for moisture adjustment when nuts are to be processed by steam boiling.

  12. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. One-step multiplex PCR method for the determination of pecan and Brazil nut allergens in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalkova, Zora; Rencova, Eva

    2011-10-01

    A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of the major allergens of pecan and Brazil nuts was developed. Primer pairs for the amplification of partial sequences of genes encoding the allergens were designed and tested for their specificity on a range of food components. The targeted amplicon size was 173 bp of Ber e 1 gene of Brazil nuts and 72 bp of vicilin-like seed storage protein gene in pecan nuts. The primer pair detecting the noncoding region of the chloroplast DNA was used as the internal control of amplification. The intrinsic detection limit of the PCR method was 100 pg mL(-1) pecan or Brazil nuts DNA. The practical detection limit was 0.1% w/w (1 g kg(-1)). The method was applied for the investigation of 63 samples with the declaration of pecans, Brazil nuts, other different nut species or nuts generally. In 15 food samples pecans and Brazil nuts allergens were identified in the conformity with the food declaration. The presented multiplex PCR method is specific enough and can be used as a fast approach for the detection of major allergens of pecan or Brazil nuts in food. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  15. Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie Thomas, Julianne H; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-05-01

    The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23-32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29-32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Maryam; Murphy, Gwen; Etemadi, Arash; Dawsey, Sanford M; Liao, Linda M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-09-01

    Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes. Design: In this study we used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 566,407 persons who were 50-71 y old at baseline (1995-1996). The median follow-up time was 15.5 y. Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancers and their subtypes. Results: We identified 966 incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 323 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 698 cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 732 cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption (C0)], participants in the highest category of nut consumption (C3) had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.94)]. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.94)]. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  17. Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gatewood, Robert R; Pierson, Kenneth D; Tenorio, Lynnette F; Novotny, Rachel; Palafox, Neal A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Badowski, Grazyna

    2014-12-11

    The Mariana Islands, including Guam and Saipan, are home to many ethnic subpopulations of Micronesia. Oral cancer incidence rates vary among subpopulations, and areca (betel) nut chewing, a habit with carcinogenic risks, is common. Our objectives were to conduct a screening program to detect oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in betel nut chewers, measure their betel nut chewing practices, and assess the prevalence of the oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a subset of betel nut chewers in these islands. A cross-section of 300 betel nut chewers ≥18 years old [in Guam (n = 137) and in Saipan (n = 163)] were recruited between January 2011-June 2012. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and oral behavioural characteristics. Latent class analysis was used to identify chewing patterns from selected chewing behaviours. Following calibration of OPMD against an expert, a registered oral hygienist conducted oral examinations by house to house visits and referred positive cases to the study dentist for a second oral examination. Buccal smears were collected from a subset (n = 123) for HPV testing. Two classes of betel nut chewers were identified on 7 betel nut behaviours, smoking, and alcohol use; a key difference between the two Classes was the addition of ingredients to the betel quid among those in Class 2. When compared on other characteristics, Class 1 chewers were older, had been chewing for more years, and chewed fewer nuts per day although chewing episodes lasted longer than Class 2 chewers. More Class 1 chewers visited the dentist regularly than Class 2 chewers. Of the 300 participants, 46 (15.3%; 3.8% for Class 1 and 19.4% for Class 2) had OPMD and one (0.3%) was confirmed to have squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of oral HPV was 5.7% (7/123), although none were high-risk types. We found two patterns of betel nut chewing behaviour; Class 2 had a higher frequency of OPMD. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to

  18. An Analytical Model for Rotation Stiffness and Deformation of an Antiloosening Nut under Locking Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Screw fasteners are undoubtedly one of the most important machine elements due to their outstanding characteristic to provide a high clamping force just with a simplified design. However, the loosen vibration is their inherent and inevitable fault. The friction locking approach is one of the basic locking fastener categories by enhancing the bearing load on the contact surface of thread by applying a locking force on an antiloosening nut. This locking force may cause more severe deformation in the nut. The contact stress distribution on the nut would be changed and that can cause the variation of the friction torque for the bolt joint. However, there exists no established design calculation procedure that accounts for the rotation deformation and its stiffness of the antiloosening nut under the locking force. The main objective of the work is to develop an analytical solution to the rotation deformation problem encountered in the antiloosening nut. The proposed model is supported by comparison with numerical finite element analysis of different sizes of joint elements and different applied forces.

  19. Optimization of the acceptance of prebiotic beverage made from cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Marina Cabral; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Afonso, Marcos Rodrigues Amorim

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a prebiotic beverage from a hydrosoluble extract of broken cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice using response surface methodology in order to optimize acceptance of its sensory attributes. A 2(2) central composite rotatable design was used, which produced 9 formulations, which were then evaluated using different concentrations of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernel, passion fruit juice, oligofructose, and 3% sugar. The use of response surface methodology to interpret the sensory data made it possible to obtain a formulation with satisfactory acceptance which met the criteria of bifidogenic action and use of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernels by using 14% oligofructose and 33% passion fruit juice. As a result of this study, it was possible to obtain a new functional prebiotic product, which combined the nutritional and functional properties of cashew nut kernels and oligofructose with the sensory properties of passion fruit juice in a beverage with satisfactory sensory acceptance. This new product emerges as a new alternative for the industrial processing of broken cashew nut kernels, which have very low market value, enabling this sector to increase its profits. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Impact of pecan nut shell aqueous extract on the oxidative properties of margarines during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler Ribeiro, Paula Cristina; de Britto Policarpi, Priscila; Dal Bo, Andrea; Barbetta, Pedro Alberto; Block, Jane Mara

    2017-07-01

    The oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extract, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigated. The extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g -1 and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g -1 respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g -1 and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g -1 by ABTS and DPPH methods respectively). Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were identified in the pecan nut shell extract. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of 3.75-4.43 meq kg -1 and 1.22-2.73 respectively, Totox values of 9.88-10.8 and specific extinction values of 4.38-4.59 and 0.92-0.94 at 232 and 268 nm respectively were observed after 8 months of storage in the studied samples. Margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extract, rosemary extract or BHT during prolonged storage were found to be of equal quality within the degree of confidence limits. The extract of pecan nut shell may be considered as a natural product replacement for the synthetic antioxidant BHT. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  2. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abenaa A. Okyere

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L. cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The sugar content varied from 6.0 ± 0.3% (Techiman to 15.00 ± 1.00% (Asebu Ekroful depending on the irradiation dose applied. Generally, increase in dose increased the sugar availability but decreased viscosity of the milk prepared from the nuts. The milk with the highest viscosity was from Kwahu Aduamoa and Techiman with the least viscosity from Bawjiase. Generally, no significant difference was detected by the sensory panellists with regard to mouth feel and taste among the milk samples prepared from the various tiger nut cultivars.

  3. Polyphenol bioavailability in nuts and seeds by an in vitro dialyzability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2018-07-15

    An in vitro dialyzability approach has been undertaken to elucidate the bioavailable fraction of the total polyphenols (TPs) of edible nuts and seeds. The TP contents in samples and in dialyzates were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant activity was determined in selected samples, using a modified method against Trolox®. TPs and antioxidant activity in nuts/seeds were determined after applying a pressurized liquid extraction sample pre-treatment. High dialyzability ratios were assessed in most nuts/seeds (TP dialyzability percentages within the 25-91% range). The highest TP dialyzability ratios were found in raw Brazil nuts (81 ± 5%), toasted pistachios (88 ± 9%), and fried cashews (89 ± 9%), whereas TPs in pumpkin seeds were found to be very low (TPs were not detected in the dialyzable fraction). TP dialyzability was correlated with the copper content in nuts and seeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, BeemKumar

    2017-05-01

    The present work is intended to investigate the emission characteristics of neat cashew nut shell methyl ester (CNSME100) by adding pentanol at two different proportions and compared with the baseline diesel. CNSME100 is prepared by the conventional transesterification process. CNSME100 is chosen due to its non-edible nature. Pentanol is chosen as an additive because of its higher inbuilt oxygen content and surface to volume ratio which reduces the drawbacks of neat CNSME100. Emission characteristics were carried out in single cylinder naturally aspirated CI engine fuelled with neat cashew nut shell methyl ester (CNSME), cashew nut shell methyl ester and pentanol by 10% volume (CNSME90P10), cashew nut shell methyl ester and pentanol by 20% volume (CNSME80P20), and diesel. This work also aims to investigate the feasibility of operating an engine fuelled with neat methyl ester and alcohol blends. Experimental results showed that by blending higher alcohol to neat cashew nut shell methyl ester reduces the emissions significantly. It is also found that the emission from neat methyl ester and pentanol blends is lesser than diesel at all loads.

  5. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  6. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  7. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  8. Casino Self- and Forced Excluders' Gambling Behavior Before and After Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-06-01

    Casino exclusion programs are intended to prevent or limit gambling-related harm. Although previous research showed that self-exclusion is associated with reduced gambling, it remains unknown whether self- and forced excluded subjects show different patterns of gambling behavior and if exclusion from casino gambling affects all gambling activities. The present study retrospectively investigated (1) the role of voluntariness of exclusion for the first time, and (2) general gambling behavior of excluded individuals before and after exclusion. A total of N = 215 casino excluders (self-excluders: n = 187, forced excluders: n = 28) completed an online survey or a face-to-face interview up to 8 years after enrollment. Self- and forced excluders showed similar rates of abstinence (self-excluders: 19.3%, forced excluders: 28.6%) and reduction (self-excluders: 67.4%, forced excluders: 60.7%), even though forced excluders reported a significantly greater initial gambling intensity compared to self-excluders (e.g., pre-exclusion gambling time; self-excluders: 3.2 days/week, forced excluders: 4.3 days/week). Overall, results indicated that 20.5% of excluders stopped all gambling activities and another 66.5% reduced their gambling. Those who continued gambling significantly reduced this behavior in every segment, except for gambling halls. Findings indicate that self- and forced exclusion are associated with similarly reduced gambling behavior, even in non-excluded segments. However, unchanged gambling in gambling halls emphasizes the importance to implement consistent exclusion programs over all gambling segments.

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  10. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  11. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limiting your intake of milk and dairy products, fish, eggs, peanuts, and other nuts during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Monitor your baby carefully for skin rashes, breathing problems, unusual stools, or other allergic symptoms, and ...

  12. Determination of tocopherols and sitosterols in seeds and nuts by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Zamarreño, M Milagros; Fernández-Prieto, Cristina; Bustamante-Rangel, Myriam; Pérez-Martín, Lara

    2016-02-01

    In the present work a simple, reliable and affordable sample treatment method for the simultaneous analysis of tocopherols and free phytosterols in nuts was developed. Analyte extraction was carried out using the QuEChERS methodology and analyte separation and detection were accomplished using HPLC-DAD. The use of this methodology for the extraction of natural occurring substances provides advantages such as speed, simplicity and ease of use. The parameters evaluated for the validation of the method developed included the linearity of the calibration plots, the detection and quantification limits, repeatability, reproducibility and recovery. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of tocopherols and free phytosterols in samples of almonds, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, tiger nuts, sun flower seeds and pistachios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kerr-Taub-NUT General Frame, Energy, and Momentum in Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal G. L. Nashed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new exact solution describing a general stationary and axisymmetric object of the gravitational field in the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR is derived. The solution is characterized by three parameters “the gravitational mass M, the rotation a, and the NUT L.” The vierbein field is axially symmetric, and the associated metric gives the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Calculation of the total energy using two different methods, the gravitational energy momentum and the Riemannian connection 1-form Γα̃β, is carried out. It is shown that the two methods give the same results of energy and momentum. The value of energy is shown to depend on the mass M and the NUT parameter L. If L is vanishing, then the total energy reduced to the energy of Kerr black hole.

  14. Contribution of Brazil nut shell fiber and electron-beam irradiation in thermomechanical properties of HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polato, Pamella; Lorusso, Leandro Alex; Souza, Clecia de Moura; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Chinellato, Anne; Rosa, Ricardo de

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on thermo-mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite was investigated. The materials were irradiated at radiation dose 50 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were submitted to thermo-mechanical tests and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed that the incorporation of Brazil nut shell fiber represented a significant gain (p < 0,05) in tensile strength at break, flexural strength, flexural module, Vicat softening temperature and heat distortion temperature (HDT) properties of the HDPE. In addition, the irradiated HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite presented a significant increase (p < 0.05) in this properties compared with irradiated HDPE. (author)

  15. Amino acids profile in some nuts as potential ingredients of bakery mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednáriková, A.; Sádecká, J.

    2010-01-01

    Edible nuts are globally popular and are valued for their sensory, nutritional and health attributes. Nuts need to be kept dry and well store particularly after shelling due to the high unsaturated fat content of the oil. The current study was designed to analyze and compare amino acid profile in walnuts and hazelnuts after irradiation treatment for reduction/elimination of undesirable micro-flora. A simple, reliable and rapid LC-MS method was used for determination of 20 free amino acids. It was found that there were insignificant differences in amino acid profile after irradiation treatment at dose of 5 kGy when the nuts had been packed in paper cover although the selected dose of irradiation (5 kGy) caused dramatic increase of offlavour compound amounts

  16. Influence of Pecan Nut Pretreatment on the Physical Quality of Oil Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A supply of pure, intact oil bodies is essential for carrying out morphological and biochemical studies of these plant organelles and exploring their application. Preparation requires a carefully controlled breakage of plant cells, followed by separation of the oil bodies from cytoplasm and cell debris. This paper focuses on the recovery and characterisation of oil bodies from pecan nuts where no work has been published to date. The results showed that soaking softens the nut tissue and appears to reduce the damage to oil bodies during grinding and centrifugal force must be carefully selected to minimise oil bodies damage on recovery. A 24 h soaking time coupled with a 5500 RCF recovery force allows for the recovery of intact pecan nut oil bodies.

  17. Remarks on the Taub-NUT solution in Chern–Simons modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brihaye, Yves, E-mail: yves.brihaye@umons.ac.be [Physique-Mathématique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Radu, Eugen [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and CIDMA, Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-01-10

    We discuss the generalization of the NUT spacetime in General Relativity (GR) within the framework of the (dynamical) Einstein–Chern–Simons (ECS) theory with a massless scalar field. These configurations approach asymptotically the NUT spacetime and are characterized by the ‘electric’ and ‘magnetic’ mass parameters and a scalar ‘charge’. The solutions are found both analytically and numerically. The analytical approach is perturbative around the Einstein gravity background. Our results indicate that the ECS configurations share all basic properties of the NUT spacetime in GR. However, when considering the solutions inside the event horizon, we find that in contrast to the GR case, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound.

  18. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  19. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  20. Preparation and efficacy assessment of malva nut polysaccharide for skin hydrating products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Fungpaisalpong, K; Pumcharoen, M; Lourith, N

    2017-11-01

    Scaphium scaphigerum or malva nut has long been served in Chinese medicine. However, the use of this herb in modern health care applications has, to date, been rarely reported. Maceration of the herb in water afforded malva nut polysaccharide which was standardized. Safety and skin hydrating efficacy of the polysaccharide and products were evaluated in human volunteers. Malva nut polysaccharide (41.71±0.64%) having 36.58±0.51% total sugar content was isolated, with further analysis quantifying ash, carbohydrate, reducing sugar and moisture contents to be 6.05±0.00, 40.06±1.00, 12.20±0.05 and 12.64±0.31%, respectively. The polysaccharide exhibited swelling and hydrating capacities of 0.46±0.01% and 54.46±0.02g/g, with L*, a* and b* of 52.56±0.04, 9.02±0.06 and 18.42±0.03, respectively, and a viscosity of 1263.00±2.00 cps. Accelerated testing indicated the biopolysaccharide to be stable, resulting in no skin irritation in 15 human volunteers. The skin hydrating efficacy as assessed via a randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study in 24 volunteers highlighted the superior performance of malva nut over the vehicle (moisture retainment for 70min as examined by Corneometer ® CM 825). A stable skin moisturizing gel containing malva nut was developed and was shown to exhibit improved performance over benchmark tamarind and algae polysaccharide gels (after 180min observation). Malva nut polysaccharide has potential as a key ingredient in skin hydrating products, which should encourage its further development. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions and Knowledge of Nuts amongst Health  Professionals in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Brown

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their nutritional value, population‐level nut consumption remains low. Studies suggest that individuals would eat more nuts on their doctor’s advice, making health professionals potentially important for promoting nut consumption. This cross‐sectional study aimed to examine the perceptions and knowledge of nuts and the predictors of nut promotion among health professionals in New Zealand. Dietitians, general practitioners (GPs, and practice nurses were identified from the Electoral Roll and invited to complete a questionnaire (n = 318, 292, and 149 respondents respectively. Over one‐fifth of GPs and practice nurses believed that eating nuts could increase blood cholesterol concentrations and cause weight gain. The most common perceptions overall were that nuts are healthy; high in protein, fat, and calories; and are satiating. Nut consumption was recommended for reasons relating to these perceptions and because of nuts’ selenium content. Conversely, reasons for suggesting the consumption of fewer nuts included that they were high in calories and fat, would cause weight gain, and concerns regarding allergies and cost. All groups of health professionals were more likely to promote nut consumption if they perceived nuts to reduce the risk of diabetes (all p ≤ 0.034. Education could improve health professionals’ knowledge regarding the effects of nut consumption on blood cholesterol and body weight, alongside other health benefits, which should improve the advice given to patients and may thereby increase nut consumption.

  2. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelge, Evren; Ova, Guelden

    2008-01-01

    Pine nuts (Pinus pinae) undergo gamma irradiation process with the doses 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The changes in chemical, physical and sensory attributes were observed in the following 3 months of storage period. The data obtained from the experiments showed the peroxide values of the pine nut kernels increased proportionally to the dose. On contrary, irradiation process has no effect on the physical quality such as texture and color, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes

  3. Study on optimum length of raw material in stainless steel high-lock nuts forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meiwen; Liu, Fenglei; Zhao, Qingyun; Wang, Lidong

    2018-04-01

    Taking 302 stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9) high-lock nuts for research objects, adjusting the length of raw material, then using DEFORM software to simulate the isothermal forging process of each station and conducting the corresponding field tests to study the effects of raw material size on the stainless steel high-lock nuts forming performance. The tests show that the samples of each raw material length is basically the same as the results of the DEFORM software. When the length of the raw material is 10mm, the appearance size of the parts can meet the design requirements.

  4. Properties influencing cracking and separation of palm nuts in a mechanical cracker cum separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA OLANREWAJU OLAOYE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of some properties influencing cracking and separation of palm kernel from the shell was conducted in a palm kernel dual processing machine. A mechanical cracking cum separating machine was developed for the study. The cracking unit consists of feed hopper, impeller shaft, cracking drum and impeller blade. The nut falls by gravity through the hopper channel into the cracking drum where the cracking process takes place through the help of impeller blades that flip the palm nut against the walls of cylindrical cracking drum. The mass of cracked nut flows through the separating unit that separates the kernel from the shell. The separation is induced by high current of air mass generated by an axial fan. A dura palm variety was selected and a total sample of eighteen thousand (18000 palm nuts were obtained and divided into two groups (feed rates, A and B, of eight thousand and ten thousand palm nuts respectively. Sample groups A and B were further divided into five sub – groups of four hundred (400 and five hundred (500 palm kernel nuts. Each sub group (feed rate was replicated four times at different shaft speeds (600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 rpm. Results showed that cracking efficiencies increased with respect to speed. Un-cracked nuts percentage ranged from 1.3 to 5.3% at 7.1% moisture content, and 1.6 to 4.5% for 400 and 500 feed rates, respectively. Cracking time for both feed rates decreased with shaft speed. Throughput capacity of 11.49 kg/h was observed to be the lowest at 600 rpm and moisture content of 7.1% for both 400 feed rates and the highest throughput capacity of 37.16 kg/h was recorded at 1800 rpm at moisture contents of 9.3% and 16.1%. The results of this study shows that moisture content, engine speed and feed rate are significant parameters that influence cracking of nuts and separation of palm kernel from the shell.

  5. Directed-spray application of paraquat and diuron in physic nut plants

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,N.V.; Neunfeld,T.H.; Ohland,T.; Piano,J.T.; Klein,J.

    2013-01-01

    There is little information about the selectivity of herbicides in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of different doses and mixtures of paraquat and diuron in direted-spray applications in physic nut plants in greenhouse conditions. The study used a randomized block design, with five replicates. The treatments were: paraquat (200 and 600 g ha-1), diuron (1,000 and 2,000 g ha-1), paraquat + diuron (200 + 1,000 g ha-1), paraquat + di...

  6. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  7. Mycoflora and Mycotoxigenic Moulds of Pistachio Nuts for Human Consumption in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Elshafie

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoflora of 75 cans of different batches and brands of pistachio nuts purchased in the Sultanate of Oman was studied. A number of fungi were isolated, with percentages of contaminated nuts [average between brands ] as follows: Aspergillus niger 14.8%, Penicillium spp. 13.6%, A flavus 9.7%, A nidulans 1.6%, and < l % for Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata , A ochraceeus and Ulocadium consortiale. Significant differences were found among the batches and brands contaminated by A flavus. A flatoxin B, was found only in one sample out of 1.5 assayed at a level of 2 ug/kg.

  8. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  9. 3D numerical simulation of projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, W.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2015-01-01

    formulation inorder to model the frictional sliding between the square nut projections and the sheets during the weld-ing process. It is proved that the implementation of friction increases the accuracy of the simulations,and the dynamic influence of friction on the process is explained.© 2014 Elsevier B......The challenge of developing a three-dimensional finite element computer program for electro-thermo-mechanical industrial modeling of resistance welding is presented, and the program is applied to thesimulation of projection welding of square nuts to sheets. Results are compared with experimental...

  10. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  11. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  12. Measurements from preterm infants to guide face mask size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joyce E; Thio, Marta; Owen, Louise S; Wong, Connie; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    International guidelines recommend that an appropriately sized face mask for providing positive pressure ventilation should cover the mouth and nose but not the eyes and should not overlap the chin. This study aimed to measure the dimensions of preterm infants' faces and compare these with the size of the most commonly available face masks (external diameter 50 mm) and the smallest masks available (external diameters 35 and 42 mm). Infants 24-33 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were photographed in a standardised manner. Images were analysed using ImageJ software (National Institute of Health, USA) to calculate the distance from the nasofrontal groove to the mental protuberance. This facial measurement corresponds to the external diameter of an optimally fitting mask. A cohort of 107 infants between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age, including at least 10 infants per week of gestation, was photographed within 72 h after birth and weekly until 33 weeks' PMA. 347 photographs were analysed. Infants of 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks' PMA had mean (SD) facial measurements of 32 (2), 36 (3), 38 (4), 41 (2) and 43 (4) mm, respectively. There were no significant differences when examined by gender or when small for gestational age infants were excluded. The smallest size of some brands of mask is too large for many preterm infants. Masks of 35 mm diameter are suitable for infants Masks of 42 mm diameter are suitable for infants 27-33 weeks' PMA or 750-2500 g. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. USE OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPES TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF WHITEBARK PINE NUTS TO YELLOWSTONE GRIZZLY BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in ...

  14. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as ...

  15. Ten-year review reveals changing trends and severity of allergic reactions to nuts and other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Alving, Kjell; Lidholm, Jonas; Borres, Magnus P; Nordvall, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, the incidence of food allergies has risen and Sweden has increased its import of peanuts and exotic nuts, such as cashew nuts, which may cause severe allergic reactions. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate paediatric emergency visits due to food reactions over a 10-year period, focusing on reactions to peanuts and tree nuts. Emergency visits to Uppsala University Children's Hospital, Sweden, between September 2001 and December 2010, were reviewed, and cases containing diagnostic codes for anaphylaxis, allergic reactions or allergy and hypersensitivity not caused by drugs or biological substances were retrieved. We analysed 703 emergency visits made by 578 individuals with food allergies. Peanuts and tree nuts accounted for 50% of the food allergies and were more frequently associated with adrenaline treatment and hospitalisation than other foods. Cashew nut reactions increased over the study period, and together with peanuts, they were responsible for more anaphylactic reactions than hazelnuts. Peanut and tree nut reactions were more likely to result in adrenaline treatment and hospitalisation than other food reactions. Peanut and cashew nut reactions were more likely to cause anaphylaxis than hazelnuts. Cashew nut reactions increased during the study period. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessment of the microbiological safety of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England, with a focus on Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Jemmott, W; Surman-Lee, S; Hucklesby, L; de Pinnal, E

    2009-04-01

    There is little published information on the prevalence of Salmonella in edible nut kernels. A study in early 2008 of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England was undertaken to assess the microbiological safety of this product. A total of 727 nut kernel samples of different varieties were examined. Overall, Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected from 0.2 and 0.4% of edible roasted nut kernels. Of the nut varieties examined, Salmonella Havana was detected from 1 (4.0%) sample of pistachio nuts, indicating a risk to health. The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency was immediately informed, and full investigations were undertaken. Further examination established the contamination to be associated with the pistachio kernels and not the partly opened shells. Salmonella was not detected in other varieties tested (almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts). E. coli was found at low levels (range of 3.6 to 4/g) in walnuts (1.4%), almonds (1.2%), and Brazils (0.5%). The presence of Salmonella is unacceptable in edible nut kernels. Prevention of microbial contamination in these products lies in the application of good agricultural, manufacturing, and storage practices together with a hazard analysis and critical control points system that encompass all stages of production, processing, and distribution.

  17. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Noh, Hwayoung; Slimani, Nadia; Chajès, Véronique; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cross, Amanda J; Skeie, Guri; Jenab, Mazda; Mancini, Francesca R; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Hansen, Camilla P; Overvad, Kim; Duell, Eric J; Redondo-Sánchez, Daniel; Amiano, Pilar; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Ward, Heather; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Winkvist, Anna; Braaten, Tonje; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabaté, Joan

    2017-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years.

  18. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  19. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  20. The Severity of Retinopathy in the Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Trivli, Alexandra; Polychronaki, Maria; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Papadimas, Michail; Patelarou, Athina E.; Dermitzaki, Niki; Matalliotakis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and f...

  1. The determination of infant feeding attitudes among Turkish mothers using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Sumeyra; Yuvaci, Hilal Uslu; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Cinar, Nursan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale is a valid and reliable scale for Turkish mothers, and to assess maternal attitudes toward various aspects of infant feeding. This methodological, analytical study was conducted at the obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey, from June to August 2015, and comprised mothers of newborn babies. Data was collected using the Turkish version of Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. There were 391 participants in the study. Five items of the original Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale were excluded due to the low correlation with the scale integrity (Cronbach's alpha=0.67). The total mean score of the mothers was 48.11±6.57. A statistically significant difference was found between the educational status, having social security, what the mothers having other children fed these children in the first 6 months and family types (p=0.05 each). Significant difference was also found between the mothers only breastfeeding and the mothers feeding with mother's milk and formula (p=0.008). The scale was found to be culturally acceptable, reliable and valid scale for Turkish mothers.

  2. Use of sulfur and nitrogen stable isotopes to determine the importance of whitebark pine nuts to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.A.; Phillips, D.L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat- and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is strongly linked to variation in pine-nut availability. Because whitebark pine trees are infected with blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), an exotic fungus that has killed the species throughout much of its range in the northern Rocky Mountains, we used stable isotopes to quantify the importance of this food resource to Yellowstone grizzly bears while healthy populations of the trees still exist. Whitebark pine nuts have a sulfur-isotope signature (9.2 ?? 1.3??? (mean ?? 1 SD)) that is distinctly different from those of all other grizzly bear foods (ranging from 1.9 ?? 1.7??? for all other plants to 3.1 ?? 2.6??? for ungulates). Feeding trials with captive grizzly bears were used to develop relationships between dietary sulfur-, carbon-, and nitrogen-isotope signatures and those of bear plasma. The sulfur and nitrogen relationships were used to estimate the importance of pine nuts to free-ranging grizzly bears from blood and hair samples collected between 1994 and 2001. During years of poor pine-nut availability, 72% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts. During years of abundant cone availability, 8 ?? 10% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts, while 67 ?? 19% derived over 51% of their assimilated sulfur and nitrogen (i.e., protein) from pine nuts. Pine nuts and meat are two critically important food resources for Yellowstone grizzly bears.

  3. Alkylating efficiency of sodium azide on pod yield, nut size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation has been utilised to improve growth and yield of many food crops, but only little effort has been made to ascertain the nutritional advantages in such improved crops. The present study evaluates the alkylating efficiency of sodium azide of different concentrations on pod yield, nut size and nutritional composition of ...

  4. CoCoNUT: an efficient system for the comparison and analysis of genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. This area of research is driven by the large number of sequenced genomes and heavily relies on efficient algorithms and software to perform pairwise and multiple genome comparisons. Results Most of the software tools available are tailored for one specific task. In contrast, we have developed a novel system CoCoNUT (Computational Comparative geNomics Utility Toolkit that allows solving several different tasks in a unified framework: (1 finding regions of high similarity among multiple genomic sequences and aligning them, (2 comparing two draft or multi-chromosomal genomes, (3 locating large segmental duplications in large genomic sequences, and (4 mapping cDNA/EST to genomic sequences. Conclusion CoCoNUT is competitive with other software tools w.r.t. the quality of the results. The use of state of the art algorithms and data structures allows CoCoNUT to solve comparative genomics tasks more efficiently than previous tools. With the improved user interface (including an interactive visualization component, CoCoNUT provides a unified, versatile, and easy-to-use software tool for large scale studies in comparative genomics.

  5. Electron beam radiation of dried fruits and nuts to reduce yeast and mold bioburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ic, Erhan; Kottapalli, Bala; Maxim, Joseph; Pillai, Suresh D

    2007-04-01

    Dried fruits and nuts make up a significant portion of the commodities traded globally, and the presence of yeasts and molds on dried fruits and nuts can be a public health risk because of the potential for exposure to toxigenic fungi. Since current postharvest treatment technologies are rather limited for dried fruits and nuts, electron beam (E-beam) radiation experiments were performed to determine the doses required to reduce the yeast and mold bioburden of raisins, walnuts, and dates. The indigenous yeast and mold bioburden on a select number of commodities sold at retail ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g. E-beam inactivation kinetics based on the linear model suggest that the decimal reduction dose required to eliminate 90% of the microbial population (D10-value) of these indigenous fungal populations ranges from 1.09 to 1.59 kGy. Some samples, however, exhibited inactivation kinetics that were better modeled by a quadratic model. The results indicate that different commodities can contain molds and yeasts of varying resistance to ionizing radiation. It is thus essential for the dried fruit and nut industry to determine empirically the minimum E-beam dose that is capable of reducing or eliminating the bioburden of yeasts and molds in their specific commodities.

  6. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  7. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  8. A systematic review of the effect of thermal processing on the allergenicity of tree nuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masthoff, L.J.; Hoff, R.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Michelsen-Huisman, A.; Baumert, J.L.; Pasmans, S.G.; Meijer, Y.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergenicity of foods can be influenced by processing. Tree nuts are an important source of nutrition and increasingly consumed; however, processing methods are quite variable and data are currently lacking on the effects of processing on allergenicity. Objective To perform a systematic

  9. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product.

  10. Thermodynamics of (d+1)-dimensional NUT-charged AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.; Fatibene, L.; Mann, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic properties of (d+1)-dimensional spacetimes with NUT charges. Such spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter (or flat), with non-trivial topology in their spatial sections, and can have fixed point sets of the Euclidean time symmetry that are either (d-1)-dimensional (called 'bolts') or of lower dimensionality (pure 'NUTs'). We compute the free energy, conserved mass, and entropy for 4, 6, 8 and 10 dimensions for each, using both Noether charge methods and the AdS/CFT-inspired counterterm approach. We then generalize these results to arbitrary dimensionality. We find in 4k+2 dimensions that there are no regions in parameter space in the pure NUT case for which the entropy and specific heat are both positive, and so all such spacetimes are thermodynamically unstable. For the pure NUT case in 4k dimensions a region of stability exists in parameter space that decreases in size with increasing dimensionality. All bolt cases have some region of parameter space for which thermodynamic stability can be realized

  11. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-12-29

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenying; Xu, Xueqin; Xiong, Wangdan; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2015-01-01

    The NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) are plant-specific transcriptional regulators that have a conserved NAM domain in the N-terminus. They are involved in various biological processes, including both biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of 100 NAC genes (JcNAC) were identified in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structures, 83 JcNAC genes were classified as members of, or proposed to be diverged from, 39 previously predicted orthologous groups (OGs) of NAC sequences. Physic nut has a single intron-containing NAC gene subfamily that has been lost in many plants. The JcNAC genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome, and appear to be preferentially retained duplicates that arose from both ancient and recent duplication events. Digital gene expression analysis indicates that some of the JcNAC genes have tissue-specific expression profiles (e.g. in leaves, roots, stem cortex or seeds), and 29 genes differentially respond to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, phosphorus deficiency and nitrogen deficiency). Our results will be helpful for further functional analysis of the NAC genes in physic nut.

  13. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  14. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants.

  15. Evaluation of Oral Submucosal Fibrosis and Related Factors in Areca Nut Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Shirzaii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral Submucousal Fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition often created in consumers of different products containing arecanut. These products are commonly used in countries like India and Pakistan. In Iran, it is commonly consumed in cities which are in proximity of Pakistan border including Chabahar. The present study is done in order to study OSF and other relating factors in consumers of products containing areca nut. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study, 362 consumers of products containing areca nut (pan, supari, gutka and etc. were studied in order to examine the incidence of OSF. The diagnostic criteria were mouth-opening limitations, mucosa stiffness and touching the intramucous fibrotic bands. Information about the consumption amount, alternation, the type of consumed material and time of consumption was mentioned in the questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed using SPSS-14 and χ2 test. Results: Of 362 consumers of areca nut (227 men (62.7% and 135 women (37.3% in the age group 7-71 and average age of 27 years old, 61 person (16.9% including 33 men (54.1% and 28 women (45.9% were suffering OSF. There was a significant relationship between OSF incidence and time, dose and alternation of consumption (p˂0.05. Age and sex didn’t have a certain correlation with OSF.Conclusion: The recent study indicated a strong correlation between consumption of products containing areca nut and OSF.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr. ) (Coleopera: Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivbijaro, M F [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria)

    1977-09-01

    Studies on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr.) with gamma radiation showed that 20 krad effectively caused high larval mortality and prevented pupation. Dead larvae became soft and bluishblack and, occasionally, dry and brown. Percentage adult emergence from irradiated pupae, longevity and fecundity of emerging adults provided the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation. Mean survival and adult emergence from young pupae irradiated with 20 krad was 6 and 2 percent, respectively, in contrast to 86 and 8 percent, respectively, in old pupae given the same dosage. Old pupae (3-5 days old) showed some tolerance to gamma radiation and over 20 krad was required to prevent adult emergence. Gamma radiation seriously reduced longevity to an average of 6 and 15 days, respectively, in pre- and post-emergence irradiated adults in contrast to 44 days in the control. Distortion of the membranous hind wings were some of the adverse effects observed in adults that emerged from irradiated pupae. Reproduction and oviposition was seriously impaired by irradiation before or immediately after emergence. The opinion of a panel of experienced kola nut testers was that gamma irradiation did not alter the taste or flavour of the kola nuts and no change was observed in the colour or texture of the irradiated nuts.

  17. Special wrench for B-nuts reduces torque stress in tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Gear-driven torque wrench with bearing support is used to tighten B-nut connection of partially supported fluid line with minimum stress to adjacent tubing and fittings. Wrench is useful for working with weak or brittle lines such as glass tubing.

  18. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  19. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  20. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  1. Characteristic of betel nuts activated carbon and its application to Jumputan wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, L.; Sari, K. F.; Anggraini, L.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater from Jumputan production contains synthetic dye which is harmful to the environment. The contaminant can be reduced by adsorption process using activated carbon. The activated carbon was prepared from betel nuts with carbonization temperature of 500°C and 0.5 M HCl as an activator. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effect of various factors, such as the size particle of adsorbent, the dosage of adsorbent, and the contact time on Jumputan’s dye adsorption. The volume of treated solution was 200 mL. This solution agitated using a Jar Test at 150 rpm. The objectives of this work were to analyze the characteristic of the betel nuts, to analyze the characteristic of the activated carbon and to determine adsorbent’s ability to dye adsorption. Betel nuts compositions were analyzed with proximate analysis method. The adsorbents were carried out by SEM-EDS analysis. The dye adsorptions were analyzed with a portable spectrophotometer. The result shows betel nuts contains 60.86% carbohydrate, 32.56% water, 2.17% fat, 3.35% protein, and 1.06% ash. The major component of the activated carbon is carbon (C) of 86.27%, and the rest is Oxygen (9.18%) and Aurum (4.55%). The best condition is the adsorbent that has a particle size of 250 pm (60 mesh), the dosage of 20 grams, and the contact time of 15 minutes with dye removal of 76.4%.

  2. The relationship between areca nut usage and heart rate in lactating Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, S; Mascie-Taylor, C G N; Rosetta, L

    2002-01-01

    The betel-nut quid, a piece of areca nut chewed alone or mixed with tobacco and slaked lime wrapped in betel vine leaf, is widely used in Asian populations as a stimulant (due to the cholinergic agent, arecoline) or as a relaxant (due to arecaidine and guvacine). This study, which formed part of a larger project assessing the effect of energy expenditure on the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea, provided the opportunity to assess the role of chronic areca nut usage on heart rate and oxygen consumption during resting periods and during graded stepping tests. The mothers (n = 47), all of whom were lactating, were aged between 19 and 39, of low nutritional status and anaemic and they all chewed betel quid daily. Moderate users of betel quid (defined as more than 3 times a day) were found, on average, to have a significantly lower heart rate at rest and during exercise than low betel quid users (less than 3 times a day) but there was no modification in oxygen consumption. Chronic betel quid use does not seem to affect the assessment of 24h energy expenditure provided that subjects are denied access to betel nut usage before and during calibration.

  3. The aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis: the stimulation of collagen synthesis by extracts of areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canniff, J P; Harvey, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disabling disease developing in up to 0.5% of the estimated 500 million habitual chewers of the "betel" quid. The quid, or chew, usually comprises a leaf of the Piper betel vine in which is wrapped fragments of the nut of Areca catechu, together with slaked lime and varied additives, including tobacco. The precise aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) remains obscure, but epidemiological and animal studies have pointed to a close association with the prolonged usage of A. catechu nuts. Epithelial atypia and epidermoid carcinoma have been reported in 15% and 7%, respectively, of patients with established OSF. Preparations from varieties of A. catechu nuts have been tested for their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis in microwell cultures of human fibroblasts, using a pulse of 3H-proline and subsequent analysis of the cultures for radioactive collagen. Crude extracts of three varieties of areca nuts were extracted with ethanol and lyophilised before dilution in the culture medium. Control media contained identical concentrations of ethanol where appropriate. The three extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml stimulated collagen synthesis by approximately 150%, suggesting that this effect might be involved in the aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis.

  4. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  5. Fibre and polyphenols of selected fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables used in Serbian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodevska Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as good sources of numerous bioactive compounds among which polyphenols and dietary fibre are considered essential because of their protective health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality of selected plant foods of our region regarding amount of total phenols, fibres and ratio of certain fractions of fibre. Fifteen samples of plant foods (green leafy vegetables, fruits and nuts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total, soluble and insoluble fibre and fractions of fibre: beta-glucans, arabinoxylan, cellulose and resistant starch. Generally nuts were the richest sources of fibre and total phenols. However, when serving size was taken into consideration, it appeared that raspberry and blackberry were the richest in total, soluble fibre and cellulose. At the same time, almonds and hazelnuts were particulary rich in insoluble fibre, while walnuts had the highest polyphenol content. Analyzed plant foods were poor sources of arabinoxylan and beta-glucan. Data on resistant starch presence in cashew nut is the first confirmation that resistant starch can be found in significant amount in some nuts. The results give rare insight into the quality of selected plant foods regarding dietary fibre and polyphenols from the nutritive point of view. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  6. Ball Nut Preload Diagnosis of the Hollow Ball Screw through Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the diagnostic results of hollow ball screws with different ball nut preload through the support vector machine (SVM process. The method is testified by considering the use of ball screw pretension and different ball nut preload. SVM was used to discriminate the hollow ball screw preload status through the vibration signals and servo motor current signals. Maximum dynamic preloads of 2%, 4%, and 6% ball screws were predesigned, manufactured, and conducted experimentally. Signal patterns with different preload features are separatedby SVM. The irregularity development of the ball screw driving motion current and rolling balls vibration of the ball screw can be discriminated via SVM based on complexity perception. The experimental results successfully show that the prognostic status of ball nut preload can be envisaged by the proposed methodology. The smart reasoning for the health of the ball screw is available based on classification of SVM. This diagnostic method satisfies the purposes of prognostic effectiveness on knowing the ball nut preload status

  7. Influence of foliar fertilization on walnut foliar zinc levels and nut production in black walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Reid; Andrew L. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees was studied. Foliar sprays were applied three times per season on two cultivars during four growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc, starting at leaf burst and continuing at 2 week intervals...

  8. Effects of Caffeine from Different Kola Nut Extracts on Kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caffeine from different kola nut extracts on kidney and liver functions of male wistar rats were investigated using standard methods. Twelve male wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D made up of 3 rats each. The control group (A) received water + food ad ...

  9. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Cameiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Sartori, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigated...

  10. The areca nut chewing habit and oral squamous cell carcinoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    catechu. The areca nut-chewing habir involves the. Oral and Dental Research Unit, University ofStellenbosch. C. W. VAN WYK, PH.D., F.D.S. R.e.s., B.CH.D. A. PADAYACHEE, M.CH.D, B.D.S.. Institute for Biostatistics and Centre for Molecular and Cellular. Biology, South African Medical Research Council, Parowvallei,. CP.

  11. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  12. Failure to Thrive in the Term and Preterm Infants of Mothers Depressed in the Postnatal Period: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewett, Robert; Blair, Peter; Emmett, Pauline; Emond, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine the relationship between failure to thrive in preterm and term infants and postnatal depression in their mothers. Method: In a whole population birth cohort of 12,391 infants (excluding those born after term or with major congenital abnormalities) failure to thrive over the first nine months was identified using a conditional…

  13. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux and GERD : Reflux and GERD in Infants Reflux and GERD in Infants It’s not uncommon for a baby ... happy, healthy childhood. Quick Facts about Reflux and GERD in Infants The majority of infants do not ...

  14. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  15. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, enriched with olive oil and nuts. People with diabetes, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, could benefit greatly from following this type of eating pattern. Analysis of vegetable fats intake from nuts and olive oil in patients with 1 Diabetes Mellitus type (DM1). Transverse descriptive study comparing 60 people with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1) with 60 healthy individuals. We collect the frequency of consumption of vegetable oils and nuts and calculate the contribution of these foods in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid). For data collection we designed a food frequency questionnaire specifically. We also collect anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables. Vegetable fat intake from vegetable oils (3.02 ± 1.14 vs 3.07 ± 1.27 portions/day, P = 0.822) and nuts (1.35 ± 2.24 vs 1.60 ± 2.44 portions/week, P = 0.560), was similar in both groups. The DM1 group consumed fewer portions of olive oil daily than the control group (2.55 ± 1.17 vs 3.02 ± 1.34 portions/day, P = 0.046). We detected a significantly lower intake of α-linolenic acid in the control group (1.13 ± 2.06 versus 2.64 ± 4.37 g/day, p = 0.018) while there were not differences in the rest of fatty acids (oleic acid 28.30 ± 18.13 vs 29.53 ± 16.90 g/day, P = 0.703; linoleic 13.70 ± 16.80 vs 15.45 ± 19.90 g/day, P = 0.605). In DM1, it not demonstrated an influence of the intake of vegetable fats and oils from nuts in the anthropometric, metabolic and diabetes-specific variables. In people with DM1, total intake of vegetable oils and nuts do not differ from the general population. However, the consumption of olive oil and the contribution of α-linolenic fatty acid derived from such fats are slightly lower than the general population. Although intake of vegetable oils and nuts in people with DM1

  16. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Angela E; Gilio, Alfredo E; Vieira, Sandra E

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the frequency of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and to analyze their characteristics at hospital admission and clinical outcomes. a historical cohort study was performed in a reference service for pertussis, in which the research of respiratory viruses was also a routine for infants hospitalized with respiratory problems. All infants reported as suspected cases of pertussis were included. Tests for Bordetella pertussis (BP) (polymerase chain reaction/culture) and for respiratory viruses (RVs) (immunofluorescence) were performed. Patients who received macrolides before hospitalization were excluded. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Among the 67 patients studied, BP tests were positive in 44%, and 26% were positive for RV. There was no etiological identification in 35%, and RV combined with BP was identified in 5%. All patients had similar demographic characteristics. Cough followed by inspiratory stridor or cyanosis was a strong predictor of pertussis, as well as prominent leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. Rhinorrhea and dyspnea were more frequent in viral infections. Macrolides were discontinued in 40% of patients who tested positive for RV and negative for BP. the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants: Classification and association with brain injury and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeke, Lauren C; van Ooijen, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; van Huffelen, Alexander C; van Haastert, Ingrid C; van Stam, Carolien; Benders, Manon J; Toet, Mona C; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-12-01

    Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome. Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born Rhythmic patterns were observed in 62.3% (ictal 1.3%, PEDs 44%, other waveforms 86.3%) with multiple patterns in 36.4%. Ictal discharges were only observed in one and excluded from further analyses. The EEG location of the other waveforms (pRhythmic waveforms related to head position are likely artefacts. Rhythmic EEG patterns may have a different significance in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Frisvad, Jens C; Ferranti, Larissa S; de Souza Lopes, Aline; Larsen, Thomas O; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Iamanaka, Beatriz T

    2017-02-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples were evaluated and also compared in relation to water activity. A huge diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were found, besides Eurotium spp., Zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. A polyphasic approach using morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular and extrolite profiles, were studied to distinguish species among the more important toxigenic ones in Aspergillus section Flavi and A. section Nigri. Several metabolites and toxins were found in these two sections. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was found in 3% of A. niger and 100% of A. carbonarius. Production of aflatoxins B and G were found in all isolates of A. arachidicola, A. bombycis, A. nomius, A. pseudocaelatus and A. pseudonomius, while aflatoxin B was found in 38% of A. flavus and all isolates of A. pseudotamarii. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was found in A. bertholletius (94%), A. tamarii (100%), A. caelatus (54%) and A. flavus (41%). Tenuazonic acid, a toxin commonly found in Alternaria species was produced by A. bertholletius (47%), A. caelatus (77%), A. nomius (55%), A. pseudonomius (75%), A. arachidicola (50%) and A. bombycis (100%). This work shows the changes of Brazil nut mycobiota and the potential of mycotoxin production from rainforest to consumer, considering the different environments which exist until the nuts are consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changpin; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-11-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play key roles in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism, and stress responses. A total of 125 MYB genes (JcMYB) have been identified in the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) genome, including 120 2R-type MYB, 4 3R-MYB, and 1 4R-MYB genes. Based on exon-intron arrangement of MYBs from both lower (Physcomitrella patens) and higher (physic nut, Arabidopsis, and rice) plants, we can classify plant MYB genes into ten groups (MI-X), except for MIX genes which are nonexistent in higher plants. We also observed that MVIII genes may be one of the most ancient MYB types which consist of both R2R3- and 3R-MYB genes. Most MYB genes (76.8% in physic nut) belong to the MI group which can be divided into 34 subgroups. The JcMYB genes were nonrandomly distributed on its 11 linkage groups (LGs). The expansion of MYB genes across several subgroups was observed and resulted from genome triplication of ancient dicotyledons and from both ancient and recent tandem duplication events in the physic nut genome. The expression patterns of several MYB duplicates in the physic nut showed differences in four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 34 MYB genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots based on the data analysis of digital gene expression tags. Overexpression of the JcMYB001 gene in Arabidopsis increased its sensitivity to drought and salinity stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrability in conformally coupled gravity: Taub-NUT spacetimes and rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoux, Yannis [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Caldarelli, Marco M. [Mathematical Sciences and STAG research centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Charmousis, Christos [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (LPT), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8627, F-91405 Orsay (France); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (LMPT), Université Tours, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)

    2014-05-09

    We consider four dimensional stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes for conformally coupled scalar-tensor theories. We show that, in analogy to the Lewis-Papapetrou problem in General Relativity (GR), the theory at hand can be recast in an analogous integrable form. We give the relevant rod formalism, introduced by Weyl for vacuum GR, explicitly giving the rod structure of the black hole of Bocharova et al. and Bekenstein (BBMB), in complete analogy to the Schwarzschild solution. The additional scalar field is shown to play the role of an extra Weyl potential. We then employ the Ernst method as a concrete solution generating example to obtain the Taub-NUT version of the BBMB hairy black hole. The solution is easily extended to include a cosmological constant. We show that the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of this solution is free of closed timelike curves that plague usual Taub-NUT metrics, and thus consists of a rotating, asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter black hole. This stationary solution has no curvature singularities whatsoever in the conformal frame, and the NUT charge is shown here to regularize the central curvature singularity of the corresponding static black hole. Given our findings we discuss the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of Taub-NUT in four dimensions, and show that the curvature singularity of the NUT-less solution is now replaced by a neighbouring chronological singularity screened by horizons. We argue that the properties of this rotating black hole are very similar to those of the rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions.

  1. Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, S K; Kendall, C W C; Bazinet, R P; Bashyam, B; Ireland, C A; Augustin, L S A; Blanco Mejia, S; Sievenpiper, J L; Jenkins, D J A

    2014-08-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes. 117 subjects with type 2 diabetes consumed one of three iso-energetic (mean 475 kcal/d) supplements for 12 weeks: 1. full-dose nuts (50-100 g/d); 2. half-dose nuts with half-dose muffins; and 3. full-dose muffins. In this secondary analysis, fatty acid concentrations in the phospholipid, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester fractions from fasting blood samples obtained at baseline and week 12 were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatography. Full-dose nut supplementation significantly increased serum oleic acid (OA) and MUFAs compared to the control in the phospholipid fraction (OA: P = 0.036; MUFAs: P = 0.024). Inverse associations were found with changes in CHD risk versus changes in OA and MUFAs in the triacylglycerol (r = -0.256, P = 0.011; r = -0.228, P = 0.024, respectively) and phospholipid (r = -0.278, P = 0.006; r = -0.260, P = 0.010, respectively) fractions. In the cholesteryl ester fraction, change in MUFAs was inversely associated with markers of glycemic control (HbA1c: r = -0.250, P = 0.013; fasting blood glucose: r = -0.395, P consumption increased OA and MUFA content of the serum phospholipid fraction, which was inversely associated with CHD risk factors and 10-year CHD risk. NCT00410722, clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  5. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  6. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  7. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis . Diarrhea Causes Dehydration Infants and young children under age 3 can ... as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice Preventing Diaper Rash Your baby might get ...

  8. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  9. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  10. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  11. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  12. The relationship between nut consumption and lipid profile among the Iranian adult population; Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, G; Yazdekhasti, N; Mohammadifard, N; Sarrafzadegan, N; Bahonar, A; Badiei, M; Sajjadi, F; Taheri, M

    2013-04-01

    The study was carried out to assess the relationship between nut consumption and lipid profile among Iranian adults. The study was based on data from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program across three counties in central Iran in 2007. A cross-sectional survey of 9660 randomly selected adults aged ≥ 19 years were chosen based on sex, age and settlement distributions in each community. Nutritional behaviors were assessed by validated qualitative 48-item food frequency questionnaires, which covered regular intakes of four types of nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression tests were utilized to determine odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval of hyperlipidemia according to nut consumption patterns in unadjusted and three-adjusted models. The results showed a significant link between high nut consumption and lower total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and apo B/apo A ratio (Pconsumption was inversely associated with dyslipidemia, especially for those who had consumed nuts ≥ 4 times weekly (0.67 (0.57-0.79)). After adjusting for sex, age and other potential confounders, ORs increased enormously. Except for low apo A and high LDL-C, more frequent nut consumption (4 ≤ times per week) had a significant inverse effect on other dyslipidemia risk factors in all four models. We concluded that frequent consumption of nuts, particularly ≥ 4 times a week, may result in lower dyslipidemia occurrences and may exert cardioprotective effects.

  13. The association between nut consumption and the risk of total and ischemic stroke in a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, R; Fjeld, M K; Dierkes, J; Theoflylaktopoulou, D; Arregui, M; Boeing, H; Weikert, C

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, their effect on stroke is less established, and no studies on the topic are available in Northern and Central European populations. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the association between nut consumption and the risk of stroke in a German population. We used data from a prospective cohort of 26,285 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into the Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam Study. During a median follow-up time of 8.3 years (interquartile range: 7.5-9.2), 288 incident cases of stroke occurred. Nut consumption (standard portion size of 50 g) was assessed at baseline with a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The median nut intake was 0.82 g per day, interquartile range: 0.41-4.11. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of stroke was observed among participants who never consumed nuts (hazard ratio (HR): 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.08), compared with those consuming 1 portion/week. Similar nonsignificant associations were observed in stratified analysis for gender, or for fatal and nonfatal stroke. We could not observe an association between nut consumption and the risk of developing stroke (fatal/nonfatal) in a population with low habitual nut consumption.

  14. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the functional and rheological properties of the protein fraction extracted from pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Baiying; Fang, Li; Liu, Chunlei; Min, Weihong; Liu, Jingsheng

    2018-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure treatments could increase the protein solubility (200 MPa), water holding capacity (400 MPa), and oil holding capacity (400 MPa) of pine nuts protein fractions, respectively. The exposed sufhydryl content for albumin was highest at 100 MPa while for other fractions it was 400 MPa, contrary for total sufhydryl content-generally it was at 100 MPa, except glutelin (400 MPa). Pine nuts protein fractions demonstrated the typical behavior of weak gels (G' > G″). After the treatments of high hydrostatic pressure the specific surface area of pine nuts protein particle was increased upon pressure, and the surface of protein became rough which increased the particle size. The functional groups of protein were found to be unchanged, but the characteristic peaks of pine nuts protein moved to a low-band displacement and the value of peaks was amplified accordingly to the pressure. The high hydrostatic pressure treatments were found to improve the functional properties of pine nuts protein isolates by enhancing the heat-induced gel strength of pine nuts protein isolates which make proteins more stretchable. These results suggest that high hydrostatic pressure treatments can increase the functional properties and alter the rheological properties of pine nuts protein fractions which will broaden its applications in food industry.

  15. Dietary supplementation of tiger nut alters biochemical parameters relevant to erectile function in l-NAME treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Bottari, Nathieli B; Lopes, Thauan F; da Costa, Pauline; Stefanelo, Naiara; Morsch, Vera M; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2018-07-01

    Tiger nut tubers have been reportedly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in folk medicine without scientific basis. Hence, this study evaluated the effect of tiger nut on erectile dysfunction by assessing biochemical parameters relevant to ED in male rats by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) treatment. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 10) each: Control group; l-NAME plus basal diet; l-NAME plus Sildenafil citrate; diet supplemented processed tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME;diet supplemented raw tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME. l-NAME pre-treatment (40 mg/kg/day) lasted for 14 days. Arginase, acetycholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities as well as nitric oxide levels (NO) in serum, brain and penile tissue were measured. l-NAME increased the activity of arginase, AChE and ADA and reduced NO levels. However, dietary supplementation with tiger nut caused a reduction on the activities of the above enzymes and up regulated nitric oxide levels when compared to the control group. The effect of tiger nut supplemented diet may be said to prevent alterations of the activities of the enzymes relevant in erectile function. Quercetin was revealed to be the most active component of tiger nut tuber by HPLC finger printing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  17. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  18. When and where to practice: social influences on the development of nut-cracking in bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshchar, Y; Izar, P; Visalberghi, E; Resende, B; Fragaszy, D

    2016-05-01

    The habitual use of tools by wild capuchin monkeys presents a unique opportunity to study the maintenance and transmission of traditions. Young capuchins spend several years interacting with nuts before cracking them efficiently with stone tools. Using a two-observer method, we quantified the magnitude of the social influences that sustain this long period of practice. During five collection periods (over 26 months), one observer recorded the behavior of 16 immature monkeys, and another observer concurrently recorded behavior of group members in the focal monkey's vicinity. The two-observer method provides a means to quantify distinct social influences. Data show that immatures match the behavior of the adults in time and especially in space. The rate of manipulation of nuts by the immatures quadrupled when others in the group cracked and ate nuts, and immatures were ten times more likely to handle nuts and 40 times more likely to strike a nut with a stone when they themselves were near the anvils. Moreover, immature monkeys were three times more likely to be near an anvil when others were cracking. We suggest a model for social influence on nut-cracking development, based on two related processes: (1) social facilitation from observing group members engaged in nut-cracking, and (2) opportunity for practice provided by the anvils, hammer stones and nut shells available on and around the anvils. Nut-cracking activities by others support learning by drawing immatures to the anvils, where extended practice can take place, and by providing materials for practice at these places.

  19. Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.In the individual analysis, 21 (58.3% of 36 VLBW infants exhibited asymmetric cerebral glucose metabolism. Fifteen infants (41.7% exhibited right > left asymmetry, while six (16.7% exhibited left > right asymmetry. In the regional analysis, right > left asymmetry was more extensive than left > right asymmetry. The metabolic ratio in the right frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices and right thalamus were significantly higher than those in the corresponding left regions. In the subgroup analyses, the cerebral glucose metabolism in infants with multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage were significantly lower than those in infants without these.VLBW infants without structural abnormalities have asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism are noted in infants with neurodevelopmental risk factors. F-18 FDG PET could show microstructural abnormalities not detected by MRI in VLBW infants.

  20. Fracture of an industrial steam turbine horizontal joint nut upon tightening; Bruch der Mutter einer Horizontalteilfugenverschraubung einer Industriedampfturbine beim Anziehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Boromir; Giller, Madeleine; Neidel, Andreas; Riesenbeck, Susanne [Siemens AG - Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Energy Sector Werkstoffprueflabor

    2017-11-01

    The nut of a horizontal joint fastener cracked upon tightening during assembly in an industrial steam turbine factory. It was previously used in an over-pressure test, but was otherwise not yet used in service. Nut and bolt were made of the nickel-based superalloy Nimonic 80A, a precipitation-hardenable wrought high-strength alloy with excellent creep and corrosion properties. Such alloys usually get a complex heat treatment after hot-rolling, comprising homogenizing and multiple ageing cycles. The subject nut failed due to an extreme case of mixed grain size which detrimentally affected mechanical properties and was attributed to an insufficient degree of deformation during hot rolling.

  1. APPLICABILITY OF FS-ALL-METAL SELF-LOCK NUTS FOR RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK OF 1520 MM GAUGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Кreis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of key requirements for rolling stock of next generation is essential increase of warranty period or running between maintenance depots and in periods between programming repair works. This will lead to a reduction of costs to maintenance and repair during service life of rolling stock. In this regard, the industry aspires to use (during construction, repairs, modernization of rolling stock a modern screw joints in structures for fixing parts. These screw joints could provide a high reliability under the action of vibration load. FS-hexagon all-metal self-lock nuts of multiple use, Flaig + Hommel GmbH company meets these requirements. Therefore, there is the need to consider the results of tests to confirm the reliability of FS-nuts in the new environment. Methodology. Test complex of developed programs and methods was carried out on railway rolling stock for functional demonstration of screw joints with FS-nuts. These tests include: 1 proof test and locking moment test as specified in ISO 2320 under normal climatic conditions and after low temperatures impact; 2 running test for rolling stock, secured the most load condition and according to supervised operation of next generation cars on the railway. Findings. Results of the tests testify that FS-all-metal self-lock nuts meet the requirements of international standards and confirm the reliability of the next generation rolling stock during its operation on the railway of 1520 mm gauge. Namely, locking moment and tightening torque is maintained in screw joints both on spring-suspended and unspring parts of freight car bogies by the action of vibration load under multiple use of FS-nuts. Originality. The developed software and methods was improved by conducting additional tests after exposure of screw joints with FS-nuts to low temperatures, as well as by control operations for assessing the condition of screw joints with FS-nuts, in the conditions of controlled operation of rolling

  2. Betel Nut Chewing in Hawai‘i: Is it Becoming a Public Health Problem? Historical and Socio-Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Enrico I

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of betel nut use among Micronesians, in light of the recent migration of Micronesians to Hawai‘i. The different ways of chewing betel nut are the result of historical changes within Micronesia over time due to Spanish and US colonialism as well as the introduction of tobacco. These divergent ways of chewing may have different risks or impacts on health and it remains to be seen whether or not betel nut will become a significant public health problem in Hawai‘i. PMID:22413101

  3. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  4. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General Records and Reports § 761.187 Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition to... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(e)-1 - Included and excluded wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included and excluded wages. 31.3402(e)-1... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(e)-1 Included and excluded wages. (a) If a portion of... not more than 31 consecutive days constitutes wages, and the remainder does not constitute wages, all...

  6. 31 CFR 19.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? 19.500 Section 19.500 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System...

  7. 17 CFR 37.4 - Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities. 37.4 Section 37.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.4 Election to trade excluded and exempt...

  8. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced...

  9. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  10. 21 CFR 1.362 - What records are excluded from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What records are excluded from this subpart? 1.362 Section 1.362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Requirements § 1.362 What records are excluded from this subpart? The establishment and maintenance of records...

  11. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  12. Fractured long bones in a term infant delivered by cesarian section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.; Dollberg, M.; Wajntraub, G.; Itzchaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    A term infant was delivered uneventfully by repeat cesarian section. At the age of 1 week there was clinical and radiographic evidence of fractures of the left tibia and right radius. The fractures most likely occurred during the cesarian section. Birth trauma should not be excluded on the basis of cesarian section delivery. (orig.)

  13. Severe pneumonia in HIV-infected and exposed infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All infants were ventilated in a standard fashion and none were oscillated. Results. A total of 87 patients were admitted during the 3-year period. Of these, 29 patients were excluded from the study because they were HIV-unexposed. Ten patients died during the 3-year period. In a multivariate analysis of the presence or ...

  14. Radiation preservation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) with special reference to fungi and the effect of the physico-chemical properties of the nuts before and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus Esculentus L.) is an important minor crop in Ghana and is cultivated in at least four major Regions of Ghana (Central, Eastern, Brong Ahafo and Northern). A structured rapid appraisal questionnaire was designed to provide information on the sex distribution, age structure, educational level of respondents, knowledge of local names, types of cultivars or varieties, packaging and storage material, post-harvest losses, local utilisation and knowledge of its nutritional value. The sources of tiger nuts on the local market were also ascertained. To provide further information on its keeping quality in prolonged storage, moisture sorption isotherms of the nuts (using Glycerol: water mixture to simulate Equilibrium Relative Humidities ERH's of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95%) was studied at 28 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius for 30 days. Some physical (length, width, water absorption capacity; moisture loss under ambient conditions) characteristics were investigated using conventional methods. These were supplemented with anatomical studies of the transverse section of the nuts to provide knowledge on the anatomical barrier characteristics of the cultivars from the various Regions. Resident mycoflora in the tiger nuts from Asebu Ekroful (Central Region), Bawjiase (Central Region), Kwahu Aduamoa (Eastern Region), Techiman (Brong Ahafo Region) and Bole (Northern Region) was ascertained by the decimal serial dilution technique up to 1:10 4 dilutions. The samples from Asebu Ekroful, Bawjiase and Kwahu Aduamoa were treated with gamma irradiation doses of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.00 kGy in different packaging material (polyethylene terephthalate bottle, perforated and non-perforated polythene bags for 3 months. Moisture content (%), ash content (%), oil content (%) and total carbohydrate content of the samples were determined before and after irradiation using conventional methods. Elemental composition of tiger nuts were also determined using X-Ray Fluorescence

  15. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  16. Determining the prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in a cohort of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitlick, Mitchell M; Orr, Kristin; Momany, Allison M; McDonald, Erin L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a global public health problem that is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been proposed as a risk factor for preterm birth, but the rate of CMV in infants born preterm is unclear. CMV is the leading infectious cause of sensorineural hearing loss, which will affect 15% - 20% of congenitally infected infants later in their childhood. 90% of infected infants are asymptomatic at birth and are not recognized as at risk for CMV-associated deficits. To determine the prevalence of CMV infection in a large cohort of preterm infants. DNA was extracted from cord blood, peripheral blood, saliva, and buccal swab samples collected from preterm infants. A total of 1200 unique DNA samples were tested for CMV using a nested PCR protocol. The proportions of preterm infants with CMV was compared by sample collection type, race, gender, and gestational age. A total of 37 infants tested positive for CMV (3.08%). After excluding twins, siblings, and infants older than two weeks at the time of sample collection, two out of 589 infants were CMV positive (0.3%), which was lower than the proportion of CMV observed in the general population. All positive samples came from buccal swabs. Our work suggests that while CMV infection may not be greater in preterm infants than in the general population, given the neurologic consequences of CMV in preterm infants, screening of this population may still be warranted. If so, our results suggest buccal swabs, collected at pregnancy or at birth, may be an ideal method for such a program.

  17. High prevalence of abnormal motor repertoire at 3 months corrected age in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Labori, Cathrine; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Vågen, Randi; Støen, Ragnhild; Adde, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare early motor repertoire between extremely preterm and term-born infants. An association between the motor repertoire and gestational age and birth weight was explored in extremely preterm infants without severe ultrasound abnormalities. In a multicentre study, the early motor repertoire of 82 infants born extremely preterm (ELGAN:<28 weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW:<1000 g) and 87 term-born infants were assessed by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2 to 5 Months" (AMR) which is part of Prechtl's "General Movement Assessment", at 12 weeks post-term age. Fidgety movements were classified as normal if present and abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated. Concurrent motor repertoire was classified as normal if smooth and fluent and abnormal if monotonous, stiff, jerky and/or predominantly fast or slow. Eight-teen ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal fidgety movements (8 absent, 7 sporadic and 3 exaggerated fidgety movements) compared with 2 control infants (OR:12.0; 95%CI:2.7-53.4) and 46 ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal concurrent motor repertoire compared with 17 control infants (OR:5.3; 95%CI:2.6-10.5). Almost all detailed aspects of the AMR differed between the groups. Results were the same when three infants with severe ultrasound abnormalities were excluded. In the remaining ELBW/ELGAN infants, there was no association between motor repertoire and gestational age or birth weight. ELBW/ELGAN infants had poorer quality of early motor repertoire than term-born infants.The findings were not explained by severe abnormalities on neonatal ultrasound scans and were not correlated to the degree of prematurity. The consequences of these abnormal movement patterns remain to be seen in future follow-up studies. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gamma irradiation affects the total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant properties in three different persian pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Aalifar, Mostafa; Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (GR) on total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were investigated in three different Persian pistachio nuts at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP and DPPH methods, revealed a significant increase in the 1-2 kGy dose range. Total phenol content (TPC) revealed a similar pattern or increase in this range. However, when radiation was increased to 4 kGy, TPC in all genotypes decreased. A radiation dose of 1 kGy had no significant effect on anthocyanin content of Kale-Ghouchi (K) and Akbari (A) genotypes, while it significantly increased the anthocyanin content in the Ghazvini (G) genotype. In addition, increasing the radiation to 4 kGy significantly increased the anthocyanin content of K and G genotypes. To conclude, irradiation could increase the phenolic content, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of pistachio nuts.

  19. Cashew nut shell liquid, a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiane Valenti Gonçalves

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL is an abundant and renewable by-product of the cashew nut industry. It appears to be a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline (PAni nanomaterial with enhanced thermal stability and well-defined nanofiber morphology following a polymerization dispersion process. This study confirms that CNSL acts as a soft template during PAni synthesis, leading to an improvement in the nanofiber aspect. CNSL also improves the thermal stability of the PAni nanomaterial. Moreover, CNSL is an effective surfactant that promotes and stabilizes the dispersion of PAni nanofibers within water, allowing the more ecofriendly preparation of PAni nanomaterial by substituting the commonly used organic solvent with aqueous media. Finally, although CNSL promotes the formation of the conductive emeraldine salt form of PAni, increasing CNSL concentrations appear to plasticize the PAni polymer, leading to reduced electrical conductivity. However, this reduction is not detrimental, and PAni nanofibers remain semiconductive even under high CNSL concentrations.

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties of gelatin/Brazil nut shell fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Colombo, Maria Aparecida; Rosa, Ricardo de

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural fiber as polymeric matrix reinforcement has attracted interest, as fibers are renewable, of low cost, biodegradable and possesses non-toxic properties. In the present paper, Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) shell fiber (10% w/w) were mixed with gelatin (25% w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer to investigate the resultant mechanical properties effects upon ionizing radiation. The samples were irradiated at 40 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The results showed that samples of gelatin with 10% of Brazil nuts shell fiber and irradiated at 40 kGy presented promising results for mechanical performance. (author)

  1. Principal Killing strings in higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2018-04-01

    We construct special solutions of the Nambu-Goto equations for stationary strings in a general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetime in any number of dimensions. This construction is based on the existence of explicit and hidden symmetries generated by the principal tensor which exists for these metrics. The characteristic property of these string configurations, which we call "principal Killing strings," is that they are stretched out from "infinity" to the horizon of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole and remain regular at the latter. We also demonstrate that principal Killing strings extract angular momentum from higher-dimensional rotating black holes and interpret this as the action of an asymptotic torque.

  2. Consumption of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata in the treatment of obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Cristina Ferraz Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the effects of baru nut consumption on body weight, percent adiposity, amount of adipose tissue and blood levels in obese male Swiss mice. After inducing obesity by providing high-glucose diet (60 days, the mice were divided into 4 groups (7 animals per group and were fed on a control diet (C, high-glucose diet (HG or high-glucose diet added with baru (HGBA or soybean oil (HGSO. Groups fed with diet HGBA had a decrease in the weight gain and glucose and triglyceride levels when compared to diet HG. Aimals fed with HG exhibited a higher proportion of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. The inclusion of baru nut in the diet improved the control of weight gain and glucose and triglyceride levels in obese mice.

  3. Pareidolia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  4. Pareidolia in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kato

    Full Text Available Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  5. Alpha?fetoprotein elevation in NUT midline carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    D?Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Palesandro, Erica; Moretti, Marina; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Alessandra; Carnevale Schianca, Fabrizio; Aglietta, Massimo; Grignani, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma is a rarely diagnosed and potentially under-recognized type of squamous carcinoma that is considered one of the most aggressive human solid tumors. Alpha-fetoprotein elevation has been associated with chronic liver diseases and a limited number of cancers. In particular, in presence of a mediastinal mass in a young man, alpha-fetoprotein elevation is considered nearly pathognomonic of a non-seminoma germ-cell tumor. Case presentatio...

  6. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  7. Fundamental Study of two Selected Tropical Biomasses for Energy : coconut and cashew nut shells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsamba, Alberto Júlio

    2008-01-01

     Cashew nut and coconut shells are two potential renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources that are commonly found as agro-industrial wastes in tropical countries. Despite this fact, they are not yet widely studied as such. Given this lack of specific technical and reliable data, technologies for their conversion into energy cannot be designed with confidence as it happens with other commonly studied biomass feedstock. Thus, the need to generate these data guided this research in ...

  8. Influence of Production Variables on Eco-Friendly Briquettes from Coconut and Bambara Nut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Sotannde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of production variables on the properties of molasses-induced fuel briquettes from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc. shells. The milled samples of both raw materials were mixed with molasses at ratios 100:20, 100:25, 100:30 and 100:35 by weight respectively, and briquetted using a Jack press at an average pressure of 1.2KN/m2. A 3x4 factorial experiment in completely randomized design was used. The briquettes produced were subjected to both physical and combustion tests. The tests revealed that majority of the variations in briquette properties were largely influenced by the type of biomass residues used while molasses’ content also contributed significant effect atp < 0.05. Coconut shell briquettes had higher compressed density though lower in relaxed form (0.80 g·cm-3vs 0.78 g·cm-3 when compared to Bambara nut shell briquettes (0.77 g.cm-3vs0.75 g.cm-3. Both physical and combustion properties were significantly improved when both bio-residue mixtures were used. Briquettes from the mixtures had the highest average fixed carbon and heating values of 85.21% and 32.80 MJ·kg-1 respectively, though it was 83.83% and 32.12 MJ·kg-1for coconut shell briquette and 82.18% and 32.03 MJ·kg-1for Bambara nut shell briquette. Therefore, based on physical and combustion characteristics, the best Bambara nut briquettes and its mixture with coconut shell were produced when molasses content was 30%. In contrast, the best coconut shell briquette was produced when molasses content was 35%. These two level are therefore recommended for production of quality briquettes from these agro-residues.

  9. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  10. Correction to Hawking radiation of the stationary axisymmetric NUT-Taub black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Lin Rong; Cai Min; Qi Dejiang; Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Adopting a new method of quantum radiation as tunnelling, and taking energy conservation into account, the tunnelling radiation characteristics of the stationary axial symmetric NUT-Taub black hole are studied. The result shows that the tunnelling rate of particles at the event horizon of the black hole is relevant to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the real spectrum is not precisely thermal at all

  11. Cashew Nut Testa Tannin: Assessing its Effects on the Corrosion of Aluminium in HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Nnaji, Nnaemeka J. N; Obi-Egbedi, Nelson O; Okoye, Chukwuma O. B

    2014-01-01

    Cashew nut testa tannin (CASTAN) has been found to inhibit the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solutions using gravimetric, thermometric and UV/visible spectrophotometric techniques. CASTAN inhibition was by adsorption on aluminium following Temkin isotherm in 0.1 M HCl and Langmuir isotherm in 0.5 M and 2.0 M HCl at 303 Kelvin. Physical adsorption on aluminium has been proposed in studied HCl solutions; therefore, CASTAN is a cathodic inhibitor. Earlier reports (1) showed CASTAN ...

  12. Addressing a silent killer - The International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, in coordination with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research , The University of Texas at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Oral Cancer Research Coordinating Center, University of Malaya, Taiwan Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and with the generous support of the Malaysia Ministry of Health, hosted the International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia on April 27-28, 2016.

  13. Etiology and pathogenicity of two different isolates of Colletotrichum spp. obtained from physic nut seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Gil Rodrigues dos; Tozze Júnior,Hugo José; Sá,Danila Alves Corrêa de; Furtado,Gleiber Quintão; Massola Júnior,Nelson Sidnei

    2013-01-01

    The species known as physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has become important as one of main sources of feedstock for biodiesel production. The aims of this study were characterizing two different isolates of Colletotrichum spp. obtained from seeds of this species, through morphological, cultural, and molecular analyses; as well as assessing pathogenicity of both isolates on leaves and fruit of this plant species. For morphological analysis, length and width of 30 spores of each isolate, produced...

  14. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Haunted Kaluza universe with four-dimensional Lorentzian flat, Kerr, and Taub-NUT slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Rossen I.; Prodanov, Emil M.

    2005-01-01

    The duality between the original Kaluza's theory and Klein's subsequent modification is duality between slicing and threading decomposition of the five-dimensional spacetime. The field equations of the original Kaluza's theory lead to the interpretation of the four-dimensional Lorentzian Kerr and Taub-NUT solutions as resulting from static electric and magnetic charges and dipoles in the presence of ghost matter and constant dilaton, which models Newton's constant

  16. Establishing a reference range for triiodothyronine levels in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki Won; Koo, Mi Sung; Park, Hye Won; Chung, Mi Lim; Kim, Min-ho; Lim, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects clinical complications in preterm infants and older children. However, thyroid hormone replacement in preterm infants has no proven benefits, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate reference range for thyroid hormone levels. We aimed to establish a reference range for triiodothyronine (T3) levels at 1-month postnatal age (PNA) in preterm infants. This retrospective study included preterm infants born at a tertiary referral neonatal center at gestational age (GA)<35 weeks with no apparent thyroid dysfunction, for 6 consecutive years, with follow-up from PNA 2 weeks to 16 weeks. Using thyroid function tests (TFT), the relationships between T3 levels and thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels, birth weight, GA, postmenstrual age (PMA), and PNA were examined. The conversion trend for fT4 to T3 was analyzed using the T3/fT4 ratio. Overall, 464 TFTs from 266 infants were analyzed, after excluding 65 infants with thyroid dysfunction. T3 levels increased with fT4 levels, birth weight, GA, PMA, and PNA but not with TSH levels. The T3/fT4 ratio also increased with GA, PNA, and PMA. The average T3 level at 1 month PNA was 72.56 ± 27.83 ng/dL, with significant stratifications by GA. Relatively low T3 and fT4 levels in preterm infants were considered normal, with T3 levels and conversion trends increasing with GA, PMA, and PNA. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the present reference range in thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  18. Ectopic protein interactions within BRD4–chromatin complexes drive oncogenic megadomain formation in NUT midline carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Walsh, Erica M.; Zee, Barry M.; Pakozdi, Tibor; Hsi, Peter; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Dal Cin, Paola; Ince, Tan A.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.; French, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin factors generally act within large, multisubunit complexes; thus, identifying both their normal and aberrant interactors in cancer should provide important information regarding potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we apply this principle to analysis of BRD4–NUT, a fusion oncoprotein that drives an aggressive subtype of squamous cell cancer. We identify ZNF532 as a prominent BRD4–NUT–interacting protein in an established NUT midline carcinoma patient cell line, and ...

  19. An electromagnetic screw and nut system for operating vertical motions along an axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, Henri.

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns a magnetic screw and nut system for operating control rods, designed for vertical mounting and having no mobile or slide contacts. It makes it possible to rotate a screw located inside a sealed tubular containment that can have a very thick wall. All the electromagnetic components entering into the operation are outside this containment. The magnetic screw has a constant air gap. The tube, manufactured of a non-magnetic material, includes two added annular pole pieces forming part of its wall and whose internal surfaces have a thread corresponding to that of the screw. The two annular pole pieces are spaced axially from each other by an amount equal to an integral number of thread pitches. An external winding and magnetic armature associated to these pole pieces form the fixed magnetic nut. A multiphase non-synchronous motor is placed around the tube and near the nut, the stator is external, the rotor is the screw. An appliance for fixing the degree of axial displacement freedom of the screw can be provided [fr

  20. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  1. Systematic Kinase Inhibitor Profiling Identifies CDK9 as a Synthetic Lethal Target in NUT Midline Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Brägelmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinase inhibitors represent the backbone of targeted cancer therapy, yet only a limited number of oncogenic drivers are directly druggable. By interrogating the activity of 1,505 kinase inhibitors, we found that BRD4-NUT-rearranged NUT midline carcinoma (NMC cells are specifically killed by CDK9 inhibition (CDK9i and depend on CDK9 and Cyclin-T1 expression. We show that CDK9i leads to robust induction of apoptosis and of markers of DNA damage response in NMC cells. While both CDK9i and bromodomain inhibition over time result in reduced Myc protein expression, only bromodomain inhibition induces cell differentiation and a p21-induced cell-cycle arrest in these cells. Finally, RNA-seq and ChIP-based analyses reveal a BRD4-NUT-specific CDK9i-induced perturbation of transcriptional elongation. Thus, our data provide a mechanistic basis for the genotype-dependent vulnerability of NMC cells to CDK9i that may be of relevance for the development of targeted therapies for NMC patients.

  2. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  3. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m 2 g -1 , 1038.78 m 2 g -1 and 0.375 m 3 g -1 , respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g -1 . The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: → Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. → The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. → BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m 2 /g. → Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  4. Mixed models identify physic nut genotypes adapted to environments with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Laviola, B G; Martins, L D; Amaral, J F T; Rodrigues, W N

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to screen physic nut (Jatropha curcas) genotypes that differ in their phosphorous (P) use, using mixed models. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse located in the experimental area of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, in Alegre, ES, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, using a 10 x 3-factorial scheme, including ten physic nut genotypes and two environments that differed in their levels of soil P availability (10 and 60 mg/dm 3 ), each with four replications. After 100 days of cultivation, we evaluated the plant height, stem diameter, root volume, root dry matter, aerial part dry matter, total dry matter, as well as the efficiency of absorption, and use. The parameters were estimated for combined selection while considering the studied parameters: stability and adaptability for both environments were obtained using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of the predicted genotypic values. High genotype by environment interactions were observed for most physic nut traits, indicating considerable influences of P availability on the phenotypic value. The genotype Paraíso simultaneously presented high adaptability and stability for aerial part dry matter, total dry matter, and P translocation efficiency. The genotype CNPAE-C2 showed a positive response to P fertilization by increasing both the total and aerial part dry matter.

  5. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Yang, W.M.; Saravanan, C.G.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  6. Potential health and economic benefits of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria: implications for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayomadewa Mercy Olatunya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and lack of economic sustainability are major problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nutrients‘ contents of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria (local groundnut, Kampala groundnut and breadnut and highlight their health and economic potentials. Proximate analysis, chemical properties, minerals and fatty acids composition of the nuts were determined. The highest protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were found in Kampala groundnut, local groundnut and breadnut respectively. Their sodium-potassium ratios were all less than 1.0 and their oils have mainly unsaturated fatty acids. Their acid values ranged between (2.41–6.34 mgKOH/g while the iodine values were between 36.0 and 93.0 I2 g/100 g. Analysis of the nuts and their oils indicated that they could help in solving malnutrition problem and also boost nations’ economy. Encouraging their large scale production can enhance adequate nutrition and sustain industrial growth in developing countries. Keywords: Nutrition, Food analysis, Food science

  7. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K. Y. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 1038.78 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.375 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g{sup -1}. The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: {yields} Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. {yields} The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. {yields} BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  8. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research on the replacement of synthetic fibers by natural fibers as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites has increased dramatically due to the advantages of natural fibers, such as low density, low cost, environmental appeal and recyclability. In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil Nut Shell (Bertholletia excelsa) fiber compositive was investigated. The HDPE composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of Brazil nut shell fiber powder with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. The materials were irradiated at 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed significant changes in HDPE mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties due to Brazil nut shell fibers addition and electron-beam irradiation. The surface of the cryo fractured composite samples irradiated showed important visual changes which suggest a better fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion, due to irradiation treatment. These results showed that it is possible to get interesting property gains by using waste from renewable sources instead of the traditional ones and electron-beam radiation treatment. (author)

  9. Upper limit on NUT charge from the observed terrestrial Sagnac effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbakova, A.; Karimov, R. Kh; Izmailov, R. N.; Nandi, K. K.

    2018-06-01

    The exact Sagnac delay in the Kerr–Taub–NUT (Newman–Unti–Tamburino) spacetime is derived in the equatorial plane for non-geodesic as well as geodesic circular orbits. The resulting formula, being exact, can be directly applied to motion in the vicinity of any spinning object including black holes but here we are considering only the terrestrial case since observational data are available. The formula reveals that, in the limit of spin , the delay does not vanish. This fact is similar to the non-vanishing of Lense–Thirring precession under even though the two effects originate from different premises. Assuming a reasonable input that the Kerr–Taub–NUT corrections are subsumed in the average residual uncertainty in the measured Sagnac delay, we compute upper limits on the NUT charge n. It is found that the upper limits on n are far larger than the Earth’s gravitational mass, which has not been detected in observations, implying that the Sagnac effect cannot constrain n to smaller values near zero. We find a curious difference between the delays for non-geodesic and geodesic clock orbits and point out its implication for the well known ‘twin paradox’ of special relativity.

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  11. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: maiara.sferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, research on the replacement of synthetic fibers by natural fibers as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites has increased dramatically due to the advantages of natural fibers, such as low density, low cost, environmental appeal and recyclability. In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil Nut Shell (Bertholletia excelsa) fiber compositive was investigated. The HDPE composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of Brazil nut shell fiber powder with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. The materials were irradiated at 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed significant changes in HDPE mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties due to Brazil nut shell fibers addition and electron-beam irradiation. The surface of the cryo fractured composite samples irradiated showed important visual changes which suggest a better fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion, due to irradiation treatment. These results showed that it is possible to get interesting property gains by using waste from renewable sources instead of the traditional ones and electron-beam radiation treatment. (author)

  12. How similar are nut-cracking and stone-flaking? A functional approach to percussive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Blandine; Parry, Ross; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-11-19

    Various authors have suggested similarities between tool use in early hominins and chimpanzees. This has been particularly evident in studies of nut-cracking which is considered to be the most complex skill exhibited by wild apes, and has also been interpreted as a precursor of more complex stone-flaking abilities. It has been argued that there is no major qualitative difference between what the chimpanzee does when he cracks a nut and what early hominins did when they detached a flake from a core. In this paper, similarities and differences between skills involved in stone-flaking and nut-cracking are explored through an experimental protocol with human subjects performing both tasks. We suggest that a 'functional' approach to percussive action, based on the distinction between functional parameters that characterize each task and parameters that characterize the agent's actions and movements, is a fruitful method for understanding those constraints which need to be mastered to perform each task successfully, and subsequently, the nature of skill involved in both tasks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Fabrication Improvement of Cold Forging Hexagonal Nuts by Computational Analysis and Experiment Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products so that cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine parts, such as hexagonal nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyze the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the differences between the experimental results and the equation that is built into the computer simulation software. At the same time, the metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging characteristics of hexagonal nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses to realize the forging load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hexagonal nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.

  14. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  15. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  16. Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre G

    2016-06-01

    The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by-product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved under the following conditions: ethanol-water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization; and 1 h extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)-catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg(-1) . Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Aflatoxin B1 in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) imported to Pakistan from different regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Shamsuddin, Zuzzer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) levels were evaluated in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) being imported to Pakistan during 2010-2011. In total, 278 betel nut samples (India = 21, Indonesia = 51, Sri-Lanka = 34 and Thailand = 172) were received from the Department of Customs and were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). All Indian origin betel nuts showed AFB1 contamination ranging from 11.7-262.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 92.5 µg kg(-1). Among Indonesian and Sri Lankan shipments, 80.4% and 73.5% betel nuts were contaminated with AFB1 ranging between 3.3-39.2 and 6.5-103.4 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 11.6 and 35.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. However, only 30.2% of Thailand origin samples showed AFB1 contamination ranging 3.3-77.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 6.6 µg kg(-1). The widespread occurrence of AFB1 increases the hazard associated with betel nuts. Thus, strict control is a pre-requisite for the production and import/export of psychoactive substances as betel nuts.

  18. Inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and obesity among Iranian population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Yazdekhasti, Narges; Stangl, Gabriele I; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-09-01

    Recently, controversies have arisen concerning the association between nut intake and obesity. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between nut consumption and obesity among Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional survey, 9,660 randomly chosen adults aged ≥19 years were selected based on gender, age and their settlement distributions in three districts of central Iran in 2007. Nutritional behaviors including regular intake of walnuts, almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts and sunflower seed were assessed by validated 48-item-food-frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall questionnaire. Using hierarchical logistic regression test, odds ratio (OR) 95% CI of obesity based on nut consumption was determined in an unadjusted and four adjusted models. The results showed a significant association between high nut consumption and lower prevalence of overweight or general obesity as well as abdominal obesity in women (p = 0.01 and p = 0.047, respectively), but not men. The frequency of nut consumption was associated with lower risk of overweight or general obesity [OR (95% CI) 0.57 (0.38-0.86)] and abdominal obesity [OR (95% CI) 0.51 (0.28-0.95)] only in women. After adjusting for gender, age and other potential confounders, the strength of the associations was blunted, but they were still significant. Frequent nuts and seeds consumption, particularly ≥1 time/day, had an inverse association with all classes of obesity among women.

  19. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...

  20. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  1. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  2. Consumption of baked nuts or seeds reduces dental plaque acidogenicity after sucrose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Chuoyue; Ge, Chunling; Wang, Bing; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To assess the acidogenic potential of eight different types of baked nuts or seeds eaten alone and after a sucrose challenge using in-dwelling electrode telemetry. Six participants wearing a mandibular partial prosthesis incorporated with a miniature glass pH electrode were enrolled. The plaque pH was measured after 5 or 6 days of plaque accumulation. To establish a control, the subjects were instructed to rinse with sucrose, without any subsequent treatment, at the first visit. At each subsequent test visit, the subjects were asked to chew sugar free xylitol gum or consume 10 g of baked (180 degrees C, 5 minutes) peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, or watermelon seeds alone and 10 minutes after a sucrose rinse. The minimum plaque pH value and area of plaque pH curve under 5.7 (AUC5.7) during and after nut/seed consumption or gum chewing alone, the plaque pH value at 10 minutes after the sucrose rinse, the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and AUC5.7 after the sucrose rinse with or without nut/seed consumption or gum chewing were calculated from the telemetric curves. The sucrose rinse induced a rapid decrease in the plaque pH to 4.32 +/- 0.17 at 10 minutes; this value remained below 5.7 for the measurement period. The AUC5.7 values were 34.58 +/- 7.27 and 63.55 +/- 15.17 for 40 and 60 minutes after the sucrose challenge, respectively. With the exception of cashews and pumpkin seeds (minimum pH, 5.42 and 5.63 respectively), the nuts or seeds did not decrease the plaque pH to below 5.7 when consumed alone, with the AUC5.7 values during and after consumption (total 40 minutes) ranging from 0.24 to 2.5 (8.44 for cashews), which were significantly lower than those after the sucrose challenge. Furthermore, nut/seed consumption or gum chewing after the sucrose challenge significantly reversed the sucrose-induced decrease in the plaque pH, and the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and the AUC5.7 values for 60

  3. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  5. 75 FR 49528 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (“NMG”) Excluding the Multimedia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... services for chips used in networking and multimedia products. The company reports that workers leased from... Multimedia Applications Division, including on-site workers of Synergy Services, Craftcorp, Directions..., Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (``NMG'') Excluding the Multimedia Applications Division...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.21 - Categorically excluded proposals without an ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES... or the substitution of one fuel combustion technology with another is excluded from this... providing service to customers or facilities such as stock tanks and irrigation pumps. (26) New bulk...

  7. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull: CNS involvement excluded by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taets ven Amerongen, A.H.M.; Kaiser, M.C.; Waal, F.C. de

    1987-01-01

    A case of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull is presented, demonstrating the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging over other imaging modalities to exclude CNS involvement. Precise delineation of different tumor components in extradural location contained in an intact dural rim together with compressed cortex showing no signs of tumorous involvement constituted an MRI appearance allowing us to exclude tumor outgrowth into the brain. (orig.)

  8. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull: CNS involvement excluded by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taets ven Amerongen, A.H.M.; Kaiser, M.C.; Waal, F.C. de

    1987-03-01

    A case of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull is presented, demonstrating the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging over other imaging modalities to exclude CNS involvement. Precise delineation of different tumor components in extradural location contained in an intact dural rim together with compressed cortex showing no signs of tumorous involvement constituted an MRI appearance allowing us to exclude tumor outgrowth into the brain.

  9. Oxytocin biases men but not women to restore social connections with individuals who socially exclude them

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaolei; Yao, Shuxia; Xu, Lei; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Ma, Xiaole; Kou, Juan; Luo, Ruixue; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    We normally react to individuals who exclude us socially by either avoiding them or increasing our attempts to interact with them. The neuropeptide oxytocin can promote social bonds and reduce social conflict and we therefore investigated whether it facilitates more positive social responses towards individuals who exclude or include us. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design 77 healthy Chinese male and female participants received intranasal oxytocin (40 IU) or placebo...

  10. Regurgitation in healthy and non healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallo Luciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncomplicate regurgitation in otherwise healthy infants is not a disease. It consists of milk flow from mouth during or after feeding. Common causes include overfeeding, air swallowed during feeding, crying or coughing; physical exam is normal and weight gain is adequate. History and physical exam are diagnostic, and conservative therapy is recommended. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to infants with regurgitation and vomiting associated with poor weight gain, respiratory symptoms, esophagitis. Reflux episodes occur most often during transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter unaccompanied by swallowing, which permit gastric content to flow into the esophagus. A minor proportion of reflux episodes occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to increase pressure during a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure or when lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure is chronically reduced. Alterations in several protective mechanisms allow physiologic reflux to become gastroesophageal reflux disease; diagnostic approach is both clinical and instrumental: radiological series are useful to exclude anatomic abnormalities; pH-testing evaluates the quantity, frequency and duration of the acid reflux episodes; endoscopy and biopsy are performed in the case of esophagitis. Therapy with H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are suggested.

  11. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is on the changing table. Consider the following important safety tips: Be aware of poisons (household cleaners, cosmetics, ... middle of the back seat. It is very important for the driver to pay attention to driving, not playing with the infant. If you need ...

  12. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  13. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  14. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a

  15. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  16. Acting on social exclusion: neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of excluders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2015-02-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of initiators of social exclusion (i.e. 'excluders'). Participants divided money in a modified Dictator Game between themselves and people who previously either included or excluded them during a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Participants selectively punished the excluders by decreasing their outcomes; even when this required participants to give up monetary rewards. Punishment of excluders was associated with increased activation in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and bilateral anterior insula. Costly punishment was accompanied by higher activity in the pre-SMA compared with punishment that resulted in gains or was non-costly. Refraining from punishment (i.e. forgiveness) was associated with self-reported perspective-taking and increased activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that social exclusion can result in punishment as well as forgiveness of excluders and that separable neural networks implicated in social cognition and cognitive control are recruited when people choose either to punish or to forgive those who excluded them. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Excluded segmental duct bile leakage: the case for bilio-enteric anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Damiano; Tandoi, Francesco; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-06-01

    Excluded segmental duct bile leak is the rarest type of post-hepatectomy bile leak and presents unique diagnostic and management features. Classical management strategies invariably entail a significant loss of functioning hepatic parenchyma. The aim of this study is to report a new liver-sparing technique to handle excluded segmental duct bile leakage. Two cases of excluded segmental duct bile leak occurring after major hepatic resection were managed by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy on the excluded segmental duct, avoiding the sacrifice of the liver parenchyma origin of the fistula. In both cases, classical management strategies would have led to the functional loss of roughly 50 % of the liver remnant. Diagnostic and management implications are thoroughly discussed. Both cases had an uneventful postoperative course. The timing of repair was associated with a different outcome: the patient who underwent surgical repair in the acute phase developed no long-term complications, whereas the patient who underwent delayed repair developed a late stenosis requiring percutaneous dilatation. Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy on the excluded bile duct is a valuable technique in selected cases of excluded segmental duct bile leakage.

  18. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  20. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.