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Sample records for nutritional screening tools

  1. Nutrition screening tools: an analysis of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Annalynn; Ferguson, Maree; Thompson, Kyle; Castellanos, Victoria H; Porcari, Judy

    2012-05-01

    In response to questions about tools for nutrition screening, an evidence analysis project was developed to identify the most valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for use in acute care and hospital-based ambulatory care settings. An oversight group defined nutrition screening and literature search criteria. A trained analyst conducted structured searches of the literature for studies of nutrition screening tools according to predetermined criteria. Eleven nutrition screening tools designed to detect undernutrition in patients in acute care and hospital-based ambulatory care were identified. Trained analysts evaluated articles for quality using criteria specified by the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library. Members of the oversight group assigned quality grades to the tools based on the quality of the supporting evidence, including reliability and validity data. One tool, the NRS-2002, received a grade I, and 4 tools-the Simple Two-Part Tool, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST)-received a grade II. The MST was the only tool shown to be both valid and reliable for identifying undernutrition in the settings studied. Thus, validated nutrition screening tools that are simple and easy to use are available for application in acute care and hospital-based ambulatory care settings.

  2. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Screening Tool, and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool Are Good Predictors of Nutrition Risk in an Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito, Estela Iraci; Marcadenti, Aline; da Silva Fink, Jaqueline; Figueira, Luciane; Silva, Flávia Moraes

    2017-08-01

    There is an international consensus that nutrition screening be performed at the hospital; however, there is no "best tool" for screening of malnutrition risk in hospitalized patients. To evaluate (1) the accuracy of the MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool), MST (Malnutrition Screening Tool), and SNAQ (Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire) in comparison with the NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002) to identify patients at risk of malnutrition and (2) the ability of these nutrition screening tools to predict morbidity and mortality. A specific questionnaire was administered to complete the 4 screening tools. Outcomes measures included length of hospital stay, transfer to the intensive care unit, presence of infection, and incidence of death. A total of 752 patients were included. The nutrition risk was 29.3%, 37.1%, 33.6%, and 31.3% according to the NRS-2002, MUST, MST, and SNAQ, respectively. All screening tools showed satisfactory performance to identify patients at nutrition risk (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.765-0.808). Patients at nutrition risk showed higher risk of very long length of hospital stay as compared with those not at nutrition risk, independent of the tool applied (relative risk, 1.35-1.78). Increased risk of mortality (2.34 times) was detected by the MUST. The MUST, MST, and SNAQ share similar accuracy to the NRS-2002 in identifying risk of malnutrition, and all instruments were positively associated with very long hospital stay. In clinical practice, the 4 tools could be applied, and the choice for one of them should be made per the particularities of the service.

  3. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrition screening tools: Does one size fit all? A systematic review of screening tools for the hospital setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Guaitoli, P.R.; Jansma, E.P.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Numerous nutrition screening tools for the hospital setting have been developed. The aim of this systematic review is to study construct or criterion validity and predictive validity of nutrition screening tools for the general hospital setting. Methods: A systematic review of

  5. Nutritional Risk in Emergency-2017: A New Simplified Proposal for a Nutrition Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcadenti, Aline; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Fink, Jaqueline da Silva; Silva, Flávia Moraes

    2018-03-13

    There are many nutrition screening tools currently being applied in hospitals to identify risk of malnutrition. However, multivariate statistical models are not usually employed to take into account the importance of each variable included in the instrument's development. To develop and evaluate the concurrent and predictive validities of a new screening tool of nutrition risk. A prospective cohort study was developed, in which 4 nutrition screening tools were applied to all patients. Length of stay in hospital and mortality were considered to test the predictive validity, and the concurrent validity was tested by comparing the Nuritional Risk in Emergency (NRE)-2017 to the other tools. A total of 748 patients were included. The final NRE-2017 score was composed of 6 questions (advanced age, metabolic stress of the disease, decreased appetite, changing of food consistency, unintentional weight loss, and muscle mass loss) with answers yes or no. The prevalence of nutrition risk was 50.7% and 38.8% considering the cutoff points 1.0 and 1.5, respectively. The NRE-2017 showed a satisfactory power to indentify risk of malnutrition (area under the curve >0.790 for all analyses). According to the NRE-2017, patients at risk of malnutrition have twice as high relative risk of a very long hospital stay. The hazard ratio for mortality was 2.78 (1.03-7.49) when the cutoff adopted by the NRE-2017 was 1.5 points. NRE-2017 is a new, easy-to-apply nutrition screening tool which uses 6 bi-categoric features to detect the risk of malnutrition, and it presented a good concurrent and predictive validity. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Nutrition screening tools: does one size fit all? A systematic review of screening tools for the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Guaitoli, Patrícia Realino; Jansma, Elise P; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2014-02-01

    Numerous nutrition screening tools for the hospital setting have been developed. The aim of this systematic review is to study construct or criterion validity and predictive validity of nutrition screening tools for the general hospital setting. A systematic review of English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch articles identified via MEDLINE, Cinahl and EMBASE (from inception to the 2nd of February 2012). Additional studies were identified by checking reference lists of identified manuscripts. Search terms included key words for malnutrition, screening or assessment instruments, and terms for hospital setting and adults. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors. Only studies expressing the (construct, criterion or predictive) validity of a tool were included. 83 studies (32 screening tools) were identified: 42 studies on construct or criterion validity versus a reference method and 51 studies on predictive validity on outcome (i.e. length of stay, mortality or complications). None of the tools performed consistently well to establish the patients' nutritional status. For the elderly, MNA performed fair to good, for the adults MUST performed fair to good. SGA, NRS-2002 and MUST performed well in predicting outcome in approximately half of the studies reviewed in adults, but not in older patients. Not one single screening or assessment tool is capable of adequate nutrition screening as well as predicting poor nutrition related outcome. Development of new tools seems redundant and will most probably not lead to new insights. New studies comparing different tools within one patient population are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for malnutrition among nursing home residents - a comparative analysis of the mini nutritional assessment, the nutritional risk screening, and the malnutrition universal screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, R; Winning, K; Uter, W; Kaiser, M J; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D; Bauer, J M

    2013-04-01

    The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) has recommended the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS), and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) for nutritional screening in various settings and age groups. While in recent years all three tools have been applied to nursing home residents, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate screening tool in this specific setting. The present study aims at comparing the MNA, the NRS, and the MUST with regard to applicability, categorization of nutritional status, and predictive value in the nursing home setting. MNA, NRS, and MUST were performed on 200 residents from two municipal nursing homes in Nuremberg, Germany. Follow-up data on infection, hospitalization, and mortality were collected after six and again after twelve months. Among 200 residents (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) the MNA could be completed in 188 (94.0%) and the NRS and MUST in 198 (99.0%) residents. The prevalence of 'malnutrition' according to the MNA was 15.4%. The prevalence of 'risk of malnutrition' (NRS) and 'high risk of malnutrition' (MUST), respectively, was 8.6% for both tools. The individual categorization of nutritional status showed poor agreement between NRS and MUST on the one hand and MNA on the other. For all tools a significant association between nutritional status and mortality was demonstrated during follow-up as classification in 'malnourished', respectively 'high risk of malnutrition' or 'nutritional risk', was significantly associated with increased hazard ratios. However, the MNA showed the best predictive value for survival among well-nourished residents. The evaluation of nutritional status in nursing home residents by MNA, NRS, and MUST shows significant differences. This observation may be of clinical relevance as nutritional intervention is usually based on screening results. As the items of the MNA reflect particularities of the nursing home

  8. Mini-Nutritional Assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and Nutrition Risk Screening Tool for the Nutritional Evaluation of Older Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Molfino, Alessio; Rosano, Aldo; Lenzi, Andrea; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition plays a major role in clinical and functional impairment in older adults. The use of validated, user-friendly and rapid screening tools for malnutrition in the elderly may improve the diagnosis and, possibly, the prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), considered as a reference tool, MNA short form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS-2002) in elderly institutionalized participants. Participants were enrolled among nursing home residents and underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Predictive value and survival analysis were performed to compare the nutritional classifications obtained from the different tools. A total of 246 participants (164 women, age: 82.3 ± 9 years, and 82 men, age: 76.5 ± 11 years) were enrolled. Based on MNA, 22.6% of females and 17% of males were classified as malnourished; 56.7% of women and 61% of men were at risk of malnutrition. Agreement between MNA and MUST or NRS-2002 was classified as "fair" (k = 0.270 and 0.291, respectively; P < .001), whereas the agreement between MNA and MNA-SF was classified as "moderate" (k = 0.588; P < .001). Because of the high percentage of false negative participants, MUST and NRS-2002 presented a low overall predictive value compared with MNA and MNA-SF. Clinical parameters were significantly different in false negative participants with MUST or NRS-2002 from true negative and true positive individuals using the reference tool. For all screening tools, there was a significant association between malnutrition and mortality. MNA showed the best predictive value for survival among well-nourished participants. Functional, psychological, and cognitive parameters, not considered in MUST and NRS-2002 tools, are probably more important risk factors for malnutrition than acute illness in geriatric long-term care inpatient settings and may account for the low predictive

  9. Novel simple and practical nutritional screening tool for cancer inpatients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Jamal; Morganti, Julie; Rizvi, Azhar; Sadiq, Bakr Bin; Kerr, Ian; Aslam, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    There is lack of consensus on how nutritional screening and intervention should be provided to cancer patients. Nutritional screening and support of cancer patients are not well established in the Middle East. We report our systematic and practical experience led by a qualified specialist dietician in a cancer inpatient setting, using a novel nutritional screening tool. Ninety-seven consecutive inpatients underwent nutritional screening and categorised into three nutritional risk groups based on oral intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and weight loss. Nutritional support was introduced accordingly. Statistical tests used included ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc, chi-square and log rank tests. Median age was 48 (19-87)years. Patients were categorised into three nutritional risk groups: 55 % low, 37 % intermediate and 8 % high. Nutritional intervention was introduced for 36 % of these patients. Individually, weight, BMI, oral intake, serum albumin on admission and weight loss significantly affected nutritional risk and nutritional intervention (all significant P values). Eighty-seven, 60 and 55 % of patients admitted for chemotherapy, febrile neutropenia and other reasons, respectively, did not require specific nutritional intervention. There was a statistically significant relationship between nutritional risk and nutritional intervention (P=0.005). Significantly more patients were alive at 3 months in low (91 %) than intermediate (75 %) than high (37 %)-risk groups. About a third of cancer inpatients require nutritional intervention. The adopted nutritional risk assessment tool is simple and practical. The validity of this tool is supported by its significant relation with known individual nutritional risk factors. This should be confirmed in larger prospective study and comparing this new tool with other established ones.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of six nutritional screening tools to predict malnutrition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Yannakoulia, Mary; Karageorgou, Dimitra; Gamaletsou, Maria; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Zampelas, Antonis

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition in the elderly is a multifactorial problem, more prevalent in hospitals and care homes. The absence of a gold standard in evaluating nutritional risk led us to evaluate the efficacy of six nutritional screening tools used in the elderly. Two hundred forty eight elderly patients (129 men, 119 female women, aged 75.2 ± 8.5 years) were examined. Nutritional screening was performed on admission using the following tools: Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Mini Nutritional Assessment - Screening Form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002). A combined index for malnutrition was also calculated. Nutritional risk and/or malnutrition varied greatly, ranging from 47.2 to 97.6%, depending on the nutritional screening tool used. MUST was the most valid screening tool (validity coefficient = 0.766, CI 95%: 0.690-0.841), while SGA was in better agreement with the combined index (κ = 0.707, p = 0.000). NRS 2002 although was the highest in sensitivity (99.4%), it was the lowest in specificity (6.1%) and positive predictive value (68.2%). MUST seem to be the most valid in the evaluation of the risk for malnutrition in the elderly upon admission to the hospital. NRS 2002 was found to overestimate nutritional risk in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Malnutrition Risk after Liver Transplantation Using the Nutritional Screening Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status by using nutritional screening tools [Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)] in patients before and after liver transplantation. We analyzed medical record, blood test, nutrient intake and malnutrition rate just before transplantation and at discharge, and at 3, 6, 12 months after transplantation respectively. Initially 33 patients enrolled as study subjects and finally 28 patients completed the study. Nutrients intake such as energy, fiber, calcium, potassium, vitamin C, and folate were insufficient at 12 months after transplantation. The rates of malnutrition before transplantation were very high, reported at 81.8% for the NRS 2002, 87.9% for the MUST, and 84.8% for the SGA. By 12 months after operation, malnutrition rates reported at NRS, MUST and SGA had decreased to 6.1%, 10.7%, and 10.7%, respectively. Sensitivity was 87.1% for the NRS 2002, 82.0% for the MUST, and 92.0% for the SGA. Of these screening tools the SGA was the highest sensitive tool that predict the risk of mortality in malnutrition patients who received transplantation. Further studies on nutritional status of patients and proper tools for nutrition intervention are needed to provide adequate nutritional care for patients.

  12. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional A...

  13. Evaluation of nutritional screening tools for patients scheduled for cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Efremov, Sergey M; Boboshko, Vladimir A; Nikolaev, Dmitry A; Vedernikov, Pavel E; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N; Karaskov, Alexander M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of different nutritional screening tools in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass with regard to an adverse clinical course. This prospective cohort study analyzed 894 adult patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were screened using four nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and the Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Nutritional status was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment. In-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and length of hospitalization were analyzed. The sensitivities of the SNAQ, MUST, and NRS-2002 to detect the malnutrition confirmed by the Subjective Global Assessment were 91.5%, 97.9%, and 38.3%, respectively, and the MNA showed a sensitivity of 81.8% for the elderly. Malnutrition detected by the SNAQ, MUST, and NRS-2002 was associated with postoperative complications (odds ratios [ORs] 1.75, 1.98, and 1.82, respectively) and a stay in the intensive care unit longer than 2 d (ORs 1.46, 1.56, and 2.8). Malnutrition as detected by the SNAQ and MUST was also associated with prolonged hospitalization (ORs 1.49 and 1.59). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, postoperative complications were independently predicted by the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (OR 1.1, P nutritional therapy would improve the outcome in malnourished patients needs to be studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of nutritional screening tools among patients scheduled for heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Efremov, Sergey M; Boboshko, Vladimir A; Nikolaev, Dmitry A; Vedernikov, Pavel E; Shilova, Anna N; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N; Karaskov, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The study aim was to detect the most sensitive nutritional screening tool and to assess its prognostic value with regards to an adverse clinical course in patients with heart valve disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This prospective cohort study included 441 adult patients who were screened using four nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002); Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST); Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Nutritional assessment was performed using a Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). In-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, and duration of hospital stay were each analyzed. With regards to the detection of malnutrition, the sensitivities of MUST, SNAQ, MNA and NRS-2002 were 100%, 92%, 84.6% and 43.6%, respectively. Malnutrition identified by MUST and MNA were associated with postoperative complications (OR 1.63, p = 0.033 and OR 1.6, p = 0.035) and prolonged hospitalization (OR 1.57, p = 0.048 and OR 1.7, p = 0.02). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, along with well-known age and duration of CPB, malnutrition identified by MUST and MNA was associated with a risk of development of complications (OR 1.6, p = 0.049 and OR 1.6, p = 0.04, respectively). The sensitivities of SNAQ, MUST, NRS-2002 and MNA with regards to postoperative complications were 26.8%, 28.8%, 10%, and 31.6%, respectively. The MUST tool is preferable with regards to the detection of malnutrition. Both, MUST and MNA independently predicted postoperative complications. SNAQ and NRS-2002 proved insensitive with regards to the postoperative course among patients with heart valve disease who were scheduled for cardiothoracic surgery.

  15. Screening for Malnutrition in Community Dwelling Older Japanese: Preliminary Development and Evaluation of the Japanese Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, N C; Ishikawa-Takata, K; Kuroda, A; Tanaka, T; Kikutani, T; Obuchi, S P; Hirano, H; Iijima, K

    2016-02-01

    Early and effective screening for age-related malnutrition is an essential part of providing optimal nutritional care to older populations. This study was performed to evaluate the adaptation of the original SCREEN II questionnaire (Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II) for use in Japan by examining its measurement properties and ability to predict nutritional risk and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Japanese people. The ultimate objective of this preliminary validation study is to develop a license granted full Japanese version of the SCREEN II. The measurement properties and predictive validity of the NRST were examined in this cross-sectional study of 1921 community-dwelling older Japanese people. Assessments included medical history, and anthropometric and serum albumin measurements. Questions on dietary habits that corresponded to the original SCREEN II were applied to Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST) scoring system. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) and the short form of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The nutritional risk prevalences determined by the GNRI and MNA-SF were 5.6% and 34.7%, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.3%. Mean NRST scores were significantly lower in the nutritionally at-risk than in the well-nourished groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed significant correlations between NRST scores and both nutritional risk parameters (GNRI or MNA-SF) and sarcopenia. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of NRST for the prediction of nutritional risk were 0.635 and 0.584 as assessed by GNRI and MNA-SF, respectively. AUCs for the prediction of sarcopenia were 0.602 (NRST), 0.655 (age-integrated NRST), and 0.676 (age and BMI-integrated NRST). These results indicate that the NRST is a

  16. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; de Vos, Rien; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a

  17. Implementation of nutrition risk screening using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool across a large metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P L; Raja, R; Golder, J; Stewart, A J; Shaikh, R F; Apostolides, M; Savva, J; Sequeira, J L; Silvers, M A

    2016-12-01

    A standardised nutrition risk screening (NRS) programme with ongoing education is recommended for the successful implementation of NRS. This project aimed to develop and implement a standardised NRS and education process across the adult bed-based services of a large metropolitan health service and to achieve a 75% NRS compliance at 12 months post-implementation. A working party of Monash Health (MH) dietitians and a nutrition technician revised an existing NRS medical record form consisting of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and nutrition management guidelines. Nursing staff across six MH hospital sites were educated in the use of this revised form and there was a formalised implementation process. Support from Executive Management, nurse educators and the Nutrition Risk Committee ensured the incorporation of NRS into nursing practice. Compliance audits were conducted pre- and post-implementation. At 12 months post-implementation, organisation-wide NRS compliance reached 34.3%. For those wards that had pre-implementation NRS performed by nursing staff, compliance increased from 7.1% to 37.9% at 12 months (P Audit', which is reported 6-monthly to the Nutrition Risk Committee and site Quality and Safety Committees. NRS compliance improved at MH with strong governance support and formalised implementation; however, the overall compliance achieved appears to have been affected by the complexity and diversity of multiple healthcare sites. Ongoing education, regular auditing and establishment of NRS routines and ward practices is recommended to further improve compliance. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Is the presence of a validated malnutrition screening tool associated with better nutritional care in hospitalized patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between the use of clinical guidelines and the use of validated screening tools, evaluate the nutritional screening policy in hospitals, and examine the association between the use of validated screening tools and the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional interventions in hospitalized patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire on three levels: institution (presence of a guideline for malnutrition), department (use of a validated screening tool), and patient (e.g., malnutrition prevalence). In all, 53 hospitals with 5255 patients participated. About 45% of the hospitals indicated that they have guidelines for malnutrition. Of the departments surveyed, 38.6% used validated screening tools as part of a standard procedure. The nutritional status of 74.5% of the patients was screened during admission, mostly on the basis of clinical observation and patient weight. A validated screening tool was used for 21.2% of the patients. Significant differences between wards with and without validated screening tools were found with regard to malnutrition prevalence (P = 0.002) and the following interventions: referral to a dietitian (P malnutrition screening tools is associated with better nutritional care and lower malnutrition prevalence rates in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 Tool With the Subjective Global Assessment Tool to Detect Nutritional Status in Chinese Patients Undergoing Surgery With Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Juntao; Yin, Shaohua; Zhu, Yongjian; Gao, Fengli; Song, Xinna; Song, Zhenlan; Lv, Junying; Li, Miaomiao

    The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery and to compare the ease of use, diversity, and concordance of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 with the Subjective Global Assessment in the same patients. A total of 280 gastrointestinal cancer patients admitted for elective surgery were evaluated by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tools within 48 hours of admission from April to October 2012. Related opinions about ease of using the tools were obtained from 10 nurses. The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk with the SGA and NRS 2002 was 33.9% and 53.2% on admission. In the total group, ≤70 age group, and >70 age group, respectively, consistency was observed in 214 (76.4%), 175 (91.1%), and 39 (44.3%); and kappa values were 0.54 (p 70 age group (p nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery, but it appeared to detect more patients at nutritional risk in the >70 age group.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of nutritional screening tools to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myoung-Ha; Heo, Young-Ran

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition in the elderly is a serious problem, prevalent in both hospitals and care homes. Due to the absence of a gold standard for malnutrition, herein we evaluate the efficacy of five nutritional screening tools developed or used for the elderly. Elected medical records of 141 elderly patients (86 men and 55 women, aged 73.5 ± 5.2 years) hospitalized at a geriatric care hospital were analyzed. Nutritional screening was performed using the following tools: Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002). A combined index for malnutrition was also calculated as a reference tool. Each patient evaluated as malnourished to any degree or at risk of malnutrition according to at least four out of five of the aforementioned tools was categorized as malnourished in the combined index classification. According to the combined index, 44.0% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition to some degree. While the nutritional risk and/or malnutrition varied greatly depending on the tool applied, ranging from 36.2% (MUST) to 72.3% (MNA-SF). MUST showed good validity (sensitivity 80.6%, specificity 98.7%) and almost perfect agreement (k = 0.81) with the combined index. In contrast, MNA-SF showed poor validity (sensitivity 100%, specificity 49.4%) and only moderate agreement (k = 0.46) with the combined index. MNA-SF was found to overestimate the nutritional risk in the elderly. MUST appeared to be the most valid and useful screening tool to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital.

  1. Development and preliminary validation of a Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents directly influence children's physical activity and nutrition behaviors and also dictate the physical and social environments that are available to their children. This paper summarizes the development of an easy to use screening tool (The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA Screening Tool designed to assess family environmental and behavioral factors that may predispose a child to becoming overweight. Methods The FNPA instrument was developed using constructs identified in a comprehensive evidence analysis conducted in collaboration with the American Dietetics Association. Two or three items were created for each of the ten constructs with evidence grades of II or higher. Parents of first grade students from a large urban school district (39 schools were recruited to complete the FNPA screening tool and provide permission to link results to BMI data obtained from trained nurses in each school. A total of 1085 surveys were completed out of the available sample of 2189 children in the district. Factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure of the scale. Mixed model analyses were conducted on the composite FNPA score to determine if patterns in home environments and behaviors matched some of the expected socio-economic (SES and ethnic patterns in BMI. Correlations among FNPA constructs and other main variables were computed to examine possible associations among the various factors. Finally, logistic regression was used to evaluate the construct validity of the FNPA scale. Results Factor analyses revealed the presence of a single factor and this unidimensional structure was supported by the correlation analyses. The correlations among constructs were consistently positive but the total score had higher correlations with child BMI than the other individual constructs. The FNPA scores followed expected demographic patterns with low income families reporting lower (less favorable scores than

  2. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  4. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, pChildren from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  5. Acute phase nutritional screening tool associated with functional outcomes of hip fracture patients: A longitudinal study to compare MNA-SF, MUST, NRS-2002 and GNRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuro; Misu, Shogo; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kakehi, Tetsuya; Ono, Rei

    2018-02-15

    Several hip fracture patients are malnourished, but no study has attempted to determine the optimal nutritional screening tool for predicting functional outcomes. We investigated the association between each nutritional status assessed by four nutritional screening tools at admission and functional outcomes during the postoperative acute phase in hip fracture patients. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Score 2002 (NRS-2002) and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) were assessed at admission before surgery. We evaluated the motor domain of the functional independence measure (motor-FIM) score at discharge, efficiency on the motor-FIM (change in the motor-FIM score after postoperative rehabilitation divided by postoperative length of hospital stay), and 10-m walking speed at postoperative 14 days as functional outcomes. Two hundred and five patients (mean patient age, 83.5 ± 7.0 years; range, 65-100 years; 82% female) were included. The MNA-SF evaluation classified 56 patients as well-nourished, 103 as at risk of malnutrition and 46 as malnourished. The MUST evaluation classified 97 patients as low risk, 42 as medium risk and 66 as high risk. The NRS-2002 evaluation classified 89 patients as well-nourished, 69 as medium risk and 47 as nutritionally at risk. The GNRI evaluation classified 44 patients as no risk, 74 as low risk and 87 as a major risk. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that MNA-SF had a significant association with discharge motor-FIM (well-nourished vs. at risk of malnutrition, standardised β = -0.06, p = 0.04; vs. malnourished, standardised β = -0.32, p hip fracture patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool and obesity severity in youth referred to weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jared M; Howard, Kathleen; Guseman, Emily H; Yee, Kimbo E; Saturley, Heather; Eisenmann, Joey C

    The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool (FNPA) evaluates family behavioural and environmental factors associated with pediatric obesity, but it is unknown if FNPA scores differ among youth across obesity severities. Our aim was to determine the association between the FNPA and obesity severity in youth referred to weight management. Upon initiating treatment, height, weight, and the FNPA were collected according to standard procedures. Cut-points for overweight/obesity, severe obesity (SO) class 2, and SO class 3 were calculated. FNPA scores were compared across weight status groups using analysis of covariance, and odds of SO across FNPA quartiles were evaluated with multiple logistic regression. Participants included 564 5-18year old who initiated treatment and completed the FNPA. After adjustment, FNPA scores differed by weight status with higher/healthier scores in youth with overweight/obesity (56.6±8.5) when compared to those with SO class 2 (55.0±7.1; p=0.015) or SO class 3 (53.6±9.0; p<0.001). Compared to those in the highest FNPA quartile, youth in the 2nd quartile had 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) times higher odds of SO, and those in the lowest FNPA quartile had 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.4) times higher odds of SO. Youth with SO had unhealthier subscale scores among 6 of 10 constructs, including nutritional, physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviours. Results suggest a consistent inverse relationship between the FNPA and adiposity among youth presenting for weight management. The FNPA is a useful metric for programs and clinicians targeting family behaviours and the home environment to combat obesity. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional screening tools application in a general hospital: a comparative study Aplicação de instrumentos de triagem nutricional em hospital geral: um estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Damasceno Bezerra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many nutritional screening tools and it becomes difficult to choose which one is the best to be used in clinical nutrition practice. Objective: To compare five nutritional screening tools (MST, NRS-2002, MUST, MNA and MNA-SF in adults and elderly hospitalized. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, with the application of nutritional screening tools in adult and elderly patients in the first 48 hours of hospitalization was performed. Nutritional risk occurrence between adult and elderly patients was compared. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive data and a non-parametric test (Man Whitney. Results: We evaluated 77 patients, 51 (66.2% adults and 26 (33.8% elderly, aged 53.6 (standard deviation of 17.9 years, with female predominance (53.2%. The main reasons for hospitalization were neoplasia and nephrolithotripsy. Overall, one quarter of patients was at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk in adults was detected with similarity by MUST and MST. However it was underestimated by NRS-2002. The MNA and MNA-SF, exclusively for the elderly, also had similar result to detect nutritional risk. In relation to the time of application, the MNA was the instrument with longer application time. Conclusion: Considering the higher detection of patients with nutritional risk, the easiness and the lower application time, we suggest, respectively, MUST and MNA-SF to be used in adult and elderly patients admitted in this hospital.Introdução: Com inúmeros instrumentos de triagem nutricional existentes, é difícil eleger o mais adequado para os protocolos de nutrição hospitalar. Objetivo: Comparar cinco instrumentos de triagem nutricional (MST, NRS-2002, MUST, MNA e MNA-SF em adultos e idosos hospitalizados. Materiais e Métodos: Nesse estudo transversal, cinco instrumentos de triagem nutricional foram aplicados aos pacientes nas primeiras 48 horas de internação hospitalar. A ocorrência de risco nutricional

  8. Screening for nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tiantian; Mu, Ying; Gong, Xue; Ma, Wenyan; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality from pediatric liver disease. We investigated the prevalence of both malnutrition and high nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease as well as the rate of in-hospital nutritional support. A total of 2,874 hospitalized children and adolescents with liver disease aged 1 to 17 years (inclusive) were enrolled. Malnutrition was screened by anthropometric measures (height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and BMI- for-age z-scores). The Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) was used to evaluate nutritional risk status. Nutrition markers in blood, rate of nutritional support, length of hospital stay, and hospital fees were compared among nutritional risk groups. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 38.6%. About 20.0% of children had high nutritional risk, and prevalence of malnutrition was markedly greater in the high nutritional risk group compared with the moderate risk group (67.9% vs 31.3%). Serum albumin and prealbumin differed significantly between high and moderate risk groups (pnutritional risk and 3.5% with moderate nutritional risk received nutrition support during hospitalization. Children with high nutritional risk had longer hospital stays and greater hospital costs (pnutritional risk is also prevalent at admission. Albumin and prealbumin are sensitive markers for distinguishing nutritional risk groups. High nutritional risk prolongs length of stay and increases hospital costs. The nutritional support rate is still low and requires standardization.

  9. Nutritional screening in hospitalized pediatric patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fonseca Teixeira

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review showed good performance of the nutritional screening tools in pediatrics, especially STRONGkids and STAMP. The authors emphasize the need to perform for more studies in this area. Only one tool was translated and adapted to the Brazilian pediatric population, and it is essential to carry out studies of tool adaptation and validation for this population.

  10. Screening for nutritional rickets in a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, John M

    2016-11-01

    Concern has been expressed about the rising incidence of nutritional rickets with its associated long-term sequelae in children globally. In order to address the condition worldwide, it is imperative that accurate figures of its incidence are available particularly in at-risk communities. In order to obtain these figures, various screening tools and diagnostic criteria have been used with no standardization of methodologies, resulting in varying prevalences which may under- or over-estimate the prevalence depending of the techniques used. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various screening tests used to diagnose rickets in communities. Clinical signs characteristic of rachitic deformities have been used extensively, but are likely to over-estimate the prevalence and are dependent on the clinical skills of the observer. Biochemical tests such as alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D have also been proposed. There is no consensus on the usefulness of alkaline phosphatase as a screening tool, while there is general agreement that the measurement of vitamin D status is unhelpful in screening for rickets. Finally, the confirmation of the presence of active rickets in suspected infants and children is dependent on radiographic findings, although these may be less helpful in adolescents whose growth plates might be closed or nearly so. In order to obtain uniformity in screening for rickets globally, the is a need for consensus among public health specialists, paediatric endocrinologists and those interested in paediatric bone disease as to the best methods to be employed to determine the prevalence of rickets, particularly in communities with limited resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening Tools for Kindergarten Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kokkalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper review gives a brief and representative description of some of the most used screening tools for kindergarten education. The significant role that early education plays in every child’s academic life is underlined by the importance of tools that give his learning profiles.  Therefore many researchers note that screening tools paly a notable role for the kindergarten teachers, the family and of course for the child in order to offer the appropriate intervention program, the proper support and draw the most suitable teaching method for the child and the class. Thus, the research team of this paper gives the description of some screening tools that are used by kindergarten teachers and specialist’s worldwide-with focus in Greek kindergarten- scoping to underlie strengths and weaknesses of preschoolers. Finally, it is thought worthwhile to say that the screening tools that are presented are used with the traditional way while some of them with the support of new technology.

  12. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(Pgastric cancer(Pgastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(Pgastric cancer patients(Pgastric cancer and colon cancer(Pgastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.

  13. Nutritional Screening of Children: A Manual for Screening & Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Community Health Services (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This manual shows health providers how to perform precisely and expertly each step of several procedures used in screening children for nutritional problems. It is intended for all health providers who are involved in weighing and measuring children, recording and plotting measurements on growth charts, taking blood samples to test for iron…

  14. [Nutritional risk screening and its clinical significance in 706 children hospitalized in the surgical department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu-Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yin-Hua; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Meng-Ying; Cao, Jia; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate nutritional risk and its relationship with clinical outcome in children hospitalized in the surgical department, and to provide a scientific basis for clinical nutrition management. Nutritional risk screening was performed on 706 children hospitalized in the surgical department using the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth. The data on nutritional support during hospitalization, incidence of infectious complications, length of hospital stay, post operative length of hospital stay and total hospital expenses were recorded. Of the 706 cases, 11.5% had high nutritional risk, 46.0% had moderate nutritional risk, and 42.5% had low nutritional risk. Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, intestinal obstruction and congenital heart disease were the three most common types of high nutritional risk. The incidence of high nutritional risk was significantly higher in infants than in other age groups (Pnutritional risk received parenteral nutrition. Children with high nutritional risk were significantly more likely to have weight loss than children with low nutritional risk (Pnutritional risk had significantly increased incidence of infectious complications, length of hospital stay, post operative length of hospital stay and total hospital expenses compared with those with moderate or low nutritional risk (Pnutritional risk is seen in children hospitalized in the surgical department. Nutritional risk score is correlated with clinical outcome. Nutritional support for these children is not yet properly provided. Nutritional risk screening and standard nutritional support should be widely applied among hospitalized children.

  15. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities. 2 figs. 7 refs.

  16. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  17. Phase 1 implementation of nutrition screening in a Dublin acute teaching hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition Screening Week results from 2010 and 2011 indicated that one in three to four patients admitted to Irish Hospitals are at risk of disease-related malnutrition, 74-75% of whom are at high risk1. Nutrition screening tools are used to screen for malnutrition risk. One such tool, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST)2 is a practical, easy to use tool that often takes ≤5 minutes to complete. MUST has been validated across care settings and across patient populations, and has been recommended for use in Irish Hospitals by the Department of Health and Children as part of standard care3. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK has demonstrated significant financial savings associated with the use of routine nutrition screening, in part due to reduced length of hospital stay4. The Irish Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (IrSPEN) has also demonstrated this5

  18. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children : use of 3 screening tools in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen F. M.; Karagiozoglou-Lainpoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A.; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M.

    Background: Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. Objective: We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics

  19. Importance of early nutritional screening in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Cecilia; Colatruglio, Silvia; Sironi, Alessandro; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Miceli, Rosalba

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between nutritional status, disease stage and quality of life (QoL) in 100 patients recently diagnosed with gastric carcinoma. The patients' nutritional status was investigated with anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables; and we also evaluated the nutritional risk with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Oncological staging was standard. QoL was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire. The statistical correlation between nutritional risk score (NRS) and oncological characteristics or QoL was evaluated using both univariable and multivariable analyses. Weight loss and reduction of food intake were the most frequent pathological nutritional indicators, while biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables were in the normal range. According to NRS, thirty-six patients were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Patients with NRS ≥ 3 presented a significantly greater percentage of stage IV gastric cancer and pathological values of C-reactive protein, while no correlation was found with the site of tumour. NRS was negatively associated with QoL (P gastric cancer malnutrition is frequent at diagnosis and this is likely due to reduction in food intake. Moreover, NRS is directly correlated with tumour stage and inversely correlated with QoL, which makes it a useful tool to identify patients in need of an early nutritional intervention during oncological treatments.

  20. Nutrition screening by MUST on the oncological patient in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paula Acevedo Souza dos; Cunha, Tamires Regina da Silva; Soares, Bruna Lucia de Mendonca; Maio, Regiane; Burgos, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiotherapy contributes to the reduction of food intake and increased weight loss due to the appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms, which consequently leads to malnutrition. Objective: Identify nutritional risk through the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), in patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Method: Cross-sectional study with outpatients at the radiotherapy service of the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, during October 2014 until May 2015. Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity), anthropometric variables (habitual weight, current weight and body mass index), comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes), tumor type, time since diagnosis and duration of treatment were evaluated. Nutritional risk was assessed using the MUST, which classifies patients as being at low, medium or high nutritional risk. Results: 150 patients were studied with an average age of 47.3 years, with a predominance of women (72%) and similar proportions of adults and elderly individuals. The sample mainly comprised individuals from in-state regions and inactive/retired individuals who received one to three times the minimum salary. Nutritional risk was significantly higher among elderly individuals (62.9%), among whom high risk predominated (45.7%), whereas most adults had no risk (61.2%). The most frequent tumors were gynecological (59.4%) with weight gain (33.3%), followed by tumors of the head and neck region with a high degree of weight loss (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The use of MUST led to the detection of nutritional risk in 50% of the studied patients, with a predominance of elderly individuals, the majority of whom were at high risk. Tumors of the head and neck led to weight loss, whereas gynecological tumors led to weight gain. Out-patient nutritional screening is important for the early establishment of specialized nutritional counseling. (author)

  1. Outcomes related to nutrition screening in community living older adults: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition screening is an initial procedure in which the risk of malnutrition is identified. The aims of this review were to identify malnutrition risk from nutrition screening studies that have used validated nutrition screening tools in community living older adults; and to identify types of nutrition interventions, pathways of care and patient outcomes following screening. A systematic literature search was performed for the period from January 1994 until December 2013 using SCOPUS, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PubMed and COCHRANE databases as well as a manual search. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined for the literature searches and the methodology followed the PRISMA guidelines. Fifty-four articles were eligible to be included in the review and malnutrition risk varied from 0% to 83%. This large range was influenced by the different tools used and heterogeneity of study samples. Most of the studies were cross sectional and without a subsequent nutrition intervention component. Types of nutrition intervention that were identified included dietetics care, nutrition education, and referral to Meals on Wheels services and community services. These interventions helped to improve the' nutritional status of older adults. Timely nutrition screening of older adults living in the community, if followed up with appropriate intervention and monitoring improves the nutritional status of older adults. This indicates that nutrition intervention should be considered a priority following nutrition screening for malnourished and at risk older adults. Further evaluation of outcomes of nutrition screening and associated interventions, using structured pathways of care, is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of Nutritional Risk and Nutritional Support in General Surgery Patients: A Survey from Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-Yi; Yang, Jun; Tong, Da-Nian; Peng, Jia-Yuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Liu, Wei-Jie; Xia, Yang; Qin, Huan-long

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of nutritional risk in surgical departments and to evaluate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes. The nutritional risk in different surgical diseases and the different way of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk remain unclear. Hospitalized patients from general surgical departments were screened using the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 questionnaire on admission. Data were collected on nutritional risk, complications, and length of stay (LOS). Overall, 5034 patients were recruited; the overall prevalence of nutritional risk on admission were 19.2%. The highest prevalence was found among patients with gastric cancer. At-risk patients had more complications and longer LOS than nonrisk patients. Of the at-risk patients, the complication rate was significantly lower and LOS was significantly shorter in the nutritional-support group than in the no-support group (20.9 versus 30.0%, P nutrition or who received support for 5 to 7 days, or daily support entailing 16 to 25 kcal/kg of nonprotein energy. Different surgical diseases have different levels of nutritional risk. The provision of nutritional support was associated with a lower complication rate and a shorter LOS for gastric, colorectal, and HPB cancer patients at nutritional risk. The improper use of nutritional support may not improve outcomes for at-risk patients. PMID:26011204

  3. Nutritional Disorders of Children. Prevention, Screening, and Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…

  4. Full Implementation of Screening for Nutritional Risk and Dysphagia in an Acute Stroke Unit: A Clinical Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Margitta T; Eltoft, Agnethe; Karaliute, Migle; Børvik, Margrethe T; Nilssen, Hugo; Rasmussen, Ida; Johnsen, Stein H

    2015-10-01

    In patients with acute stroke, undernutrition and aspiration pneumonia are associated with increased mortality and length of hospital stay. Formal screening for nutritional risk and dysphagia helps to ensure optimal nutritional management in all patients with stroke and to reduce the risk of aspiration in patients with dysphagia. We developed a national guideline for nutritional and dysphagia screening in acute stroke, which was introduced in our stroke unit on June 1, 2012. The primary objective was to audit adherence to the guideline and to achieve full implementation. Second, we assessed the prevalence of nutritional risk and dysphagia. We performed a chart review to assess performance of screening for nutritional risk and dysphagia in all patients with stroke hospitalized for ≥48 hours between June 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013. Next we applied a "clinical microsystems approach" with rapid improvement cycles and audits over a 6-month period to achieve full implementation. The chart review showed that nutritional risk screening was performed in 65% and swallow testing in 91% of eligible patients (n = 185). Proactive implementation resulted in >95% patients screened (n = 79). The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 29%, and 23% of the patients failed the initial swallow test. Proactive implementation is required to obtain high screening rates for nutritional risk and swallowing difficulties using validated screening tools. The proportion of patients at nutritional risk and the prevalence of dysphagia at initial swallow test were in the lower range of previous reports.

  5. The malnutrition screening tool versus objective measures to detect malnutrition in hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J J; Bauer, J D; Capra, S

    2013-12-01

    The Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) is the most commonly used screening tool in Australia. Poor screening tool sensitivity may lead to an under-diagnosis of malnutrition, with potential patient and economic ramifications. The present study aimed to determine whether the MST or anthropometric parameters adequately detect malnutrition in patients who were admitted to a hip fracture unit. Data were analysed for a prospective convenience sample (n = 100). MST screening was independently undertaken by nursing staff and a nutrition assistant. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) was measured by a trained nutrition assistant. Nutritional risk [MST score ≥ 2, body mass index (BMI) malnutrition diagnosed by accredited practicing dietitians using International Classification of Diseases version 10-Australian Modification (ICD10-AM) coding criteria. Malnutrition prevalence was 37.5% using ICD10-AM criteria. Delirium, dementia or preadmission cognitive impairment was present in 65% of patients. The BMI as a nutrition risk screen was the most valid predictor of malnutrition (sensitivity 75%; specificity 93%; positive predictive value 73%; negative predictive value 84%). Nursing MST screening was the least valid (sensitivity 73%; specificity 55%; positive predictive value 50%; negative predictive value 77%). There was only fair agreement between nursing and nutrition assistant screening using the MST (κ = 0.28). In this population with a high prevalence of delirium and dementia, further investigation is warranted into the performance of nutrition screening tools and anthropometric parameters such as BMI. All tools failed to predict a considerable number of patients with malnutrition. This may result in the under-diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition, leading to case-mix funding losses. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children: use of 3 screening tools in a large European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen Fm; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M

    2016-05-01

    Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), and the Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGKIDS)] compared with and were related to anthropometric measures, body composition, and clinical variables in patients who were admitted to tertiary hospitals across Europe. The 3 screening tools were applied in 2567 inpatients at 14 hospitals across 12 European countries. The classification of patients into different nutritional risk groups was compared between tools and related to anthropometric measures and clinical variables [e.g., length of hospital stay (LOS) and infection rates]. A similar rate of completion of the screening tools for each tool was achieved (PYMS: 86%; STAMP: 84%; and STRONGKIDS: 81%). Risk classification differed markedly by tool, with an overall agreement of 41% between tools. Children categorized as high risk (PYMS: 25%; STAMP: 23%; and STRONGKIDS: 10%) had a longer LOS than that of children at low risk (1.4, 1.4, and 1.8 d longer, respectively; P malnutrition risk varied across the pediatric tools used. A considerable portion of children with subnormal anthropometric measures were not identified with all of the tools. The data obtained do not allow recommending the use of any of these screening tools for clinical practice. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Validation of screening tools to assess appetite among geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisah, R; Suzana, S; Lee, F S

    2012-07-01

    Poor appetite is one of the main contributing factors of poor nutritional status among elderly individuals. Recognizing the importance of assessment of appetite, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of appetite screening tools namely, the Council on Nutrition Appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) against the appetite, hunger and sensory perception questionnaire (AHSPQ), measures of nutritional status and food intake among geriatric patients at the main general hospital in Malaysia. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) while food intake was measured using the dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Anthropometric parameters included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A total of 145 subjects aged 60 to 86 years (68.3 ± 5.8 years) with 31.7% men and 68.3% women were recruited from outpatients (35 subjects) and inpatients (110 subjects) of Kuala Lumpur Hospital of Malaysia. As assessed by SGA, most subjects were classified as mild to moderately malnourished (50.4%), followed by normal (38.6%) and severely malnourished (11.0%). A total of 79.3% and 57.2% subjects were classified as having poor appetite according to CNAQ and SNAQ, respectively. CNAQ (80.9%) had a higher sensitivity than SNAQ (69.7%) when validated against nutritional status as assessed using SGA. However, the specificity of SNAQ (62.5%) was higher than CNAQ (23.2%). Positive predictive value for CNAQ and SNAQ were 62.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for CNAQ and SNAQ were 0.546 and 0.578, respectively. History of weight loss over the past one year (Adjusted odds ratio 2.49) (p risk factors for poor appetite among subjects. In conclusion, malnutrition and poor appetite were prevalent among the geriatric outpatients and inpatients. SNAQ was more reliable and valid as an appetite screening tool among this special

  8. Risk of Malnutrition and Pressure Ulcer in a mixed hospital population. Nutritional risk screening predicting pressure ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaug, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Malnutrition and pressure ulcer represent significant health problems for hospital inpatients, in addition to having a considerable impact on local and national health care cost. Sufficient nutritional status is crucial for proper wound healing, and malnutrition is a prominent risk factor for pressure ulcer development. Risk of malnutrition can be identified using standardized screening tools, such as the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002. The objective of this...

  9. Self-Screening for Malnutrition Risk in Outpatient Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amindeep; Mosli, Mahmoud; Yan, Brian; Wu, Thomas; Gregor, Jamie; Chande, Nilesh; Ponich, Terry; Beaton, Melanie; Rahman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is associated with poor outcomes. Our aim is to determine if patient self-administered malnutrition screening using the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) is reliable by comparing patient scores with those derived from the healthcare practitioner (HCP), the gold standard. We conducted a prospective validation study at a tertiary Canadian academic center that included 154 adult outpatients with IBD. All patients with IBD completed a self-administered nutrition screening assessment using the MUST score followed by an independent MUST assessment performed by HCPs. The main outcome measure was chance-corrected agreement (κ) of malnutrition risk categorization. For patient-administered MUST, the chance-corrected agreement κ (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.83 (0.74-0.92) when comparing low-risk and combined medium- and high-risk patients with HCP screening. Weighted κ analysis comparing all 3 risks groups yielded a κ (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.77-0.93) between patient and HCP screening. All patients were able to screen themselves. Overall, 96% of patients reported the MUST questionnaire as either very easy or easy to understand and to complete. Self-administered nutrition screening in outpatients with IBD is valid using the MUST screening tool and is easy to use. If adopted, this tool will increase utilization of malnutrition screening in hectic outpatient clinic settings and will help HCPs determine which patients require additional nutrition support. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes.

  11. Designing a Pediatric Severe Sepsis Screening Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSepanski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We sought to create a screening tool with improved predictive value for pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock that can be incorporated into the electronic medical record and actively screen all patients arriving at a pediatric Emergency Department (ED. Gold standard severe sepsis cases were identified using a combination of coded discharge diagnosis and physician chart review from 7,402 children who visited a pediatric ED over two months. The tool’s identification of severe sepsis was initially based on International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis (ICCPS parameters that were refined by an iterative, virtual process that allowed us to propose successive changes in sepsis detection parameters in order to optimize the tool’s predictive value based on receiver operating curve (ROC characteristics. Age-specific normal and abnormal values for heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RR were empirically derived from 143,603 children seen in a second pediatric ED over three years. Univariate analyses were performed for each measure in the tool to assess its association with severe sepsis and to characterize it as an early or late indicator of severe sepsis. A split-sample was used to validate the final, optimized tool. The final tool incorporated age-specific thresholds for abnormal HR and RR and employed a linear temperature correction for each category. The final tool’s positive predictive value was 48.7%, a significant, nearly three-fold improvement over the original ICCPS tool. False positive Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS identifications were nearly six-fold lower.

  12. A nutritional risk screening model for patients with liver cirrhosis established using discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Binghua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo establish a nutritional risk screening model for patients with liver cirrhosis using discriminant analysis. MethodsThe clinical data of 273 patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted to Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from August 2015 to March 2016 were collected. Body height, body weight, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness, and hand grip strength were measured and recorded, and then body mass index (BMI and upper arm muscle circumference were calculated. Laboratory markers including liver function parameters, renal function parameters, and vitamins were measured. The patients were asked to complete Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST, and a self-developed nutritional risk screening pathway was used for nutritional risk classification. Observation scales of the four diagnostic methods in traditional Chinese medicine were used to collect patients′ symptoms and signs. Continuous data were expressed as mean±SD (x±s; an analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between two groups. Discriminant analysis was used for model establishment, and cross validation was used for model verification. ResultsThe nutritional risk screening pathway for patients with liver cirrhosis was used for the screening of respondents, and there were 49 patients (17.95% in non-risk group, 49 (17.95% in possible-risk group, and 175 (64.10% in risk group. The distance criterion function was used to establish the nutritional risk screening model for patients with liver cirrhosis: D1=-11.885+0.310×BMI+0150×MAC+0.005×P-Alb-0.001×Vit B12+0.103×Vit D-0.89×ascites-0.404×weakness-0.560×hypochondriac pain+0035×dysphoria with feverish sensation (note: if a patient has ascites, weakness, hypochondriac pain

  13. Capturing health and eating status through a nutritional perception screening questionnaire (NPSQ9) in a randomised internet-based personalised nutrition intervention: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Rankin, Audrey; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; Jarosz, Miroslaw; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Gundersen, Thomas E; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Mike; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Saris, Wim H M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Frewer, Lynn J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2017-12-11

    National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet. Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n = 2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n = 1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively. A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (β = -0.181, p nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice. NCT01530139 .

  14. [Value of nutritional risk screening in evaluating adverse clinical outcomes in children with severe pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Yan-Feng; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Han, Shu-Zhen; Miao, Jing; Cui, Min

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the nutritional risk in children with severe pneumonia using the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP) and the association between nutritional risk and adverse clinical outcomes. According to the STAMP score, 216 children with severe pneumonia were classified into high nutritional risk group (HR group; n=98), moderate nutritional risk group (MR group; n=65), and low nutritional risk group (LR group; n=53). Fasting blood samples were collected to measure the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), adiponectin, leptin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, and retinol binding protein (RBP). The adverse clinical outcomes were recorded. Compared with the MR and LR groups, the HR group had significantly lower serum levels of IGF-1, leptin, adiponectin, prealbumin, and RBP, as well as a significantly higher serum level of NEFA (Prisk screening has an important value in evaluating the clinical outcome of children with severe pneumonia, and children at a higher nutritional risk tend to have more adverse clinical outcomes.

  15. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  16. Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Bin; Jiang, Zhu-Ming; Nolan, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002).......This multicenter, prospective cohort study evaluated the effect of preoperative nutritional support in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk as defined by the Nutritional Risk Screening Tool 2002 (NRS-2002)....

  17. Screening for nutritional risk in hospitalized children: comparison of two instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Novianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Malnutrition in hospitalized children has negative impact on morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and health-care cost. A simple screening tool is needed to detect hospital malnutrition risk in children. Objective To compare the level of agreement of the Screening Tool for Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP and Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score (PNRS with anthropometric measurements, as screening tools for hospital malnutrition in children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to July 2014 in the Pediatric and Surgery Wards at H. Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera. Inclusion criteria were children aged 2 to 18 years who were hospitalized for more than 72 hours. Subjects were screened using STAMP and PNRS, and underwent anthropometric measurement on admission. The weight measurements were repeated on the 3rd and 7th days, and just before discharge. The STAMP and PNRS results were compared in terms of level of agreement with anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed by Kappa value and Spearman’s correlation test. Results A total of 127 children were screened with both instruments. The PNRS had slight agreement with hospital malnutrition prevalence (κ=0.175; P=0.028, while STAMP had not  (κ=0.080; P=0.193. Both screening tools had weak positive correlations with length of stay, but the correlation was stronger for PNRS than for STAMP (r=0.218; P=0.014 vs. r=0.188; P=0.034, respectively. The prevalence of hospital malnutrition was 40.9%.  Conclusions The PNRS screening tool has slight agreement with anthropometric measurement for identifying hospital malnutrition risk in children.

  18. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoh D

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Divya Vanoh,1 Suzana Shahar,1 Razali Rosdinom,2 Normah Che Din,3 Hanis Mastura Yahya,4 Azahadi Omar5 1Dietetic Programme, Centre of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Kebangsaan Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Health Psychology Programme, 4Nutrition Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background and aim: Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS. Methodology: A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion: TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic

  19. Use of Subjective Global Assessment, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 to evaluate the nutritional status of non-critically ill patients on parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia-Tahull, M B; Cobo-Sacristán, S; Leiva-Badosa, E; Miquel-Zurita, M E; Méndez-Cabalerio, N; Jódar-Masanés, R; Llop-Talaverón, J

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status of non-critically ill digestive surgery patients at the moment of parenteral nutrition initiation using three different nutritional test tools and to study their correlation. To study the association between the tests and the clinical and laboratory parameters used in the follow-up of PN treatment. Prospective study over 4 months. Anthropometric and clinical variables were recorded. Results of Subjective Global Assessment; Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment; and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 were compared applying kappa test. Relationship between the clinical and laboratory parameters with Subjective Global Assessment was studied by multinominal regression and with the other two tests by multiple linear regression models. Age and sex were included as adjustment variables. Malnutrition in 45 studied patients varied from 51% to 57%. Subjective Global Assessment correlated well with Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (κ = 0531 p = 0.000). The test with the greatest correlation with the clinical and analytical variables was the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Worse nutritional state in this test was associated with worse results in albumin (B = -0.087; CI = -0.169/-0.005], prealbumin (B = -0.005; CI = [-0.011/-0.001]), C-reactive protein (B = 0.006;CI = [0.001/ 0.011]) and leukocytes (B = 0.134; CI = [0.031/0.237]) at the en of parenteral nutrition treatment. Half of the digestive surgery patients were at malnutritional risk at the moment of initiating parenteral nutrition. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 was the test with best association with the parameters used in the clinical follow-up of parenteral nutrition treated patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the nutritional status of older hospitalised geriatric patients: a comparative analysis of a Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) version and the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, S; Ritt, M; Volkert, D; Wirth, R; Sieber, C C; Gaßmann, K-G

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a short-form (MNA-SF) version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), in which some of the items were operationalised, based on scores from tools used for a comprehensive geriatric assessment, as a method for analysing the nutritional status of hospitalised geriatric patients. We compared this MNA-SF version with the corresponding MNA long-form (MNA-LF) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) in terms of completion rate, prevalence and agreement regarding malnutrition and/or the risk of this. In total, 201 patients aged ≥65 years who were hospitalised in geriatric wards were included in this analysis. The MNA-SF, MNA-LF and NRS 2002 were completed in 98.0%, 95.5% and 99.5% of patients (P = 0.06), respectively. The MNA-SF, MNA-LF and NRS 2002 categorised 93.4%, 91.1% and 66.0% of patients as being malnourished or at risk of being malnourished (P evaluating the nutritional status of hospitalised geriatric patients. The NRS 2002 part 1 showed limited value as a prescreening aid in relation to the NRS 2002 part 2 in the same group of patients. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Development of nutrition education tool: healthy eating index in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taechangam, Sunard; Pinitchun, Utumporn; Pachotikarn, Chanida

    2008-01-01

    A healthful diet can reduce major risk factors for chronic diseases. To assess the dietary status of Thais and monitor changes in food consumption patterns, the Healthy Eating Index for Thais (THEI) is developed, an important tool for meeting the nutrition goals and determining people's overall diet quality. This index measures how well the diets of Thai people conform to the recommendations of the Food Guide Thailand Nutrition Flag. The THEI consists of 11 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet: Components 1-5 measure the degree to which a person's diet conforms to serving recommendations for the five major food groups of Thailand Nutrition Flag; Components 6, 7 and 8 measure total fat, saturated fat and added sugar consumption, respectively; Components 9 and 10 measure total cholesterol and sodium intake; and Component 11 examines variety in a person's diet. Each of the 11 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, for a total score of 110. The dietary intake data from selected working adults were collected to derive the THEI scores. The average THEI score indicated that the diets of most people needed improvement and some individuals were more likely than others to consume a poor diet. This suggests a continued role for nutrition education and promotion efforts should result in a significant improvement of people's overall diet quality. In conclusion, the THEI is an useful index for describing overall diet quality for Thais and serves as a basic tool for providing nutrition education and promotion.

  2. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij; Christophe Rochin; Nathalie Berne; Alessandro Sassi; Antoine Leplay

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES), developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL) or occupational exposure band (OEB). The inhalation exposure i...

  3. Targeting malnutrition. Isotopic tools for evaluating nutrition worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D. III

    1996-07-01

    This booklet provides a brief description of pioneering IAEA-supported work to evaluate vitamin A and iron deficiencies, bone disease, undernutrition and obesity and the special nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and their children. And while it shows that the role of the Agency remains highly specialized, to develop and transfer nuclear-based evaluation tools, each of these areas of applied research aims at improving the scientific foundations for broader national food and nutrition-related development policies and programmes

  4. Targeting malnutrition. Isotopic tools for evaluating nutrition worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D III [ed.

    1996-07-01

    This booklet provides a brief description of pioneering IAEA-supported work to evaluate vitamin A and iron deficiencies, bone disease, undernutrition and obesity and the special nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and their children. And while it shows that the role of the Agency remains highly specialized, to develop and transfer nuclear-based evaluation tools, each of these areas of applied research aims at improving the scientific foundations for broader national food and nutrition-related development policies and programmes.

  5. Suicide Risk Screening Tools and the Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    The use of suicide risk screening tools is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to suicide risk assessment. Since nurses frequently spend more time with patients than any other healthcare professional, they are in key positions to detect and prevent suicidal behavior in youth. To inform nurses about suicide risk screening tools for the youth population. Suicide risk screening tools are research-based standardized instruments that are used to identify people who may be at risk for suicide. A literature search was performed using the Athabasca University Library Resource, the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Nurses are cautioned to utilize suicide risk screening tools as only part of the suicide risk assessment in youth populations and avoid the danger of relying on tools that may result in a blind application of evidence to the detriment of clinical experience and judgement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impact Exerted by Nutritional Risk Screening on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Cai, Hongfei; Li, Yang; Chen, Caiwen; Cui, Youbin

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional support, and the other patients not supported nutritionally were selected as the control group. The comparison was drawn between two groups in serum albumin, serum immunoglobulin, postoperative complications, hospitalization, and hospitalization expenses. For all the patients, in 3 and 7 days after the surgery, the serum albumin in the nutritionally supported group outstripped that in group without nutritional support ( P nutritional risk. For the patients in the risk of nutrition, the IgA in the nutritionally supported group outstripped that of group without nutritional support ( P group without nutritional support in 1 and 3 days before the surgery ( P nutrition, the average hospitalization of nutritionally supported group was shorter ( P group without nutritional support. And for the patients in no risk, the hospitalization expenses of supported group surmounted those of group without nutritional support ( P 0.05). For the patients in the risk of nutrition, preoperative nutritional support can facilitate the nutritional status and immunization-relative result after surgery, which shall also decrease the average hospitalization and hospitalization cost.

  7. Visual Impairment Screening Assessment (VISA) tool: pilot validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Hepworth, Lauren R; Hanna, Kerry L; Howard, Claire

    2018-03-06

    To report and evaluate a new Vision Impairment Screening Assessment (VISA) tool intended for use by the stroke team to improve identification of visual impairment in stroke survivors. Prospective case cohort comparative study. Stroke units at two secondary care hospitals and one tertiary centre. 116 stroke survivors were screened, 62 by naïve and 54 by non-naïve screeners. Both the VISA screening tool and the comprehensive specialist vision assessment measured case history, visual acuity, eye alignment, eye movements, visual field and visual inattention. Full completion of VISA tool and specialist vision assessment was achieved for 89 stroke survivors. Missing data for one or more sections typically related to patient's inability to complete the assessment. Sensitivity and specificity of the VISA screening tool were 90.24% and 85.29%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 93.67% and 78.36%, respectively. Overall agreement was significant; k=0.736. Lowest agreement was found for screening of eye movement and visual inattention deficits. This early validation of the VISA screening tool shows promise in improving detection accuracy for clinicians involved in stroke care who are not specialists in vision problems and lack formal eye training, with potential to lead to more prompt referral with fewer false positives and negatives. Pilot validation indicates acceptability of the VISA tool for screening of visual impairment in stroke survivors. Sensitivity and specificity were high indicating the potential accuracy of the VISA tool for screening purposes. Results of this study have guided the revision of the VISA screening tool ahead of full clinical validation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Comparative analysis of pharmacophore screening tools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.P.A.; Barbosa, A.J.; Zarzycka, B.; Nicolaes, G.A.; Klomp, J.P.G.; Vlieg, J. de; Rio, A. Del

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacophore concept is of central importance in computer-aided drug design (CADD) mainly because of its successful application in medicinal chemistry and, in particular, high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS). The simplicity of the pharmacophore definition enables the complexity of molecular

  9. NRS-2002 for pre-treatment nutritional risk screening and nutritional status assessment in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orell-Kotikangas, Helena; Österlund, Pia; Saarilahti, Kauko; Ravasco, Paula; Schwab, Ursula; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of nutritional risk screening-2002 (NRS-2002) as a nutritional risk screening and status assessment method and to compare it with nutritional status assessed by subjective and objective methods in the screening of head and neck cancer patients. Sixty-five consecutive patients (50 male), with a median age of 61 years (range, 33-77), with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were enrolled prior to cancer therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by NRS-2002, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength (HGS) and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). Twenty-eight percent of patients were at nutritional risk based on NRS-2002, and 34 % were malnourished according to PG-SGA, while 43 % had low HGS. NRS-2002 cut-off score of ≥3 compared with the nutritional status according to PG-SGA showed 77 % specificity and 98 % sensitivity (K = 0.78). NRS-2002 was able to predict malnutrition (PG-SGA BC) both in men (p nutrition screening in head and neck cancer patients prior to oncological treatment.

  10. Climate project screening tool: an aid for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Lyn Morelli; Sharon Yeh; Nikola M. Smith; Mary Beth Hennessy; Constance I. Millar

    2012-01-01

    To address the impacts of climate change, land managers need techniques for incorporating adaptation into ongoing or impending projects. We present a new tool, the Climate Project Screening Tool (CPST), for integrating climate change considerations into project planning as well as for developing concrete adaptation options for land managers. We designed CPST as part of...

  11. Validation of a Dietary Screening Tool in a Middle-Aged Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ventura Marra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45–64 year olds, n = 87 who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI was calculated to describe overall diet quality. Adults identified by the DST with a nutrition risk had lower HEI scores (50 vs. 64, p < 0.001 and were much more likely to also be considered at dietary risk by the HEI (OR 11.6; 3.2–42.6 when compared to those not at risk. Those at risk had higher energy-adjusted total fat, saturated fat, and added sugar intakes and lower intakes of dietary fiber, and several micronutrients than those classified as not at risk by the DST. Similarly, the at-risk group had significantly lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin but did not differ in retinol or methylmalonic acid compared with those not at risk. The DST is a valid tool to identify middle-aged adults with nutritional risk.

  12. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Diagnostic test accuracy of nutritional tools used to identify undernutrition in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Kirkpatrick, Pamela

    2015-05-15

    Effective nutritional screening, nutritional care planning and nutritional support are essential in all settings, and there is no doubt that a health service seeking to increase safety and clinical effectiveness must take nutritional care seriously. Screening and early detection of malnutrition is crucial in identifying patients at nutritional risk. There is a high prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients undergoing treatment for colorectal cancer. To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the diagnostic test accuracy of nutritional tools (sensitivity and specificity) used to identify malnutrition (specifically undernutrition) in patients with colorectal cancer (such as the Malnutrition Screening Tool and Nutritional Risk Index) compared to reference tests (such as the Subjective Global Assessment or Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment). Patients with colorectal cancer requiring either (or all) surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in secondary care. Focus of the review: The diagnostic test accuracy of validated assessment tools/instruments (such as the Malnutrition Screening Tool and Nutritional Risk Index) in the diagnosis of malnutrition (specifically under-nutrition) in patients with colorectal cancer, relative to reference tests (Subjective Global Assessment or Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment). Types of studies: Diagnostic test accuracy studies regardless of study design. Studies published in English, German, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian were considered for inclusion in this review. Databases were searched from their inception to April 2014. Methodological quality was determined using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. Data was collected using the data extraction form: the Standards for Reporting Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy checklist for the reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy. The accuracy of diagnostic tests is presented in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive

  14. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  16. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES, developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL or occupational exposure band (OEB. The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1 inhalation risk score; (2 identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3 status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool. Keywords: occupational exposure, risk assessment, risk management

  17. Impact Exerted by Nutritional Risk Screening on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Wang; Hongfei Cai; Yang Li; Caiwen Chen; Youbin Cui

    2018-01-01

    Objective. Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods. 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional su...

  18. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valéria Campana Dos Anjos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current response to intervention models (RTI favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Nonresponders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Nonresponders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 seven years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words (Alternative Tools for Educators-ATE and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile showed good sensitivity (true positives and specificity (true negatives to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤ 1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a

  19. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  20. Nutritional screening, assessment and implementation strategies for adults in an Australian acute tertiary hospital: a best practice implementation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise; Chapman, Amanda; Flowers, Kelli; Wright, Kylie; Chen, Tanghua; O'Connor, Charmaine; Astorga, Cecilia; Francis, Nevenka; Vigh, Gia; Wainwright, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The project aimed to improve the effectiveness of nutritional screening and assessment practices through clinical audits and the implementation of evidence-based practice recommendations. In the absence of optimal nutrition, health may decline and potentially manifest as adverse health outcomes. In a hospitalized person, poor nutrition may adversely impact on the person's outcome. If the nutritional status can be ascertained, nutritional needs can be addressed and potential risks minimized.The overall purpose of this project was to review and monitor staff compliance with nutritional screening and assessment best practice recommendations ensuring there is timely, relevant and structured nutritional therapeutic practices that support safe, compassionate and person-centered care in adults in a tertiary hospital in South Western Sydney, Australia, in the acute care setting. A baseline retrospective chart audit was conducted and measured against 10 best practice criteria in relation to nutritional screening and assessment practices. This was followed by a facilitated multidisciplinary focus group to identify targeted strategies, implementation of targeted strategies, and a post strategy implementation chart audit.The project utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) and Getting Research into Practice (GRIP) tool, including evidence from other available supporting literature, for promoting change in healthcare practice. The baseline audit revealed deficits between current practice and best practice across the 10 criteria. Barriers for implementation of nutritional screening and assessment best practice criteria were identified by the focus group and an education strategy was implemented. There were improved outcomes across all best practice criteria in the follow-up audit. The baseline audit revealed gaps between current practice and best practice. Through the implementation of a targeted education program and

  1. Development, reliability, and validity testing of Toddler NutriSTEP: a nutrition risk screening questionnaire for children 18-35 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Simpson, Janis; Gumbley, Jillian; Whyte, Kylie; Lac, Jane; Morra, Crystal; Rysdale, Lee; Turfryer, Mary; McGibbon, Kim; Beyers, Joanne; Keller, Heather

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition is vital for optimal growth and development of young children. Nutrition risk screening can facilitate early intervention when followed by nutritional assessment and treatment. NutriSTEP (Nutrition Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) is a valid and reliable nutrition risk screening questionnaire for preschoolers (aged 3-5 years). A need was identified for a similar questionnaire for toddlers (aged 18-35 months). The purpose was to develop a reliable and valid Toddler NutriSTEP. Toddler NutriSTEP was developed in 4 phases. Content and face validity were determined with a literature review, parent focus groups (n = 6; 48 participants), and experts (n = 13) (phase A). A draft questionnaire was refined with key intercept interviews of 107 parents/caregivers (phase B). Test-retest reliability (phase C), based on intra-class correlations (ICC), Kappa (κ) statistics, and Wilcoxon tests was assessed with 133 parents/caregivers. Criterion validity (phase D) was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing scores on the Toddler NutriSTEP to a comprehensive nutritional assessment of 200 toddlers with a registered dietitian (RD). The Toddler NutriSTEP was reliable between 2 administrations (ICC = 0.951, F = 20.53, p Toddler NutriSTEP were correlated (r = 0.67, p Toddler NutriSTEP questionnaire is both reliable and valid for screening for nutritional risk in toddlers.

  2. Screening the nutritional status in oncology: a preliminary report on 1,000 outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, Federico

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the preliminary data of a prospective multi-centre investigation on the screening of the nutritional status of cancer outpatients with the purpose to define: (1) prevalence and rate of weight loss and nutritional risk in this patient population, and (2) to assess the association among some patient-dependent, tumour-dependent and therapy-dependent variables with the nutritional status and the nutritional risk. Seventeen centres were involved to collect demographic data (age and sex), oncologic data (site of primary tumour, stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance State, oncologic therapy) and presence and severity of systemic and digestive/nutritional symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, dysgeusia/dysosmia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea/constipation). Furthermore, the percentage of the weight loss on the usual body weight and the body mass index were computed. The nutritional risk was assessed according to the Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 questionnaire which scores the risk from 0 to 7. On the first 1,000 screened patients, a significant weight loss (>or=10%) and a nutritional risk score >or=3 were observed in 39.7% and 33.8% of patients, respectively. Weight loss was higher in upper gastrointestinal tumours, in advanced stages of disease and in patients with a poor performance status. Similarly, the nutritional risk was higher in esophageal and pancreatic cancer and in those with a worse performance status. There was a good correlation between the severity of anorexia and the rate of the weight loss The majority of patients with no weight loss or a weight loss anorexia. Weight loss and nutritional risk are frequent in an unselected series of cancer outpatients. Site of primary tumour, stage and performance state appear to be associated, at a preliminary analysis, with significant weight loss and nutritional risk. Anorexia and weight loss are closely related, and this supports the concept that nutritional

  3. [Linked Data as a tool in the nutrition domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Pérez, R; Santos Gago, J M; Alonso Rorís, V M; Álvarez Sabucedo, L M; Mikic Fonte, F A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a huge amount of information available on Internet that can neither be interpreted nor used by software agents. This fact poses a serious drawback to the potential of tools that deal with data on the current Web. Nevertheless, in recent times, advances in the domain of Semantic Web make possible the development of a new generation of smart applications capable of creating added-value services for the final user. This work shows the technical challenges that must be faced in the area of nutrition in order to transform one or several oldfashion sources of raw data into a web repository based on semantic technologies and linked with external and publicly available data on Internet. This approach makes possible for automatic tools to operate on the top of this information providing new functionalities highly interesting in the domain of public health, such as the automatic generation of menus for children or intelligent dietetic assistants, among others. This article explains the process to create such information support applying the guidelines of the Linked Data initiative and provides insights into the use of tools to make the most of this technology for its adoption in related use cases and environments.

  4. Ultrasound as a secondary screening tool in mammographically dense breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, Kylie

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that breast screening is a part of our society and is designed to reduce the mortality and morbidity from breast cancer. Mammography is the imaging modality of choice in a breast-screening environment. Both the detection rate of mammography in a screening environment and the sensitivity of mammography in symptomatic women are known to be greater than that of ultrasound. However, after a review of literature both of these are said to increase when the two imaging modalities are combined. This paper will present that mammography has limitations in breast imaging, especially in women with dense breasts and that ultrasound can have a benefit as a secondary screening tool in these women. It will be shown that although ultrasound also has its limitations, these can be minimised with the implementation of effective education and imaging protocols. The paper will conclude that although further research into ultrasound as screening tool is required, its use as a complement to mammography can only be of benefit to the general population

  5. Screening tools for identification of elder abuse: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallione, Chiara; Dal Molin, Alberto; Cristina, Fabio V B; Ferns, Hilary; Mattioli, Mark; Suardi, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    To review the efficacy and accuracy of tools administered to older people, intended to detect and measure elder abuse. The mistreatment of older people represents a widespread problem, with exponential growth risk, especially considering the progressive ageing of the world population. It could have serious consequences for the victim's health if not recognised early, denounced and stopped. Abuse is often undetected by service providers because there is a lack of awareness surrounding the magnitude of the problem. Education and formal training in the signs of abuse are also generally poorly developed, as are reporting procedures which would lead to further investigation. Systematic review. Comprehensive database searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and Scopus were undertaken. Screening of 695 articles resulted in 11 included. Appraisal and analysis using PRISMA Statement and STROBE checklist were undertaken. Eleven screening tools have been presented: H-S/EAST, VASS, EASI, CASE, BASE, E-IOA, EAI, EPAS, CPEABS, OAPAM and OAFEM, all aimed at healthcare professional or, in some cases, expected to be specifically used by nurses. The fundamental function of any assessment instrument is to guide through a standardised screening process and to ensure that signs of abuse are not missed. Several tools have been tested; some have demonstrated a moderate to good internal consistency and some have been validated to allow an early identification. None have been evaluated against measurable violence or health outcomes. Nurses and all healthcare providers should screen patients routinely. However, we are not able to recommend a single tool as the selection and implementation has to be appropriate to the setting. Furthermore, the study population and the possibility of using multiple tools in combination should be taken into consideration, to assess all the aspects of violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nutritional screening for improving professional practice for patient outcomes in hospital and primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Murray, Susan M; Wonderling, David; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-06-06

    Given the prevalence of under-nutrition and reports of inadequate nutritional management of patients in hospitals and the community, nutritional screening may play a role in reducing the risks of malnutrition. Screening programmes can invoke costs to health systems and patients. It is therefore important to assess the effectiveness of nutritional screening programmes. To examine the effectiveness of nutritional screening in improving quality of care (professional practice) and patient outcomes compared with usual care. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to June 2012 to find relevant studies. Randomised controlled studies, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies assessing the effectiveness of nutritional screening were eligible for inclusion in the review. We considered process outcomes (for example patient identification, referral to dietitian) and patient outcomes (for example mortality, change in body mass index (BMI)). Participants were adult patients aged 16 years or over. We included studies conducted in different settings, including hospitals, out-patient clinics, primary care or long term care settings. We independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. Meta-analysis was considered but was not conducted due to the discrepancies between the studies. The studies were heterogeneous in their design, setting, intervention and outcomes. We analysed the data using a narrative synthesis approach. After conducting initial searches and screening the titles and abstracts of the identified literature, 77 full text papers were retrieved and read. Ultimately three studies were included. Two controlled before-after studies were conducted in hospital settings (one in the UK and one in the Netherlands) and one cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary care setting (in the USA).The study conducted in

  7. Nutritional screening and dietitian consultation rates in a geriatric evaluation and management unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Elsa; Wright, Olivia; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Hubbard, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Nutritional screening may not always lead to intervention. The present study aimed to determine: (i) the rate of nutritional screening in hospitalised older adults; (ii) whether nutritional screening led to dietitian consultation and (iii) factors associated with malnutrition. In this prospective study of patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit (GEMU), malnutrition was screened for using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and identified using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Of the 172 patients participating in the study, 53 (30.8%) patients were malnourished, and 84 (48.8%) were at risk of malnutrition. Mean (SD) age was 85.2 (6.4 years), with 131 patients (76.2%) female. Nutritional screening was performed for all patients; however, it was incomplete in 59 (34.3%) because of omission of the anthropometric measurement. Overall, 62 (36.0%) of the total number of patients were seen by the dietitian, which included 26 (49%) of malnourished patients, 27 (32%) of at-risk patients and 9 (26%) of the well-nourished patients. No patients lost >1% of body weight during GEMU stay. Malnourished patients were more likely to be frail, have poor appetite, depression, and have lower levels of: albumin, cognition, physical function, grip strength and quality of life. The full benefits of nutritional screening by MNA-SF may not be realised if it does not result in malnourished patients receiving a dietitian consultation. However, it is possible that enrichment of the foodservice with high protein/high-energy options minimised patient weight loss in the GEMU. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  9. The two most popular malnutrition screening tools in the light of the new ESPEN consensus definition of the diagnostic criteria for malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Klek, Stanislaw; Doundoulakis, Ioannis; Bouras, Emmanouil; Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Baschali, Aristea; Passakiotou, Marili; Chourdakis, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The new definition of malnutrition in adults proposed recently by The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) changed the view on the issue and raised the question of the reliability of available diagnostic tools. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of the two most commonly used screening tools by comparing their findings with the new ESPEN criteria. Nutritional screening was performed in 1146 (median age 60 years, interquartile range: 44-73 years, 617 males, 529 females) patients on admission to hospitals with two nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). The screening results were then compared to the ESPEN new diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. According to the NRS2002 13.5% and 27.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. With the use of MUST 9.1% and 14.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. According to the ESPEN diagnostic criteria 6.4% and 11.3% of outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were classified as malnourished. MUST was found to be better correlated to the latter for both outpatients (K = 0.777, p malnutrition screening tool in the light of the new ESPEN definition for malnutrition. According to our results, MUST was better correlated with ESPEN criteria for the definition of malnutrition, leading us to the conclusion that it can more efficiently identify the malnourished patients, during the screening process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Older people experience more concurrent illnesses, are prescribed more medications and suffer more adverse drug events than younger people. Many drugs predispose older people to adverse events such as falls and cognitive impairment, thus increasing morbidity and health resource utilization. At the same time, older people are often denied potentially beneficial, clinically indicated medications without a valid reason. We aimed to validate a new screening tool of older persons\\' prescriptions incorporating criteria for potentially inappropriate drugs called STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' Prescriptions) and criteria for potentially appropriate, indicated drugs called START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right, i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment). METHODS: A Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of STOPP\\/START. An 18-member expert panel from academic centers in Ireland and the United Kingdom completed two rounds of the Delphi process by mail survey. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by determining the kappa-statistic for measure of agreement on 100 data-sets. RESULTS: STOPP is comprised of 65 clinically significant criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Each criterion is accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the prescribing practice is potentially inappropriate. START consists of 22 evidence-based prescribing indicators for commonly encountered diseases in older people. Inter-rater reliability is favorable with a kappa-coefficient of 0.75 for STOPP and 0.68 for START. CONCLUSION: STOPP\\/START is a valid, reliable and comprehensive screening tool that enables the prescribing physician to appraise an older patient\\'s prescription drugs in the context of his\\/her concurrent diagnoses.

  11. Refeeding syndrome: screening, incidence, and treatment during parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Russell S

    2013-12-01

    The possible deleterious effects of feeding after a period of prolonged starvation have been known for over 60 years. The resultant biochemical disturbance, symptoms, and signs have been termed the refeeding syndrome (RS). The key to the pathophysiology is the stimulation of insulin release resulting in anabolic activity. Depleted electrolyte and micronutrient stores are overwhelmed and cellular function disrupted. A concise definition of RS is not agreed and hampers interpretation of clinical data. Hypophosphatemia and appearance of tissue edema/pathological fluid shifts are the most often agreed diagnostic criteria. The characteristics of particular patient groups at risk have been recognized for some time, and there are guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence in the UK to aid recognition of individuals at high risk along with protocols for initiating nutrition. Using loose diagnostic criteria, RS appears to occur in 4% of cases of parenteral nutrition (PN) when case records were reviewed by experts in a large study into PN care in the UK. Disappointingly, prescribers recognized only 50% of at risk cases. Early data from a similar study in New Zealand appear to show a similar pattern. Prospective series looking at patients receiving nutrition support in institutions with Nutrition Support Teams have found an incidence of 1-5%. RS is still underrecognized. Patients receiving PN should be counted as being in a high-risk category and feeding protocols to avoid RS applied. Low rates of RS then occur and death from this cause be avoided. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Developing an Assessment (Tool) for Touch Screen Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Touch screen devices have become prevalent in our lives. Assistive technology experts working with people with disabilities face difficulty in understanding and assessing the problems experienced by individuals with disabilities in operating touch screen devices. This paper presents the processes of collecting and creating the required knowledge needed for assessing the user's skills for operating various touch screen devices, in order to develop an application for assessing the user's abilities and limitations. A six step procedure was used to collect and validate the required knowledge for the assessment from a multidisciplinary team. To determine the agreement levels between the experts, content validity was calculated. To test correlation between the experts from the different disciplines, a comparison was made between the discipline groups and their choice of specific skills/measurements. The final number of domains and skills/measurements was 15 domains and 50 skills/measurements. The result of Cronbach's α test for the final assessment questionnaire (50 skills/measurements) was 0.94, which indicates a high degree of reliability. The results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed the lack of any significant difference between agreements of the clinicians and the technicians groups, but significant differences were found between the educators and the clinicians groups. Each of the skills appearing in the final questionnaire was illustrated in a flowchart in preparation for developing the assessment (tool) for using touch screen devices.

  13. NutriLive: An Integrated Nutritional Approach as a Sustainable Tool to Prevent Malnutrition in Older People and Promote Active and Healthy Ageing—The EIP-AHA Nutrition Action Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Illario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes a nutritional approach that is nested in the European Innovation Partnership for Active and Healthy Aging (EIP-AHA and aims to provide the first common European program translating an integrated approach to nutritional frailty in terms of a multidimensional and transnational methodology. The document has been developed by the A3 Nutrition Action Area of the EIP-AHA and aims at providing a stepwise approach to malnutrition in older citizens, identifying adequate interventions based on a unified assessment and ICT-supported solutions. “NutriLive” is an integrated nutritional approach, represented by a structured Screening-Assessment-Monitoring-Action-Pyramid-Model (SAM-AP. Its core concept is the stratification of the nutritional needs, considered by the working group as the key for targeted, effective, and sustainable interventions. “NutriLive” tries to close gaps in epidemiological data within an aging population, creating a unified language to deal with the topic of nutrition and malnutrition in Europe. By assembling all the validated screening, assessment, and monitoring tools on malnutrition in a first pyramid, which is interrelated to a second intervention pyramid, the A3 Nutrition WG identifies a common, integrated vision on the nutritional approach to frailty, which applies to the various health care settings.

  14. Nutritional screening of older home-dwelling Norwegians: a comparison between two instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn, Bjørg Dale, Kari Sundsli, Olle SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research-Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: It is important to obtain knowledge about the prevalence of nutritional risk and associated factors among older home-dwelling people in order to be able to meet nutritional challenges in this group in the future and to plan appropriate interventions. The aim of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of home-dwelling older people at nutritional risk and to identify associated factors using two different nutritional screening instruments as self-report instruments.Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. A postal questionnaire, including the Norwegian versions of the Nutritional Form for the Elderly (NUFFE-NO and Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF, background variables, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 6033 home-dwelling older people in southern Norway. A total of 2106 (34.9% subjects were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.Results: When using the NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF, 426 (22.3% and 258 (13.5% older persons, respectively, were identified to be at nutritional risk. The risk of undernutrition increased with age. Several predictors for being at risk of undernutrition, including chronic disease/handicap and receiving family help, as well as protective factors, including sufficient food intake and having social contacts, were identified.Conclusion: Health professionals must be aware of older people's vulnerability to risk of undernutrition, perform screening, and have a plan for preventing undernutrition. For that purpose, MNA-SF and NUFFE-NO can be suggested for screening older people living at home.Keywords: aged, risk factors, undernutrition, screening

  15. Radiographic Absorptiometry as a Screening Tool in Male Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S J; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ryg, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis screening with dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) is not recommended due to low diagnostic utility and costs. Radiographic absorptiometry (RA) determines bone mineral density (BMD) of the phalangeal bones of the hand and is a potential osteoporosis pre-screening tool. Purpose......: To determine the ability of RA to identify patients with osteoporosis in a male population. Material and Methods: As part of the Odense Androgen Study, we measured BMD of the intermediate phalanges of the second to fourth finger, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total hip in 218 men aged 60-74 years (mean 68.8 years......), randomly invited from the population, using RA (MetriScan) and DXA (Hologic 4500-A). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined as a T-score of less than -1.0 and -2.5, respectively, in the hip and/or lumbar spine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were computed...

  16. Screen time in Mexican children: findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Medina, Catalina; Pedroza, Andrea; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer) was self-reported. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from the northern and Federal District regions of the country, children living in urban areas, and children in the highest socioeconomic status and education categories. Approximately 33% of 10-14 year olds and 36% of 15-18 year olds met the screen time guideline of ≤ 2 hours/day. 10-18 year old Mexican children accumulate an average of 3 hours/day of screen time. Two thirds of Mexican children exceed the recommended maximal level of time for this activity.

  17. The jabber chat tool EFDA Messenger and screen sharing tool EFDATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Beck, S.; Wilhelm, B.

    2008-01-01

    Two Remote Participation (RP) tools are described. The first tool, named EFDA Messenger, is a secure Instant Messaging (IM) tool based on a Jabber server that only accepts SSL encrypted communication and does not allow file transfers as well as audio and video transmissions. This tool is useful to have as another mean of communication during video or teleconferences. The second tool, named EFDATV, is a multipurposeVirtual Network Computing (VNC) based desktop screen sharing system used to share presentations via the Internet. A Java enabled web browser or a VNC client is sufficient for the presenter and the audience to use EFDATV. It is also possible from an EFDATV channel to connect to another VNC server and broadcast the view from that VNC server

  18. The jabber chat tool EFDA Messenger and screen sharing tool EFDATV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Knud.Thomsen@efda.org; Beck, S. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilhelm, B. [EFDA CSU Barcelona, c/Josep Pla n.2, Torres Diag. Litoral Edificio B3, 7a planta, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Two Remote Participation (RP) tools are described. The first tool, named EFDA Messenger, is a secure Instant Messaging (IM) tool based on a Jabber server that only accepts SSL encrypted communication and does not allow file transfers as well as audio and video transmissions. This tool is useful to have as another mean of communication during video or teleconferences. The second tool, named EFDATV, is a multipurposeVirtual Network Computing (VNC) based desktop screen sharing system used to share presentations via the Internet. A Java enabled web browser or a VNC client is sufficient for the presenter and the audience to use EFDATV. It is also possible from an EFDATV channel to connect to another VNC server and broadcast the view from that VNC server.

  19. Poor performance of mandatory nutritional screening of in-hospital patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Larsen, Sisse Marie Hørup; Stender, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Background & aims: Since 2006 it has been mandatory at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 h of admittance. Audits conducted by department staff estimate that 70-80% of assessments are correctly executed, but the validity of this estimate ...

  20. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided.

  1. Comparing the adequacy of the MNA-SF, NRS-2002 and MUST nutritional tools in assessing malnutrition in hip fracture operated elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Hakim, Tamar; Weiss, Avraham; Hershkovitz, Avital; Otzrateni, Irena; Anbar, Ronit; Gross Nevo, Revital Feige; Schlesinger, Agata; Frishman, Sigal; Salai, Moshe; Beloosesky, Yichayaou

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition is common in hip fracture elderly patients. There is no gold standard for screening nutritional risk. We compared the adequacy of 3 screening tools, their association to nutritional measurements and their ability to predict outcome. The Mini Nutrition Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and the Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) were prospectively determined. Length of stay (LOS), complications, 6 months readmission and up-to 36 months mortality were recorded. 215 operated patients were included: 154 (71.6%) were women; mean age was 83.5 ± 6.09 years (66-104). According to the MNA-SF, 95 patients were well-nourished, 95 were at risk of malnutrition and 25 were malnourished. Based on the MUST, 171 patients were at a low risk of malnutrition, 31 at a medium risk, 13 at a high risk. According to the NRS-2002, 134 patients were at a low risk of malnutrition, 70 at a medium risk, 11 at a high risk. A significant relationship between the nutritional groups of the 3 scores (p patients' nutritional status (p patients' nutritional status of each screening tool; only the MNA-SF predicted that well-nourished patients would have less readmissions during a 6 month follow-up (p = 0.024). During a 36 month follow-up, 79 patients died. According to the MNA-SF, mortality was lower in the well-nourished patients vs. the malnourished (p = 0.001) and at risk of malnutrition patients (p = 0.01). A less significant association was found between the NRS-2002 patients' nutritional status and mortality (p = 0.048). The MUST did not reveal this relationship. All screening tools were adequate in assessing malnutrition parameters in hip fracture operated elderly patients, however, only the MNA-SF could also predict readmissions and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Dialysis Malnutrition and Malnutrition Inflammation Scores: screening tools for prediction of dialysis-related protein-energy wasting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvinder, Gilcharan Singh; Swee, Winnie Chee Siew; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Sahathevan, Sharmela; Chinna, Karuthan; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Goh, Bak Leong

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in Malaysian dialysis patients and there is a need for a valid screening tool for early identification and management. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the sensitivity of the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) tools in predicting protein-energy wasting (PEW) among Malaysian dialysis patients. A total of 155 haemodialysis (HD) and 90 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were screened for risk of malnutrition using DMS and MIS and comparisons were made with established guidelines by International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) for PEW. MIS cut-off score of >=5 indicated presence of malnutrition in all patients. A total of 59% of HD and 83% of PD patients had PEW by ISRNM criteria. Based on DMS, 73% of HD and 71% of PD patients exhibited moderate malnutrition, whilst using MIS, 88% and 90%, respectively were malnourished. DMS and MIS correlated significantly in HD (r2=0.552, pmalnutrition classification were established (score >=5) for use amongst Malaysian dialysis patients. Both DMS and MIS are valid tools to be used for nutrition screening of dialysis patients especially those undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The DMS may be a more practical and simpler tool to be utilized in the Malaysian dialysis settings as it does not require laboratory markers.

  3. Premenstrual Symptom Screening Tool: A Useful Tool for DSM-5 Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Ozdel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the usefulness of Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) in detecting Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) in a Turkish sample. Material and Method: One hundred and eighteen women were included in the study. Participants were menstruating women, between the ages of 18 and 49 years who work in various departments of Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital. Sociodemographic data collection form, PSST, and Symptom Check List (...

  4. Radioisotopes as tools in food and nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florentino, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    In the Philippines as in many developing countries, protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A, iron and iodine deficiencies continue to pose serious health problems particularly in children, pregnant and lactating women. These problems as per World Declaration on Nutrition adopted by government ministers and senior policy makers from more than 150 countries, should be dramatically reduced if not virtually eliminated by the year 2000. The rapid advances in isotope techniques contributed significantly to a greater and better understanding of the quantitative relationships of diets, nutrients and health. While it is recognized that isotopic techniques have a wide variety of application in human nutrition, this paper will focus on how radioisotopes may be applied in clarifying nutritional problems specifically iron, iodine and vitamin A deficiency and how such knowledge is applied in developing practical methods for eliminating them. (author)

  5. An overview of international literature from cystic fibrosis registries 2. Neonatal screening and nutrition/growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Donatello; Buzzetti, Roberto; Baldo, Ermanno; Forneris, Maria Pia; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Manunza, Daniela; Marinelli, Italo; Messore, Barbara; Neri, Anna Silvia; Raia, Valeria; Furnari, Maria Lucia; Mastella, Gianni

    2010-03-01

    This is the second article related to a review of the literature based on data from national cystic fibrosis (CF) registries up to June 2008 and covering a total of 115 studies. It focuses on two topics: neonatal screening (NS) and nutritional status, with particular reference to growth. Ten papers meeting the inclusion criteria were found on the topic of NS and its impact on the course of the disease, and were analyzed according to a dedicated grid. The issue of nutrition was addressed by 14 studies, analyzed according to similar criteria. Most of the studies report benefits of early diagnosis by NS, albeit to variable degrees. The benefits were assessed in terms of better nutritional status and growth, but also in terms of lower overall morbidity rate as compared to subjects diagnosed by symptoms. The main biases of these studies, which partly undermine the validity of their results, are also analyzed. A part of our analysis on nutrition/growth is dedicated to the identification of the most suitable parameters to define malnutrition: in children older than two years the body mass index percentile (BMIp) appears to be the most sensitive and significantly associated with respiratory function. Better nutritional status and satisfactory growth appear to be associated with better lung function and lower risk of death. The relationship between nutritional status and socio-economic status is also of interest. CF registry studies support the outcome of cohort observational studies i.e. that pre-symptomatic early diagnosis is beneficial, especially in terms of nutritional status and growth. Studies on nutrition indicate that good nutritional status is associated with better respiratory function and prognosis. Regarding methods, the need emerged to manage potential biases of this kind of non randomized studies, resorting to suitable statistical techniques, such as matching and stratification and, above all, to multivariate methods able to provide estimates adjusted for the

  6. Premenstrual Symptom Screening Tool: A Useful Tool for DSM-5 Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ozdel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the usefulness of Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST in detecting Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS in a Turkish sample. Material and Method: One hundred and eighteen women were included in the study. Participants were menstruating women, between the ages of 18 and 49 years who work in various departments of Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital. Sociodemographic data collection form, PSST, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R were given to the participants, filled out by participants and checked out by researchers. Participants were divided into three groups (i.e., women with subthreshold premenstrual symptoms, women with PMDD, and women with PMS according to the scores they get on the PSST. These groups were compared according to PSST scores and SCL-90-R scores. Results: Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach %u03B1=0.928 for the items of the tool. In this sample, the prevalence of the PMDD and PMS were 15.2 % (n=18 and 32.2 % (n=38 respectively. When we compare the scores on SCL-90-R subscales there were significant differences between the PMDD, PMS, and women with subthreshold groups. Besides there were significant differences for the three groups in terms of percentages of women who reported moderate to severe symptoms on the four items that are essential to PMDD diagnosis. Discussion: Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool is a useful tool to detect candidates for PMDD and moderate to severe PMS.

  7. Acoustic emission as a screening tool for ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojard, Greg; Goberman, Dan; Holowczak, John

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are composite materials with ceramic fibers in a high temperature matrix of ceramic or glass-ceramic. This emerging class of materials is viewed as enabling for efficiency improvements in many energy conversion systems. The key controlling property of ceramic matrix composites is a relatively weak interface between the matrix and the fiber that aids crack deflection and fiber pullout resulting in greatly increased toughness over monolithic ceramics. United Technologies Research Center has been investigating glass-ceramic composite systems as a tool to understand processing effects on material performance related to the performance of the weak interface. Changes in the interface have been shown to affect the mechanical performance observed in flexural testing and subsequent microstructural investigations have confirmed the performance (or lack thereof) of the interface coating. Recently, the addition of acoustic emission testing during flexural testing has aided the understanding of the characteristics of the interface and its performance. The acoustic emission onset stress changes with strength and toughness and this could be a quality tool in screening the material before further development and use. The results of testing and analysis will be shown and additional material from other ceramic matrix composite systems may be included to show trends.

  8. Application of corrosion screening tools for riser inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir Mohamed Daud; Vijayan, S.

    2003-01-01

    As offshore facilities approach the end of their design life, owners would like to assess the condition and integrity of plant and equipment. Detailed inspection, including non-destructive testing (NDT), are implemented and results are utilised for predictive maintenance and estimating useful remaining life. Except for risk based inspection, the extent of surface coverage required would be more compared to inspection of pre-determined spots. Risers, for example, usually have several layers of coating that prevent use of conventional techniques for inspection of corrosion. Complete coverage requires access (including removal coatings and insulation). Inspection utilising the conventional NDT tools can be very slow and expensive. However, recent advances have forwarded the use of specialised NDT techniques that were developed for inspection of corrosion under insulation (CUI). This paper details two screening inspection tools, LIXI Profiler and RTD-INCOTEST that have been applied to inspection of risers. LIXI Profiler is based on attenuation of penetrating radiation by materials, and RTD-INCOTEST is based on decay of pulsed eddy current in materials. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of malnutrition detected with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and the quality of life in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, M; Soylu, M; Kaner, G; İnanç, N; Başmısırlı, E

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have impaired quality of life, but the relationship between their nutritional status and quality of life has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of life and nutritional status in hospitalized COPD patients. Demographic data, quality of life and nutritional status of 90 inpatients with a mean age of 68.76 ± 10.85 years were enrolled in the study. The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) tool was used to evaluate their nutritional status. The quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. The correlation analysis was used for the relationship between SF-36 subscales and nutritional status variables. Of the 90 COPD patients included in the study, 54.4 % were men, and 45.6 % were women. Moderate, severe, and very severe COPD were detected in 37.8 %, 38.9 %, and 23.3 % of the patients, respectively. At risk of malnutrition were 55.6 % of the 90 COPD patients, whereas 44.4 % were not. The scores for physical function, physical role functioning, pain, general health, emotional role functioning, vitality, social function, and mental function subscales were lower in the patients at risk of malnutrition (p evaluation of the nutritional status of COPD patients should be an integral part of their clinical treatment plans aiming towards improving their quality of life. Hippokratia 2016, 20(2):147-152.

  10. Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify ...

  11. Assessing the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer patients using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA® tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lei Zhang,1,* Yanjun Su,1,* Chen Wang,2 Yongsheng Sha,1 Hong Zhu,3 Shumin Xie,4 Sabrina Kwauk,5 Jing Zhang,2 Yunshou Lin,2 Changli Wang1,*1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, 2Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 3Department of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 4Xiangya Medical School of Central-South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 5School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Cambridge, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study assessed the nutritional status of elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients using a revised version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA® tool.Patients and methods: The revised version of the MNA tool was used to assess the nutritional status of 180 elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients prior to their scheduled surgery between June 2010 and July 2011. Patients' demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical markers were collected and analyzed.Results: Among the 180 inpatients who underwent the MNA, 9% were malnourished (MNA score < 19, 33% were at risk of malnutrition (MNA score 19–23, and 58% were well nourished (MNA score ≥ 24. There was significant correlation between the MNA scores of patients who were malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, and well nourished (P < 0.001, as well as between total MNA score and most MNA questions. The three patient groups with different nutritional statuses differed significantly in their responses to anthropometrics and global, diet, and subjective assessments.Conclusion: Incidence rates of malnutrition prior to surgery are high among elderly Chinese lung cancer inpatients. The revised MNA is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess and prevent malnutrition among these inpatients.Keywords: malnutrition, MNA-SF, nutrition, inpatients, diet

  12. Evaluation of conducting a screening assessment of nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Presentation of main goals and objectives of the global health project "NutritionDay".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Ostrowska, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) commenced in 2004 a global health project named "NutritionDay" aiming to promote awareness of proper nutritional status of hospitalized patients and to draw attention to the need for early detection of malnutrition among patients. Under the Polish law--pursunat to the regulation of the Minister of Health dated September 15, 2011 (amendment as of 27.12.2013)--a nutritional status of each patient should be assessed at the time of a hospital admission. of this study was to analyze the fulfilment of the mandatory questionnaire assessment of nutritional status at selected wards of one of Warsaw's clinical hospitals. The study included an analysis of medical records of patients hospitalized within 6 months (n = 26375). The correct fulfilment of screening questionnaire assessing nutritional status (NRS 2002 survey) and the information about patients' body weight as well as the results assessment of nutritional status were subject to the analysis. NRS 2002 questionnaire was present in only 67,14% medical records of patients, however 49.24% of them were unfilled. The obtained results confirming low degree of NRS 2002 questionnaires' fulfilment in one of the Warsaw clinical hospitals draws attention to the need for education of hospital personnel in the field of significance of screening of nutritional assessment and its regulations. The "NutritionDay" project is an interesting form to attract attention of the aforementioned problem and its global extent additionally encourage medical units to participate in the project.

  13. Web-Site as an Educational Tool in Biology Education: A Case of Nutrition Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of using website in biology education. We have explored the World Wide Web as a possible tool for education about health and nutrition. The websites were teaching tools for primary school students. Control groups used the traditional educational materials as books or worksheets,…

  14. The West Midlands breast cancer screening status algorithm - methodology and use as an audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gill; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Tappenden, Nancy; Wallis, Matthew; Walton, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    To illustrate the ability of the West Midlands breast screening status algorithm to assign a screening status to women with malignant breast cancer, and its uses as a quality assurance and audit tool. Breast cancers diagnosed between the introduction of the National Health Service [NHS] Breast Screening Programme and 31 March 2001 were obtained from the West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit (WMCIU). Screen-detected tumours were identified via breast screening units, and the remaining cancers were assigned to one of eight screening status categories. Multiple primaries and recurrences were excluded. A screening status was assigned to 14,680 women (96% of the cohort examined), 110 cancers were not registered at the WMCIU and the cohort included 120 screen-detected recurrences. The West Midlands breast screening status algorithm is a robust simple tool which can be used to derive data to evaluate the efficacy and impact of the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

  15. Screening for acute childhood malnutrition during the National Nutrition Week in mali increases treatment referrals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele H Nyirandutiye

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a pilot intervention designed to integrate mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC screening for acute malnutrition into the semi-annual Child Nutrition Week (Semaine d'Intensification des Activités de Nutrition, or "SIAN" activities carried out in June 2008. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kolokani and Nara, two health districts in the Koulikoro region of Mali, 4-5 months after the SIAN, using a population-proportionate, multi-stage random sample of: 1 health centers, and 2 households in communities linked to each of the selected health centers. Caregivers of 1543 children who were 6-59 months of age at the time of the SIAN, 17 community-based volunteers and 45 health center staff members were interviewed. RESULTS: A total of 1278 children 6-59 months (83% of those studied reportedly participated in SIAN. Of the participating children, 1258 received vitamin A (98% of SIAN participants; 82% of all eligible children, 945 received anti-helminth tablets (84% of participants; 71% of eligibles, and 669 were screened for acute malnutrition (52% of participants; 43% of eligibles. 186 of the children screened (27% were reportedly identified as acutely malnourished. SIAN screening covered a significantly greater proportion of children than were examined in both community-based (22% of children and health center-based screening activities (5% of children combined during the 4-5 months after the SIAN (P<0.0001. In general, community volunteers and health personnel positively evaluated their experience adding MUAC screening to SIAN. CONCLUSION: Integrating MUAC screening for acute malnutrition in SIAN permits the assessment of a large number of children for acute malnutrition, and should be continued.

  16. Screening for Acute Childhood Malnutrition during the National Nutrition Week in Mali Increases Treatment Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirandutiye, Daniele H.; Ag Iknane, Akory; Fofana, Amadou; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a pilot intervention designed to integrate mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening for acute malnutrition into the semi-annual Child Nutrition Week (Semaine d'Intensification des Activités de Nutrition, or “SIAN”) activities carried out in June 2008. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kolokani and Nara, two health districts in the Koulikoro region of Mali, 4–5 months after the SIAN, using a population-proportionate, multi-stage random sample of: 1) health centers, and 2) households in communities linked to each of the selected health centers. Caregivers of 1543 children who were 6–59 months of age at the time of the SIAN, 17 community-based volunteers and 45 health center staff members were interviewed. Results A total of 1278 children 6–59 months (83% of those studied) reportedly participated in SIAN. Of the participating children, 1258 received vitamin A (98% of SIAN participants; 82% of all eligible children), 945 received anti-helminth tablets (84% of participants; 71% of eligibles), and 669 were screened for acute malnutrition (52% of participants; 43% of eligibles). 186 of the children screened (27%) were reportedly identified as acutely malnourished. SIAN screening covered a significantly greater proportion of children than were examined in both community-based (22% of children) and health center-based screening activities (5% of children) combined during the 4-5 months after the SIAN (P<0.0001). In general, community volunteers and health personnel positively evaluated their experience adding MUAC screening to SIAN. Conclusion Integrating MUAC screening for acute malnutrition in SIAN permits the assessment of a large number of children for acute malnutrition, and should be continued. PMID:21731602

  17. Nutrigenetic screening strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, for nutritional efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S; Anuradha, Chebba M; Kumar, Chitta S

    2012-01-01

    The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW(2), RMW(3), RMW(4), RMG(3), RMG(1), RMG(4), RMG(5), RMG(6) and APM(1) as the control. The 1(st) day of 5(th) stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or 'biomarkers', three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG(4), RMW(2), and RMW(3)) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds

  18. Association of positive screening for dysphagia with nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalized elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas-Martínez, Ana B; Bucar-Barjud, Marina; Campos-Fernández, Julia; Gimeno-Orna, José Antonio; Pérez-Calvo, Juan; Ocón-Bretón, Julia

    2018-04-24

    To assess the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) using the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and its association with malnutrition and long-term mortality. A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the general internal medicine ward. In the first 48hours after hospital admission, OD was assessed using the EAT-10, and presence of malnutrition with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). Association of OD to malnutrition and long-term mortality was analyzed. Ninety patients with a mean age of 83 (SD: 11.8) years were enrolled. Of these, 56.7% were at risk of OD according to EAT-10. This group of patients had greater prevalence rates of malnutrition (88.2% vs. 48.7%; P=.001) and mortality (70% vs 35.9%; P=.001). During follow-up for 872.71 (SD: 642.89) days, risk of DO according to EAT-10 was an independent predictor of mortality factor in a multivariate analysis (HR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.49-5.28; P=.001). The EAT-10 is a useful tool for screening OD. Adequate screening for OD is important because of its associated risks of malnutrition and long-term mortality. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Screen time in Mexican children: findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Janssen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. Materials and methods. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012 were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer was self-reported. Results. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from the northern and Federal District regions of the country, children living in urban areas, and children in the highest socioeconomic status and education categories. Approximately 33% of 10-14 year olds and 36% of 15-18 year olds met the screen time guideline of ≤2 hours/day. Conclusions. 10-18 year old Mexican children accumulate an average of 3 hours/day of screen time. Two thirds of Mexican children exceed the recommended maximal level of time for this activity.

  20. Reliability of Patient-Led Screening with the Malnutrition Screening Tool: Agreement between Patient and Health Care Professional Scores in the Cancer Care Ambulatory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Alexandra; Blake, Claire; Young, Adrienne; Pelecanos, Anita; Brown, Teresa

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with cancer is reported as high as 60% to 80%, and malnutrition is associated with lower survival, reduced response to treatment, and poorer functional status. The Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) is a validated tool when administered by health care professionals; however, it has not been evaluated for patient-led screening. This study aims to assess the reliability of patient-led MST screening through assessment of inter-rater reliability between patient-led and dietitian-researcher-led screening and intra-rater reliability between an initial and a repeat patient screening. This cross-sectional study included 208 adults attending ambulatory cancer care services in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Queensland, Australia, in October 2016 (n=160 inter-rater reliability; n=48 intra-rater reliability measured in a separate sample). Primary outcome measures were MST risk categories (MST 0-1: not at risk, MST ≥2: at risk) as determined by screening completed by patients and a dietitian-researcher, patient test-retest screening, and patient acceptability. Percent and chance-corrected agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient, κ) were used to determine agreement between patient-MST and dietitian-MST (inter-rater reliability) and MST completed by patient on admission to unit (patient-MSTA) and MST completed by patient 1 to 3 hours after completion of initial MST (patient-MSTB) (intra-rater reliability). High inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability were observed. Agreement between patient-MST and dietitian-MST was 96%, with "almost perfect" chance-adjusted agreement (κ=0.92, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97). Agreement between repeated patient-MSTA and patient-MSTB was 94%, with "almost perfect" chance-adjusted agreement (κ=0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00). Based on dietitian-MST, 33% (n=53) of patients were identified as being at risk for malnutrition, and 40% of these reported not seeing a dietitian. Of 156 patients who provided

  1. Nutrition screening by MUST on the oncological patient in radiotherapy; Triagem nutricional por meio do MUST para paciente oncologico em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paula Acevedo Souza dos; Cunha, Tamires Regina da Silva; Soares, Bruna Lucia de Mendonca; Maio, Regiane; Burgos, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araujo, E-mail: paulaacevedosouza@gmail.com, E-mail: tamires_rsc@hotmail.com, E-mail: bruna-luc@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Nutricao; Cabral, Edla Karina, E-mail: edla_cabral@hotmail.com [Hospital de Cancer de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Radiotherapy contributes to the reduction of food intake and increased weight loss due to the appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms, which consequently leads to malnutrition. Objective: Identify nutritional risk through the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), in patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Method: Cross-sectional study with outpatients at the radiotherapy service of the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, during October 2014 until May 2015. Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity), anthropometric variables (habitual weight, current weight and body mass index), comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes), tumor type, time since diagnosis and duration of treatment were evaluated. Nutritional risk was assessed using the MUST, which classifies patients as being at low, medium or high nutritional risk. Results: 150 patients were studied with an average age of 47.3 years, with a predominance of women (72%) and similar proportions of adults and elderly individuals. The sample mainly comprised individuals from in-state regions and inactive/retired individuals who received one to three times the minimum salary. Nutritional risk was significantly higher among elderly individuals (62.9%), among whom high risk predominated (45.7%), whereas most adults had no risk (61.2%). The most frequent tumors were gynecological (59.4%) with weight gain (33.3%), followed by tumors of the head and neck region with a high degree of weight loss (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The use of MUST led to the detection of nutritional risk in 50% of the studied patients, with a predominance of elderly individuals, the majority of whom were at high risk. Tumors of the head and neck led to weight loss, whereas gynecological tumors led to weight gain. Out-patient nutritional screening is important for the early establishment of specialized nutritional counseling. (author)

  2. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the MSPM to correctly classify whether or not food samples were contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport in this blinded pilot study

  3. Screening for acute childhood malnutrition during the National Nutrition Week in mali increases treatment referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirandutiye, Daniele H; Ag Iknane, Akory; Fofana, Amadou; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate a pilot intervention designed to integrate mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening for acute malnutrition into the semi-annual Child Nutrition Week (Semaine d'Intensification des Activités de Nutrition, or "SIAN") activities carried out in June 2008. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kolokani and Nara, two health districts in the Koulikoro region of Mali, 4-5 months after the SIAN, using a population-proportionate, multi-stage random sample of: 1) health centers, and 2) households in communities linked to each of the selected health centers. Caregivers of 1543 children who were 6-59 months of age at the time of the SIAN, 17 community-based volunteers and 45 health center staff members were interviewed. A total of 1278 children 6-59 months (83% of those studied) reportedly participated in SIAN. Of the participating children, 1258 received vitamin A (98% of SIAN participants; 82% of all eligible children), 945 received anti-helminth tablets (84% of participants; 71% of eligibles), and 669 were screened for acute malnutrition (52% of participants; 43% of eligibles). 186 of the children screened (27%) were reportedly identified as acutely malnourished. SIAN screening covered a significantly greater proportion of children than were examined in both community-based (22% of children) and health center-based screening activities (5% of children) combined during the 4-5 months after the SIAN (Pmalnutrition in SIAN permits the assessment of a large number of children for acute malnutrition, and should be continued.

  4. [BALANCED SCORECARD AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL IN CLINICAL NUTRITION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez López, Cristina; Mauriz, Jose L; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, balanced scorecards have updated traditional management systems in the business sector. In this way, Kaplan and Norton propose performance measurement through several perspectives with a logical sequence: internal processes and learning impact client services, so that financial performance is affected. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the main characteristics of balanced scorecard when it is applied to non-for-profit companies and, specifically to the health sector in the clinical nutrition field. This model improves the economic vision of management with clinical indicators that represent healthcare professional's perspective. The balanced scorecard would allow a proper monitoring and tracking system for the main healthcare indicators. This contributes to a better control in comparison with standards that are associated with adequate quality assistance. Owing to the role of management accounting and cost calculations, the definition of healthcare professionals as clients or users, and clinical results relevance, it is necessary to adapt the balanced scorecard to the specific characteristics of the clinical field, redefining both perspectives and indicators. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of nutritional support strategies after surgery for benign liver tumor through nutritional risk screening: a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Li, Ying; Yang, Huayu; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao; Xu, Haifeng; Du, Shunda; Xu, Yiyao; Chi, Tianyi; Zhong, Shouxian; Yu, Kang; Mao, Yilei

    2013-02-01

    The rising of individualized therapy requires nutritional risk screening has become a major topic for each particular disease, yet most of the screenings were for malignancies, less for benign diseases. There is no report on the screening of patients with benign liver tumors postoperatively. We aim to evaluate the nutritional support strategies post operation for benign liver tumors through nutritional risk screening. In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, 95 patients who underwent hepatectomy for benign tumors were divided into two groups. Fifty patients in the control group were given routine permissive underfeeding nutritional supply (75 kJ/kg/d), and 45 patients in the experimental group were given lower energy (42 kJ/kg/d) in accordance of their surgical trauma. Routine blood tests, liver/kidney function were monitored before surgery and at the day 1, 3, 5, 9 after surgery, patients were observed for the time of flatus, complications, length of hospitalization (LOH), nutrition-related costs, and other clinical parameters. This completed study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01292330. The nutrition-related expenses (494.0±181.0 vs. 1,514.4±348.4 RMB, Pgroup were significantly lower than those in the control group. Meanwhile, the lowered energy supply after the surgeries did not have adverse effects on clinical parameters, complications, and LOH. Patient with benign liver tumors can adopt an even lower postoperative nutritional supply that close to that for mild non-surgical conditions, and lower than the postoperative permissive underfeeding standard.

  6. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of Environmental Assessment Tools to Evaluate the College Nutrition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses. Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was…

  7. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  8. Validating the CORE-10 as a mental health screening tool for prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few mental health screening tools have been validated with prisoners and existing tools, do not assess severity of need in line with contemporary stepped care service models. \\ud \\ud Aims: The current research aims to assess the CORE-10’s psychometric reliability, validity and predictive accuracy as a screening tool for common (primary care) and severe (secondary care) mental health problems in prisoners. \\ud \\ud Method: Cross –sectional study of 150 prisoners. All participants co...

  9. Ultrasound as a secondary screening tool in mammographically dense breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, Kylie

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that breast screening is a part of our society and is designed to reduce the mortality and morbidity from breast cancer. Mammography is the imaging modality of choice in a breast-screening environment. Both the detection rate of mammography in a screening environment and the sensitivity of mammography in symptomatic women are known to be greater than that of ultrasound. However, after a review of literature both of these are said to increase when the two imaging modalities are combined. This paper will present that mammography has limitation

  10. DOVIS: A Tool for High-throughput Virtual Screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Xiaohui; Kumar, Kamal; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2007-01-01

    We developed a DOcking-based Virtual Screening (DO DOVIS) pipeline to predict how small molecules may interact with a given protein, so that we can rank a large database of molecules based on their predicted affinities to the protein...

  11. Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome: Is This the Future of Nutrition Screening and Assessment for Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits F. J. Vandewoude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common across varying patient populations, particularly older adults, and sarcopenia prevalence increases with advancing age. Both malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with substantial adverse outcomes affecting both the patient and the healthcare system, including increased morbidity, mortality, rehospitalization rates, and healthcare costs. Healthcare practitioners may assess patients for either malnutrition or sarcopenia; however, many patients clinically present with both conditions, resulting in the syndrome, Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome, which is the clinical presentation of both malnutrition and accelerated age-associated loss of lean body mass, strength, and/or functionality. Clinicians are urged to screen, assess, and treat these conditions currently so as to adequately address the full spectrum of patients’ nutritional issues. By examining aspects of both conditions, clinicians can more fully assess their patients’ clinical and nutritional status and can tailor targeted therapies to meet their needs and improve outcomes. This proposed syndrome embodies the inherent association of malnutrition and sarcopenia, highlighting their combined impact on clinical outcomes. The objective of this review paper is to characterize Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome to advance clinical practice, by providing clinicians with the necessary background information to integrate nutritional assessment along with loss of muscle mass and functionality in their everyday clinical practice.

  12. Can the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) Be Used as a Nutrition Evaluation Tool for Subacute Inpatients over an Average Length of Stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K E; Cooper, P L; Stewart, A J; Huggins, C E

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition in subacute inpatient settings has been reported to be 30-50%. While there are a number of nutrition evaluation tools which have been validated to diagnose malnutrition, the use of a validated nutrition evaluation tool to measure changes in nutritional status during an average length of stay for a subacute inpatient has not yet been tested. This study aims to determine the potential of the full MNA (full Mini Nutritional Assessment) and MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form) scores to measure change in nutritional status over an average subacute inpatient stay (21 days). A prospective observational study. The study was performed in three Rehabilitation and Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM) wards of the Kingston Centre, Monash Health, Melbourne, Australia. All patients ≥65 years admitted to these wards with an expected length of stay of at least 14 days were considered for inclusion in this study. Nutritional status was assessed on admission using the full MNA as part of usual dietetic care and patients were provided with nutrition intervention/diet therapy based on full MNA classification. Full MNA score (0-30), MNA score (0-14), anthropometry (weight and height) and nutritional biochemistry (serum albumin, transthyretin and C-reactive protein) were compared between admission and day 20.5 ± 2.4. Mean age (± SD) of 83 ± 7 years, n=114. For those patients diagnosed at risk of malnutrition or malnourished (n=103), there were significant increases in full MNA score (1.8 ± 2.4, pnutrition states (p=0.033). Both the MNA and full MNA can be used to evaluate nutrition progress within the subacute inpatient setting over a three week time period, thereby providing clinicians with feedback on a patient's nutrition progress and assisting with ongoing care planning. Due to its ease of use and shorter time required to complete, the MNA may be the preferred nutrition evaluation tool in this setting.

  13. A Pathway to Freedom: An Evaluation of Screening Tools for the Identification of Trafficking Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, Nadejda; Morgan, Juliet; Coverdale, John

    2016-02-01

    Because training residents and faculty to identify human trafficking victims is a major public health priority, the authors review existing assessment tools. PubMed and Google were searched using combinations of search terms including human, trafficking, sex, labor, screening, identification, and tool. Nine screening tools that met the inclusion criteria were found. They varied greatly in length, format, target demographic, supporting resources, and other parameters. Only two tools were designed specifically for healthcare providers. Only one tool was formally assessed to be valid and reliable in a pilot project in trafficking victim service organizations, although it has not been validated in the healthcare setting. This toolbox should facilitate the education of resident physicians and faculty in screening for trafficking victims, assist educators in assessing screening skills, and promote future research on the identification of trafficking victims.

  14. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications.

  15. Climate risk screening tools and their application: A guide to the guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traerup, S.; Olhoff, A.

    2011-07-01

    Climate risk screening is an integral part of efforts to ascertain current and future vulnerabilities and risks related to climate change. It is a prerequisite for identifying and designing adaptation measures, and an important element in the process of integrating, or mainstreaming, climate change adaptation into development project, planning and policy processes. There is an increasing demand and attention among national stakeholders in developing countries to take into account potential implications of climate variability and change for planning and prioritizing of development strategies and activities. Subsequently, there is a need for user friendly guidance on climate risk screening tools and their potentials for application that targets developing country stakeholders. This need is amplified by the sheer volume of climate change mainstreaming guidance documents and risk screening and assessment tools available and currently under development. Against this background, this paper sets out to provide potential users in developing countries, including project and programme developers and managers, with an informational entry point to climate risk screening tools. The emphasis in this report is on providing: 1) An overview of available climate risk screening and assessment tools along with indications of the tools available and relevant for specific purposes and contexts (Section 3). 2) Examples of application of climate risk screening and assessment tools along with links to further information (Section 4). Before turning to the respective sections on available climate risk screening tools and examples of their application, a delimitation of the tools included in this paper is included in Section 2. This section also provides a brief overview of how climate screening and related tools fit into decision making steps at various planning and decision making levels in conjunction with an outline of overall considerations to make when choosing a tool. The paper is

  16. Applying the ACSM Preparticipation Screening Algorithm to U.S. Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Riebe, Deborah; Magal, Meir; Liguori, Gary

    2017-10-01

    For most people, the benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks. Research has suggested that exercise preparticipation questionnaires might refer an unwarranted number of adults for medical evaluation before exercise initiation, creating a potential barrier to adoption. The new American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) prescreening algorithm relies on current exercise participation; history and symptoms of cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal disease; and desired exercise intensity to determine referral status. Our purpose was to compare the referral proportion of the ACSM algorithm to that of previous screening tools using a representative sample of U.S. adults. On the basis of responses to health questionnaires from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we calculated the proportion of adults 40 yr or older who would be referred for medical clearance before exercise participation based on the ACSM algorithm. Results were stratified by age and sex and compared with previous results for the ACSM/American Heart Association Preparticipation Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. On the basis of the ACSM algorithm, 2.6% of adults would be referred only before beginning vigorous exercise and 54.2% of respondents would be referred before beginning any exercise. Men were more frequently referred before vigorous exercise, and women were more frequently referred before any exercise. Referral was more common with increasing age. The ACSM algorithm referred a smaller proportion of adults for preparticipation medical clearance than the previously examined questionnaires. Although additional validation is needed to determine whether the algorithm correctly identifies those at risk for cardiovascular complications, the revised ACSM algorithm referred fewer respondents than other screening tools. A lower referral proportion may mitigate an important barrier of medical clearance from exercise participation.

  17. Pairing motivational interviewing with a nutrition and physical activity assessment and counseling tool in pediatric clinical practice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christison, Amy L; Daley, Brendan M; Asche, Carl V; Ren, Jinma; Aldag, Jean C; Ariza, Adolfo J; Lowry, Kelly W

    2014-10-01

    Recommendations to screen and counsel for lifestyle behaviors can be challenging to implement during well-child visits in the primary care setting. A practice intervention was piloted using the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) Screening Tool paired with a motivational interviewing (MI)-based counseling tool during well-child visits. Acceptability and feasibility of this intervention were assessed. Its impact on parent-reported obesigenic behavior change and provider efficacy in lifestyle counseling were also examined. This was an observational study in a pediatric primary care office. During well-child visits of 100 patients (ages 4-16 years), the FNPA tool was implemented and providers counseled patients in an MI-consistent manner based on its results. Duration of implementation, patient satisfaction of the intervention, and success of stated lifestyle goals were measured. Provider self-efficacy and acceptability were also surveyed. The FNPA assessment was efficient to administer, requiring minutes to complete and score. Patient acceptability was high, ranging from 4.0 to 4.8 on a 5-point scale. Provider acceptability was good, with the exception of duration of counseling; self-efficacy in assessing patient "readiness for change" was improved. Parent-reported success of primary lifestyle goal was 68% at 1 month and 46% at 6 months. The FNPA assessment with an MI-based counseling tool shows promise as an approach to identify and address obesigenic behaviors during pediatric well-child visits. It has the potential to improve provider efficacy in obesity prevention and also influence patient health behaviors, which can possibly impact childhood excessive weight gain. After refinement, this practice intervention will be used in a larger trial.

  18. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Nutrition Screening and Therapy Within a Surgical Enhanced Recovery Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Gan, Tong J; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Miller, Timothy E; Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-06-01

    Perioperative malnutrition has proven to be challenging to define, diagnose, and treat. Despite these challenges, it is well known that suboptimal nutritional status is a strong independent predictor of poor postoperative outcomes. Although perioperative caregivers consistently express recognition of the importance of nutrition screening and optimization in the perioperative period, implementation of evidence-based perioperative nutrition guidelines and pathways in the United States has been quite limited and needs to be addressed in surgery-focused recommendations. The second Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts with the objective of providing consensus recommendations on this important topic with the goal of (1) developing guidelines for screening of nutritional status to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes due to malnutrition; (2) address optimal methods of providing nutritional support and optimizing nutrition status preoperatively; and (3) identifying when and how to optimize nutrition delivery in the postoperative period. Discussion led to strong recommendations for implementation of routine preoperative nutrition screening to identify patients in need of preoperative nutrition optimization. Postoperatively, nutrition delivery should be restarted immediately after surgery. The key role of oral nutrition supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition (implemented in that order) in most perioperative patients was advocated for with protein delivery being more important than total calorie delivery. Finally, the role of often-inadequate nutrition intake in the posthospital setting was discussed, and the role of postdischarge oral nutrition supplements was emphasized.

  19. Screening for substance abuse risk in cancer patients using the Opioid Risk Tool and urine drug screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.

  20. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    determine the operating characteristics of a two-question screening tool for intimate partner violence (Women .... difficulty in their current relationship and the frequency of .... Further analysis of the responses to Questions 1 and 2 (Table 7).

  1. Virtual screening methods as tools for drug lead discovery from large chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X H; Zhu, F; Liu, X; Shi, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening methods have been developed and explored as useful tools for searching drug lead compounds from chemical libraries, including large libraries that have become publically available. In this review, we discussed the new developments in exploring virtual screening methods for enhanced performance in searching large chemical libraries, their applications in screening libraries of ~ 1 million or more compounds in the last five years, the difficulties in their applications, and the strategies for further improving these methods.

  2. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    2014-03-31

    The Women Abuse Screening Tool–short was used to screen patients for intimate partner violence. .... Data were collected from January 1 to March 31, 2014. Data-collection tools ..... 1996;28(6):422–8. 8. Chen P, Rovi S, Washington J, et al.

  3. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, A.; Miller, K.; Cockburn, M.

    2012-01-01

    The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening). However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20-25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection "e-Health"tools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention.

  4. Development and implementation of an audit tool for quality control of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodicio, Sonsoles; Abajo, Celia; Godoy, Mercedes; Catalá, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development of a quality control methodology applied to patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) and to present the results obtained over the past 10 years. Development of the audit tool: In 1995, a total of 13 PN quality criteria and their standards were defined based on literature and past experiences. They were applied during 5 different 6-month audits carried out in subsequent years. According to the results of each audit, the criteria with lower validity were eliminated, while others were optimized and new criteria were introduced to complete the monitoring of other areas not previously examined. Currently, the quality control process includes 22 quality criteria and their standards that examine the following 4 different areas: (1) indication and duration of PN; (2) nutrition assessment, adequacy of the nutrition support, and monitoring; (3) metabolic and infectious complications; and (4) global efficacy of the nutrition support regimen. The authors describe the current definition of each criterion and present the results obtained in the 5 audits performed. In the past year, 9 of the 22 criteria reached the predefined standards. The areas detected for further improvements were: indication for PN, nutrition assessment, and management of catheter infections. The definition of quality criteria and their standards is an efficient method of providing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the clinical care of patients receiving PN. It detects areas for improvement and assists in developing a methodology to work efficiently.

  5. Trojan Horse Method: A tool to explore electron screening effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R G; Spitaleri, C; Cherubini, S; Cognata, M La; Lamia, L; Romano, S; Sergi, M L [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy) and Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Rolfs, C; Strieder, F [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Burjan, V; Kroha, V; Mrazek, J [Cyclotron Institute, Academy of Science, Rez (Czech Republic); Li, C; Wen, Q; Zhou, S [CIAE, Beijing (China); Tumino, A, E-mail: rgpizzone@lns.infn.i [Universita Kore, Erma (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure reaction rates for charged particle induced reactions. Moreover due to the presence of the electron screening effect in direct measurements, the relevant nuclear input for astrophysics, i.e. the bare nucleus S(E)-factor, can hardly be extracted. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is an unique: indirect technique which allows one to measure reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest down the thermal energies typical of the different scenarios. The basic principle and a review of the main applications of the Trojan Horse Method are given. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  6. Comparing depression screening tools in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joshua; Santo, Jonathan B; Blair, Mervin; Smolewska, Kathy; Warriner, Erin; Morrow, Sarah A

    2017-02-01

    Depression is more common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) than the general population. Depression in MS is associated with reduced quality of life, transition to unemployment, and cognitive impairment. Two proposed screening measures for depression in MS populations are the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). Our objective was to compared the associations of the BDI-FS and the HADS-D scores with history of depressive symptoms, fatigue, and functional outcomes to determine the differential clinical utility of these screening measures among persons with MS. We reviewed charts of 133 persons with MS for demographic information; scores on the HADS, BDI-FS, a fatigue measure, and a processing speed measure; and employment status. Structural equation modeling results indicated the HADS-D predicted employment status, disability status, and processing speed more effectively than did the BDI-FS, whereas both measures predicted fatigue. This study suggests the HADS-D is more effective than the BDI-FS in predicting functional outcomes known to be associated with depression among persons with MS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Older adult mistreatment risk screening: contribution to the validation of a screening tool in a domestic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, Jeannette M; Larocque, Sylvie; Lavoie, Anne-Marise; Garceau, Marie-Luce

    2012-06-01

    ABSTRACTThe hidden nature of older adult mistreatment renders its detection in the domestic setting particularly challenging. A validated screening instrument that can provide a systematic assessment of risk factors can facilitate this detection. One such instrument, the "expanded Indicators of Abuse" tool, has been previously validated in the Hebrew language in a hospital setting. The present study has contributed to the validation of the "e-IOA" in an English-speaking community setting in Ontario, Canada. It consisted of two phases: (a) a content validity review and adaptation of the instrument by experts throughout Ontario, and (b) an inter-rater reliability assessment by home visiting nurses. The adaptation, the "Mistreatment of Older Adult Risk Factors" tool, offers a comprehensive tool for screening in the home setting. This instrument is significant to professional practice as practitioners working with older adults will be better equipped to assess for risk of mistreatment.

  8. AMMOS: Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization tool for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajeva Ilza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual or in silico ligand screening combined with other computational methods is one of the most promising methods to search for new lead compounds, thereby greatly assisting the drug discovery process. Despite considerable progresses made in virtual screening methodologies, available computer programs do not easily address problems such as: structural optimization of compounds in a screening library, receptor flexibility/induced-fit, and accurate prediction of protein-ligand interactions. It has been shown that structural optimization of chemical compounds and that post-docking optimization in multi-step structure-based virtual screening approaches help to further improve the overall efficiency of the methods. To address some of these points, we developed the program AMMOS for refining both, the 3D structures of the small molecules present in chemical libraries and the predicted receptor-ligand complexes through allowing partial to full atom flexibility through molecular mechanics optimization. Results The program AMMOS carries out an automatic procedure that allows for the structural refinement of compound collections and energy minimization of protein-ligand complexes using the open source program AMMP. The performance of our package was evaluated by comparing the structures of small chemical entities minimized by AMMOS with those minimized with the Tripos and MMFF94s force fields. Next, AMMOS was used for full flexible minimization of protein-ligands complexes obtained from a mutli-step virtual screening. Enrichment studies of the selected pre-docked complexes containing 60% of the initially added inhibitors were carried out with or without final AMMOS minimization on two protein targets having different binding pocket properties. AMMOS was able to improve the enrichment after the pre-docking stage with 40 to 60% of the initially added active compounds found in the top 3% to 5% of the entire compound collection

  9. Screening in toddlers and preschoolers at risk for autism spectrum disorder: Evaluating a novel mobile-health screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Stephen M; Carpenter, Laura Arnstein; Warren, Zachary

    2018-05-07

    There are many available tools with varying levels of accuracy designed to screen for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in young children, both in the general population and specifically among those referred for developmental concerns. With burgeoning waitlists for comprehensive diagnostic ASD assessments, finding accurate methods and tools for advancing diagnostic triage becomes increasingly important. The current study compares the efficacy of four oft used paper and pencil measures, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers Revised with Follow-up, the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition, and the Social Communication Questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist to a novel mobile-health screening tool developed by Cognoa, Inc. (Cognoa) in a group of children 18-72 months of age. The Cognoa tool may have potential benefits as it integrates a series of parent-report questions with remote clinical ratings of brief video segments uploaded via parent's smartphones to calculate level of ASD risk. Participants were referred to one of three tertiary care diagnostic centers for ASD-related concerns (n = 230) and received a best estimate ASD diagnosis. Analysis and comparison of psychometric properties indicated potential advantages for Cognoa within this clinical sample across age ranges not often covered by another single measure/tool. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. With the wait times getting longer for comprehensive Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessments, it is becoming increasingly important to find accurate tools to screen for ASD. The current study compares four screening measures that have been in use for some time to a novel mobile-health screening tool, called Cognoa. The Cognoa tool is novel because it integrates parent-report questions with clinical ratings of brief video segments uploaded via parent's smartphones to calculate ASD risk. Two hundred thirty children who

  10. Low-dose CT: new tool for screening lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignant tumours as it is very common and has a poor prognosis at advanced tumour stages. Prognosis could be improved by treatment at early stages. As these stages are usually asymptomatic, a diagnostic test that would allow detection of early tumour stages in a population at risk could potentially reduce mortality from lung cancer. Previous approaches using chest radiography and sputum cytology in smokers have been disappointing. Fluorescent bronchoscopy and molecular markers are not yet applicable in clinical routine. Because of its high sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are the most common manifestation of early lung cancer, CT appears suitable as a screening test. Low-dose examination parameters can and should be used for this purpose. From clinical practice it is well known that chest CT often demonstrates small pulmonary nodules, which do not represent lung cancer. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to avoid unnecessary biopsies in benign lesions. In preliminary studies of low-dose CT using algorithms based on size and density of detected nodules a large proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers and a large proportion of early, resectable tumour stages were found with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign nodules. Before this technology can be recommended for broad application, however, further information is required regarding appropriate inclusion criteria (smoking habits, age groups) and screening intervals. Most importantly, further data are required to clarify whether lung cancer screening using low-dose CT can actually reduce mortality from lung cancer. (orig.)

  11. Phase angle as a nutritional evaluation tool in all stages of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, W A F; Lento, D F; Baluz, K; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly and frequently under-diagnosed in clinical settings in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to the limitations of nutritional evaluation methods in this population. We hypothesized that the bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle (BIA-derived PhA) might be considered as a nutritional indicator in CLD since it represents either cell death or malnutrition characterized by changes in cellular membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BIA-derived PhA as a nutritional evaluation tool in all stages of CLD, including chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver-related death and survival were evaluated. A total of 66 patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For the nutritional diagnosis, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and Subject Global Assessment (SGA) were evaluated. Biochemical and clinical evaluations were performed. Our results showed that PhA was higher in well-nourished patients, according to SGA and in the patients without hepatic encephalopathy. PhA correlated significantly with MAMC, MAC and albumin and was inversely correlated with age. No correlation was found between PhA values and the Child-Pugh score and ascites. PhA was strongly associated with survival and PhA ≤ 5.18º with relative risk increase of 2.5 for death. We conclude that the BIA-derived PhA is a relevant nutritional evaluation tool in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and HCC and the role of PhA in the prediction of survival in CLD should be examined further in a controlled study.

  12. A Practical Standardized Composite Nutrition Score Based on Lean Tissue Index: Application in Nutrition Screening and Prediction of Outcome in Hemodialysis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chang, Cheng-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Ju; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Chen, Chang-Hsu; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2017-07-01

    Rapid screening and monitoring of nutritional status is mandatory in hemodialysis population because of the increasingly encountered nutritional problems. Considering the limitations of previous composite nutrition scores applied in this population, we tried to develop a standardized composite nutrition score (SCNS) using low lean tissue index as a marker of protein wasting to facilitate clinical screening and monitoring and to predict outcome. This retrospective cohort used 2 databases of dialysis populations from Taiwan between 2011 and 2014. First database consisting of data from 629 maintenance hemodialysis patients was used to develop the SCNS and the second database containing data from 297 maintenance hemodialysis patients was used to validate this developed score. SCNS containing albumin, creatinine, potassium, and body mass index was developed from the first database using low lean tissue index as a marker of protein wasting. When applying this score in the original database, significantly higher risk of developing protein wasting was found for patients with lower SCNS (odds ratio 1.38 [middle tertile vs highest tertile, P < .0001] and 2.40 [lowest tertile vs middle tertile, P < .0001]). The risk of death was also shown to be higher for patients with lower SCNS (hazard ratio 4.45 [below median level vs above median level, P < .0001]). These results were validated in the second database. We developed an SCNS consisting of 4 easily available biochemical parameters. This kind of scoring system can be easily applied in different dialysis facilities for screening and monitoring of protein wasting. The wide application of body composition monitor in dialysis population will also facilitate the development of specific nutrition scoring model for individual facility. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards the Development of an Intimate Partner Violence Screening Tool for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Hall, Casey D.; Williams, Whitney; Sato, Kimi; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, ptool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of

  14. Evaluation of French version of the Vulnerability to abuse screen scale (VASS), a elder abuse screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Florian; Capriz, Françoise; Lacroix-Hugues, Virginie; Paysant, François; Pradier, Christian; Franco, Alain

    2016-06-01

    The elder abuse is a major public health problem. In the world, almost 4 to 10% of people of more than 65 years would be abuse. The generalist practitioners report only 2% of the elder abuse. Furthermore, the evaluations of elder abuse screenings test found in the scientist literature were unsatisfactory. Evaluate the elder abuse screening capacities of the Vulnerability to abuse screen scale (VASS) in order to propose it to the doctors. VASS was translated in French. It's a quantitative and a forward-looking study whose the answers of people of more than 65 years old were analysed and compared in blind way to the answers of socials workers. 200 patients were included between March and May 2012 in the CHU of Cimiez, Nice. We found 104 patients in danger of abuse, 40 cases of abuse revealed by the socials workers, so 20% of abuses were reported by the gold standard. It means a sensibility of 90,9%, a specificity of 49,7% and a predictive value of 96,1% to a score of 1 to the test. The screening test VASS shown it useful to detect elder people in danger of abuse but a few discriminants and not adapted to patients who have cognitive pathologies. It's a screening tool usable by default, more sensitive than others tests in the scientist literature. However, these results ask the question of the useful of these tools of elder abuse screening in comparison with the education of doctors which made proofs of success in this subject.

  15. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Garvey, Katharine C; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E; Wisk, Lauren E; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  16. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Levy

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  17. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina

    2013-11-01

    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Wikipedia and wikinutrition: key tools for the global promotion of nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, J; Wanden-Berghe, C; Culebras-Fernández, J M; Gil, A; Ruiz, M D; Luengo, L M; Veiga, J

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is an encyclopedia collaboratively edited by volunteers from around the world built on the Web since 2003. Today is the sixth most visited site on the Internet, making it the biggest hit of participatory democracy in the field of information dissemination. The English edition, with more than 3 million items, has become an indispensable part of the Internet and the largest and most popular reference work. In this context, it could be argued that Wikipedia is a valuable tool for the general knowledge of the nutritional sciences terminology. At the same time, it does not only facilitate access to knowledge but also can generate it. It also permits to socialize these spaces for collaboration and development, contributing therefore to disclose science to the society. Consequently, in this article we present and discuss the main features of Wikipedia, emphasizing above all its role in food science and nutrition.

  19. Nutrition evaluation in HIV seropositive patients using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS (PLWHA) in low-income settings depends onan awareness of the available and reliable tools. Objectives: The study was designed to compare the nutritional status evaluation of PLWHA using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ...

  20. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  1. A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Cassar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012. Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as “drag and drop” and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy.

  2. A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australians Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Alyssa M; Denyer, Gareth S; O'Connor, Helen T; Gifford, Janelle A

    2018-02-23

    Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012). Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as "drag and drop" and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy.

  3. Systematic review of fall risk screening tools for older patients in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Maria; Ivziku, Dhurata; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2015-06-01

    To determine the most accurate fall risk screening tools for predicting falls among patients aged 65 years or older admitted to acute care hospitals. Falls represent a serious problem in older inpatients due to the potential physical, social, psychological and economic consequences. Older inpatients present with risk factors associated with age-related physiological and psychological changes as well as multiple morbidities. Thus, fall risk screening tools for older adults should include these specific risk factors. There are no published recommendations addressing what tools are appropriate for older hospitalized adults. Systematic review. MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane electronic databases were searched between January 1981-April 2013. Only prospective validation studies reporting sensitivity and specificity values were included. Recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Reviews have been followed. Three fall risk assessment tools were evaluated in seven articles. Due to the limited number of studies, meta-analysis was carried out only for the STRATIFY and Hendrich Fall Risk Model II. In the combined analysis, the Hendrich Fall Risk Model II demonstrated higher sensitivity than STRATIFY, while the STRATIFY showed higher specificity. In both tools, the Youden index showed low prognostic accuracy. The identified tools do not demonstrate predictive values as high as needed for identifying older inpatients at risk for falls. For this reason, no tool can be recommended for fall detection. More research is needed to evaluate fall risk screening tools for older inpatients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: disease burden and screening tools : towards newborn screening

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Jutte Jacoba Catharina de

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital viral infection worldwide. The symptom of congenital CMV infection encountered most frequently is sensorineural hearing loss, which will affect approximately one out of five congenitally infected newborns. Because of the late-onset nature of the hearing loss, up to half of the children with congenital CMV-related hearing loss may not be detected in the newborn hearing screening. This thesis addresses several aspects of congenital CM...

  5. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wittbrodt, Jonas N.; Liebel, Urban; Gehrig, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. ...

  6. Comparison of Three Cognitive Screening Tools in Older Urban and Regional Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Delbaere, Kim; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert G; Bennett, Hayley; Broe, Gerald A

    2015-01-01

    Validated cognitive screening tools for use in urban and regional Aboriginal populations in Australia are lacking. In a cross-sectional community-based study, 235 participants were assessed on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and an urban modification of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (mKICA). Performance on these cognitive screening tools was compared to dementia diagnosis by clinical consensus. All tests were culturally acceptable with good psychometric properties. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the MMSE and mKICA were the most accurate. The MMSE is an effective cognitive screening tool in urban Aboriginal populations. The mKICA is a good alternative when illiteracy, language or cultural considerations deem it appropriate. The RUDAS also has adequate validity in this population. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichvarova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition became a routine therapeutic option in malnourished patients, if conventional nutritional enteral support is not effective. Cachexia and malnutrition prolong the wound healing, contribute to immunosuppression, increase morbidity and the cost of treatment. Using of a malnutrition protocol as a screening tool is necessary to sort out malnourished patients. Parenteral nutrition is therefore an important part of the multimodal therapy and from the medical and the ethical point of view is a great mistake not to feed a patient. (author)

  8. A developmental screening tool for toddlers with multiple domains based on Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ai-Wen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Liao, Hua-Fang; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Using multidomain developmental screening tools is a feasible method for pediatric health care professionals to identify children at risk of developmental problems in multiple domains simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch-based tool for Multidimensional Screening in Child Development (MuSiC) for children aged 0-3 years. The MuSic was developed by constructing items bank based on three commonly used screening tools, validating with developmental status (at risk for delay or not) on five developmental domains. Parents of a convenient sample of 632 children (aged 3-35.5 months) with and without developmental delays responded to items from the three screening tools funded by health authorities in Taiwan. Item bank was determined by item fit of Rasch analysis for each of the five developmental domains (cognitive skills, language skills, gross motor skills, fine motor skills, and socioadaptive skills). Children's performance scores in logits derived in Rasch analysis were validated with developmental status for each domain using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves. MuSiC, a 75-item developmental screening tool for five domains, was derived. The diagnostic validity of all five domains was acceptable for all stages of development, except for the infant stage (≤11 months and 15 days). MuSiC can be applied simultaneously to well-child care visits as a universal screening tool for children aged 1-3 years on multiple domains. Items with sound validity for infants need to be further developed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Patient-completed or symptom-based screening tools for endometriosis: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrey, Eric; Carter, Cathryn M; Soliman, Ahmed M; Khan, Shahnaz; DiBenedetti, Dana B; Snabes, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate existing patient-completed screening questionnaires and/or symptom-based predictive models with respect to their potential for use as screening tools for endometriosis in adult women. Validated instruments were of particular interest. We conducted structured searches of PubMed and targeted searches of the gray literature to identify studies reporting on screening instruments used in endometriosis. Studies were screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that followed the PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design) framework. A total of 16 studies were identified, of which 10 described measures for endometriosis in general, 2 described measures for endometriosis at specific sites, and 4 described measures for deep-infiltrating endometriosis. Only 1 study evaluated a questionnaire that was solely patient-completed. Most measures required physician, imaging, or laboratory assessments in addition to patient-completed questionnaires, and several measures relied on complex scoring. Validation for use as a screening tool in adult women with potential endometriosis was lacking in all studies, as most studies focused on diagnosis versus screening. This literature review did not identify any fully validated, symptom-based, patient-reported questionnaires for endometriosis screening in adult women.

  10. A novel multidimensional geriatric screening tool in the ED: evaluation of feasibility and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Bieri, Christoph; Özgüler, Onur; Moser, André; Haberkern, Monika; Zimmermann, Heinz; Stuck, Andreas E; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis

    2014-06-01

    Geriatric problems frequently go undetected in older patients in emergency departments (EDs), thus increasing their risk of adverse outcomes. We evaluated a novel emergency geriatric screening (EGS) tool designed to detect geriatric problems. The EGS tool consisted of short validated instruments used to screen 4 domains (cognition, falls, mobility, and activities of daily living). Emergency geriatric screening was introduced for ED patients 75 years or older throughout a 4-month period. We analyzed the prevalence of abnormal EGS and whether EGS increased the number of EGS-related diagnoses in the ED during the screening, as compared with a preceding control period. Emergency geriatric screening was performed on 338 (42.5%) of 795 patients presenting during screening. Emergency geriatric screening was unfeasible in 175 patients (22.0%) because of life-threatening conditions and was not performed in 282 (35.5%) for logistical reasons. Emergency geriatric screening took less than 5 minutes to perform in most (85.8%) cases. Among screened patients, 285 (84.3%) had at least 1 abnormal EGS finding. In 270 of these patients, at least 1 abnormal EGS finding did not result in a diagnosis in the ED and was reported for further workup to subsequent care. During screening, 142 patients (42.0%) had at least 1 diagnosis listed within the 4 EGS domains, significantly more than the 29.3% in the control period (odds ratio 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.29; Pdeterminants of subsequent care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an innovative uav-mounted screening tool for landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Thomasen, T. B.; Valbjørn, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera was investiga......Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera...

  12. Neuro-Simulation Tool for Enhanced Oil Recovery Screening and Reservoir Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Bahrekazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the suitable enhanced oil recovery method in an oilfield is one of the decisions which are made prior to the natural drive production mechanism. In some cases, having in-depth knowledge about reservoir’s rock, fluid properties, and equipment is needed as well as economic evaluation. Both putting such data into simulation and its related consequent processes are generally very time consuming and costly.  In order to reduce study cases, an appropriate tool is required for primary screening prior to any operations being performed, to which leads reduction of time in design of ether pilot section or production under field condition. In this research, two different and useful screening tools are presented through a graphical user interface. The output of just over 900 simulations and verified screening criteria tables were employed to design the mentioned tools. Moreover, by means of gathered data and development of artificial neural networks, two dissimilar screening tools for proper assessment of suitable enhanced oil recovery method were finally introduced. The first tool is about the screening of enhanced oil recovery process based on published tables/charts and the second one which is Neuro-Simulation tool, concerns economical evaluation of miscible and immiscible injection of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and natural gas into the reservoir. Both of designed tools are provided in the form of a graphical user interface by which the user, can perceive suitable method through plot of oil recovery graph during 20 years of production, costs of gas injection per produced barrel, cumulative oil production, and finally, design the most efficient scenario.

  13. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  14. CrossCheck: an open-source web tool for high-throughput screen data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafov, Jamil; Najafov, Ayaz

    2017-07-19

    Modern high-throughput screening methods allow researchers to generate large datasets that potentially contain important biological information. However, oftentimes, picking relevant hits from such screens and generating testable hypotheses requires training in bioinformatics and the skills to efficiently perform database mining. There are currently no tools available to general public that allow users to cross-reference their screen datasets with published screen datasets. To this end, we developed CrossCheck, an online platform for high-throughput screen data analysis. CrossCheck is a centralized database that allows effortless comparison of the user-entered list of gene symbols with 16,231 published datasets. These datasets include published data from genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR screens, interactome proteomics and phosphoproteomics screens, cancer mutation databases, low-throughput studies of major cell signaling mediators, such as kinases, E3 ubiquitin ligases and phosphatases, and gene ontological information. Moreover, CrossCheck includes a novel database of predicted protein kinase substrates, which was developed using proteome-wide consensus motif searches. CrossCheck dramatically simplifies high-throughput screen data analysis and enables researchers to dig deep into the published literature and streamline data-driven hypothesis generation. CrossCheck is freely accessible as a web-based application at http://proteinguru.com/crosscheck.

  15. Screening Tool to Determine Risk of Having Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms in Men Who Engage in Weight Training at a Gym.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Martínez-Segura, Asier; Folgado-de la Rosa, David M; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    Although 2 screening tests exist for having a high risk of muscle dysmorphia (MD) symptoms, they both require a long time to apply. Accordingly, we proposed the construction, validation, and implementation of such a test in a mobile application using easy-to-measure factors associated with MD. Cross-sectional observational study. Gyms in Alicante (Spain) during 2013 to 2014. One hundred forty-one men who engaged in weight training. The variables are as follows: age, educational level, income, buys own food, physical activity per week, daily meals, importance of nutrition, special nutrition, guilt about dietary nonadherence, supplements, and body mass index (BMI). A points system was constructed through a binary logistic regression model to predict a high risk of MD symptoms by testing all possible combinations of secondary variables (5035). The system was validated using bootstrapping and implemented in a mobile application. High risk of having MD symptoms (Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale). Of the 141 participants, 45 had a high risk of MD symptoms [31.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 24.2%-39.6%]. The logistic regression model combination providing the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.76) included the following: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97, P = 0.007], guilt about dietary nonadherence (OR = 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06-5.73, P = 0.037), energy supplements (OR = 3.60; 95% CI, 1.54-8.44, P = 0.003), and BMI (OR = 1.33, 95% CI, 1.12-1.57, P < 0.001). The points system was validated through 1000 bootstrap samples. A quick, easy-to-use, 4-factor test that could serve as a screening tool for a high risk of MD symptoms has been constructed, validated, and implemented in a mobile application.

  16. [Tool of nutrition education for allergic to egg and cow's milk protein in pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy affects a large part of the population and their numbers are increasing. Although the knowing of this pathology is growing, allergic patients have really difficulties to lead a normal life, especially with food. Until now,this group hadn t practical tools that would help them in the development of a balanced daily diet, as there are for the general population in the form of pyramids and dietary guidelines . This work has covered this need for two of the most prevalent allergies in early life. gather information on the allergy of cow's milk protein and egg, to design a food pyramid for these patients, based on the consensus, recommendations and scientific guidance. After confirming the absence of a similar work, food pyramids allergy to egg and cow's milk protein, adapted to each, and a joint pyramid is designed to both allergies. Besides basic recommendations for healthy eating were included in general and in particular individuals, with special interest for the collective (food hygiene, food additives, cosmetics, medicines, etc). Due to the importance of nutrition in childhood and acquires the underlying difficulties this group, to properly plan the diet is very important as it can prevent accidents and long-term nutritional deficiencies. Therefore provide graphical tools and practices to this goal, is importance for population and medical and scientific community, and is the result of this work. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. An audit of local government planning tools for their potential use in addressing community food and nutrition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Elizabeth; Hammond, Melinda; Martin, Caroline; Burns, Catherine; Groos, Anita

    2010-04-01

    This project aimed to identify how local government planning tools could be used to influence physical and policy environments to support healthy eating behaviours in communities. An audit of Queensland's legislative and non-legislative local government planning tools was conducted by a public health nutritionist to assess their potential use in addressing strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes. Ten strategies were identified and covered the following themes: improving access to healthy foods and drinks; increasing access to breastfeeding facilities; decreasing fast food outlet density; and unhealthy food advertising. The audit found that all of the 10 strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes could be considered through three or more of the planning tools. Based on the findings of this audit, local government planning tools provide opportunities to address food and nutrition issues and contribute toward creating physical and policy environments that support healthy eating behaviours.

  18. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H

  19. A web-based screening tool for near-port air quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community model for near-PORT applications (C-PORT) is a screening tool with an intended purpose of calculating differences in annual averaged concentration patterns and relative contributions of various source categories over the spatial domain within about 10 km of the port...

  20. Preconception care: a screening tool for health assessment and risk detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Bij, A.K. van der; Cikot, R.J.L.M.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Braat, D.D.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome is a main component of preconception care, but requires adequate time and knowledge. This study compares self-administered questionnaires to history taking by a physician to evaluate the reliability of such a screening tool for

  1. Translation and discriminative validation of the STarT Back Screening Tool into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT) is a nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies low back pain patients into low, medium or high risk of poor prognosis. When assessed by GPs, these subgroups can be used to triage patients into different evidence-based treatment pa...

  2. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  3. A developmental screening tool for toddlers with multiple domains based on Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Wen Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MuSiC can be applied simultaneously to well-child care visits as a universal screening tool for children aged 1–3 years on multiple domains. Items with sound validity for infants need to be further developed.

  4. A Novel Geriatric Screening Tool in Older Patients with Cancer: The Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Won Kim

    Full Text Available Geriatric assessment (GA is resource-consuming, necessitating screening tools to select appropriate patients who need full GA. The objective of this study is to design a novel geriatric screening tool with easy-to-answer questions and high performance objectively selected from a large dataset to represent each domain of GA. A development cohort was constructed from 1284 patients who received GA from May 2004 to April 2007. Items representing each domain of functional status, cognitive function, nutritional status, and psychological status in GA were selected according to sensitivity (SE and specificity (SP. Of the selected items, the final questions were chosen by a panel of oncologists and geriatricians to encompass most domains evenly and also by feasibility and use with cancer patients. The selected screening questions were validated in a separate cohort of 98 cancer patients. The novel screening tool, the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG-7, consisted of 7 items representing each domain of GA. KG-7 had a maximal area under the curve (AUC of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.92-0.95 in the prediction of abnormal GA, which was higher than that of G-8 (0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.89 within the development cohort. The cut-off value was decided at ≤ 5 points, with a SE of 95.0%, SP of 59.2%, positive predictive value (PPV of 85.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV of 82.6%. In the validation cohort, the AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.90, and the SE, SP, PPV, and NPV were 89.5%, 48.6%, 77.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with higher KG-7 scores showed significantly longer overall survival (OS in the development and validation cohorts. In conclusions, the KG-7 showed high SE and NPV to predict abnormal GA. The KG-7 also predicted OS. Given the results of our studies, the KG-7 could be used effectively in countries with high patient burden and low resources to select patients in need of full GA and intervention.

  5. START (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment)--an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing encompasses acts of commission i.e. giving drugs that are contraindicated or unsuitable, and acts of omission i.e. failure to prescribe drugs when indicated due to ignorance of evidence base or other irrational basis e.g. ageism. There are considerable published data on the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing; however, there are no recent published data on the prevalence of acts of omission. The aim of this study was to calculate the prevalence of acts of prescribing omission in a population of consecutively hospitalised elderly people. METHODS: A screening tool (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment acronym, START), devised from evidence-based prescribing indicators and arranged according to physiological systems was prepared and validated for identifying prescribing omissions in older adults. Data on active medical problems and prescribed medicines were collected in 600 consecutive elderly patients admitted from the community with acute illness to a teaching hospital. On identification of an omitted medication, the patient\\'s medical records were studied to look for a valid reason for the prescribing omission. RESULTS: Using the START list, we found one or more prescribing omissions in 57.9% of patients. In order of prevalence, the most common prescribing omissions were: statins in atherosclerotic disease (26%), warfarin in chronic atrial fibrillation (9.5%), anti-platelet therapy in arterial disease (7.3%) and calcium\\/vitamin D supplementation in symptomatic osteoporosis (6%). CONCLUSION: Failure to prescribe appropriate medicines is a highly prevalent problem among older people presenting to hospital with acute illness. A validated screening tool (START) is one method of systematically identifying appropriate omitted medicines in clinical practice.

  6. Can abstract screening workload be reduced using text mining? User experiences of the tool Rayyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Hanna; Brolund, Agneta; Hellberg, Christel; Silverstein, Rebecca; Stenström, Karin; Österberg, Marie; Dagerhamn, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    One time-consuming aspect of conducting systematic reviews is the task of sifting through abstracts to identify relevant studies. One promising approach for reducing this burden uses text mining technology to identify those abstracts that are potentially most relevant for a project, allowing those abstracts to be screened first. To examine the effectiveness of the text mining functionality of the abstract screening tool Rayyan. User experiences were collected. Rayyan was used to screen abstracts for 6 reviews in 2015. After screening 25%, 50%, and 75% of the abstracts, the screeners logged the relevant references identified. A survey was sent to users. After screening half of the search result with Rayyan, 86% to 99% of the references deemed relevant to the study were identified. Of those studies included in the final reports, 96% to 100% were already identified in the first half of the screening process. Users rated Rayyan 4.5 out of 5. The text mining function in Rayyan successfully helped reviewers identify relevant studies early in the screening process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A New Tool for Nutrition App Quality Evaluation (AQEL): Development, Validation, and Reliability Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Kristen Nicole; Huang, Wenhao; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2017-10-27

    The extensive availability and increasing use of mobile apps for nutrition-based health interventions makes evaluation of the quality of these apps crucial for integration of apps into nutritional counseling. The goal of this research was the development, validation, and reliability testing of the app quality evaluation (AQEL) tool, an instrument for evaluating apps' educational quality and technical functionality. Items for evaluating app quality were adapted from website evaluations, with additional items added to evaluate the specific characteristics of apps, resulting in 79 initial items. Expert panels of nutrition and technology professionals and app users reviewed items for face and content validation. After recommended revisions, nutrition experts completed a second AQEL review to ensure clarity. On the basis of 150 sets of responses using the revised AQEL, principal component analysis was completed, reducing AQEL into 5 factors that underwent reliability testing, including internal consistency, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability (IRR). Two additional modifiable constructs for evaluating apps based on the age and needs of the target audience as selected by the evaluator were also tested for construct reliability. IRR testing using intraclass correlations (ICC) with all 7 constructs was conducted, with 15 dietitians evaluating one app. Development and validation resulted in the 51-item AQEL. These were reduced to 25 items in 5 factors after principal component analysis, plus 9 modifiable items in two constructs that were not included in principal component analysis. Internal consistency and split-half reliability of the following constructs derived from principal components analysis was good (Cronbach alpha >.80, Spearman-Brown coefficient >.80): behavior change potential, support of knowledge acquisition, app function, and skill development. App purpose split half-reliability was .65. Test-retest reliability showed no

  8. Development of Nutrition Education Using support tools to select a well-balanced diet in the Homemaking in Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Itou, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Nami; Ishida, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The implementation plan of the nutrition education for children of 5th graders of the elementary school using the support tools to select a well-balanced diet was developed and practiced. The children’ behavior in the learning process were recorded and analyzed to empirically examine the effect of the nutrition education on the students in their learning process of nutrition knowledge as well as in their acquiring process of behavior to arrange a well-balanced diet.   The results were as ...

  9. PCR screening of an African fermented pearl-millet porridge metagenome to investigate the nutritional potential of its microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubade, Fabien; Humblot, Christèle; Hemery, Youna M; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-03-06

    Cereals are staple foods in most African countries, and many African cereal-based foods are spontaneously fermented. The nutritional quality of cereal products can be enhanced through fermentation, and traditional cereal-based fermented foods (CBFFs) are possible sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with useful nutritional properties. The nutritional properties of LAB vary depending on the species and even on the strain, and the microbial composition of traditional CBFFs varies from one traditional production unit (TPU) to another. The nutritional quality of traditional CBFFs may thus vary depending on their microbial composition. As the isolation of potentially useful LAB from traditional CBFFs can be very time consuming, the aim of this study was to use PCR to assess the nutritional potential of LAB directly on the metagenomes of pearl-millet based fermented porridges (ben-saalga) from Burkina Faso. Genes encoding enzymes involved in different nutritional activities were screened in 50 metagenomes extracted from samples collected in 10 TPUs in Ouagadougou. The variability of the genetic potential was recorded. Certain genes were never detected in the metagenomes (genes involved in carotenoid synthesis) while others were frequently detected (genes involved in folate and riboflavin production, starch hydrolysis, polyphenol degradation). Highly variable microbial composition - assessed by real-time PCR - was observed among samples collected in different TPUs, but also among samples from the same TPU. The high frequency of the presence of genes did not necessarily correlate with in situ measurements of the expected products. Indeed, no significant correlation was found between the microbial variability and the variability of the genetic potential. In spite of the high rate of detection (80%) of both genes folP and folK, encoding enzymes involved in folate synthesis, the folate content in ben-saalga was rather low (median: 0.5μg/100g fresh weight basis). This work

  10. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  11. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  12. Tomosynthesis as a screening tool for breast cancer: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coop, P.; Cowling, C.; Lawson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mammography is an important screening tool for reducing breast cancer mortality. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can potentially be integrated with mammography to aid in cancer detection. Method: Using the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of current literature was conducted to identify issues relating to the use of tomosynthesis as a screening tool together with mammography. Findings: Using tomosynthesis with digital mammography (DM) increases breast cancer detection, reduces recall rates and increases the positive predictive value of those cases recalled. Invasive cancer detection is significantly improved in tomosynthesis compared to mammography, and has improved success for women with heterogeneous or extremely dense breasts. Conclusion: Tomosynthesis reduces some limitations of mammography at the time of screening that until recently were most often addressed by ultrasound at later work-up. Tomosynthesis can potentially be adopted alongside mammography as a screening tool. - Highlights: • Using tomosynthesis with digital mammography increases breast cancer detection. • Tomosynthesis has improved detection for women with extremely dense breasts. • Tomosynthesis reduces the need for ultrasound to address mammography limitations. • When Tomosynthesis is combined with mammography, recall rates are reduced.

  13. Nutrient concentration in leaves, a tool for nutritional diagnosis in cocoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the foliar concentrations in cocoa farming (Theobroma cacao L as a diagnostic tool of their nutritional status. At the Research Center of the National Federation of Cocoa Producers (Fedecacao located in Miranda-Cauca, Colombia, the study assessed the effect of five doses of NPK fertilization in nutrient concentration in leaves of four cocoa clones CCN-51, TSH-565, ICS-39, and ICS-95 from 20102012. Experimental design was randomized complete block design with five treatments: TR(control, T1(25% NPK, T2(50% NPK, T3(75% NPK, T4(100% NPK and four replicates. The concentration of 11 nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+, S, Mg2+, B, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and their relation with yield was evaluated for three years. Results showed differences in the foliar concentration of nutrients assessed by effect of treatments, by clone, and by clone*treatment interaction. The foliar concentration used was derived from higher yield-related treatment, whereby, a proposal for nutritional diagnosis in cocoa based on nutrient monitoring was created to evaluate nutrient concentration in leaves.

  14. Frailty screening and assessment tools: a review of characteristics and use in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, F; Capanna, A; Ferraro, M; Scarcella, P; Marazzi, M C; Palombi, L; Liotta, G

    2018-01-01

    Frailty screening and assessment are a fundamental issue in Public Health in order to plan prevention programs and services. By a narrative review of the literature employing the International Narrative Systematic Assessment tool, the authors aims to develop an updated framework for the main procedures and measurement tools to assess frailty in older adults, paying attention to the use in the primary care setting. The study selected 10 reviews published between January 2010 and December 2016 that define some characteristics of the main tools used to measure the frailty. Within the selected reviews only one of the described tools met all the criteria (multidimensionality, quick and easy administration, accurate risk prediction of negative outcomes and high sensitivity and specificity) necessary for a screening tool. Accurate risk prediction of negative outcomes could be the appropriate and sufficient criteria to assess a tool aimed to detect frailty in the community-dwelling elderly population. A two-step process (a first short questionnaire to detect frailty and a second longer questionnaire to define the care demand at individual level) could represent the appropriate pathway for planning care services at community level.

  15. Identifying obstructive sleep apnea after stroke/TIA: evaluating four simple screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Mark I; Wan, Anthony; Im, James; Elias, Sara; Frankul, Fadi; Atalla, Mina; Black, Sandra E; Basile, Vincenzo S; Sundaram, Arun; Hopyan, Julia J; Boyle, Karl; Gladstone, David J; Murray, Brian J; Swartz, Richard H

    2016-05-01

    Despite its high prevalence and unfavorable clinical consequences, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often remains underappreciated after cerebrovascular events. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical utility of four simple paper-based screening tools for excluding OSA after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sixty-nine inpatients and outpatients with stroke or TIA during the past 180 days completed the 4-Variable screening tool (4V), STOP-BAG questionnaire (ie, STOP-BANG questionnaire without the neck circumference measurement), Berlin questionnaire, and the Sleep Obstructive apnea score optimized for Stroke (SOS). They subsequently underwent objective testing using a portable sleep monitoring device. Cutoffs were selected to maximize sensitivity and exclude OSA (AHI ≥ 10) in ≥10% of the cohort. The mean age was 68.3 ± 14.2 years and 47.8% were male. Thirty-two patients (46.4%) were found to have OSA. Male sex, body mass index (BMI), and atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of OSA. Among the screening tools, the 4V had the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.688 (p = 0.007); the sensitivity was 96.9% for a cutoff of stroke/TIA. Due to the atypical presentation of poststroke/TIA OSA, these tools are only moderately predictive; objective testing should still be used for OSA diagnosis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Nogueira, Antonio J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC 50 values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination

  17. Development of a Screening Tool to Improve Management of the Welfare Caseload in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Donovan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the evaluation of the welfare program in Kentucky, descriptive and multivariate techniques were used to develop and test a brief screening tool. The purpose of this tool is to identify clients at risk of using 80% or more of the lifetime limit for cash assistance provided through the Kentucky’s Transitional Assistance Program (KTAP. The variables for the screening tool were identified through discriminant analysis and logistic regression using data from the KTAP administrative records and from two surveys: a panel study conducted with a representative group of KTAP recipients, and a point-in-time survey conducted with a representative sample of clients who reached their lifetime limit of cash assistance in 2001. Descriptive analyses using panel data show the stability of measures over time and their ability to set apart the segment of population at risk for high utilization of their available time on KTAP. The predictive value of the screening tool was tested with regression models using the KTAP utilization information available from the administrative records.

  18. Screening Commercial Vehicle Drivers for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Tools, Barriers, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kelly A; Yap, Tracey; Turner, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by a cessation of breathing during sleep, leading to poor sleep patterns and daytime somnolence. Daytime somnolence is of particular concern for commercial vehicle drivers, whose crash risk increases 50% with untreated OSA. The process of diagnosing and treating OSA in commercial drivers begins with effective and consistent screening. Therefore, the researchers screened drivers with both the STOP-Bang Questionnaire and the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation Worksheet (OSAEW) and compared the two tools. Drivers screening positive on the STOP-Bang Questionnaire, OSAEW, and both questionnaires were 28%, 23%, and 13%, respectively. Sleep study referrals were made for 50 drivers; 12 drivers were scheduled for sleep tests within 3 months. Health care provider referral rates for drivers screening at high risk (37%) and commercial driver monitoring rates (24%) were both low. Recommendations to improve OSA screening and testing practices include Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration-mandated screening and referral guidelines, employee-facilitated sleep testing, and OSA awareness campaigns.

  19. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Anne; DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2016-07-08

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient's visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade "1" for the statement, "I would like to use this system frequently" during the first round of testing but a "5" during the second round of analysis. The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size of MOAs that participated. The results may have been biased to

  20. Diabetes Screening in US Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Bernice; Turyk, Mary E; Kominiarek, Michelle A; Xia, Yinglin; Gerber, Ben S

    2016-09-08

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined individual, socioeconomic, and health care use characteristics of women with a history of GDM and the association of those characteristics with diabetes screening, and we estimated their rates of undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes. Using 3 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012), we identified 284 women with a history of GDM who were eligible for diabetes screening. Screening status was defined by self-report of having had a blood test for diabetes within the prior 3 years. Undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes were assessed by hemoglobin A1c measurement. Among women with a history of GDM, 67% reported diabetes screening within the prior 3 years. Weighted bivariate analyses showed screened women differed from unscreened women in measured body mass index (BMI) category (P = .01) and number of health visits in the prior year (P = .001). In multivariable analysis, screening was associated with a greater number of health visits in the prior year (1 visit vs 0 visits, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-5.18; 2 or 3 visits, AOR, 7.05; and ≥4 visits, AOR, 5.83). Overall, 24.4% (95% CI, 18.3%-31.7%) of women had undiagnosed prediabetes and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.7%-11.3%) had undiagnosed diabetes. More health visits in the prior year was associated with receiving diabetes screening. Fewer opportunities for screening may delay early detection, clinical management, and prevention of diabetes. Prediabetes in women with a history of GDM may be underrecognized and inadequately treated.

  1. Psychological distress screening in cancer patients: psychometric properties of tools available in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzatti, Barbara; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2012-01-01

    The main national and international organisms recommend continuous monitoring of psychological distress in cancer patients throughout the disease trajectory. The reasons for this concern are the high prevalence of psychological distress in cancer patients and its association with a worse quality of life, poor adherence to treatment, and stronger assistance needs. Most screening tools for psychological distress were developed in English-speaking countries. To be fit for use in different cultural contexts (like the Italian), they need to undergo accurate translation and specific validation. In the present work we summarized the validation studies for psychological distress screening tools available in Italian that are most widely employed internationally, with the aim of helping clinicians choose the adequate instrument. With knowledge of the properties of the corresponding Italian versions, researchers would be better able to identify the instruments that deserve further investigation. We carried out a systematic review of the literature. Results. Twenty-nine studies of eight different instruments (five relating to psychological distress, three to its depressive component) were identified. Ten of these studies involved cancer patients and 19 referred to the general population or to non-cancer, non-psychiatric subjects. For seven of the eight tools, data on concurrent and discriminant validity were available. For five instruments data on criterion validity were available, for four there were data on construct validity, and for one tool divergent and cross-cultural validity data were provided. For six of the eight tools the literature provided data on reliability (mostly about internal consistency). Since none of the eight instruments for which we found validation studies relative to the Italian context had undergone a complete and organic validation process, their use in the clinical context must be cautious. Italian researchers should be proactive and make a valid

  2. Development of a screening tool for detecting undernutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Dixon, R A; Earland, J

    1999-11-01

    Undernutrition and the consumption of poor diets are prevalent among elderly people in developing countries. Recognising the importance of the early identification of individuals at high nutritional risk, this study aimed to develop a simple tool for screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 11 randomly selected villages among the 62 in Mersing District, Malaysia. Undernutrition was assessed using body mass index, plasma albumin and haemoglobin on 285 subjects. Dietary inadequacy (a count of nutrients falling below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances) was examined for 337 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of undernutrition and dietary inadequacy from social and health factors, and to derive appropriate indices based on these predictions. The multivariate predictors of undernutrition were 'no joint disease', 'smoker', 'no hypertension', 'depended on others for economic resource', 'respiratory disease', 'perceived weight loss' and 'chewing difficulty', with a joint sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 84%. The equivalent predictors of dietary inadequacy were 'unable to take public transport', 'loss of appetite', 'chewing difficulty', 'no regular fruit intake' and 'regularly taking less than three meals per day', with a joint sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 47%. These predictions, with minor modification to simplify operational use, led to the production of a simple screening tool. The tool can be used by public health professionals or community workers or leaders as a simple and rapid instrument to screen individual at high risk of undernutrition and/or dietary inadequacy.

  3. Maternal vaccination and preterm birth: using data mining as a screening tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Jensen, Henrik; Stensballe, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this study was to identify possible associations between medicines used in pregnancy and preterm deliveries using data mining as a screening tool. Settings Prospective cohort study. Methods We used data mining to identify possible correlates between preterm delivery...... measure Preterm birth, a delivery occurring before the 259th day of gestation (i.e., less than 37 full weeks). Results Data mining had indicated that maternal vaccination (among other factors) might be related to preterm birth. The following regression analysis showed that, the women who reported being...... further studies. Data mining, especially with additional refinements, may be a valuable and very efficient tool to screen large databases for relevant information which can be used in clinical and public health research....

  4. Development of an innovative uav-mountd screening tool for landfill gas emisiions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, L.; Thomasen, T. B.; Valbjørn, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera was investiga......Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera...... was investigated. The correlation between surface soil temperatures and landfill gas emissions was examined in a field study conducted at Hedeland Landfill near Roskilde, Denmark. The surface temperatures were both measured with a soil thermometer and a long-wave infrared camera and compared to detected methane...

  5. A convolutional neural network-based screening tool for X-ray serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Tsung Wei; Brewster, Aaron S; Yu, Stella X; Ushizima, Daniela; Yang, Chao; Sauter, Nicholas K

    2018-05-01

    A new tool is introduced for screening macromolecular X-ray crystallography diffraction images produced at an X-ray free-electron laser light source. Based on a data-driven deep learning approach, the proposed tool executes a convolutional neural network to detect Bragg spots. Automatic image processing algorithms described can enable the classification of large data sets, acquired under realistic conditions consisting of noisy data with experimental artifacts. Outcomes are compared for different data regimes, including samples from multiple instruments and differing amounts of training data for neural network optimization. open access.

  6. Performance of Edmonton Frail Scale on frailty assessment: its association with multi-dimensional geriatric conditions assessed with specific screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Francis, Matthew D'Arcy; Bologna, Chiara; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Isu, Antonio; Vigo, Beatrice; Guerriero, Fabio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS) on frailty assessment in association with multi-dimensional conditions assessed with specific screening tools and to explore the prevalence of frailty by gender. We enrolled 366 hospitalised patients (women\\men: 251\\115), mean age 81.5 years. The EFS was given to the patients to evaluate their frailty. Then we collected data concerning cognitive status through Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), health status (evaluated with the number of diseases), functional independence (Barthel Index and Activities Daily Living; BI, ADL, IADL), use of drugs (counting of drugs taken every day), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Skeletal Muscle Index of sarcopenia (SMI), osteoporosis and functionality (Handgrip strength). According with the EFS, the 19.7% of subjects were classified as non frail, 66.4% as apparently vulnerable and 13.9% with severe frailty. The EFS scores were associated with cognition (MMSE: β = 0.980; p nutrition (MNA: β = -0.413; p performance (Handgrip: β = -0.114, p performance tool for stratifying the state of fragility in a group of institutionalized elderly. As matter of facts the EFS has been shown to be associated with several geriatric conditions such independence, drugs assumption, mood, mental, functional and nutritional status.

  7. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  8. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  9. Accuracy of Brief Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K.; Zlotnick, Caron; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Ware, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 3 subscales for identifying postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. METHODS: Mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the 10-item EPDS at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Three subscales of the EPDS were assessed as brief screening tools: 3-item anxiety subscale (EPDS-3), 7-item depressive symptoms subscale (EPDS-7), and 2-item subscale (EPDS-2) that resemble the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. Repeated-measures longitudinal analytical techniques were used. RESULTS: A total of 106 women contributed 289 postpartum visits; 18% of the women met criteria for incident postpartum depression by psychiatric diagnostic interview. When used as continuous measures, the full EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 performed equally well (area under the curve >0.9). Optimal cutoff scores for a positive depression screen for the EPDS and EPDS-7 were lower (≥9 and ≥7, respectively) than currently recommended cutoff scores (≥10). At optimal cutoff scores, the EPDS and EPDS-7 both had sensitivities of 90% and specificities of >85%. CONCLUSIONS: The EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 are highly accurate at identifying postpartum depression among adolescent mothers. In primary care pediatric settings, the EPDS and its shorter subscales have potential for use as effective depression screening tools. PMID:24344102

  10. A review of cultural adaptations of screening tools for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J

    2015-08-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural adaptation process, report on the psychometric properties of the adapted instruments, and describe the implications for further research and clinical practice. A total of 21 articles met criteria for inclusion, reporting on the cultural adaptation of autism screening in 19 countries and in 10 languages. The cultural adaptation process was not always clearly outlined and often did not include the recommended guidelines. Cultural/linguistic modifications to the translated tools tended to increase with the rigor of the adaptation process. Differences between the psychometric properties of the original and adapted versions were common, indicating the need to obtain normative data on populations to increase the utility of the translated tool. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.

  13. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila; Wall, Jennifer; Forbes, Kaitlin; Kingston, Dawn; Kehler, Heather; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-07-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10-15% of new mothers. There has been a shift in thinking less in terms of PPD per se to a broader consideration of poor mental health, including anxiety after giving birth. Some risk factors for poor mental health in the post-partum period can be identified prenatally; however prenatal screening tools developed to date have had poor sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool that identifies women at risk of distress, operationalized by elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety in the post-partum period using information collected in the prenatal period. Using data from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Calgary, Alberta (N = 1578), we developed an integer score-based prediction rule for the prevalence of PPD, as defined as scoring 10 or higher on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-months postpartum. The best fit model included known risk factors for PPD: depression and stress in late pregnancy, history of abuse, and poor relationship quality with partner. Comparison of the screening tool with the EPDS in late pregnancy showed that our tool had significantly better performance for sensitivity. Further validation of our tool was seen in its utility for identifying elevated symptoms of postpartum anxiety. This research heeds the call for further development and validation work using psychosocial factors identified prenatally for identifying poor mental health in the post-partum period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A comparison of two tools to screen potentially inappropriate medication in internal medicine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, A-L; Spasojevic, S; Leszek, A; Théodoloz, M; Bonnabry, P; Fumeaux, T; Schaad, N

    2018-04-01

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is an important issue for inpatient management; it has been associated with safety problems, such as increases in adverse drugs events, and with longer hospital stays and higher healthcare costs. To compare two PIM-screening tools-STOPP/START and PIM-Check-applied to internal medicine patients. A second objective was to compare the use of PIMs in readmitted and non-readmitted patients. A retrospective observational study, in the general internal medicine ward of a Swiss non-university hospital. We analysed a random sample of 50 patients, hospitalized in 2013, whose readmission within 30 days of discharge had been potentially preventable, and compared them to a sample of 50 sex- and age-matched patients who were not readmitted. PIMs were screened using the STOPP/START tool, developed for geriatric patients, and the PIM-Check tool, developed for internal medicine patients. The time needed to perform each patient's analysis was measured. A clinical pharmacist counted and evaluated each PIM detected, based on its clinical relevance to the individual patient's case. The rates of screened and validated PIMs involving readmitted and non-readmitted patients were compared. Across the whole population, PIM-Check and STOPP/START detected 1348 and 537 PIMs, respectively, representing 13.5 and 5.4 PIMs/patient. Screening time was substantially shorter with PIM-Check than with STOPP/START (4 vs 10 minutes, respectively). The clinical pharmacist judged that 45% and 42% of the PIMs detected using PIM-Check and STOPP/START, respectively, were clinically relevant to individual patients' cases. No significant differences in the rates of detected and clinically relevant PIM were found between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Internal medicine patients are frequently prescribed PIMs. PIM-Check's PIM detection rate was three times higher than STOPP/START's, and its screening time was shorter thanks to its electronic interface. Nearly

  15. Risk factors for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients and comparison of different screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Moreira de Souza

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND is relatively frequent among HIV-infected patients and is often underdiagnosed. Assessment of HAND in daily clinical practice is challenging and different tools have been proposed. Objective : To evaluate risk factors and compare different screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Methods : HIV-infected patients were evaluated using the International HIV-Dementia Scale (IHDS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a neurocognitive self-perception questionnaire recommended by the European AIDS Clinical Society. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained through chart review and patient interview. Results : Among the 63 patients included, low performance on the IHDS was observed in 54.0% and IHDS score was inversely associated with age (OR 0.13; 95%CI [0.02-0.67]. Regarding cognitive self-perception, 63.5% of patients reported no impairment on the three domains covered by the questionnaire. Among those patients self-reporting no problems, 42.1% had low performance on the IHDS. None of the patients scored below the education-adjusted cut-off on the MMSE. Conclusion : IHDS scores suggestive of HAND were observed in more than half of the patients and lower scores were found among older patients. There was low agreement between the different tools, suggesting that the MMSE may be inadequate for assessing HAND. The self-assessment questionnaire had low sensitivity and might not be useful as a screening tool.

  16. Automated tool for virtual screening and pharmacology-based pathway prediction and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The virtual screening is an effective tool for the lead identification in drug discovery. However, there are limited numbers of crystal structures available as compared to the number of biological sequences which makes (Structure Based Drug Discovery SBDD a difficult choice. The current tool is an attempt to automate the protein structure modelling and automatic virtual screening followed by pharmacology-based prediction and analysis. Starting from sequence(s, this tool automates protein structure modelling, binding site identification, automated docking, ligand preparation, post docking analysis and identification of hits in the biological pathways that can be modulated by a group of ligands. This automation helps in the characterization of ligands selectivity and action of ligands on a complex biological molecular network as well as on individual receptor. The judicial combination of the ligands binding different receptors can be used to inhibit selective biological pathways in a disease. This tool also allows the user to systemically investigate network-dependent effects of a drug or drug candidate.

  17. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Validation and inter-rater reliability of a three item falls risk screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maree Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls screening tools are routinely used in hospital settings and the psychometric properties of tools should be examined in the setting in which they are used. The aim of this study was to explore the concurrent and predictive validity of the Austin Health Falls Risk Screening Tool (AHFRST, compared with The Northern Hospital Modified St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool (TNH-STRATIFY, and the inter-rater reliability of the AHFRST. Methods A research physiotherapist used the AHFRST and TNH-STRATIFY to classify 130 participants admitted to Austin Health (five acute wards, n = 115 two subacute wards n = 15; median length of stay 6 days IQR 3–12 as ‘High’ or ‘Low’ falls risk. The AHFRST was also completed by nursing staff on patient admission. Falls data was collected from the hospital incident reporting system. Results Six falls occurred during the study period (fall rate of 4.6 falls per 1000 bed days. There was substantial agreement between the AHFRST and the TNH-STRATIFY (Kappa = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.78. Both tools had poor predictive validity, with low specificity (AHFRST 46.0%, 95% CI 37.0–55.1; TNH-STRATIFY 34.7%, 95% CI 26.4–43.7 and positive predictive values (AHFRST 5.6%, 95% CI 1.6–13.8; TNH-STRATIFY 6.9%, 95% CI 2.6–14.4. The AHFRST showed moderate inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36–0.67, p < 0.001 although 18 patients did not have the AHFRST completed by nursing staff. Conclusions There was an acceptable level of agreement between the 3 item AHFRST classification of falls risk and the longer, 9 item TNH-STRATIFY classification. However, both tools demonstrated limited predictive validity in the Austin Health population. The results highlight the importance of evaluating the validity of falls screening tools, and the clinical utility of these tools should be reconsidered.

  19. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  20. Use of a functional movement screening tool to determine injury risk in female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorba, Rita S; Chorba, David J; Bouillon, Lucinda E; Overmyer, Corey A; Landis, James A

    2010-06-01

    Athletes often utilize compensatory movement strategies to achieve high performance. However, these inefficient movement strategies may reinforce poor biomechanical movement patterns during typical activities, resulting in injury. This study sought to determine if compensatory movement patterns predispose female collegiate athletes to injury, and if a functional movement screening (FMS™) tool can be used to predict injuries in this population. Scores on the FMS™, comprised of seven movement tests, were calculated for 38 NCAA Division II female collegiate athletes before the start of their respective fall and winter sport seasons (soccer, volleyball, and basketball). Seven athletes reported a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Injuries sustained while participating in sport activities were recorded throughout the seasons. The mean FMS™ score and standard deviation for all subjects was 14.3±1.77 (maximum score of 21). Eighteen injuries (17 lower extremity, 1 lower back) were recorded during this study. A score of 14/21 or less was significantly associated with injury (P=0.0496). Sixty-nine percent of athletes scoring 14 or less sustained an injury. Odds ratios were 3.85 with inclusion of all subjects, and 4.58 with exclusion of ACLR subjects. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.58 and 0.74 for all subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was found between low-scoring athletes and injury (P=0.0214, r=0.76). A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ tool resulted in a 4-fold increase in risk of lower extremity injury in female collegiate athletes participating in fall and winter sports. The screening tool was able to predict injury in female athletes without a history of major musculoskeletal injury such as ACLR. Compensatory fundamental movement patterns can increase the risk of injury in female collegiate athletes, and can be identified by using a functional movement screening tool.

  1. Cross-cultural validity of standardized motor development screening and assessment tools: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bianca; Sargent, Barbara; Fetters, Linda

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether standardized motor development screening and assessment tools that are used to evaluate motor abilities of children aged 0 to 2 years are valid in cultures other than those in which the normative sample was established. This was a systematic review in which six databases were searched. Studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and appraised for evidence level and quality. Study variables were extracted. Twenty-three studies representing six motor development screening and assessment tools in 16 cultural contexts met the inclusion criteria: Alberta Infant Motor Scale (n=7), Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (n=2), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (n=8), Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (n=4), Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (n=1), and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (n=1). Thirteen studies found significant differences between the cultural context and normative sample. Two studies established reliability and/or validity of standardized motor development assessments in high-risk infants from different cultural contexts. Five studies established new population norms. Eight studies described the cross-cultural adaptation of a standardized motor development assessment. Standardized motor development assessments have limited validity in cultures other than that in which the normative sample was established. Their use can result in under- or over-referral for services. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  2. A Lyapunov Function Based Remedial Action Screening Tool Using Real-Time Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Joydeep [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ben-Idris, Mohammed [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Faruque, Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deb, Sidart [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the outcome of a research project that comprised the development of a Lyapunov function based remedial action screening tool using real-time data (L-RAS). The L-RAS is an advanced computational tool that is intended to assist system operators in making real-time redispatch decisions to preserve power grid stability. The tool relies on screening contingencies using a homotopy method based on Lyapunov functions to avoid, to the extent possible, the use of time domain simulations. This enables transient stability evaluation at real-time speed without the use of massively parallel computational resources. The project combined the following components. 1. Development of a methodology for contingency screening using a homotopy method based on Lyapunov functions and real-time data. 2. Development of a methodology for recommending remedial actions based on the screening results. 3. Development of a visualization and operator interaction interface. 4. Testing of screening tool, validation of control actions, and demonstration of project outcomes on a representative real system simulated on a Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) cluster. The project was led by Michigan State University (MSU), where the theoretical models including homotopy-based screening, trajectory correction using real-time data, and remedial action were developed and implemented in the form of research-grade software. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contributed to the development of energy margin sensitivity dynamics, which constituted a part of the remedial action portfolio. Florida State University (FSU) and Southern California Edison (SCE) developed a model of the SCE system that was implemented on FSU's RTDS cluster to simulate real-time data that was streamed over the internet to MSU where the L-RAS tool was executed and remedial actions were communicated back to FSU to execute stabilizing controls on the simulated system. LCG Consulting developed the visualization

  3. Development and validation of fall risk screening tools for use in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Menz, Hylton B; Cumming, Robert G; Cameron, Ian D; Sambrook, Philip N; March, Lyn M; Lord, Stephen R

    2008-08-18

    To develop screening tools for predicting falls in nursing home and intermediate-care hostel residents who can and cannot stand unaided. Prospective cohort study in residential aged care facilities in northern Sydney, New South Wales, June 1999-June 2003. 2005 people aged 65-104 years (mean +/- SD, 85.7+/-7.1 years). Demographic, health, and physical function assessment measures; number of falls over a 6-month period; validity of the screening models. Ability to stand unaided was identified as a significant event modifier for falls. In people who could stand unaided, having either poor balance or two of three other risk factors (previous falls, nursing home residence, and urinary incontinence) increased the risk of falling in the next 6 months threefold (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 55%). In people who could not stand unaided, having any one of three risk factors (previous falls, hostel residence, and using nine or more medications) increased the risk of falling twofold (sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 29%). These two screening models are useful for identifying older people living in residential aged care facilities who are at increased risk of falls. The screens are easy to administer and contain items that are routinely collected in residential aged care facilities in Australia.

  4. Validating SPICES as a Screening Tool for Frailty Risks among Hospitalized Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Harriet Udin; Borenstein, Jeff; Haus, Flora; Braunstein, Glenn D.; Bolton, Linda Burnes

    2014-01-01

    Older patients are vulnerable to adverse hospital events related to frailty. SPICES, a common screening protocol to identify risk factors in older patients, alerts nurses to initiate care plans to reduce the probability of patient harm. However, there is little published validating the association between SPICES and measures of frailty and adverse outcomes. This paper used data from a prospective cohort study on frailty among 174 older adult inpatients to validate SPICES. Almost all patients met one or more SPICES criteria. The sum of SPICES was significantly correlated with age and other well-validated assessments for vulnerability, comorbid conditions, and depression. Individuals meeting two or more SPICES criteria had a risk of adverse hospital events three times greater than individuals with either no or one criterion. Results suggest that as a screening tool used within 24 hours of admission, SPICES is both valid and predictive of adverse events. PMID:24876954

  5. Development of a brief validated geriatric depression screening tool: the SLU "AM SAD".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkamparambil, Binu; Chibnall, John T; Graypel, Ernest A; Manepalli, Jothika N; Bhutto, Asif; Grossberg, George T

    2015-08-01

    Combining five commonly observed symptoms of late-life depression to develop a short depression screening tool with similar sensitivity and specificity as the conventional, more time-consuming tools. We developed the St. Louis University AM SAD (Appetite, Mood, Sleep, Activity, and thoughts of Death) questionnaire. The frequency of each symptom in the prior 2 weeks is quantified as 0, 1, or 2. Patients 65 years or older from our clinics were administered the AM SAD, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the St. Louis University Mental Status Exam (SLUMS). 100 patients were selected. AM SAD correlation with GDS was 0.72 and MADRS 0.80. AM SAD yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 62% against diagnosis of depression; of 88% and 62% with GDS-15; and 92% and 71% with MADRS. The AM SAD can be reliably used as a short depression screening tool in patients with a SLUMS score of 20 or higher. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladapo, T A; Fajolu, I B; Adeniyi, O F; Ekure, E N; Maduako, R O; Jaja, T C; Oduwole, A O

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under-diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations. We evaluated its applicability in our environment. The weights, heights, and blood pressure measurements of 2364 apparently healthy adolescents were determined. Sex-specific systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratios (SBPHR) and (DBPHR) were calculated, and their ability to detect prehypertension and hypertension was determined using receiver operating curves. Discriminatory ability was measured by the area under the curve (AUC) and optimal cutoff points along the curve were determined. P AUC of SBPHR and DBPHR for diagnosing prehypertension and hypertension by sex was >0.95 for both diastolic and systolic hypertension in both sexes. It ranged between 0.803 and 0.922 for prehypertension and 0.954-0.978 for hypertension indicating higher accuracy for hypertension. Sensitivity was higher for systolic and diastolic hypertension (90-98%) compared with prehypertension (87-98%). Specificity was lower than sensitivity across all categories of hypertension and prehypertension (0.64-0.88%) though higher for hypertension (0.75-0.88) compared with prehypertension (0.64-0.75). BPHR is a useful screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in black adolescents. Accuracy increased with higher degrees of hypertension.

  7. Role of Open Source Tools and Resources in Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Advancement in chemoinformatics research in parallel with availability of high performance computing platform has made handling of large scale multi-dimensional scientific data for high throughput drug discovery easier. In this study we have explored publicly available molecular databases with the help of open-source based integrated in-house molecular informatics tools for virtual screening. The virtual screening literature for past decade has been extensively investigated and thoroughly analyzed to reveal interesting patterns with respect to the drug, target, scaffold and disease space. The review also focuses on the integrated chemoinformatics tools that are capable of harvesting chemical data from textual literature information and transform them into truly computable chemical structures, identification of unique fragments and scaffolds from a class of compounds, automatic generation of focused virtual libraries, computation of molecular descriptors for structure-activity relationship studies, application of conventional filters used in lead discovery along with in-house developed exhaustive PTC (Pharmacophore, Toxicophores and Chemophores) filters and machine learning tools for the design of potential disease specific inhibitors. A case study on kinase inhibitors is provided as an example.

  8. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  9. Multifactorial screening for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults in the primary care office: development of the fall risk assessment & screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Mindy Oxman; Fehrer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Unintentional falls is an increasing public health problem as incidence of falls rises and the population ages. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 1 in 3 adults aged 65 years and older will experience a fall this year; 20% to 30% of those who fall will sustain a moderate to severe injury. Physical therapists caring for older adults are usually engaged with these patients after the first injury fall and may have little opportunity to abate fall risk before the injuries occur. This article describes the content selection and development of a simple-to-administer, multifactorial, Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool (FRAST), designed specifically for use in primary care settings to identify those older adults with high fall risk. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool incorporates previously validated measures within a new multifactorial tool and includes targeted recommendations for intervention. Development of the multifactorial FRAST used a 5-part process: identification of significant fall risk factors, review of best evidence, selection of items, creation of the scoring grid, and development of a recommended action plan. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool has been developed to assess fall risk in the target population of older adults (older than 65 years) living and ambulating independently in the community. Many fall risk factors have been considered and 15 items selected for inclusion. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool includes 4 previously validated measures to assess balance, depression, falls efficacy, and home safety. Reliability and validity studies of FRAST are under way. Fall risk for community-dwelling older adults is an urgent, multifactorial, public health problem. Providing primary care practitioners (PCPs) with a very simple screening tool is imperative. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool was created to allow for safe, quick, and low-cost administration by minimally trained office staff with interpretation and

  10. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2018-02-01

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in minor refugees, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. Results show that studies on diagnostic accuracy of assessment instruments and efficacy of mental healthcare interventions in this population are lacking. Traumatic experiences pre-flight, during the flight and at resettlement, superimposed by parental PTSD, and other contextual factors, might lead to more than 25% of minor refugees developing PTSD. To enhance the number of minor refugees recognized with PTSD, we recommend the use of a brief screening instrument. A public health approach, focusing on environmental supportive factors is the first step in treatment for this group, followed by short-term psychological group interventions focusing on psycho-education and stress reduction. Minor refugees with no improvement in PTSD symptoms by these interventions need referral to specialized mental health care services. Mental health providers should be culturally competent. What is Known: • Post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, sleeping problems, and depression are the most common psychiatric disorders in minor refugees. • Evidence based methods on screening and interventions in minor refugees with psychiatric disorders are lacking. What is New: • In the absence of validated screening tools a best practice reliable, quick and child-friendly tool is presented. • A layered system for mental health care and psychosocial support in minor refugees is explained.

  11. VitalQPlus: a potential screening tool for early diagnosis of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui CF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chee Fai Sui,1 Long Chiau Ming,2,3 Chin Fen Neoh,2,4 Baharudin Ibrahim1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 3Brain Degeneration and Therapeutics Group, 4Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR Group, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences (PLS Community of Research (CoRe, UiTM, Selangor, Malaysia Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers. Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83 were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia compared to 75.9% (63/83 from Sabah (Borneo region. Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6 ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of ≥5 yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1

  12. The development of a screening tool to evaluate gross motor function in HIV-infected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Nicole; Potterton, Joanne; Stewart, Aimee; Becker, Piet

    2011-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay or HIV encephalopathy is a stage four disease indicator for paediatric HIV/AIDS according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), and may be used as a criterion for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, the only means of prevention of this condition is early initiation of HAART. Studies which have been carried out in South African clinics have revealed the high prevalence of this condition. In developing countries, commencement of HAART is based on declining virologic and immunologic status, as standardised neurodevelopmental assessment tools are not widely available. A standardised developmental screening tool which is suitable for use in a developing country is therefore necessary in order to screen for neurodevelopmental delay to allow for further assessment and referral to rehabilitation services, as well as providing an additional assessment criterion for initiation of HAART. The infant gross motor screening test (IGMST) was developed for this purpose. The standardisation sample of the IGMST consisted of 112 HIV-infected infants between six and 18 months of age. Item selection for the IGMST was based on the Gross Motor scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-III. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts using a nominal group technique (NGT; agreement >80%). Concurrent validity (n=60) of the IGMST was carried out against the BSID-III, and agreement was excellent (K=0.85). The diagnostic properties of the IGMST were evaluated and revealed: sensitivity 97.4%, specificity 85.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92.7%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.7%. Reliability testing (n=30) revealed inter-rater reliability as: r=1, test-retest reliability: r=0.98 and intra-rater reliability: r=0.98. The results indicate that the statistical properties of the IGMST are excellent, and the tool is suitable for use within the paediatric HIV setting.

  13. 'Screening audit' as a quality assurance tool in good clinical practice compliant research environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinyoung; Nam, Chung Mo; Park, Sejung; Noh, Yang Hee; Ahn, Cho Rong; Yu, Wan Sun; Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Jin Seok; Rha, Sun Young

    2018-04-25

    With the growing amount of clinical research, regulations and research ethics are becoming more stringent. This trend introduces a need for quality assurance measures for ensuring adherence to research ethics and human research protection beyond Institutional Review Board approval. Audits, one of the most effective tools for assessing quality assurance, are measures used to evaluate Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and protocol compliance in clinical research. However, they are laborious, time consuming, and require expertise. Therefore, we developed a simple auditing process (a screening audit) and evaluated its feasibility and effectiveness. The screening audit was developed using a routine audit checklist based on the Severance Hospital's Human Research Protection Program policies and procedures. The measure includes 20 questions, and results are summarized in five categories of audit findings. We analyzed 462 studies that were reviewed by the Severance Hospital Human Research Protection Center between 2013 and 2017. We retrospectively analyzed research characteristics, reply rate, audit findings, associated factors and post-screening audit compliance, etc. RESULTS: Investigator reply rates gradually increased, except for the first year (73% → 26% → 53% → 49% → 55%). The studies were graded as "critical," "major," "minor," and "not a finding" (11.9, 39.0, 42.9, and 6.3%, respectively), based on findings and number of deficiencies. The auditors' decisions showed fair agreement with weighted kappa values of 0.316, 0.339, and 0.373. Low-risk level studies, single center studies, and non-phase clinical research showed more prevalent frequencies of being "major" or "critical" (p = 0.002, audit grade (p audit results of post-screening audit compliance checks in "non-responding" and "critical" studies upon applying the screening audit. Our screening audit is a simple and effective way to assess overall GCP compliance by institutions and to

  14. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  15. Low field pulsed NMR- a mass screening tool in agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.N.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main requirements in agricultural research is to analyse large number of samples for their one or more chemical constituents and physical properties. In plant breeding programmes and germplasm evaluation, it is necessary that the analysis is fast as many samples are to be analysed. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a potential tool for developing rapid and nondestructive method of analysis. Various applications of low resolution pulsed NMR in agricultural research, which are generally used as screening method are briefly described. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Validation of a Type 2 Diabetes Screening Tool in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Evan C.; Herman, William H.; Aiello, Allison E.; Danielson, Kris R.; Mendoza-Avelarez, Milton O.; Piette, John D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a low-cost tool for identifying diabetic patients in rural areas of Latin America. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A regression equation incorporating postprandial time and a random plasma glucose was used to screen 800 adults in Honduras. Patients with a probability of diabetes of ≥20% were asked to return for a fasting plasma glucose (FPG). A random fifth of those with a screener-based probability of diabetes Honduras and could be used to identify diabetic patients in poor clinics in Latin America. PMID:19918008

  17. HDAT: web-based high-throughput screening data analysis tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong; Hassan, Taimur; Rallo, Robert; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    The increasing utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) in toxicity studies of engineered nano-materials (ENMs) requires tools for rapid and reliable processing and analyses of large HTS datasets. In order to meet this need, a web-based platform for HTS data analyses tools (HDAT) was developed that provides statistical methods suitable for ENM toxicity data. As a publicly available computational nanoinformatics infrastructure, HDAT provides different plate normalization methods, various HTS summarization statistics, self-organizing map (SOM)-based clustering analysis, and visualization of raw and processed data using both heat map and SOM. HDAT has been successfully used in a number of HTS studies of ENM toxicity, thereby enabling analysis of toxicity mechanisms and development of structure–activity relationships for ENM toxicity. The online approach afforded by HDAT should encourage standardization of and future advances in HTS as well as facilitate convenient inter-laboratory comparisons of HTS datasets. (paper)

  18. GUItars: a GUI tool for analysis of high-throughput RNA interference screening data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli N Goktug

    Full Text Available High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi screening has become a widely used approach to elucidating gene functions. However, analysis and annotation of large data sets generated from these screens has been a challenge for researchers without a programming background. Over the years, numerous data analysis methods were produced for plate quality control and hit selection and implemented by a few open-access software packages. Recently, strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD has become a widely used method for RNAi screening analysis mainly due to its better control of false negative and false positive rates and its ability to quantify RNAi effects with a statistical basis. We have developed GUItars to enable researchers without a programming background to use SSMD as both a plate quality and a hit selection metric to analyze large data sets.The software is accompanied by an intuitive graphical user interface for easy and rapid analysis workflow. SSMD analysis methods have been provided to the users along with traditionally-used z-score, normalized percent activity, and t-test methods for hit selection. GUItars is capable of analyzing large-scale data sets from screens with or without replicates. The software is designed to automatically generate and save numerous graphical outputs known to be among the most informative high-throughput data visualization tools capturing plate-wise and screen-wise performances. Graphical outputs are also written in HTML format for easy access, and a comprehensive summary of screening results is written into tab-delimited output files.With GUItars, we demonstrated robust SSMD-based analysis workflow on a 3840-gene small interfering RNA (siRNA library and identified 200 siRNAs that increased and 150 siRNAs that decreased the assay activities with moderate to stronger effects. GUItars enables rapid analysis and illustration of data from large- or small-scale RNAi screens using SSMD and other traditional analysis

  19. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of an audit and feedback reporting tool on screening participation: The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, Leigh; Pefoyo, Anna Kone; Lee, Alex; Hader, Joanne; Strasberg, Suzanne; Kupets, Rachel; Chiarelli, Anna M; Tinmouth, Jill

    2017-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening is critical to its effectiveness in reducing the burden of cancer. The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR), an electronic report, was developed as an innovative audit and feedback tool to increase screening participation in Ontario's cancer screening programs. This study aims to assess its impact on patient screening participation. This study used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2014 PCSAR on screening participation in Ontario's three screening programs (breast, cervix and colorectal). The 3 cohorts comprised all participants eligible for each of the programs enrolled with a primary care physician in Ontario. Two exposures were evaluated for each cohort: enrollment with a physician who was registered to receive the PCSAR and enrollment with a registered physician who also logged into the PCSAR. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the effect of PCSAR on participation, adjusting for participant and physician characteristics. Across all three screening programs, 63% of eligible physicians registered to receive the PCSAR and 38% of those registered logged-in to view it. Patients of physicians who registered were significantly more likely to participate in screening, with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 [1.04;1.09] to 1.15 [1.12;1.19]. The adjusted odds ratios associated with PCSAR log-in were 1.07 [1.03;1.12] to 1.18 [1.14;1.22] across all screening programs. Implementation of the PCSAR was associated with a small increase in screening participation. The PCSAR appears to be modestly effective in assisting primary care physicians in optimizing cancer screening participation among their patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  2. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina De Smet

    Full Text Available The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  3. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  4. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-08

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  5. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500 μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70 mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90 min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis

  6. Development of Screening Tools for the Interpretation of Chemical Biomonitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a larger number of chemicals in commerce from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. Screening-level chemical risk assessment evaluations consider both exposure and hazard. Exposures are increasingly being evaluated through biomonitoring studies in humans. Interpreting human biomonitoring results requires comparison to toxicity guidance values. However, conventional chemical-specific risk assessments result in identification of toxicity-based exposure guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes (TDIs as applied doses that cannot directly be used to evaluate exposure information provided by biomonitoring data in a health risk context. This paper describes a variety of approaches for development of screening-level exposure guidance values with translation from an external dose to a biomarker concentration framework for interpreting biomonitoring data in a risk context. Applications of tools and concepts including biomonitoring equivalents (BEs, the threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC, and generic toxicokinetic and physiologically based toxicokinetic models are described. These approaches employ varying levels of existing chemical-specific data, chemical class-specific assessments, and generic modeling tools in response to varying levels of available data in order to allow assessment and prioritization of chemical exposures for refined assessment in a risk management context.

  7. A screening tool for the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Heliövaara, Markku; Ahola, Kirsi; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Haukka, Eija; Kausto, Johanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lallukka, Tea

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop and validate a risk screening tool using a points system to assess the risk of future disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Methods The development population, the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of a nationally representative sample of Finnish employees aged 30-60 years (N=3676) and the validation population, the Helsinki Health Study, consisted of employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (N=6391). Both surveys were linked to data on disability retirement awards due to MSD from national register for an 11-year follow-up. Results The discriminative ability of the model with seven predictors was good (Gönen and Heller's K concordance statistic=0.821). We gave points to seven predictors: sex-dependent age, level of education, pain limiting daily activities, multisite musculoskeletal pain, history of arthritis, and surgery for a spinal disorder or carpal tunnel syndrome. A score of 3 or higher out of 7 (top 30% of the index) had good sensitivity (83%) and specificity (70%). Individuals at the top 30% of the risk index were at 29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-55) times higher risk of disability retirement due to MSD than those at the bottom 40%. Conclusion This easy-to-use screening tool based on self-reported risk factor profiles can help identify individuals at high risk for disability retirement due to MSD.

  8. Assessing emotional well-being of children in a Honduran orphanage: feasibility of two screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiasi, Laura B; Reynolds, Annette; Buckner, Ellen B

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined mental health in children to be a priority area for evidence-based interventions. Effective and efficient screening methods are needed to assess emotional well-being of children from diverse cultures. This descriptive study examined two tools for feasibility, sensitivity, cultural appropriateness, and cost/time effectiveness. Emotional well-being was conceptualized using the Roy Adaptation Model as part of the self-concept adaptive mode. Emotional indicators were measured from Human Figure Drawings. Anxiety was measured using a modification of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Survey (RCMAS). The sample included 11 girls who were 7 to 12 years of age and recruited from a girls' orphanage in Honduras. Results indicated the Human Figure Drawings identified more children possibly at risk than the RCMAS. Human Figure Drawings were found to be a time/cost-effective, sensitive, and culturally appropriate means for measuring emotional well-being in the setting. This study contributes to nursing knowledge by demonstrating feasibility of the screening tools for measuring emotional well-being of children in varied cultures.

  9. Nutritional assessment of geriatric outpatients using MNA and must screening tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, I.M.; Janse, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether or not the implementation of a holistic meal and ambiance concept has the potential to increase the meal enjoyment and/or influence food intake of the elderly in nursing homes who already eat in a social setting. Design: In a longitudinal design two groups of subjects

  10. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in aesthetic rhinoplasty: Validating a new screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Garyfalia; Picavet, Valerie A; Gabriëls, Loes; Grietens, Jente; Hellings, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    To validate a new screening tool for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients seeking aesthetic rhinoplasty. We performed a prospective instrument validation study in an academic rhinology clinic. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire-Aesthetic Surgery (BDDQ-AS) is a seven-item short questionnaire validated in 116 patients undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty. Screening was positive if the patient acknowledged on the BDDQ-AS that he/she was concerned about their appearance (question 1 = yes) AND preoccupied with these concerns (question 2 = yes) AND that these concerns caused at least moderate distress or impairment in different domains of daily life (question 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 ≥ 3 or question 7 = yes). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the BDDQ-AS to the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Derriford Appearance Scale-59. To determine concurrent validity, the BDDQ-AS was compared to the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Finally, the predictive value of the BDDQ-AS on satisfaction 12 months after rhinoplasty was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation. Reliability of the BDDQ-AS was adequate, with Cronbach alpha = .83 for rhinoplasty patients and .84 for controls. Sensitivity was 89.6% and specificity 81.4%. BDDQ-AS-positive patients (n = 55) were more impaired in daily life and experienced more appearance-related distress and dysfunction compared to BDDQ-AS-negative patients. Moreover, they had more severe BDD symptoms. Finally, BDDQ-AS-positive patients were less satisfied after surgery compared to BDDQ-AS-negative patients. We hereby validated a new screening tool for BDD in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:1739-1745, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Pediatric FAST and elevated liver transaminases: An effective screening tool in blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Juan E; Cheung, Michael C; Yang, Relin; Koslow, Starr; Lanuti, Emma; Seaver, Chris; Neville, Holly L; Schulman, Carl I

    2009-11-01

    The current standard for the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) consists of physical examination, screening lab values, and computed tomography (CT) scan. We sought to determine if the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) combined with elevated liver transaminases (AST/ALT) could be used as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) in pediatric patients with BAT. Registry data at a level 1 trauma center was retrospectively reviewed from 1991-2007. Data collected on BAT patients under the age of 16 y included demographics, injury mechanism, ISS, GCS, imaging studies, serum ALT and AST levels, and disposition. AST and ALT were considered positive if either one was >100 IU/L. Overall, 3171 cases were identified. A total of 1008 (31.8%) patients received CT scan, 1148 (36.2%) had FAST, and 497 (15.7%) patients received both. Of the 497 patients, 400 (87.1%) also had AST and ALT measured. FAST was 50% sensitive, 91% specific, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 68%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 83%, and accuracy of 80%. Combining FAST with elevated AST or ALT resulted in a statistically significant increase in all measures (sensitivity 88%, specificity 98%, PPV 94%, NPV 96%, accuracy 96%). FAST combined with AST or ALT > 100 IU/L is an effective screening tool for IAI in children following BAT. Pediatric patients with a negative FAST and liver transaminases < 100 IU/L should be observed rather than subjected to the radiation risk of CT.

  12. Stem cells as a novel tool for drug screening and treatment of degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Madeja, Zbigniew; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2012-01-01

    Degenerative diseases similarly as acute tissue injuries lead to massive cell loss and may cause organ failure of vital organs (e.g., heart, central nervous system). Therefore, they belong to a group of disorders that may significantly benefit from stem cells (SCs)-based therapies. Several stem and progenitor cell populations have already been described as valuable tools for developing therapeutic strategies in regenerative medicine. In particular, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including adult-tissue-derived PSCs, neonatal-tissue-derived SCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and recently described induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are the focus of particular attention because of their capacity to differentiate into all the cell lineages. Although PSCs are predominantly envisioned to be applied for organ regeneration, they may be also successfully employed in drug screening and disease modeling. In particular, adult PSCs and iPSCs derived from patient tissues may not only be a source of cells for autologous therapies but also for individual customized in vitro drug testing and studies on the molecular mechanisms of disease. In this review, we will focus on the potential applications of SCs, especially PSCs i) in regenerative medicine therapies, ii) in studying mechanisms of disease, as well as iii) in drug screening and toxicology tests that are crucial in new drug development. In particular, we will discuss the application of SCs in developing new therapeutic approaches to treat degenerative diseases of the neural system and heart. The advantage of adult PSCs in all the above-mentioned settings is that they can be directly harvested from patient tissues and used not only as a safe non-immunogenic source of cells for therapy but also as tools for personalized drug screening and pharmacological therapies.

  13. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings.

  14. Screening Tool for Early Postnatal Prediction of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Newborns (STEP-ROP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Caroline A; Dammann, Christiane E L; Dammann, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life. Using data submitted to the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) between 1995 and 2015, we created logistic regression models based on infants born <28 completed weeks gestational age. We developed a model with 60% of the data and identified birth weight, gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and multiple gestation as predictors of ROP. We tested the model in the remaining 40%, performed tenfold cross-validation, and tested the score in ELGAN study data. Of the 1,052 newborns in the VON database, 627 recorded an ROP status. Forty percent had no ROP, 40% had mild ROP (stages 1 and 2), and 20% had severe ROP (stages 3-5). We created a weighted score to predict any ROP based on the multivariable regression model. A cutoff score of 5 had the best sensitivity (95%, 95% CI 93-97), while maintaining a strong positive predictive value (63%, 95% CI 57-68). When applied to the ELGAN data, sensitivity was lower (72%, 95% CI 69-75), but PPV was higher (80%, 95% CI 77-83). STEP-ROP is a promising screening tool. It is easy to calculate, does not rely on extensive postnatal data collection, and can be calculated early after birth. Early ROP screening may help physicians limit patient exposure to additional risk factors, and may be useful for risk stratification in clinical trials aimed at reducing ROP. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Comparative analysis of child development screening tools designed and validated in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcajo-Castelán, Rodrigo; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Alcacio-Mendoza, Jorge Augusto; López-Díaz, Giovana Lucía

    In recent years a number of child development screening tools have been developed in Mexico; however, their properties have not been compared. The objective of this review was to compare the report quality and risk bias of the screening tools developed and validated in Mexico in their published versions. A search was conducted in databases, gray literature and cross references. The resultant tests were compared and analyzed using STARD, QUADAS and QUADAS-2 criteria. "Valoración Neuroconductual del Desarrollo del Lactante" (VANEDELA), "Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil or EDI" (CDE in English), "Prueba de Tamiz del Neurodesarrollo infantil" (PTNI), "Cartillas de Vigilancia para identificar alteraciones en el Desarrollo del Lactante" (CVDL) and "Indicadores de riesgo del Perfil de Conductas de Desarrollo" (INDIPCD-R) were included for the comparison. No test fulfilled all STARD items. The most complete in their methodological description were VANEDELA and EDI. The areas lacking more data on the reports were recruiting and patient selection (VANEDELA, PTNI, CVDL, INDIPCD-R). In QUADAS evaluation, all had some risk bias, but some serious concerns of risk bias were raised by patient sampling and by the choice of gold standard in two tests (PTNI, INDIPCD-R). Child development screening tests created and validated in Mexico have variable report quality and risk bias. The test with the best validation report quality is VANEDELA and the one with the lowest risk of bias is EDI. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated cell analysis tool for a genome-wide RNAi screen with support vector machine based supervised learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Steffen; Ritzerfeld, Julia; Nickel, Walter; Hesser, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    RNAi-based high-throughput microscopy screens have become an important tool in biological sciences in order to decrypt mostly unknown biological functions of human genes. However, manual analysis is impossible for such screens since the amount of image data sets can often be in the hundred thousands. Reliable automated tools are thus required to analyse the fluorescence microscopy image data sets usually containing two or more reaction channels. The herein presented image analysis tool is designed to analyse an RNAi screen investigating the intracellular trafficking and targeting of acylated Src kinases. In this specific screen, a data set consists of three reaction channels and the investigated cells can appear in different phenotypes. The main issue of the image processing task is an automatic cell segmentation which has to be robust and accurate for all different phenotypes and a successive phenotype classification. The cell segmentation is done in two steps by segmenting the cell nuclei first and then using a classifier-enhanced region growing on basis of the cell nuclei to segment the cells. The classification of the cells is realized by a support vector machine which has to be trained manually using supervised learning. Furthermore, the tool is brightness invariant allowing different staining quality and it provides a quality control that copes with typical defects during preparation and acquisition. A first version of the tool has already been successfully applied for an RNAi-screen containing three hundred thousand image data sets and the SVM extended version is designed for additional screens.

  17. Is high pressure liquid chromatography an effective screening tool for characterization of molecular defects in hemoglobinopathies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Moorchung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies constitute entities that are generated by either abnormal hemoglobin or thalassemias. high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC is one of the best methods for screening and detection of various hemoglobinopathies but it has intrinsic interpretive problems. The study was designed to evaluate the different mutations seen in cases of hemoglobinopathies and compare the same with screening tests. Materials and Methods: 68 patients of hemoglobinopathies were screened by HPLC. Mutation studies in the beta globin gene was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based allele-specific Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS. Molecular analysis for the sickle cell mutation was done by standard methods. Results: The IVS 1/5 mutation was the commonest mutation seen and it was seen in 26 (38.23% of the cases. This was followed by the IVS 1/1, codon 41/42, codon 8/9, del 22 mutation, codon 15 mutation and the -619 bp deletion. No mutation was seen in eight cases. There was a 100% concordance between the sickle cell trait as diagnosed by HPLC and genetic testing. Discussion and Conclusion: Our study underlies the importance of molecular testing in all cases of hemoglobinopathies. Although HPLC is a useful screening tool, molecular testing is very useful in accurately diagnosing the mutations. Molecular testing is especially applicable in cases with an abnormal hemoglobin (HbD, HbE and HbS because there may be a concomitant inheritance of a beta thalassemia mutation. Molecular testing is the gold standard when it comes to the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the criterion validity of nutrition assessment tools for diagnosing protein-energy malnutrition in the older community setting (the MACRo study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Skye; Craven, Dana; Kelly, Jaimon; Isenring, Elizabeth

    2017-10-12

    Malnutrition is a significant barrier to healthy and independent ageing in older adults who live in their own homes, and accurate diagnosis is a key step in managing the condition. However, there has not been sufficient systematic review or pooling of existing data regarding malnutrition diagnosis in the geriatric community setting. The current paper was conducted as part of the MACRo (Malnutrition in the Ageing Community Review) Study and seeks to determine the criterion (concurrent and predictive) validity and reliability of nutrition assessment tools in making a diagnosis of protein-energy malnutrition in the general older adult community. A systematic literature review was undertaken using six electronic databases in September 2016. Studies in any language were included which measured malnutrition via a nutrition assessment tool in adults ≥65 years living in their own homes. Data relating to the predictive validity of tools were analysed via meta-analyses. GRADE was used to evaluate the body of evidence. There were 6412 records identified, of which 104 potentially eligible records were screened via full text. Eight papers were included; two which evaluated the concurrent validity of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and six which evaluated the predictive validity of the MNA. The quality of the body of evidence for the concurrent validity of both the MNA and SGA was very low. The quality of the body of evidence for the predictive validity of the MNA in detecting risk of death was moderate (RR: 1.92 [95% CI: 1.55-2.39]; P < 0.00001; n = 2013 participants; n = 4 studies; I 2 : 0%). The quality of the body of evidence for the predictive validity of the MNA in detecting risk of poor physical function was very low (SMD: 1.02 [95%CI: 0.24-1.80]; P = 0.01; n = 4046 participants; n = 3 studies; I 2 :89%). Due to the small number of studies identified and no evaluation of the predictive validity of tools other than

  19. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies.

  20. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks included ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), arugula (Eruca vesicaria L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.), shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.) and upland cress (Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.). Other selection criteria included saturated FA content, iodine value (IV), content of FAs containing twenty or more carbons and content of trienoic FAs. Anise oil satisfied all selection criteria and was therefore selected for further investigation. Arugula, cumin and upland cress oils were selected as antagonists to the selection criteria. Preparation of FA methyl esters (FAMEs, ≥ 92 wt % yield) following conventional alkaline-catalyzed methanolysis preceded fuel property determination. Of particular interest were oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Also measured were kinematic viscosity (40 °C), IV, acid value, free and total glycerol content, sulfur and phosphorous content, cetane number, energy content and lubricity. FAMEs prepared from anise oil yielded properties compliant with biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 whereas the antagonists failed at least one specification contained within the standards. As a result, FA profile was an efficient predictor of compliance with biodiesel standards and is therefore recommended as a screening tool for investigation of alternative feedstocks. -- Highlights: ► Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared from several alternative feedstocks. ► Fatty acid composition was a principal factor influencing fuel properties. ► Oxidative stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel were examined in detail. ► Limits were developed

  1. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score (p ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  2. Assessment of food gardens as nutrition tool in primary schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: School food gardens as a vehicle for improving nutrition should be strengthened through training of ... environment for these 90 schools and a detailed description of .... Difficulty in motivating learners to work in the garden. 33.

  3. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, LaShara A.; Morgan, Susan E.; Mobley, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported…

  4. Label free fragment screening using surface plasmon resonance as a tool for fragment finding - analyzing parkin, a difficult CNS target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Regnström

    Full Text Available Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR is rarely used as a primary High-throughput Screening (HTS tool in fragment-based approaches. With SPR instruments becoming increasingly high-throughput it is now possible to use SPR as a primary tool for fragment finding. SPR becomes, therefore, a valuable tool in the screening of difficult targets such as the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin. As a prerequisite for the screen, a large number of SPR tests were performed to characterize and validate the active form of Parkin. A set of compounds was designed and used to define optimal SPR assay conditions for this fragment screen. Using these conditions, more than 5000 pre-selected fragments from our in-house library were screened for binding to Parkin. Additionally, all fragments were simultaneously screened for binding to two off target proteins to exclude promiscuous binding compounds. A low hit rate was observed that is in line with hit rates usually obtained by other HTS screening assays. All hits were further tested in dose responses on the target protein by SPR for confirmation before channeling the hits into Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and other hit-confirmation assays.

  5. Screening of nutritional status of male undergraduates in Kolkata using anthropometric indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aims: Anthropometric measurements can easily reflect the nutritional status of an individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the magnitude of obesity and undernutrition based on body mass index (BMI and direct, derived anthropometric variables, among college students of Kolkata. Subjects and Methods: Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and non-invasive method that reflects body composition. A total of 100 male students aged 18-22 years of different undergraduate colleges of Kolkata have participated in this study. Anthropometric profiles (a total of 24 direct and derived variables including weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences were measured. Results: Results showed 14.68% of the studied population are underweight, 9.25% are overweight, and 0.89% is obese, as per BMI. The present report showed higher prevalence of normal BMI (75.16% in male college students, whereas obesity was almost found to absent among participants. Conclusion: The findings of the present report indicated occurrence of almost normal nutritional status among male undergraduates of Kolkata based on BMI and anthropometric indices

  6. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  7. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Preliminary Borehole Disposal In Medium Flow Hydrogeological Condition Using IAEA Screening Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Norasalwa Zakaria; Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Muhammad Fathi Sujan

    2014-01-01

    A screening tool developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been used to provide means of improving the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing the potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. It allows the isolation provided by the capsule and disposal container to be evaluated. In addition, it has a conservative model of radionuclide transport with no retardation of radionuclide. Hence, rapid decisions can be made by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on their hydro-chemical characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify and determine the types and radionuclide activities of inventory that can be disposed in the borehole. The results of the analysis show the volume of gas doses occur from the disposal and time taken for the cement to be corroded. (author)

  9. CellProfiler and KNIME: open source tools for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöter, Martin; Niederlein, Antje; Barsacchi, Rico; Meyenhofer, Felix; Brandl, Holger; Bickle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) has established itself in the world of the pharmaceutical industry as an essential tool for drug discovery and drug development. HCS is currently starting to enter the academic world and might become a widely used technology. Given the diversity of problems tackled in academic research, HCS could experience some profound changes in the future, mainly with more imaging modalities and smart microscopes being developed. One of the limitations in the establishment of HCS in academia is flexibility and cost. Flexibility is important to be able to adapt the HCS setup to accommodate the multiple different assays typical of academia. Many cost factors cannot be avoided, but the costs of the software packages necessary to analyze large datasets can be reduced by using Open Source software. We present and discuss the Open Source software CellProfiler for image analysis and KNIME for data analysis and data mining that provide software solutions which increase flexibility and keep costs low.

  10. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool administered by sports parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, D F; Balcer, L J; Galetta, S L; Liu, Z; Master, C L

    2014-02-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing awareness due to short- and long-term neurologic sequelae seen among athletes. The King-Devick (K-D) test captures impairment of eye movements and other correlates of suboptimal brain function. We investigated the K-D test as a screening for concussion when administered by layperson sports parents in a cohort of amateur boxers. The K-D test was administered pre-fight and post-fight by laypersons masked to the head trauma status of each athlete. Matches were watched over by a ringside physician and boxing trainer. Athletes with suspected head trauma received testing with the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) by the ringside physician to determine concussion status. Athletes sustaining concussion were compared to the athletes screened using the K-D test. Post-fight K-D scores were lower (better) than the best baseline score (41 vs. 39.3 s, P=0.34, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), in the absence of concussion. One boxer sustained a concussion as determined by the ringside physician. This boxer was accurately identified by the layperson K-D testers due to a worsening in K-D test compared to baseline (3.2 seconds) and an increased number of errors. High levels of test-retest reliability were observed (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 [95% CI 0.84-0.97]). Additionally, 6 boxers who participated in multiple bouts showed no worsening of their K-D times further supporting that scores are not affected by the fatigue associated with sparring. The K-D test is a rapid sideline screening tool for concussion that can be effectively administered by non-medically trained laypersons.

  12. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  13. Probabilistic Decision Tools for Determining Impacts of Agricultural Development Policy on Household Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cory W.; Lanzanova, Denis; Muchiri, Caroline; Shepherd, Keith D.; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Krawinkel, Michael; Tabuti, John R. S.; Luedeling, Eike

    2018-03-01

    Governments around the world have agreed to end hunger and food insecurity and to improve global nutrition, largely through changes to agriculture and food systems. However, they are faced with a lot of uncertainty when making policy decisions, since any agricultural changes will influence social and biophysical systems, which could yield either positive or negative nutrition outcomes. We outline a holistic probability modeling approach with Bayesian Network (BN) models for nutritional impacts resulting from agricultural development policy. The approach includes the elicitation of expert knowledge for impact model development, including sensitivity analysis and value of information calculations. It aims at a generalizable methodology that can be applied in a wide range of contexts. To showcase this approach, we develop an impact model of Vision 2040, Uganda's development strategy, which, among other objectives, seeks to transform the country's agricultural landscape from traditional systems to large-scale commercial agriculture. Model results suggest that Vision 2040 is likely to have negative outcomes for the rural livelihoods it intends to support; it may have no appreciable influence on household hunger but, by influencing preferences for and access to quality nutritional foods, may increase the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency. The results highlight the trade-offs that must be negotiated when making decisions regarding agriculture for nutrition, and the capacity of BNs to make these trade-offs explicit. The work illustrates the value of BNs for supporting evidence-based agricultural development decisions.

  14. The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from 'what' to 'how' of psychosocial screening - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Timmerman, Lotte; Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Lopes, Alice; Maple, Hannah; Mega, Inês; Papachristou, Christina; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2018-01-01

    Thorough psychosocial screening of donor candidates is required in order to minimize potential negative consequences and to strive for optimal safety within living donation programmes. We aimed to develop an evidence-based tool to standardize the psychosocial screening process. Key concepts of psychosocial screening were used to structure our tool: motivation and decision-making, personal resources, psychopathology, social resources, ethical and legal factors and information and risk processing. We (i) discussed how each item per concept could be measured, (ii) reviewed and rated available validated tools, (iii) where necessary developed new items, (iv) assessed content validity and (v) pilot-tested the new items. The resulting ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT) consists of a selection of validated questionnaires (28 items in total), a semi-structured interview (43 questions) and a Red Flag Checklist. We outline optimal procedures and conditions for implementing this tool. The EPAT and user manual are available from the authors. Use of this tool will standardize the psychosocial screening procedure ensuring that no psychosocial issues are overlooked and ensure that comparable selection criteria are used and facilitate generation of comparable psychosocial data on living donor candidates. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  15. indCAPS: A tool for designing screening primers for CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgens, Charles; Nimchuk, Zachary L; Kieber, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of organisms using CRISPR/Cas9 technology generally produces small insertions/deletions (indels) that can be difficult to detect. Here, we describe a technique to easily and rapidly identify such indels. Sequence-identified mutations that alter a restriction enzyme recognition site can be readily distinguished from wild-type alleles using a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) technique. If a restriction site is created or altered by the mutation such that only one allele contains the restriction site, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a restriction digest can be used to distinguish the two alleles. However, in the case of most CRISPR-induced alleles, no such restriction sites are present in the target sequences. In this case, a derived CAPS (dCAPS) approach can be used in which mismatches are purposefully introduced in the oligonucleotide primers to create a restriction site in one, but not both, of the amplified templates. Web-based tools exist to aid dCAPS primer design, but when supplied sequences that include indels, the current tools often fail to suggest appropriate primers. Here, we report the development of a Python-based, species-agnostic web tool, called indCAPS, suitable for the design of PCR primers used in dCAPS assays that is compatible with indels. This tool should have wide utility for screening editing events following CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis as well as for identifying specific editing events in a pool of CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis events. This tool was field-tested in a CRISPR mutagenesis experiment targeting a cytokinin receptor (AHK3) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The tool suggested primers that successfully distinguished between wild-type and edited alleles of a target locus and facilitated the isolation of two novel ahk3 null alleles. Users can access indCAPS and design PCR primers to employ dCAPS to identify CRISPR/Cas9 alleles at http://indcaps.kieber.cloudapps.unc.edu/.

  16. Screening of Gas-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Seung Wook

    2007-08-01

    This report is a final report of I-NERI Project, 'Screening of Gas-cooled Reactor Thermal Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database 'jointly carried out by KAERI, ANL and INL. In this study, we developed the basic technologies required to develop and validate the VHTR TH/safety analysis tools and evaluated the TH/safety database information. The research tasks consist of; 1) code qualification methodology (INL), 2) high-level PIRTs for major nucleus set of events (KAERI, ANL, INL), 3) initial scaling and scoping analysis (ANL, KAERI, INL), 4) filtering of TH/safety tools (KAERI, INL), 5) evaluation of TH/safety database information (KAERI, INL, ANL) and 6) key scoping analysis (KAERI). The code qualification methodology identifies the role of PIRTs in the R and D process and the bottom-up and top-down code validation methods. Since the design of VHTR is still evolving, we generated the high-level PIRTs referencing 600MWth block-type GT-MHR and 400MWth pebble-type PBMR. Nucleus set of events that represents the VHTR safety and operational transients consists of the enveloping scenarios of HPCC (high pressure conduction cooling: loss of primary flow), LPCC/Air-Ingress (low pressure conduction cooling: loss of coolant), LC (load changes: power maneuvering), ATWS (anticipated transients without scram: reactivity insertion), WS (water ingress: water-interfacing system break) and HU (hydrogen-side upset: loss of heat sink). The initial scaling analysis defines dimensionless parameters that need to be reflected in mixed convection modeling and the initial scoping analysis provided the reference system transients used in the PIRTs generation. For the PIRTs phenomena, we evaluated the modeling capability of the candidate TH/safety tools and derived a model improvement need. By surveying and evaluating the TH/safety database information, a tools V and V matrix has been developed. Through the key scoping analysis using available database, the modeling

  17. Screening of Gas-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Seung Wook (and others)

    2007-08-15

    This report is a final report of I-NERI Project, 'Screening of Gas-cooled Reactor Thermal Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database 'jointly carried out by KAERI, ANL and INL. In this study, we developed the basic technologies required to develop and validate the VHTR TH/safety analysis tools and evaluated the TH/safety database information. The research tasks consist of; 1) code qualification methodology (INL), 2) high-level PIRTs for major nucleus set of events (KAERI, ANL, INL), 3) initial scaling and scoping analysis (ANL, KAERI, INL), 4) filtering of TH/safety tools (KAERI, INL), 5) evaluation of TH/safety database information (KAERI, INL, ANL) and 6) key scoping analysis (KAERI). The code qualification methodology identifies the role of PIRTs in the R and D process and the bottom-up and top-down code validation methods. Since the design of VHTR is still evolving, we generated the high-level PIRTs referencing 600MWth block-type GT-MHR and 400MWth pebble-type PBMR. Nucleus set of events that represents the VHTR safety and operational transients consists of the enveloping scenarios of HPCC (high pressure conduction cooling: loss of primary flow), LPCC/Air-Ingress (low pressure conduction cooling: loss of coolant), LC (load changes: power maneuvering), ATWS (anticipated transients without scram: reactivity insertion), WS (water ingress: water-interfacing system break) and HU (hydrogen-side upset: loss of heat sink). The initial scaling analysis defines dimensionless parameters that need to be reflected in mixed convection modeling and the initial scoping analysis provided the reference system transients used in the PIRTs generation. For the PIRTs phenomena, we evaluated the modeling capability of the candidate TH/safety tools and derived a model improvement need. By surveying and evaluating the TH/safety database information, a tools V and V matrix has been developed. Through the key scoping analysis using available database, the

  18. Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budukh, Atul; Palayekar, Vrushali; Maheshwari, Amita; Deodhar, Kedar; Purwar, Pallavi; Bagal, Sonali; Vadigoppula, Ashok; Lokhande, Manoj; Panse, Nandkumar; Dikshit, Rajesh; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-07-12

    In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural

  19. FRAIL Questionnaire Screening Tool and Short-Term Outcomes in Geriatric Fracture Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Lauren Jan; Benton, Emily A; Alvarez-Nebreda, M Loreto; Weaver, Michael J; Harris, Mitchel B; Javedan, Houman

    2017-12-01

    There are limited screening tools to predict adverse postoperative outcomes for the geriatric surgical fracture population. Frailty is increasingly recognized as a risk assessment to capture complexity. The goal of this study was to use a short screening tool, the FRAIL scale, to categorize the level of frailty of older adults admitted with a fracture to determine the association of each frailty category with postoperative and 30-day outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Level 1 trauma center. A total of 175 consecutive patients over age 70 years admitted to co-managed orthopedic trauma and geriatrics services. The FRAIL scale (short 5-question assessment of fatigue, resistance, aerobic capacity, illnesses, and loss of weight) classified the patients into 3 categories: robust (score = 0), prefrail (score = 1-2), and frail (score = 3-5). Postoperative outcome variables collected were postoperative complications, unplanned intensive care unit admission, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and orthopedic follow-up after surgery. Thirty-day outcomes measured were 30-day readmission and 30-day mortality. Analysis of variance (1-way) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare continuous variables across the 3 FRAIL categories. Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. Multiple regression analysis, adjusted by age, sex, and Charlson index, was conducted to study the association between frailty category and outcomes. FRAIL scale categorized the patients into 3 groups: robust (n = 29), prefrail (n = 73), and frail (n = 73). There were statistically significant differences between groups in terms of age, comorbidity, dementia, functional dependency, polypharmacy, and rate of institutionalization, being higher in the frailest patients. Hip fracture was the most frequent fracture, and it was more frequent as the frailty of the patient increased (48%, 61%, and 75% in robust, prefrail, and frail groups, respectively). The American

  20. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  1. Reply: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Kara A.; McShane, Dan

    2013-02-01

    A large storm event in southwest Washington State triggered over 2500 landslides and provided an opportunity to assess two slope stability screening tools. The statistical analysis conducted demonstrated that both screening tools are effective at predicting where landslides were likely to take place (Whittaker and McShane, 2012). Here we reply to two discussions of this article related to the development of the slope stability screening tools and the accuracy and scale of the spatial data used. Neither of the discussions address our statistical analysis or results. We provide greater detail on our sampling criteria and also elaborate on the policy and management implications of our findings and how they complement those of a separate investigation of landslides resulting from the same storm. The conclusions made in Whittaker and McShane (2012) stand as originally published unless future analysis indicates otherwise.

  2. Database for High Throughput Screening Hits (dHITS): a simple tool to retrieve gene specific phenotypes from systematic screens done in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuartzman, Silvia G; Schuldiner, Maya

    2018-03-25

    In the last decade several collections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains have been created. In these collections every gene is modified in a similar manner such as by a deletion or the addition of a protein tag. Such libraries have enabled a diversity of systematic screens, giving rise to large amounts of information regarding gene functions. However, often papers describing such screens focus on a single gene or a small set of genes and all other loci affecting the phenotype of choice ('hits') are only mentioned in tables that are provided as supplementary material and are often hard to retrieve or search. To help unify and make such data accessible, we have created a Database of High Throughput Screening Hits (dHITS). The dHITS database enables information to be obtained about screens in which genes of interest were found as well as the other genes that came up in that screen - all in a readily accessible and downloadable format. The ability to query large lists of genes at the same time provides a platform to easily analyse hits obtained from transcriptional analyses or other screens. We hope that this platform will serve as a tool to facilitate investigation of protein functions to the yeast community. © 2018 The Authors Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Evaluation of a simple screening tool for ambulant fall prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, M; Rasche, P; Rentemeister, L; Bliemel, C; Bücking, B; Bollheimer, L C; Pape, H-C

    2018-02-02

    An individual's risk of falling is generally difficult to detect and it is likely to be underestimated. Thus, preventive measures are challenging and they demand sufficient integration and implementation into aftercare and outpatient management. The Aachen Falls Prevention Scale (AFPS) is a quick and easy tool for patient-driven fall risk assessment. Older adults' risk of falling is identified in a suitable manner and they then have the opportunity to independently assess and monitor their risk of falling. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the AFPS as a simple screening tool in geriatric trauma patients via the identification of influencing factors, e.g. objective or subjective fall risk, fear of falling (FOF) and demographic data. In this context, we investigated older adults' willingness to take part in special activities concerning fall prevention. Retrospectively, all patients over 70 years of age who received in-hospital fracture treatment between July 2014 and April 2016 were analyzed at a level I trauma center. After identification of 884 patients, participants completed a short questionnaire (47 questions, yes/no, Likert scale) comprising the AFPS. A history of falls in the past year was considered an indicator of a balance disorder. In addition, ambulant patients were invited to participate between July and August 2016. In total, 201 patients (mean 80.4 years, range 63-97 years) performed a self-assessment based on the AFPS. After steps 1 and 2 of the AFPS had been completed, 95 (47%) participants rated their subjective risk of falling as high (more than 5 points). Of the participants 84 (42%) were objectively classified as "fallers" with significant effects on their AFPS evaluation and rating of their subjective risk of falling. Furthermore, 67% of the participants identified a general practitioner as their main contact person, and 43% of the respondents viewed the AFPS as a beneficial screening tool in fall risk evaluation (8

  4. Integrative Metabolism: An Interactive Learning Tool for Nutrition, Biochemistry, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gale

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism is a dynamic, simultaneous, and integrative science that cuts across nutrition, biochemistry, and physiology. Teaching this science can be a challenge. The use of a scenario-based, visually appealing, interactive, computer-animated CD may overcome the limitations of learning "one pathway at a time" and engage two- and…

  5. Development and Usability Testing of a Computer-Tailored Decision Support Tool for Lung Cancer Screening: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Comer, Robert Skipworth; Goyal, Anurag; Vode, Emilee Christine; Hanna, Nasser; Ceppa, DuyKhanh; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-11-16

    Awareness of lung cancer screening remains low in the screening-eligible population, and when patients visit their clinician never having heard of lung cancer screening, engaging in shared decision making to arrive at an informed decision can be a challenge. Therefore, methods to effectively support both patients and clinicians to engage in these important discussions are essential. To facilitate shared decision making about lung cancer screening, effective methods to prepare patients to have these important discussions with their clinician are needed. Our objective is to develop a computer-tailored decision support tool that meets the certification criteria of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument version 4.0 that will support shared decision making in lung cancer screening decisions. Using a 3-phase process, we will develop and test a prototype of a computer-tailored decision support tool in a sample of lung cancer screening-eligible individuals. In phase I, we assembled a community advisory board comprising 10 screening-eligible individuals to develop the prototype. In phase II, we recruited a sample of 13 screening-eligible individuals to test the prototype for usability, acceptability, and satisfaction. In phase III, we are conducting a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 60 screening-eligible participants who have never been screened for lung cancer. Outcomes tested include lung cancer and screening knowledge, lung cancer screening health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy), perception of being prepared to engage in a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, occurrence of a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, and stage of adoption for lung cancer screening. Phases I and II are complete. Phase III is underway. As of July 15, 2017, 60 participants have been enrolled into the study, and have completed the baseline survey, intervention, and first

  6. Developing and validating a perinatal depression screening tool in Kenya blending Western criteria with local idioms: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric P; Tuli, Hawa; Kwobah, Edith; Menya, D; Chesire, Irene; Schmidt, Christina

    2018-03-01

    Routine screening for perinatal depression is not common in most primary health care settings. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force only recently updated their recommendation on depression screening to specifically recommend screening during the pre- and postpartum periods. While practitioners in high-income countries can respond to this new recommendation by implementing one of several existing depression screening tools developed in Western contexts, such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) or the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), these tools lack strong evidence of cross-cultural equivalence, validity for case finding, and precision in measuring response to treatment in developing countries. Thus, there is a critical need to develop and validate new screening tools for perinatal depression that can be used by lay health workers, primary health care personnel, and patients. Working in rural Kenya, we used free listing, card sorting, and item analysis methods to develop a locally-relevant screening tool that blended Western psychiatric concepts with local idioms of distress. We conducted a validation study with a random sample of 193 pregnant women and new mothers to test the diagnostic accuracy of this scale along with the EPDS and PHQ-9. The sensitivity/specificity of the EPDS and PHQ-9 was estimated to be 0.70/0.72 and 0.70/0.73, respectively. This compared to sensitivity/specificity of 0.90/0.90 for a new 9-item locally-developed tool called the Perinatal Depression Screening (PDEPS). Across these three tools, internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.81 and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.57 to 0.67. The prevalence of depression ranges from 5.2% to 6.2% depending on the clinical reference standard. The EPDS and PHQ-9 are valid and reliable screening tools for perinatal depression in rural Western Kenya, the PDEPS may be a more useful alternative. At less than 10%, the prevalence of depression in this region appears

  7. Evaluation of wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance using physiological indices as screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Niaz, M.; Kausar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major threat to world food security, to ensure future food needs of an increasing world population, development of salt tolerant crop varieties are necessary. Effective screening techniques for salinity tolerance would be beneficial in developing high yielding and salt tolerant wheat varieties. In the present study, an attempt for rapid screening of wheat genotypes for salt tolerance was made. Twenty wheat genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance under laboratory/green-house conditions using different physiological indices like germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) , shoot dry biomass stress tolerance index (SDSI). The data was pooled together to different multivariate techniques including correlation and cluster analysis to assess the diversity for salt tolerance in wheat genotypes. Highly significant and positive correlations were found between GSI, SDWSI and RDWSI. Cluster analysis classified 20 genotypes into three divergent groups. The members of first cluster (Abadgharr, Bhakkar-2000, Chakwal-86, Kiran-95, LU-26-S, Margalla-99, Marvi Pak-81, Sarsabaz) exhibited adequate degree of salt tolerance on the basis of various physiological stress tolerance indices, whereas, cluster-2 included genotypes (Bhattai, Pasban-90, Shafaq-2006, Soghat-90) with medium level of salt tolerance and cluster-3 consisted of wheat genotypes (Inqilab-91, Iqbal-2000, Kohistan-97, PARI-73, Punjab-90, Sehar-2006 and Uqab-6) with lower level of salt tolerance and did not perform upto the mark. On the basis of results and scores obtained, indicated that physiological indices can be used as a selection tool for salinity tolerance in wheat. (author)

  8. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  9. The INECO Frontal Screening tool differentiates behavioral variant - frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD from major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fiorentino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Executive dysfunction may result from prefrontal circuitry involvement occurring in both neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, multiple neuropsychiatric conditions, may present with overlapping behavioral and cognitive symptoms, making differential diagnosis challenging, especially during earlier stages. In this sense, cognitive assessment may contribute to the differential diagnosis by providing an objective and quantifiable set of measures that has the potential to distinguish clinical conditions otherwise perceived in everyday clinical settings as quite similar. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS for differentiating bv-FTD patients from patients with Major Depression. Methods: We studied 49 patients with bv-FTD diagnosis and 30 patients diagnosed with unipolar depression compared to a control group of 26 healthy controls using the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R. Results: Patient groups differed significantly on the motor inhibitory control (U=437.0, p<0.01, verbal working memory (U=298.0, p<0.001, spatial working memory (U=300.5, p<0.001, proverbs (U=341.5, p<0.001 and verbal inhibitory control (U=316.0, p<0.001 subtests, with bv-FTD patients scoring significantly lower than patients with depression. Conclusion: Our results suggest the IFS can be considered a useful tool for detecting executive dysfunction in both depression and bv-FTD patients and, perhaps more importantly, that it has the potential to help differentiate these two conditions.

  10. Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Koppers, Lars; Wormer, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The quality and authenticity of images is essential for data presentation, especially in the life sciences. Questionable images may often be a first indicator for questionable results, too. Therefore, a tool that uses mathematical methods to detect suspicious images in large image archives can be a helpful instrument to improve quality assurance in publications. As a first step towards a systematic screening tool, especially for journal editors and other staff members who are responsible for ...

  11. Assessing the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz NAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nur Adilah Shuhada Abd Aziz, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Mohd Ramadan Abdul Hamid, Nazrul Hadi Ismail Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia Purpose: The increasing number of elderly people worldwide throughout the years is concerning due to the health problems often faced by this population. This review aims to summarize the nutritional status among hospitalized elderly and the role of the nutritional assessment tools in this issue.Methods: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms “malnutrition”, “hospitalised elderly”, “nutritional assessment”, “Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA”, “Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI”, and “Subjective Global Assessment (SGA”.Results: According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients.Conclusion: It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future. Keywords: malnutrition in elderly

  12. Virtual Screening of Phytochemicals to Novel Target (HAT) Rtt109 in Pneumocystis Jirovecii using Bioinformatics Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Ramya; Adithavarman, Abhinand Ponneri; Dakshinamoorthi, Anusha; David, Darling Chellathai; Ragunath, Padmavathi Kannan

    2016-03-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV and other immunosuppressed patients. Treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia with the currently available antifungals is challenging and associated with considerable adverse effects. There is a need to develop drugs against novel targets with minimal human toxicities. Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) Rtt109 is a potential therapeutic target in Pneumocystis jirovecii species. HAT is linked to transcription and is required to acetylate conserved lysine residues on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to form e-N-acetyl lysine. Therefore, inhibitors of HAT can be useful therapeutic options in Pneumocystis pneumonia. To screen phytochemicals against (HAT) Rtt109 using bioinformatics tool. The tertiary structure of Pneumocystis jirovecii (HAT) Rtt109 was modeled by Homology Modeling. The ideal template for modeling was obtained by performing Psi BLAST of the protein sequence. Rtt109-AcCoA/Vps75 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PDB structure 3Q35) was chosen as the template. The target protein was modeled using Swiss Modeler and validated using Ramachandran plot and Errat 2. Comprehensive text mining was performed to identify phytochemical compounds with antipneumonia and fungicidal properties and these compounds were filtered based on Lipinski's Rule of 5. The chosen compounds were subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109 using Molegro Virtual Docker 4.5. Osiris Property Explorer and Open Tox Server were used to predict ADME-T properties of the chosen phytochemicals. Tertiary structure model of HAT Rtt 109 had a ProSA score of -6.57 and Errat 2 score of 87.34. Structure validation analysis by Ramachandran plot for the model revealed 97% of amino acids were in the favoured region. Of all the phytochemicals subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109, baicalin exhibited highest binding affinity towards the

  13. Screening of Nutritional Parameters for the Production of Protease from Aspergillus Oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinubabu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of protease enzyme by fungus Aspergillus oryzae was investigated. The proteolytic activity was observed when the fungus was grown in the medium containing glucose, malt extract, yeast extract, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and FeSO4. The present paper describes the screening of media components and fermentation conditions in shake flask. The organism utilized carbon sources glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, dextrin and starch among them glucose was found to be the best carbon source, for nitrogen sources various inorganic and organic media components were investigated among them peptone is found to be the best nitrogen source. 1% cottonseed followed by 2% Soya bean meal was found to be the best inducer. With optimized media two-fold increase in the protease production. The fungus growth depends on the concentration of carbon, nitrogen and salt solution, where as the enzyme production was also influenced by the culture time, pH and interaction between these two variables.

  14. Stable isotope usage in developing countries: Safe tracer tools to measure human nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Klein, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    How many calories are used when a nursing mother feeds her infant? How much milk does an infant receive in one week? What is the impact of the environment on the energy needs of children? How adequately does dietary protein sustain the synthesis of body constituents? What types of foods best nourish a child recovering from intestinal diseases such as diarrhoea? Quantitative answers to questions such as these can be obtained from the use of stable, non-radioactive isotopic tracers. Answers to these questions are important in assessing the nutritional status of infants, children, pregnant women and nursing mothers, as well as that of individuals who subsist on marginal food supplies. Because stable isotopic tracers are completely safe and without hazard, they can be used freely in health, nutrition, and agriculture studies in all populations

  15. Impact of EFNEP on some nutrition-related practices. Developing a tool to record changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M J; Smiciklas-Wright, H; Heasley, D K; Hamilton, L W

    1980-06-01

    Described are the design and preliminary administration of an instrument to measure the impact of the Pennsylvania Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) on food storage and safety, kitchen sanitation, and food money management practices of program participants. No significant differences among these practices were found when each was correlated with duration of program participation. Overall improvement, however, was revealed, particularly in the first six months in the program.

  16. Parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients; Parenteralna vyziva u malnutricnych pacientov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichvarova, I. [OAIM, Narodny onkologicky ustav, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-07-01

    Parenteral nutrition became a routine therapeutic option in malnourished patients, if conventional nutritional enteral support is not effective. Cachexia and malnutrition prolong the wound healing, contribute to immunosuppression, increase morbidity and the cost of treatment. Using of a malnutrition protocol as a screening tool is necessary to sort out malnourished patients. Parenteral nutrition is therefore an important part of the multimodal therapy and from the medical and the ethical point of view is a great mistake not to feed a patient. (author)

  17. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using ela...

  18. Screening tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke - Part I: evidence of validity based on the content and response processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tatiana Magalhães de; Cola, Paula Cristina; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-08-17

    The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence of validity based on the content and response process of the Rastreamento de Disfagia Orofaríngea no Acidente Vascular Encefálico (RADAVE; "Screening Tool for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke"). The criteria used to elaborate the questions were based on a literature review. A group of judges consisting of 19 different health professionals evaluated the relevance and representativeness of the questions, and the results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index. In order to evidence validity based on the response processes, 23 health professionals administered the screening tool and analyzed the questions using a structured scale and cognitive interview. The RADAVE structured to be applied in two stages. The first version consisted of 18 questions in stage I and 11 questions in stage II. Eight questions in stage I and four in stage II did not reach the minimum Content Validity Index, requiring reformulation by the authors. The cognitive interview demonstrated some misconceptions. New adjustments were made and the final version was produced with 12 questions in stage I and six questions in stage II. It was possible to develop a screening tool for dysphagia in stroke with adequate evidence of validity based on content and response processes. Both validity evidences obtained so far allowed to adjust the screening tool in relation to its construct. The next studies will analyze the other evidences of validity and the measures of accuracy.

  19. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bade, R.; Causanilles, A.; Emke, E.; Bijlsma, L.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernandez, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >

  20. Parent-completed developmental screening in premature children: a valid tool for follow-up programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Flamant

    Full Text Available Our goals were to (1 validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2 analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6% had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ≤85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87. An ASQ cut-off score of ≤220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ≤85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91, a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75, a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.

  1. Semantic validation of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ligia da Silva Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST is a battery of questionnaires created by the World Health Organization, the United Nations and ISPCAN for researching maltreatment in childhood. This study aims to translate, to adapt and to validate the semantic equivalence of all items on the three questionnaires: ICAST-C (ICAST version for Children, ICAST-R (Retrospective Interview and ICAST-P (ICAST version for Parents. Methods: The process of translation and semantic validation comprised five methodological steps: 1 translation; 2 back-translation; 3 correction and semantic adaptation; 4 validation of content by professional experts in the area of abuse in childhood; and 5 a study of their acceptability to a sample of the target population, using a verbal rating scale. Results: In the evaluation of the expert committee, there was need to adapt several words for the Brazilian population while maintaining semantic and conceptual equivalence. In the ICAST-C acceptability study, children exhibited some difficulty understanding 7 of the items (out of 69 questions. For ICAST-P, parents reported a lack of clarity in 5 items (out of 57 questions. These issues were resolved and the Brazilian version of ICAST 3.0 was concluded. Conclusion: The ICAST battery is an internationally recognized tool and the process of translation into Portuguese and semantic adaptation was performed successfully. The final version proved to be easily understandable and semantic validation results were adequate. This battery has proved useful in investigation of childhood maltreatment.

  2. Results of the search for personality disorder screening tools: clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, S.; Van Heck, G.L.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics, validity, posttest probabilities, and screening capabilities of 8 different instruments used to predict personality disorders. METHOD: Screening instruments were examined in 3 prospective, observational, test-development studies in 3 random samples of Dutch

  3. Development of the Sydney Falls Risk Screening Tool in brain injury rehabilitation: A multisite prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Duncan; Fisher, Murray J; Pryor, Julie; Bonser, Melissa; Jesus, Jhoven De

    2018-03-01

    To develop a falls risk screening tool (FRST) sensitive to the traumatic brain injury rehabilitation population. Falls are the most frequently recorded patient safety incident within the hospital context. The inpatient traumatic brain injury rehabilitation population is one particular population that has been identified as at high risk of falls. However, no FRST has been developed for this patient population. Consequently in the traumatic brain injury rehabilitation population, there is the real possibility that nurses are using falls risk screening tools that have a poor clinical utility. Multisite prospective cohort study. Univariate and multiple logistic regression modelling techniques (backward elimination, elastic net and hierarchical) were used to examine each variable's association with patients who fell. The resulting FRST's clinical validity was examined. Of the 140 patients in the study, 41 (29%) fell. Through multiple logistic regression modelling, 11 variables were identified as predictors for falls. Using hierarchical logistic regression, five of these were identified for inclusion in the resulting falls risk screening tool: prescribed mobility aid (such as, wheelchair or frame), a fall since admission to hospital, impulsive behaviour, impaired orientation and bladder and/or bowel incontinence. The resulting FRST has good clinical validity (sensitivity = 0.9; specificity = 0.62; area under the curve = 0.87; Youden index = 0.54). The tool was significantly more accurate (p = .037 on DeLong test) in discriminating fallers from nonfallers than the Ontario Modified STRATIFY FRST. A FRST has been developed using a comprehensive statistical framework, and evidence has been provided of this tool's clinical validity. The developed tool, the Sydney Falls Risk Screening Tool, should be considered for use in brain injury rehabilitation populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.; Lopez, Elena; Monzon, Andres; Otero Pastor, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  5. The Feasibility of Tree Coring as a Screening Tool for Selected Contaminants in the Subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen

    Chemical release resulting from inadequate care in the handling and storage of compounds has ultimately led to a large number of contaminated sites worldwide. Frequently found contaminants in the terrestrial environment include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), heavy metals, PAH...... sampling density. This, together with a relatively large soil volume represented by a tree core, has shown to reduce the risk of overlooking contaminated areas and is a valuable method for the identification of previously unknown source areas within a short time period....... (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and chlorinated solvents. The large number of contaminated sites has created a need for effective and reliable site investigations. In this PhD project the feasibility of tree coring as a screening tool for selected contaminants in the subsurface has been investigated...... to obtain more efficient site investigations. Trees have a natural ability to take up water and nutrients from the subsurface; consequently, contaminants can also enter the roots and be translocated to plant parts above ground where they will be absorbed, degraded or phytovolatilized depending...

  6. Abdominal computed tomography scan as a screening tool in blunt trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasel, K.J.; Borgstrom, D.C.; Kolewe, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Background. One of the most difficult problems in blunt trauma is evaluation for potential intraabdominal injury. Admission for serial abdominal exams remains the standard of care after intraabdominal injury has been initially excluded. We hypothesized a normal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan in a subgroup of minimally injured patients would obviate admission for serial abdominal examinations, allowing safe discharge from the emergency department (ED). Methods. We reviewed our blunt trauma experience with patients admitted solely for serial abdominal examinations after a normal CT. Patients were identified from the trauma registry at a Level 1 trauma center from July 1991 through June 1995. Patients with abnormal CTs, extra-abdominal injuries necessitating admission, hemodynamic abnormalities, a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 13, or injury severity scores (ISSs) greater than 15 were excluded. Records of 238 patients remained; we reviewed them to determine the presence of missed abdominal injury. Results. None of the 238 patients had a missed abdominal injury. Average ISS of these patients was 3.2 (range, 0 to 10). Discharging these patients from the ED would result in a yearly cost savings of $32,874 to our medical system. Conclusions. Abdominal CT scan is a safe and cost-effective screening tool in patients with blunt trauma. A normal CT scan in minimally injured patients allows safe discharge from the ED. (authors)

  7. Screen-Printed Electrodes: New Tools for Developing Microbial Electrochemistry at Microscale Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estevez-Canales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs have a number of potential technological applications. In this work, we report the use of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs as a tool to analyze the microbial electroactivity by using Geobacter sulfurreducens as a model microorganism. We took advantage of the small volume required for the assays (75 μL and the disposable nature of the manufactured strips to explore short-term responses of microbial extracellular electron transfer to conductive materials under different scenarios. The system proved to be robust for identifying the bioelectrochemical response, while avoiding complex electrochemical setups, not available in standard biotechnology laboratories. We successfully validated the system for characterizing the response of Geobacter sulfurreducens in different physiological states (exponential phase, stationary phase, and steady state under continuous culture conditions revealing different electron transfer responses. Moreover, a combination of SPE and G. sulfurreducens resulted to be a promising biosensor for quantifying the levels of acetate, as well as for performing studies in real wastewater. In addition, the potential of the technology for identifying electroactive consortia was tested, as an example, with a mixed population with nitrate-reducing capacity. We therefore present SPEs as a novel low-cost platform for assessing microbial electrochemical activity at the microscale level.

  8. Validation of the Greek Version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Brozou, Vassiliki; Stavropoulou, Evmorfia; Argyra, Erifilli; Siafaka, Ioanna; Kararizou, Evangelia; Bouhassira, Didier; Perrot, Serge; Zis, Vassileios; Vadalouca, Athina

    2017-09-01

    The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) is a brief, simple, and straightforward self-administered questionnaire that was developed by Perrot et al. for the detection of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with diffuse chronic pain. The aim of our study was to develop and validate the Greek version of FiRST. The study was set up as a prospective observational study. The original French version of FiRST was adapted into Greek using forward and backward translation. Patients with chronic diffuse pain with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis based on the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were invited to participate to the study. Of the 101 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 42 were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 59 with osteoarthritis. The 2 groups did not differ significantly regarding gender and pain characteristics (duration, intensity). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.79. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 89% (95% confidence interval = 83 to 95%; SE: 0.032, P fibromyalgia in daily practice. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  10. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  11. The mini-mental Parkinson's (MMP) as a cognitive screening tool in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslake, Robert; Summers, Fiona; McConachie, Douglas; Ferris, Catriona; Gordon, Joanna; Harris, Clare; Caie, Linda; Counsell, Carl

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) but may not be adequately identified by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), which is better suited to Alzheimer's disease. The mini-mental Parkinson (MMP) examination is a cognitive screening tool designed in French specifically for PD. We aimed to establish the validity and reliability of the English language version of the MMP compared with the MMSE. People with various stages of PD underwent testing with the MMP and MMSE, which was then compared with a reference standard battery of neuropsychological tests to identify those with significant cognitive impairment. Forty-nine patients were recruited. Both the MMP and MMSE were significantly correlated with scores on all the neuropsychological tests in the validation battery. The median MMP score was proportionally lower (80% of maximum) than the MMSE (90% of maximum) in PD patients with cognitive impairment and those with prior neuropsychiatric complications but there was no difference between the MMP and MMSE in areas under the curves (0.84) for detecting cognitive impairment. Test-retest reliability of the MMP was good (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.793). An MMP of 28 or lower out of 32 detected cognitive impairment with 87% sensitivity and 76% specificity. The English language version of the MMP has now been validated. It detects more cognitive deficits in PD patients than the MMSE and identifies significant cognitive impairment in those with PD at least as well as the MMSE.

  12. STR melting curve analysis as a genetic screening tool for crime scene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang; McKinney, Jason; Johnson, Donald J; Roberts, Katherine A; Hardy, Winters R

    2012-07-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, high-resolution melt curve (HRMC) analysis was investigated as a postquantification screening tool to discriminate human CSF1PO and THO1 genotypes amplified with mini-STR primers in the presence of SYBR Green or LCGreen Plus dyes. A total of 12 CSF1PO and 11 HUMTHO1 genotypes were analyzed on the LightScanner HR96 and LS-32 systems and were correctly differentiated based upon their respective melt profiles. Short STR amplicon melt curves were affected by repeat number, and single-source and mixed DNA samples were additionally differentiated by the formation of heteroduplexes. Melting curves were shown to be unique and reproducible from DNA quantities ranging from 20 to 0.4 ng and distinguished identical from nonidentical genotypes from DNA derived from different biological fluids and compromised samples. Thus, a method is described which can assess both the quantity and the possible probative value of samples without full genotyping. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  13. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  14. Measurement properties of screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum adults of mean normal intelligence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Russet, F; Mottron, L

    2017-07-01

    The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID. Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched, and identified papers evaluated against inclusion criteria. The PRISMA statement was used for reporting the review. We evaluated the quality of the papers using the COSMIN Checklist for psychometric data, and QUADAS-2 for diagnostic data. For the COSMIN assessment, evidence was considered to be strong when several methodologically good articles, or one excellent article, reported consistent evidence for or against a measurement property. For the QUADAS ratings, evidence was considered to be "satisfactory" if at least one study was rated with a low risk of bias and low concern about applicability. We included 38 articles comprising 32 studies, five reviews, and one book chapter and assessed nine tools (three diagnostic and six screening, including eight of their short versions). Among screening tools, only AQ-50, AQ-S, and RAADS-R and RAADS-14 were found to provide satisfactory or intermediate values for their psychometric properties, supported by strong or moderate evidence. Nevertheless, risks of bias and concerns on the applicability of these tools limit the evidence on their diagnostic properties. We found that none of the gold standard diagnostic tools used for children had satisfactory measurement properties. There is limited evidence for the measurement properties of the screening and diagnostic tools used for AS adults with a mean normal range of measured intelligence. This may lessen

  15. Performance of a brief asthma control screening tool in community pharmacy: a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMay, Kate S; Armour, Carol L; Reddel, Helen K

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines recommend basing asthma management on assessment of asthma control. Validated control tools, while suitable for clinical research, may not be feasible for routine use in primary care. To describe the performance of the Pharmacy Asthma Control Screening tool (PACS) compared with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6). Data were obtained from a multicentre study of a community pharmacy asthma management programme in Australia, with three or four visits over six months. Eligible participants had suboptimal asthma control or no recent visit to their doctor for asthma. Asthma control was assessed at baseline and at six months with the PACS tool and ACQ-6. A total of 570 patients were enrolled and 398 (70%) completed the programme. The average ACQ-6 score was 1.58±1.05 at baseline and 0.96±0.88 (n=392) after six months. Sensitivity and specificity of PACS 'poor control' for not well-controlled asthma (ACQ- 6 >1.0) were 0.92 and 0.66, respectively, at baseline and 0.76 and 0.83 at six months. Agreement between the two tools at six months was moderate (κ=0.54). Both tools showed highly significant change during the study (p<0.0001 for each), but agreement between the change in the two tools was only fair (κ=0.31). This study shows that a simple asthma control screening tool is feasible for use in community pharmacies and has good sensitivity for identifying patients with not well-controlled asthma. Screening tools are useful in primary care to identify patients who require more detailed assessment of their asthma status, whereas for monitoring asthma control over time, a continuous control measure is more appropriate.

  16. Some tools to combat dry season nutritional stress in ruminants under African conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2002-01-01

    Dry season nutritional stress is a major constraint to ruminant livestock production in semi-arid areas. After the rains finish, quantity and quality of grazing fall rapidly, leaving cereal crop residues as the major feed resource. These residues are low in N and high in crude fibre, characteristics which restrict intake and digestibility, so that underfeeding results. Improved handling and storage procedures as well as chemical and physical treatments can all improve their quality. Other strategies include: rate of offer of stover; compensatory growth; conservation of fodder. Farmer-selection should also consider multiple use of the options available. (author)

  17. COLPOSCOPY- A PRIMARY ALTERNATIVE SCREENING TOOL FOR CERVICAL PRE-CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sangisapu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer cervix is the most common and preventable malignancy in females. 80% of cases in India are detected in advanced stages. Paucity of cytologists in India is one of the important reasons for failure of screening by Pap smear. Visual Inspection of cervix with Acetic acid (VIA and Visual Inspection of cervix with application of Lugol’s Iodine (VILI are two alternative strategies in low resource settings. Colposcopy involves the same principles of VIA and VILI under better magnification. We have hospitals with not so low resource settings, where gynaecologists are available, but cytologists are not. We need to evolve an alternative strategy appropriate to our resources such as colposcopy and guided biopsy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the feasibility of colposcopy as an alternative screening tool for cervical precancer. The objective of the study is therefore to compare the colposcopy with the known reference standard that is Pap smear and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3000 women were compared with simultaneous colposcopy and Pap smear with latter as reference standard. Colposcopy-guided cervical biopsy was performed for suspicious lesions. RESULTS Unsatisfactory colposcopy due to nonvisualisation of transformation zone is an insignificant percentage (1.7%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of colposcopy for the threshold of normal versus all grades of abnormality (all age groups and all abnormal reports included are 76.74%, 99.34%, 63.46% and 99.65%, respectively. Pap smear is taken as a reference standard. This is the primary objective of our study. Colposcopy-guided biopsy specimens of minor abnormal colposcopic lesions falling outside the transformation zone have not yielded any abnormal findings on histopathology. Three high-grade lesions were detected by colposcopy as well as Pap smear. They have also positively

  18. How accurate are adolescents in portion-size estimation using the computer tool young adolescents' nutrition assessment on computer (YANA-C)?

    OpenAIRE

    Vereecken, Carine; Dohogne, Sophie; Covents, Marc; Maes, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Computer-administered questionnaires have received increased attention for large-scale population research on nutrition. In Belgium-Flanders, Young Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment on Computer (YANA-C) has been developed. In this tool, standardised photographs are available to assist in portion-size estimation. The purpose of the present study is to assess how accurate adolescents are in estimating portion sizes of food using YANA-C. A convenience sample, aged 11-17 years, estimated the amou...

  19. A screening tool to enhance clinical trial participation at a community center involved in a radiation oncology disparities program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Julian W; Martz, Elaine; Schenken, Larry L; Rainville, Rebecca; Marlowe, Ursula

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a screening tool to enhance clinical trial participation at a community radiation oncology center involved in a National Cancer Institute-funded disparities program but lacking on-site clinical trials personnel. The screening form was pasted to the front of the charts and filled out for all new patients over the 9-month period of the study, during which time five external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) trials and a patient perception study were open for accrual. Patient consent was obtained by assorted personnel at several different sites. Patients potentially eligible for a trial were identified and approached by one of the clinic staff. Patients who were under- or uninsured, age > 80 years, members of an racial/ethnic minority, or recipients of medical assistance were identified as at risk for health care disparities and were offered patient navigator services. Of 196 patients consulted during the study, 144 were treated with EBRT. Of the 24 patients eligible for EBRT trials, 23 were approached (one had an incomplete screening form), and 15 accepted. Of 77 patients eligible for a patient perception trial, 72 were approached (five had incomplete forms), and 45 accepted. The eligibility and acceptance rates for EBRT trials were similar for disparities and nondisparities patients. Screening was completed for 96 patients (67%). When completed, the screening tool ensured clinical trial accrual. The major factor limiting overall accrual was a shortage of available trials.

  20. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety in Lebanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkash Rima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153. The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 and specificity (79%. However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71% and poor sensitivity for boys (50%. Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.

  2. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  3. An integrated approach towards the nutritional assessment of the Sardinian donkey: a tool for clinical nutritionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cappai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to establish: i a species-specific approach for nutritional assessment during clinical checks on Sarda breed adult donkeys, and ii a suitable equation for body weight prediction, which at present is lacking. A total of 18 adult donkeys were sampled and the following criteria were recorded: body weight (BW, body condition score (BCS, muscular mass index (MMI, along with somatometric measures (height at withers; chest girth and metabolic profiles of each individual. The species-specific nutritional assessment based on the integrated approach turned out to correlate significantly (P<0.05 with the body condition score and levels of Na, P and cholesterol in blood. The parametric equation for predicting the BW (y=0.353a+0.443b-7.62, where a= height at withers in cm; b= chest girth in cm closely fit the determined BW, with a standard error of SE=±5 kg BW.

  4. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  5. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioriti...... to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R2 = 0.4, Se = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches....

  6. Predicting risk and outcomes for frail older adults: an umbrella review of frailty screening tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João; Cooke, Richard; Bobrowicz-Campos, Elzbieta; Santana, Silvina; Marcucci, Maura; Cano, Antonio; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; Germini, Federico; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    indicators were analyzed, most of which were applied to community-dwelling older people. The Frailty Index was examined in almost all these dimensions, with the exception of reliability, and its diagnostic and predictive characteristics were shown to be satisfactory. Gait speed showed high sensitivity, but only moderate specificity, and excellent predictive ability for future disability in activities of daily living. The Tilburg Frailty Indicator was shown to be a reliable and valid measure for frailty screening, but its diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Screening Letter, Timed-up-and-go test and PRISMA 7 (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) demonstrated high sensitivity and moderate specificity for identifying frailty. In general, low physical activity, variously measured, was one of the most powerful predictors of future decline in activities of daily living. Conclusion Only a few frailty measures seem to be demonstrably valid, reliable and diagnostically accurate, and have good predictive ability. Among them, the Frailty Index and gait speed emerged as the most useful in routine care and community settings. However, none of the included systematic reviews provided responses that met all of our research questions on their own and there is a need for studies that could fill this gap, covering all these issues within the same study. Nevertheless, it was clear that no suitable tool for assessing frailty appropriately in emergency departments was identified. PMID:28398987

  7. Evaluation methods on the nutritional status of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, B; Xie, Y; Hu, H-Y; Feng, L; Li, Z-N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of particular tools on the nutritional status of patients with stroke risk factors; to analyze these risk factors; to construct an assessment table; and to enable nurses to conduct fast and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of patients with stroke. Various nutritional assessment tools were employed to assess the nutritional status of stroke patients [(Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, NRS2002); (mini nutritional assessment, MNA), (subjective global assessment SGA), (malnutrition universal screening, MUST); (body composition, BCA)]. The leading disease-related factors of cerebral apoplexy were observed in patients with malnutrition. And a statistical analysis was conducted. The significant risk factors of cerebral apoplexy in malnourished patients older than 70 years were swallowing dysfunctions, disturbance of consciousness and reliance or half-reliance on feeding practices. The significant risk factors of malnutrition in patients with cerebral apoplexy were the decline in upper limb muscle strength, decline in the performance of various activities, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Disorders that affect the nutritional status of stroke patients can be used as evaluation tools, as described in the evaluation table. The clinical relevance of this study includes the following: to enable the clinical nursing staff to easily assess the patient's nutritional status in a timely manner; to improve compliance with nutritional evaluation; to provide clinical nutrition support to patients with stroke; and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebral apoplexy.

  8. Corneal K-Values as a Diagnostic Screening Tool for Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Jan; Boehringer, Daniel; Eberwein, Philipp; Reinhard, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is diagnosed based on Ghent nosology, including major and minor criteria such as increased axial length (AXL) and flattened corneal curvature (higher K-values) or myopia of more than -3 diopters (D) in its latest revision. Because corneal flattening may, in part, be caused by AXL increase, it may be helpful to consider K-values separately. We present statistical evaluation of using corneal K-values for identifying MFS. A retrospective study of K-values of 74 right eyes of 74 patients with MFS, who were compared with an age- and AXL-matched group of 74 right eyes of 74 patients without MFS. After multivariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. Mean age was 44.1 years versus 44.9 years (P = 0.834). Mean AXL was 25.22 mm versus 25.47 mm (P = 0.661). K-values showed significant differences: mean Kmax was 8.25 mm (40.91 D) versus 7.9 mm (42.72 D) (P < 0.001) and mean Kmin was 8.22 mm (41.06 D) versus 7.69 mm (43.89 D) (P < 0.001). The area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.82 for Kmax and 0.78 for Kmin; the best cutoff was seen at a Kmax of at least 8.16 mm (41.36 D; sensitivity 73% and specificity 81%). Although both K-values differ significantly, Kmax is the better marker to identify MFS. A Kmax of more than 8.16 mm (41.36 D) seems to be a reasonable cutoff (specificity of 81% and sensitivity of 73%). Because this biometric value is easily obtained and standardized, we see it as a good supporting screening tool for MFS suspects.

  9. Development of a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing in children using the phone Oximeter™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Dehkordi, Parastoo; Karlen, Walter; Wensley, David; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can lead to daytime sleepiness, growth failure and developmental delay in children. Polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard to diagnose SDB, is a highly resource-intensive test, confined to the sleep laboratory. To combine the blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) characterization and cardiac modulation, quantified by pulse rate variability (PRV), to identify children with SDB using the Phone Oximeter, a device integrating a pulse oximeter with a smartphone. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 160 children referred to British Columbia Children's Hospital for overnight PSG were recruited. A second pulse oximeter sensor applied to the finger adjacent to the one used for standard PSG was attached to the Phone Oximeter to record overnight pulse oximetry (SpO2 and photoplethysmogram (PPG)) alongside the PSG. We studied 146 children through the analysis of the SpO2 pattern, and PRV as an estimate of heart rate variability calculated from the PPG. SpO2 variability and SpO2 spectral power at low frequency, was significantly higher in children with SDB due to the modulation provoked by airway obstruction during sleep (p-value <0.01). PRV analysis reflected a significant augmentation of sympathetic activity provoked by intermittent hypoxia in SDB children. A linear classifier was trained with the most discriminating features to identify children with SDB. The classifier was validated with internal and external cross-validation, providing a high negative predictive value (92.6%) and a good balance between sensitivity (88.4%) and specificity (83.6%). Combining SpO2 and PRV analysis improved the classification performance, providing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 88%, beyond the 82% achieved using SpO2 analysis alone. These results demonstrate that the implementation of this algorithm in the Phone Oximeter will provide an improved portable, at-home screening tool, with the capability of monitoring patients

  10. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  11. Translation and discriminative validation of the STarT Back Screening Tool into Danish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsø, Lars; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter; Manniche, Claus; Hill, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    The STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT) is a nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies low back pain patients into low, medium or high risk of poor prognosis. When assessed by GPs, these subgroups can be used to triage patients into different evidence-based treatment pathways. The objective of this study was to translate the English version of STarT into Danish (STarT-dk) and test its discriminative validity. Translation was performed using methods recommended by best practice translation guidelines. Psychometric validation of the discriminative ability was performed using the Area Under the Curve statistic. The Area Under the Curve was calculated for seven of the nine items where reference standards were available and compared with the original English version. The linguistic translation required minor semantic and layout alterations. The response options were changed from "agree/disagree" to "yes/no" for four items. No patients reported item ambiguity using the final version. The Area Under the Curve ranged from 0.735 to 0.855 (CI95% 0.678-0.897) in a Danish cohort (n = 311) and 0.840 to 0.925 (CI95% 0.772-0.948) in the original English cohort (n = 500). On four items, the Area Under the Curve was statistically similar between the two cohorts but lower on three psychosocial sub-score items. The translation was linguistically accurate and the discriminative validity broadly similar, with some differences probably due to differences in severity between the cohorts and the Danish reference standard questionnaires not having been validated. Despite those differences, we believe the results show that the STarT-dk has sufficient patient acceptability and discriminative validity to be used in Denmark.

  12. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Review of nutritional conditions of horses and cattle as a tool in veterinary services animal welfare procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, M

    1998-03-01

    The control of husbandry by veterinarians with the prospect of animal welfare demands a valuation of the nutritional status of farm animals. The situation of main importance is a suspected undernutrition. A prolonged failure in nutrient and energy supply results in mobilisation of body fat as well as body protein. Especially the protein depletion includes a loss of capacity of several essential functions, e.g. of the immune system or the respiratory tract. Undernutrition is often classified as stress, but the typical parameters for stress related reactions offer no sufficient information to evaluate a case of undernutrition. A useful tool to justify the nutritional status of an animal is the amount of body fat by sonographic measurements. Processes related to reproduction are rather sensible to a reduction of body fat; although they are less expensive by energy point of view compared to exercise or milk production. Measuring body fat offers the opportunity to describe the degree of undernutrition and to appreciate, if a malnourished animal is damaged accordingly the definitions of animal welfare. However, the equipment and the experience to use sonographic methods is often not available for veterinarians, who are responsible in official control of husbandry. But the visual and manual procedures to proof defined areas, mainly related to back fat thickness, well known as the body condition scoring, alternatively can be used. The body condition score systems, as defined for cows, sheep and horses, are proofed by different experiments with regard to accuracy and reproducibility. They completely cover the demand in precision to evaluate body fat and in consequence the nutritional status of an animal.

  14. The DAFNE databank as a simple tool for nutrition policy. DAta Food NEtworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-10-01

    To identify, quantify and depict variation of food habits in Europe, using data from the DAFNE (DAta Food NEtworking) databank. Household budget survey data of 12 European countries, namely Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom, around 1990. Data from the DAFNE databank are presented in simple pictorial presentations, which reveal considerable disparities in food habits. Furthermore, there appears to be nutritional variation within countries by socio-demographic groups, defined by their residence and educational level. The distribution patterns of food availability provide insights into the determinants of food preferences, as conditioned by current forces. The factors influencing consumer choice are many and varied. Thus, in order to promote healthy eating, it is essential to identify the food habits of the target population. In this context, information derived from household budget surveys, used in the development of the DAFNE databank, could be very important.

  15. The iSCREEN Electronic Diabetes Dashboard: A Tool to Improve Knowledge and Implementation of Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahanova, Stacy; Tsouka, Alexandra; Palmert, Mark R; Mahmud, Farid H

    2017-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide evidence-based recommendations for patient care but may not be optimally applied in clinical settings. As a pilot study, we evaluated the impact of a computerized, point-of-care decision support system (CDSS) on guideline knowledge and adherence in our diabetes clinic. iSCREEN, a CDSS, integrated with a province-wide electronic health record, was designed based on the Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. Evaluation data were gathered by retrospective chart review and clinician questionnaire prior to and after implementation of iSCREEN. Records of patients with type 1 diabetes, 14 to 18 years of age, were assessed for appropriate screening for complications and comorbidities. To assess guideline adherence, 50 charts were reviewed at 2 time periods (25 before and 25 after launch of iSCREEN). Results revealed improved frequency of appropriate screening for diabetic nephropathy (p=0.03) and retinopathy (p=0.04), accompanied by a decrease in under- and overscreening for these outcomes. To assess guideline knowledge, 58 surveys were collected (31 prior to and 27 after the launch of iSCREEN) from care providers in the field of pediatric diabetes. There was a trend toward improved guideline knowledge in all team members (p=0.06). Implementation of a de novo CDSS was associated with improved rates of appropriate screening for diabetes-related complications. A trend toward improvement in health professionals' knowledge of the guidelines was also observed. Evaluation of this point-of-care computerized decision support tool suggests that it may facilitate diabetes care by optimizing complication screening and CPG knowledge, with the potential for broader implementation. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Pepsi": A Screening and Programming Tool for Understanding the Whole Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, J'Anne

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses using "PEPSI", a screening and programming method that evaluates the physical, emotional, philosophical, social, and intellectual levels of development in children with disabilities. The steps in the PEPSI screening process are described and a case study is provided. A chart depicting indicators in teaching respect for self…

  17. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may

  18. Screening for cancer-related distress: Summary of evidence from tools to programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, P. E.; Johansen, C.; Mitchell, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    and critically discuss the findings of randomized trials of the effect of screening and to identify components necessary for future studies of the effectiveness of screening programmes. Methods. A search was made of the Embase/Medline and Web of Knowledge abstract databases from inception to September 2010. Our...

  19. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  20. XRF core scanners as a quick and good screening tool for detecting pollution in sediment cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rubio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF core scanners, to acquire high-resolution geochemical data sets in relatively short time, have made them an increasingly popular geochemical screening tool to study sediment cores for palaeoclimatologic and palaeoceanographic purposes (Peck et al., 2007; Rebolledo et al., 2008. These scanners are able to obtain optical images, X-ray radiographs, and continuous geochemical data with a maximum resolution of 200 µm directly from sediment cores (Croudace et al., 2006. Geochemical results are obtained as peak areas of counts per second that are proportional to element concentrations in the sediment, and thus the assumed semi-quantitative nature of these analyses have hampered the use of this type of instruments to monitor and detect pollution at large; where the availability of a fast screening tool that could substantially cut analytical and time costs will certainly be an advantage. This study explores the sensitivity of a ITRAX core scanner (Cox Analytical Systems on sedimentary records from estuarine-like environments in NW (Rías Baixas Galicia and SW Spain (Ría de Huelva. The Galician Rías Baixas sediments are characterized by high contents of organic matter, but in general terms, are not heavily polluted. We have selected one core in the Marín harbour (Ría de Pontevedra and another in the intertidal area of San Simón Bay (inner Ría de Vigo, close to a ceramic factory, which is relatively highly polluted by lead. By the contrary, the Ría de Huelva is one of the most polluted areas in western Europe because of the high acid mining activity together with the chemical industries located in its margins. We have selected a core in the Padre Santo Channel in the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. ITRAX sensitivity was obtained by establishing equivalences between peak areas and concentrations obtained by traditional analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, ICP-OES and/or conventional XRF of

  1. [Nutrition and frail elderly at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrière-Arnoux, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Good health for elderly people depends on some extent on their nutritional status. During the completion of a master's degree in nursing sciences, a study highlighted the need to develop measuring tools for screening for undernutrition in the elderly in community nursing practice. A programme for raising awareness of the consequences of undernutrition in elderly people is an area to develop through broader frailty screening in primary care.

  2. The LEAF questionnaire: a screening tool for the identification of female athletes at risk for the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Tornberg, Asa B; Skouby, Sven; Faber, Jens; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-04-01

    Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to detect disordered eating behaviour (DE), but no validated screening tool to detect persistent low EA and Triad conditions, with or without DE/ED, is available. The aim of this observational study was to develop and test a screening tool designed to identify female athletes at risk for the Triad. Female athletes (n=84) with 18-39 years of age and training ≥5 times/week filled out the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), which comprised questions regarding injuries and gastrointestinal and reproductive function. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated in a subsample of female dancers and endurance athletes (n=37). Discriminant as well as concurrent validity was evaluated by testing self-reported data against measured current EA, menstrual function and bone health in endurance athletes from sports such as long distance running and triathlon (n=45). The 25-item LEAF-Q produced an acceptable sensitivity (78%) and specificity (90%) in order to correctly classify current EA and/or reproductive function and/or bone health. The LEAF-Q is brief and easy to administer, and relevant as a complement to existing validated DE screening instruments, when screening female athletes at risk for the Triad, in order to enable early detection and intervention.

  3. Developmental Screening Tools: Feasibility of Use at Primary Healthcare Level in Low- and Middle-income Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Vinicius Jobim; Morris, Jodi; Martines, José

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An estimated 150 million children have a disability. Early identification of developmental disabilities is a high priority for the World Health Organization to allow action to reduce impairments through Gap Action Program on mental health. The study identified the feasibility of using the developmental screening and monitoring tools for children aged 0-3 year(s) by non-specialist primary healthcare providers in low-resource settings. A systematic review of the literature was conducte...

  4. Discussion: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingley, Leslie; Slaughter, Stephen L.; Sarikhan, Isabelle Y.; Norman, David K.

    2013-02-01

    This discussion is in response to the article entitled "Comparison of slope stability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy" by Kara Whittaker and Dan McShane (Geomorphology 145-146 (2012) 115-122). The discussion is coauthored by several geologists at the Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) including those from the research and policy sections of the state agency.

  5. Evaluation of the King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Daniel H; Burlingame, Jennifer; Yousif, Lina R; Donahue, Xinh P; Krier, Joshua; Rayes, Lydia J; Young, Rachel; Lilla, Muareen; Mazurek, Rochelle; Hittle, Kristie; McCloskey, Charles; Misra, Saroj; Shaw, Michael K

    2015-09-15

    Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, and results from impact or impulsive forces to the head, neck or face. Due to the variability and subtlety of symptoms, concussions may go unrecognized or be ignored, especially with the pressure placed on athletes to return to competition. The King-Devick (KD) test, an oculomotor test originally designed for reading evaluation, was recently validated as a concussion screening tool in collegiate athletes. A prospective study was performed using high school football players in an attempt to study the KD as a concussion screening tool in this younger population. 343 athletes from four local high school football teams were recruited to participate. These athletes were given baseline KD tests prior to competition. Individual demographic information was collected on the subjects. Standard team protocol was employed to determine if a concussion had occurred during competition. Immediately after diagnosis, the KD test was re-administered to the concussed athlete for comparison to baseline. Post-season testing was also performed in non-concussed individuals. Of the 343 athletes, nine were diagnosed with concussions. In all concussed players, cumulative read times for the KD test were significantly increased (phistory of concussion was the only demographic factor predictive of concussion in this cohort. The KD test is an accurate and easily administered sideline screening tool for concussion in adolescent football players. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wire screens as a tool for survey measurements of the unattached radon progeny in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janica, R.

    1996-07-01

    The radon hazard in mines is assessed by measuring the radioactivity accumulated on filters through which air is forced to flow. The filter collects both forms of the short-lived radon progeny, attached and unattached, and, therefore, the assessment is based on the measurement of the total radon progeny. Because of the special radiological significance of the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny, the estimation of the radiation hazard to miners would be improved if the unattached fraction could be measured. This report describes two methods of measurement for the simultaneous determination of the unattached and the total radon progeny. The proposed methods comply with the criterion of practicality (imposed by the working conditions in the mine environment), that is, they are implemented using standard survey equipment and simple procedures. Both methods use wire screens to collect, preferentially, the unattached fraction. According to the first method, air is sampled through a wire screen and a backup filter, and the radioactivity accumulated on both the filter and the wire screen are measured separately using standard counting protocols (e.g. the Kusnetz protocol). The wire screen's efficiency for collecting the unattached radon progeny is determined, in advance, under laboratory conditions. The method assumes the validity of the collection efficiencies when the screens are used under field conditions. To avoid the uncertainty of the lab-determined collection efficiency, a new measuring method was proposed based on the sampling of air through two screens in series and a backup filter. The measurement of the ratio of the activities deposited on both screens allows an estimation of the screen collection efficiency under field conditions. Once this is done, the 'unattached fraction' and total radon progeny are determined by counting only one of the screens and the backup filter as described in the previous method. (author). 73 refs., 8 tabs., 21 figs

  7. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2013-01-01

    A range of compounds with negative nutritional impact - 'anti-nutrients' - are found in most plant foods. The contents of anti-nutrients in processed foods depend on the ingredients and processing. Anti-nutrients in complementary foods for children can have a negative impact on nutritional status...

  8. Development of a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing in children using the phone Oximeter™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Garde

    -home screening tool, with the capability of monitoring patients over multiple nights.

  9. Echocardiographic screening for subclinical rheumatic heart disease remains a research tool pending studies of impact on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zühlke, Liesl; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2013-03-01

    The application of portable echocardiography to the screening of asymptomatic children and young adults for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries indicates that the disease may affect 62 million to 78 million individuals worldwide, which could potentially result in 1.4 million deaths per year from RHD and its complications. The World Heart Federation has developed a guideline for the echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD in asymptomatic individuals without a history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in order to ensure the reliability, comparability, and reproducibility of findings of the echocardiographic screening studies. Early studies suggest that a third of individuals with asymptomatic subclinical RHD revert to normal echocardiographic findings on repeat testing after 6-12 months, suggesting that repeat echocardiography may be necessary to confirm the findings prior to consideration of interventions such as antibiotic prophylaxis. It is not known, however, whether echocardiographic screening for asymptomatic subclinical RHD or the introduction of antibiotic prophylaxis for affected individuals improves the prognosis of RHD. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of this screening method has not been established in the vast majority of affected countries. Therefore, echocardiographic screening for asymptomatic subclinical RHD remains a research tool until studies of impact on prognosis and cost-effectiveness are conducted.

  10. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-03

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  12. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice ... Introduction: Intimate partner violence has been recognised globally as a human rights violation. ... understanding of the screening questions, which utilise Eurocentric definitions of intimate partner violence.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to p...

  14. Navy Fuel Composition and Screening Tool (FCAST) v2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    percentage , (2) Fuel A, (3) Mixed Fuel, (4) Fuel B, (5) Blended properties. 7. FCAST ANOVA screen, showing 1) List of data files; 2) Selected samples for...16. FCAST Hydrocarbon Distribution screen, showing 1) List of data files; 2) Carbon number distributions in area percentages for different classes...Total ion chromatograph UVE-PLS Uninformed variable elimination partial least squares XML Extensible markup language 1 1.0 Introduction The

  15. Predictive validity of the identification of seniors at risk screening tool in a German emergency department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, Katrin; Heppner, Hans Jürgen; Skutetzky, Andreas; Sieber, Cornel; Christ, Michael; Thiem, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The identification of patients at high risk for adverse outcomes [death, unplanned readmission to emergency department (ED)/hospital, functional decline] plays an important role in emergency medicine. The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) instrument is one of the most commonly used and best-validated screening tools. As to the authors' knowledge so far there are no data on any screening tool for the identification of older patients at risk for a negative outcome in Germany. To evaluate the validity of the ISAR screening tool in a German ED. This was a prospective single-center observational cohort study in an ED of an urban university-affiliated hospital. Participants were 520 patients aged ≥75 years consecutively admitted to the ED. The German version of the ISAR screening tool was administered directly after triage of the patients. Follow-up telephone interviews to assess outcome variables were conducted 28 and 180 days after the index visit in the ED. The primary end point was death from any cause or hospitalization or recurrent ED visit or change of residency into a long-term care facility on day 28 after the index ED visit. The mean age ± SD was 82.8 ± 5.0 years. According to ISAR, 425 patients (81.7%) scored ≥2 points, and 315 patients (60.5%) scored ≥3 points. The combined primary end point was observed in 250 of 520 patients (48.1%) on day 28 and in 260 patients (50.0%) on day 180. Using a continuous ISAR score the area under the curve on day 28 was 0.621 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.573-0.669) and 0.661 (95% CI 0.615-0.708) on day 180, respectively. The German version of the ISAR screening tool acceptably identified elderly patients in the ED with an increased risk of a negative outcome. Using the cutoff ≥3 points instead of ≥2 points yielded better overall results.

  16. Identification of seniors at risk (ISAR) screening tool in the emergency department: implementation using the plan-do-study-act model and validation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asomaning, Nana; Loftus, Carla

    2014-07-01

    To better meet the needs of older adults in the emergency department, Senior Friendly care processes, such as high-risk screening are recommended. The identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) tool is a 6-item validated screening tool for identifying elderly patients at risk of the adverse outcomes post-ED visit. This paper describes the implementation of the tool in the Mount Sinai Hospital emergency department using a Plan-Do-Study-Act model; and demonstrates whether the tool predicts adverse outcomes. An observational study tracked tool implementation. A retrospective chart audit was completed to collect data about elderly ED patients during 2 time periods in 2010 and 2011. Data analysis compared the characteristics of patients with positive and negative screening tool results. The identification of Seniors at Risk tool was completed for 51.6% of eligible patients, with 61.2% of patients having a positive result. Patients with positive screening results were more likely to be over age 79 (P = .003); be admitted to hospital (P Risk tool was challenged by problematic compliance with tool completion. Strategies to address this included tool adaptation; and providing staff with knowledge of ED and inpatient geriatric resources and feedback on completion rates. Positive screening results predicted adverse outcomes in elderly Mount Sinai Hospital ED patients. © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementing a screening tool for identifying patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a statewide initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon Traxler, L; Martin, Monique L; Kerber, Alice S; Bellcross, Cecelia A; Crane, Barbara E; Green, Victoria; Matthews, Roland; Paris, Nancy M; Gabram, Sheryl G A

    2014-10-01

    The Georgia Breast Cancer Genomic Health Consortium is a partnership created with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to the Georgia Department of Public Health to reduce cancer disparities among high-risk minority women. The project addresses young women at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome through outreach efforts. The consortium provides education and collects surveillance data using the breast cancer genetics referral screening tool (B-RST) available at www.BreastCancerGeneScreen.org . The HBOC educational protocol was presented to 73 staff in 6 public health centers. Staff used the tool during the collection of medical history. Further family history assessments and testing for mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes were facilitated if appropriate. Data was collected from November 2012 through December 2013, including 2,159 screened women. The majority of patients identified as black/African American and were 18-49 years old. Also, 6.0 % (n = 130) had positive screens, and 60.9 % (n = 67) of the 110 patients who agreed to be contacted provided a detailed family history. A total of 47 patients (42.7 %) met National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines when family history was clarified. Fourteen (12.7 %) underwent genetic testing; 1 patient was positive for a BRCA2 mutation, and 1 patient was found to carry a variant of uncertain significance. The introduction of genomics practice within public health departments has provided access to comprehensive cancer care for uninsured individuals. The successful implementation of the B-RST into public health centers demonstrates the opportunity for integration of HBOC screening into primary care practices.

  18. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  19. The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool revised for adolescents (PSST-A): prevalence of severe PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Meir; Peer, Miki; Palova, Eva; Freeman, Ellen W; Macdougall, Mary; Soares, Claudio N

    2011-02-01

    The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was modified for use in adolescents and piloted in 578 girls at three international sites. Nearly one third (29.6%) reported experiencing severe PMS or PMDD, with irritability being the most commonly reported symptom. Rates of menstrual-related pain were high, particularly in those with severe PMS or PMDD. Severe PMS and PMDD present with similar rates and symptoms in adolescents as in adults, and the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool modified for adolescents is a fast, reliable tool to screen for these syndromes in adolescents.

  20. [Factors impacting the growth and nutritional status of cystic fibrosis patients younger than 10 years of age who did not undergo neonatal screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortencio, Taís Daiene Russo; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Hessel, Gabriel; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by clinical and laboratory parameters how cystic fibrosis (CF) affects growth and nutritional status of children who were undergoing CF treatment but did not receive newborn screening. A historical cohort study of 52 CF patients younger than 10 years of age were followed in a reference center in Campinas, Southeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were abstracted from medical records until March/2010, when neonatal screening program was implemented. Between September/2009 and March/2010, parental height of the 52 CF patients were also measured. Regarding nutritional status, four patients had Z-scores ≤ -2 for height/age (H/A) and body mass index/age (BMI/A). The following variables were associated with improved H/A ratio: fewer hospitalizations, longer time from first appointment to diagnosis, longer time from birth to diagnosis and later onset of respiratory disease. Forced vital capacity [FVC(%)], forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC [FEF25-75(%)], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1(%)], gestational age, birth weight and early respiratory symptoms were associated with IMC/A. Greater number of hospitalizations, diagnosis delay and early onset of respiratory disease had a negative impact on growth. Lower spirometric values, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, and early onset of respiratory symptoms had negative impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition was observed in 7.7% of cases, but 23% of children had nutritional risk. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Providing Nutritional Care in the Office Practice: Teams, Tools, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F

    2016-11-01

    Provision of dietary counseling in the office setting is enhanced by using team-based care and electronic tools. Effective provider-patient communication is essential for fostering behavior change: the key component of lifestyle medicine. The principles of communication and behavior change are skill-based and grounded in scientific theories and models. Motivational interviewing and shared decision making, a collaboration process between patients and their providers to reach agreement about a health decision, is an important process in counseling. The stages of change, self-determination, health belief model, social cognitive model, theory of planned behavior, and cognitive behavioral therapy are used in the counseling process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology-assisted title and abstract screening for systematic reviews: a retrospective evaluation of the Abstrackr machine learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Johnson, Cydney; Hartling, Lisa

    2018-03-12

    Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. We used a convenience sample of screening projects completed at the Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Edmonton, Canada: three SRs and one descriptive analysis for which we had used SR screening methods. The projects were heterogeneous with respect to search yield (median 9328; range 5243 to 47,385 records; interquartile range (IQR) 15,688 records), topic (Antipsychotics, Bronchiolitis, Diabetes, Child Health SRs), and screening complexity. We uploaded the records to Abstrackr and screened until it made predictions about the relevance of the remaining records. Across three trials for each project, we compared the predictions to human reviewer decisions and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, precision, false negative rate, proportion missed, and workload savings. Abstrackr's sensitivity was > 0.75 for all projects and the mean specificity ranged from 0.69 to 0.90 with the exception of Child Health SRs, for which it was 0.19. The precision (proportion of records correctly predicted as relevant) varied by screening task (median 26.6%; range 14.8 to 64.7%; IQR 29.7%). The median false negative rate (proportion of records incorrectly predicted as irrelevant) was 12.6% (range 3.5 to 21.2%; IQR 12.3%). The workload savings were often large (median 67.2%, range 9.5 to 88.4%; IQR 23.9%). The proportion missed (proportion of records predicted as irrelevant that were included in the final report, out of the total number predicted as irrelevant) was 0.1% for all SRs and 6.4% for the descriptive analysis. This equated to 4.2% (range 0 to 12.2%; IQR 7.8%) of the records in the final reports. Abstrackr's reliability and the workload savings varied by screening task. Workload savings came at the expense of potentially missing

  3. Touch screens as a tool in patient care in the IBD outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lone; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Fallingborg, Jan; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius; Jess, Tine

    2016-09-01

    We have introduced online touch screens in the waiting room for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) for recording of symptoms before their consultation. This has made disease activity scores readily available to the physician in our newly established database, 'Gastrobio'. We wanted to validate the use of touch screens compared to paper questionnaires. A total of 54 patients with UC and 74 patients with CD were included in the study. The UC patients filled out the Short Health Scale (SHS) and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SSCAI). The CD patients filled out the SHS and Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Paper questionnaires and touch screen versions were used in random order and comparison between the two modalities was made by Spearman correlation test, Bland-Altman plots, and Kappa-statistics. Among the 128 patients, the two SHS scores (SHS touch versus SHS paper) were found to be highly correlated (Spearman correlation; 0.92 for UC and 0.92 for CD). Also, on average, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a difference close to zero between the two modalities. Agreement between paper version and touch screen version of SCCAI and HBI scores was also high (Kappa-statistics; 78% raw and 98% weighted for SCCAI; 65% raw and 97% weighted for HBI). It is feasible to introduce touch screens in the outpatient clinic and to have patients record their symptoms before the consultation. However, the study may not be representative for elderly patients.

  4. Developmental screening tools: feasibility of use at primary healthcare level in low- and middle-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Vinicius Jobim; Morris, Jodi; Martines, José

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 150 million children have a disability. Early identification of developmental disabilities is a high priority for the World Health Organization to allow action to reduce impairments through Gap Action Program on mental health. The study identified the feasibility of using the developmental screening and monitoring tools for children aged 0-3 year(s) by non-specialist primary healthcare providers in low-resource settings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the tools, assess their psychometric properties, and feasibility of use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Key indicators to examine feasibility in LMICs were derived from a consultation with 23 international experts. We identified 426 studies from which 14 tools used in LMICs were extracted for further examination. Three tools reported adequate psychometric properties and met most of the feasibility criteria. Three tools appear promising for use in identifying and monitoring young children with disabilities at primary healthcare level in LMICs. Further research and development are needed to optimize these tools.

  5. Reliability and Normative Reference Values for the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Tool in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ryan N; Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Gould, Dan; Nogle, Sally

    2018-05-01

    The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) measure is a newly developed vestibular and ocular motor symptom provocation screening tool for sport-related concussions. Baseline data, psychometric properties, and reliability of the VOMS are needed to further understand the applications of this tool, especially in the youth population, where research is scarce. To establish normative data and document the internal consistency and false-positive rate of the VOMS in a sample of nonconcussed youth athletes. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 423 youth athletes (male = 278, female = 145) between the ages of 8 and 14 years completed baseline VOMS screening before the start of their respective sport seasons. Internal consistency was measured with Cronbach α and inter-item correlations. Approximately 60% of youth athletes reported no symptom provocation on baseline VOMS assessment, with 9% to 13% scoring over the cutoff levels (score of ≥2 for any individual VOMS symptom, near point convergence distance of ≥5 cm). The VOMS displayed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α = .97) at baseline among youth athletes. The current findings provide preliminary support for the implementation of VOMS baseline assessment into clinical practice, due to a high internal consistency, strong relationships between VOMS items, and a low false-positive rate at baseline in youth athletes.

  6. μ-structured devices as tools for screening process intensification in biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Woodley, John

    different modules can be developed at microscale. Such configurations enable effective screening and rapid process development of biocatalytic reactions assuring economic viability and shorter time to market for pharmaceutical products. Thus the work presented in this thesis is based on the application......Biocatalytic processes have been emerging as potential replacements of traditional chemical synthesis in many industrial relevant production processes. However the implementation of new biocatalytic processes can be a very challenging procedure which requires both biocatalyst and process screening....... Such knowledge is subsequently applied to design customized reactor configurations. It has been demonstrated that this knowledge can be crucial for the choice and design of reactors. The second part focuses on developing μ-scale modules for rapid screening and integrating process units. The increase...

  7. Diagnosis tools useful in the management of nitrogen nutrition in Urochloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The N management on pasture requires methods for analyzing and predicting the need for fertilization, aiming at greater efficiency of fertilizer application, adjusting the forage requirements for biomass productivity with quality and sustainability. Nitrogen Nutrition Index (NNI defined as the ratio between the actual N concentration and the N concentration critical, corresponding to the actual standing biomass. NNI is an indicator well connected with the physiological regulation of N concentration, but it cannot be used directly in farm conditions. Leaf N concentration has been shown to be with greenness (chlorophyll meter readings, as measured by SPAD 502, giving instantaneous values that could be used for estimating directly the N concentration and indirectly the NNI. The main of this work was to test the usefulness N concentration and SPAD to diagnose the N status of four genotypes Urochloa. The experimental design was a randomized block in a factorial 4 x 4, genotypes of Urochloa (U. brizantha cv. Piata, U. brizantha cv. Marandu, and two hybrids H69 and H12 and nitrogen levels (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg dm-3 whose source urea, with five replications, in pots (3.34 dm3 with Psament soil. Evaluations were performed on plants aged 52 days after sowing. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative treatments were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative treatment were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits the data. It is known that chlorophyll meter readings express indirectly the amount of chlorophyll in the plant tissue, and as nitrogen is a component of the chlorophyll molecule, the concentration of this nutrient in the tissue is positively correlated with the SPAD values, several studies have confirmed this fact . The SPAD values were found to be in the range 17.4 to 36.0 for H69, 24.2 to 36.6 for H12, 28.2 to 44.89 to

  8. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3450 Princeton Pike, Suite 110, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Lopez, Anthony [Bayer-Risse Engineering, Inc., 78 Route 173 West, Suite 6, Hampton, NJ 08827 (United States); Romanok, Kristin [U.S. Geological Survey, 3450 Princeton Pike, Suite 110, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Wengrowski, Edward W. [New Jersey Pinelands Commission, 15 Springfield Road, New Lisbon, NJ 08064 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based risk screening tool for groundwater affected by landfills is presented. • Domenico solute transport equations are used to estimate downgradient contaminant concentrations. • Landfills are categorized as presenting high, moderate or low risks. • Analysis of parameter sensitivity and examples of the method’s application are given. • The method has value to regulators and those considering redeveloping closed landfills. - Abstract: A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically

  9. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: not just a barium enema{exclamation_point} Radiographic manifestations and screening tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.; Jeon, P. [Health Sciences Center, Diagnostic Imaging, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: u43dlb@mun.ca; Green, J. [Health Sciences Center, Discipline of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) at an early age and by an increased risk of other primary malignancies, including those of the endometrium. ovaries, stomach, small bowel, upper biliary tract, skin, and brain, as well as by transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that especially involves the renal pelvis and ureter. Because specific genetic mutations causing HNPCC have been recently discovered, genetic screening options have been developed for some families. Subsequently, radiology has an increasing role in surveillance for and management of these HNPCC-associated tumours. Although colonoscopy is the mainstay of a screening regimen for colon cancer, the barium enema has been a standard radiologic investigation. Further, computed tomography (CT) colonography (now practised in various centres) will, with further refinement, prove to be of increasing value. Ultrasonography is a standard investigation for endometrial and ovarian cancer, with CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging often playing a central role. As for TCC, intravenous urography (IVU) had been a standard investigation tool. However, with continued evolution of multidetector row CT with postprocessing manipulation (CT urography [CTU]), the role of IVU is diminishing in most centres. Newfoundland has a high prevalence of HNPCC exhibiting a broad range of manifestations. In this article, radiologic images of various tumours from individuals with HNPCC demonstrate a radiologic spectrum of this fascinating hereditary disease. Screening implications and specific screening methods are reviewed. (author)

  10. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  11. The Identification of Seniors at Risk screening tool is useful for predicting acute readmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth; Schultz, Martin; Dynesen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    . Patients ≥ 65 years treated during a 14-day period were included. Their mean age was 78 years. Screening with the Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) was performed (n = 198) by the Mobile Geriatric Team (MGT). The patients' medical journals were assessed retrospectively by the SG to determine any need...

  12. Tree Coring as an initial screening tool for typical pollutants in the subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Previous guidelines report that tree coring is more or less useful for a variety of VOCs, such as BTEX, MTBE, trimethyl benzene, and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC). This new guideline goes beyond the previous guidelines by including the use of a technique to screen for heavy metals, plus...

  13. Computer Vision Tool and Technician as First Reader of Lung Cancer Screening CT Scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritchie, A.J.; Sanghera, C.; Jacobs, C.; Zhang, W.; Mayo, J.; Schmidt, H.; Gingras, M.; Pasian, S.; Stewart, L.; Tsai, S.; Manos, D.; Seely, J.M.; Burrowes, P.; Bhatia, R.; Atkar-Khattra, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Tammemagi, M.; Tsao, M.S.; Lam, S.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    To implement a cost-effective low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening program at the population level, accurate and efficient interpretation of a large volume of LDCT scans is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a workflow strategy to identify abnormal LDCT scans in

  14. Pap screening as preventive tool against cervical cancer: a report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the developed countries has significantly reduced as a result of well-organized and coordinated Pap screening program, which is aimed at detection of pre-invasive lesions that are then promptly treated. We report a 45-year old woman whose immediate elder sister had breast carcinoma, ...

  15. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2018-01-01

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and

  16. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  17. LASSO—ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S.; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-06-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  18. Screen-Capture Instructional Technology: A Cognitive Tool for Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey George

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical investigation has been conducted on high school students and teachers using online instructional multimedia developed entirely from the classroom teacher's traditional live-lecture format. This study investigated academic achievement, engagement, preference, and curriculum development using screen-capture instructional…

  19. A Comparison of Screening Tools for the Early Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the effectiveness of the 128 Hz tuning fork, two monofilaments, and Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN questionnaire as tools for the early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in overweight, obese, and inactive (OOI adults or those who have prediabetes (PD or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Research Design and Methods. Thirty-four adults (mean age 58.4 years ± 12.1 were divided by glycemia (10 OOI normoglycemic, 13 PD, and 11 T2D. Sural nerves were tested bilaterally with the NC-stat DPNCheck to determine sural nerve amplitude potential (SNAP and sural nerve conduction velocity (SNCV. All other testing results were compared to SNAP and SNCV. Results. Total 1 g monofilament scores significantly correlated with SNAP values and yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity combinations of tested measures. Total QOL-DN scores negatively correlated with SNAP values, as did QOL-DN symptoms. QOL-DN activities of daily living correlated with the right SNAP, and the QOL-DN small fiber subscore correlated with SNCV. Conclusions. The 1 g monofilament and total QOL-DN are effective, low-cost tools for the early detection of DPN in OOI, PD, and T2D adults. The 128 Hz tuning fork and 10 g monofilament may assist DPN screening as a tandem, but not primary, early DPN detection screening tools.

  20. Making and Executing Decisions for Safe and Independent Living (MED-SAIL): development and validation of a brief screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Whitney L; Regev, Tziona; Kunik, Mark E; Wilson, Nancy L; Moye, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence B; Naik, Aanand D

    2014-03-01

    Older adults prefer to remain in their own homes for as long as possible. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and preliminary validation of Making and Executing Decisions for Safe and Independent Living (MED-SAIL), a brief screening tool for capacity to live safely and independently in the community. Prospective preliminary validation study. Outpatient geriatrics clinic located in a community-based hospital. Forty-nine community-dwelling older adults referred to the clinic for a comprehensive capacity assessment. We examined internal consistency, criterion-based validity, concurrent validity, and accuracy of classification for MED-SAIL. The items included in MED-SAIL demonstrated internal consistency (5 items; α = 0.85). MED-SAIL was significantly correlated with the Independent Living Scales (r = 0.573, p ≤0.001) and instrumental activities of daily living (r = 0.440, p ≤0.01). The Mann-Whitney U test revealed significant differences between the no capacity and partial/full capacity classifications on MED-SAIL (U(48) = 60.5, Z = -0.38, p SAIL as a brief screening tool to identify older adults with impaired capacity for remaining safe and independent in their current living environment. MED-SAIL is useful tool for health and social service providers in the community for the purpose of referral for definitive capacity evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cancer screening rate in people with diabetes in the Korean population: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumban Walter Chuck

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To investigate the screening rates for gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in people with diabetes compared with people without diabetes. METHODS Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009 were used. Cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over and cancer-free women who were 30 years old and over were included. The lifetime screening rate and regular screening rate were compared in people with and without diabetes. RESULTS Fewer people with diabetes than people without diabetes had ever received cancer screening (53.5 vs. 59.5%, p<0.001 for gastric cancer; 60.5 vs. 71.5%, p<0.001 for breast cancer; and 49.1 vs. 59.6%, p<0.001 for cervical cancer. Fewer people with diabetes than people without diabetes received the recommended screenings for gastric cancer (38.9 vs. 42.9%, p<0.001, breast cancer (38.8 vs. 44.6%, p<0.001, and cervical cancer (35.1 vs. 51.2%, p<0.001. In subgroup analyses according to socioeconomic factors, the lifetime and recommended screening rates were lower in the diabetic population in most socioeconomic subgroups. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for socioeconomic factors, people with diabetes showed lower lifetime screening rates for gastric and cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 0.9 and OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9, and lower regular screening rates for breast and cervical cancer (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9 and OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS The cancer screening rate in people with diabetes was lower than in people without diabetes. Considering the higher cancer risk in people with diabetes, efforts to increase the screening rate in this high-risk population should be implemented.

  2. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, Richard [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Voogt, Pim de, E-mail: w.p.devoogt@uva.nl [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually.

  3. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually

  4. Quick screening tool for patients with severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness: psychometric study of the negative emotions due to chronic illness screening test (NECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chen, Hsiu-Jung; Cheng, Yih-Ru; Hung, Fu-Chien; Leung, Kai-Kuan; Lue, Bee-Horng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Chang

    2018-01-16

    Severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness are maladaptive to patients and they need to be addressed in a primary care setting. The psychometric properties of a quick screening tool-the Negative Emotions due to Chronic Illness Screening Test (NECIS)-for general emotional problems among patients with chronic illness being treated in a primary care setting was investigated. Three studies including 375 of patients with chronic illness were used to assess and analyze internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, a cut-off point for distinguishing maladaptive emotions and clinical application validity of NECIS. Self-report questionnaires were used. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged from 0.78 to 0.82, and the test-retest reliability was 0.71 (P analysis reference, the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.81 and 0.82 (ps emotions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3 and 69.0%, and 68.5 and 83.0%, respectively. The clinical application validity analysis revealed that low NECIS group showed significantly better adaptation to chronic illness on the scales of subjective health, general satisfaction with life, self-efficacy of self-care for disease, illness perception and stressors in everyday life. The NECIS has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in the primary care setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  6. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  7. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference between prescriptions at discharge in terms of potential prescription omissions. Acute geriatric hospitalization in France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pressler Taylor R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a

  9. The utility of screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) as a tool for identifying children at high risk for prevalent anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.; Merckelbach, H.; Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.; Dreessen, L.; van Dorp, C.; Habets, A.; Rosmuller, S.; Snieder, N.

    2001-01-01

    The current study examined the utility of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) as a screening tool for the identification of children at high risk for prevalent childhood anxiety disorders. The child version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (KSCID) was used

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  11. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-07-26

    Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a 'grey literature' search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can inform care planning, thereby improving residents' quality of life

  12. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  13. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  14. Nanotechnology: A Tool for Improved Performance on Electrochemical Screen-Printed (BioSensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Jubete

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printing technology is a low-cost process, widely used in electronics production, especially in the fabrication of disposable electrodes for (biosensor applications. The pastes used for deposition of the successive layers are based on a polymeric binder with metallic dispersions or graphite, and can also contain functional materials such as cofactors, stabilizers and mediators. More recently metal nanoparticles, nanowires and carbon nanotubes have also been included either in these pastes or as a later stage on the working electrode. This review will summarize the use of nanomaterials to improve the electrochemical sensing capability of screen-printed sensors. It will cover mainly disposable sensors and biosensors for biomedical interest and toxicity monitoring, compiling recent examples where several types of metallic and carbon-based nanostructures are responsible for enhancing the performance of these devices.

  15. The development of a screening tool for the early identification of risk for suicidal behavior among students in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawda, Naseema B M; Milburn, Norweeta G; Steyn, Renier; Zhang, Muyu

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent suicidal behavior is a public health concern in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to report on the development of a screening tool for teachers to identify South African students who are most at risk for suicidal behavior. This need is addressed within the context of the limited number of mental health professionals available to provide screening and care services in South Africa. Grade 8 students participated by completing sociodemographic questionnaires and self-report psychometric instruments. A screening tool for suicidal behavior was developed using a 4-phase approach. Twelve factors for high-risk suicidal behavior were identified and included in the screening tool. While further research is needed to validate the screening tool, the findings provide a useful preliminary starting point for teachers to refer students at high risk for suicidal behavior to mental health services for treatment. This screening tool is based on factors that were identified as being associated with suicidal behavior from local research on South African adolescents. The tool contributes to research on adolescent mental health, particularly suicidal behavior, in developing low and middle income countries like South Africa, with the aim of creating African prevention and intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. COLPOSCOPY- A PRIMARY ALTERNATIVE SCREENING TOOL FOR CERVICAL PRE-CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Sangisapu; Prajakta Mehendale; Aruna Menon; Venkatesan Manu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer cervix is the most common and preventable malignancy in females. 80% of cases in India are detected in advanced stages. Paucity of cytologists in India is one of the important reasons for failure of screening by Pap smear. Visual Inspection of cervix with Acetic acid (VIA) and Visual Inspection of cervix with application of Lugol’s Iodine (VILI) are two alternative strategies in low resource settings. Colposcopy involves the same principles of VIA and VILI under ...

  17. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    by correlation with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, and decision validity was determined with Receiver-Operating-Characteristic analyses. Correlations and linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between objective and subjective cognitive impairment......Introduction Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and contributes to socio-occupational difficulties. The objective was to validate and evaluate instruments to screen for and monitor cognitive impairments, and improve the understanding of the association between cognitive measures...

  18. Trojan Horse Method: a useful tool for electron screening effect investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M.L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN and DMFCI Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Tumino, A. [Universita Kore, Enna (Italy); Li, C.; Wen, Q.; Zhou, S. [Department of Nuclear Physics, CIAE, Beijing (China); Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J. [Cyclotron Institute, Academy of Science, Rez, Czech Rep. (Czech Republic); Carlin, N.; Gimenez del Santo, M.; Szanto de Toledo, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, T.; Yamaguchi, H. [CNS, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Direct measurements in the last decades have highlighted a new problem related to the lowering of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting nuclei due to the presence of the 'electron screening' in the laboratory measurements. It was systematically observed that the presence of the electronic cloud around the interacting ions in measurements of nuclear reactions cross sections at astrophysical energies gives rise to an enhancement of the astrophysical S(E)-factor as lower and lower energies are explored [H. Assenbaum, K. Langanke, C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. 327 (1987) 461]. Moreover, at present such an effect is not well understood as the value of the potential for screening extracted from these measurements is higher than the upper limit of theoretical predictions (adiabatic limit). On the other hand, the electron screening potential in laboratory measurement is different from that occurring in stellar plasmas thus the quantity of interest in astrophysics is the so-called 'bare nucleus cross section'. This quantity can only be extrapolated in direct measurements. These are the reasons that led to a considerable growth on interest in indirect measurement techniques and in particular the Trojan Horse Method (THM) [G. Baur, Phys. Lett. B 178, (1986) 135; S. Cherubini et al. Ap. J. 457, (1996) 855] Results concerning the bare nucleus cross sections measurements will be shown in several cases of astrophysical interest. In those cases the screening potential evaluated by means of the THM will be compared with the adiabatic limit and results arising from extrapolation in direct measurements.

  19. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  20. Use of a screening tool and primary health care gerontology nurse specialist for high-needs older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anna; Boyd, Michal; Dagley, Lynelle

    2017-02-01

    To describe implementation of an innovative gerontology nurse specialist role within one primary health organisation in Auckland, New Zealand. Quantitative outcomes of the screening tool as well as the nurse specialist assessment will be presented. The intervention involved use of the Brief Risk Identification for Geriatric Health Tool (BRIGHT) to identify high-needs older people with subsequent comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) performed by the gerontology nurse specialist. A total 384 of the 416 BRIGHTs were completed (92% response rate) and 15% of these were identified as high risk (n = 57). The BRIGHTs for high-risk older people revealed the highest scoring question was 'needing help with housework' (26%). The most frequent intervention by the gerontology nurse specialist was education (30%). The primary health care gerontology nurse specialist model delivers a proactive case finding and specialist gerontology intervention for older people at high risk of functional or health decline.

  1. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, LaShara A; Morgan, Susan E; Mobley, Amy R

    2016-06-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported as memorable and the characteristics of those memorable messages. A convenience sample of low-income, primarily African American adults (N = 58) who previously completed a series of community nutrition education lessons within an urban area of Indiana participated in a focus group (N = 8 focus groups). A lead moderator using a semistructured script conducted the focus groups to determine what information about fruits and vegetables was most memorable from the participants' nutrition lessons and why this information was memorable. All focus group audiotapes were transcribed verbatim and ATLAS.ti software was used to code and identify themes within the data. Participants cited quantity, variety, and the positive nutritional impact of eating fruits and vegetables as most memorable. Information given in the form of recipes was also cited as most memorable. For example, participants referred to the recipe demonstrations as not only fun but also key components of the program that helped with message retention and memorability. Key characteristics of memorable messages included personal relevance and message vividness. These findings indicated that the Memorable Messages Framework may serve as an intermediary program evaluation tool to identify what information and messages are most influential to participants in community nutrition education programs. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of nutritional status before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 170 patients with hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Boshi; Yan, Xia; Cai, Jingjing; Wang, Yu

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of patients before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and explore optimal methods for assessing nutritional status in patients with hematological diseases. This cohort study enrolled 170 patients who were diagnosed with hematological diseases and underwent allogeneic HSCT in the Department of Hematology, Peking University People's Hospital between May 2011 and April 2013. We used fixed-point continuous sampling and four nutritional screening tools, Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tools (MUST), in combination with body measurements, to extensively screen and evaluate nutritional risks and status in patients receiving HSCT before entering and after leaving laminar air flow rooms. After HSCT, patients had significant reduction in weight, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, calf circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, and suprailiac skinfold thickness compared with pre-HSCT measurements. Before HSCT, NRS-2002 identified that 21.2% of patients were at nutritional risks, compared with 100% after HSCT. MUST indicated that before HSCT, 11.77% of patients were at high nutritional risk, compared with 59.63% after HSCT. MNA assessed that 0.06% of patients were malnourished before HSCT, compared with 19.27% after HSCT. SGA identified that before HSCT, 1.76% of patients had mild to severe malnutrition, which increased to 83.3% after HSCT. There is a significant increase in the nutritional risk and malnutrition in patients who received HSCT. Before HSCT, some patients already had nutritional risk or nutritional deficiencies, and prompt and close nutritional screening or assessment should be performed. The nutritional status of patients after HSCT was generally deteriorated compared with that before transplantation. Body measurements should be taken more frequently during the subsequent treatment

  3. Chemiluminescence analyzer of NOx as a high-throughput screening tool in selective catalytic reduction of NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kwang Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2011-01-01

    A chemiluminescence-based analyzer of NO x gas species has been applied for high-throughput screening of a library of catalytic materials. The applicability of the commercial NO x analyzer as a rapid screening tool was evaluated using selective catalytic reduction of NO gas. A library of 60 binary alloys composed of Pt and Co, Zr, La, Ce, Fe or W on Al 2 O 3 substrate was tested for the efficiency of NO x removal using a home-built 64-channel parallel and sequential tubular reactor. The NO x concentrations measured by the NO x analyzer agreed well with the results obtained using micro gas chromatography for a reference catalyst consisting of 1 wt% Pt on γ-Al 2 O 3 . Most alloys showed high efficiency at 275 °C, which is typical of Pt-based catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO. The screening with NO x analyzer allowed to select Pt-Ce (X) (X=1–3) and Pt–Fe (2) as the optimal catalysts for NO x removal: 73% NO x conversion was achieved with the Pt–Fe (2) alloy, which was much better than the results for the reference catalyst and the other library alloys. This study demonstrates a sequential high-throughput method of practical evaluation of catalysts for the selective reduction of NO.

  4. AD-SISCOLO: a decision-support tool to aid the management of a cervical cancer screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Yacoub Mohammed Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: This paper aims to develop a data warehouse (AD-SISCOLO in order to support the management of the cervical cancer screening program in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. As a part of the management process, the program managers of the municipality perform tedious manual work in order to calculate a series of performance indicators and then take decisions based on them. Methods AD-SISCOLO was implemented using the Pentaho BI Suite Business Intelligence Platform and the MySQL database management system. The indicators to be calculated and visualized in the tool were based on the municipal data of the cytopathology and histopathology tests from January 2012 until December 2014, which was obtained from the Information System of Cervical Cancer (SISCOLO after a record linkage process. The follow-up indicators were based on a simplified version of the Brazilian guidelines for the cervical cancer screening. Results AD-SISCOLO allows the visualization of a set of test-based and follow-up indicators from different views and dimensions, which enable managers to monitor all the phases of the screening process and to identify the process’ failures. Conclusions Compared with the current available environments in Brazil, AD-SISCOLO is unique in its visualization of the follow-up indicators of groups of women, according to their test results and age. Thereby it provides presentation flexibility to suit the program manager's needs.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing the HEADS-ED: A Rapid Screening Tool for Pediatric Patients in Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Kate; Curran, Janet; Racek, Jakub; Cloutier, Paula; Cappelli, Mario

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the HEADS-ED, a screening tool appropriate for use in the emergency department (ED) that facilitates standardized assessments, discharge planning, charting, and linking pediatric mental health patients to appropriate community resources. A qualitative theory-based design was used to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool. Focus groups were conducted with participants recruited from 6 different ED settings across 2 provinces (Ontario and Nova Scotia). The Theoretical Domains Framework was used as a conceptual framework to guide data collection and to identify themes from focus group discussions. The following themes spanning 12 domains were identified as reflective of participants' beliefs about the barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool: knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities, social professional role and identity, optimism, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, environmental context and resources, social influences, emotion, behavioral regulation and memory, and attention and decision process. The HEADS-ED has the potential to address the need for better discharge planning, complete charting, and standardized assessments for the increasing population of pediatric mental health patients who present to EDs. This study has identified potential barriers and facilitators, which should be considered when developing an implementation plan for adopting the HEADS-ED tool into practice within EDs.

  6. Scoring the home falls and accidents screening tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP): Evidence from one epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Byles, Julie

    2018-03-30

    Falls in older people are a major public health concern. To target falls prevention interventions, screening tools need to be able to identify older people at greater risk of falling. This study aimed to investigate the screening capacity of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP), and to identify the best cut-off score to identify older people at higher risk of falls using the HOME FAST-HP. The study used cross-sectional data from a random sample of 650 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Selected women were sent a postal survey including the HOME FAST-HP, falls history, and other health factors. Scores on the home fast were calculated and the cut-point for optimal sensitivity and specificity of the HOME FAST-HP in relation to falls was assessed using a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. A total of 567 older women participated (response rate 87%). The mean age of participants was 77.5 yrs (95% CI 77.31-77.70). A total of 153 participants (27%) reported a fall in the previous six months. The mean number of hazards using the HOME FAST-HP was 9.74 (95% CI 9.48-10.01), range 2-22. Non-fallers had a mean of 9.6 hazards (95% CI 9.32-9.91) and fallers had a mean of 10.63 hazards (95% CI 10.08-11.19) which was a significant difference (t = 3.41, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) was 0.58 (95% CI 0.53-0.64). A HOME FAST-HP cut-off score of 9 was associated with the optimal sensitivity for falls (73.9%), with specificity (37.9%), and positive predictive value was 30.6% and negative predictive value was 79.7%. The HOME FAST-HP can be used as a screening tool to identify fallers with a cut-off score of nine indicating a higher risk of falling. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Mid-upper arm circumference as a screening tool for identifying children with obesity: a 12-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J-P; Katzmarzyk, P T; Barnes, J D; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Tremblay, M S

    2017-12-01

    No studies have examined if mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) can be an alternative screening tool for obesity in an international sample of children differing widely in levels of human development. Our aim is to determine whether MUAC could be used to identify obesity in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 7337 children aged 9-11 years. Anthropometric measurements were objectively assessed, and obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization reference data. In the total sample, MUAC was strongly correlated with adiposity indicators in both boys and girls (r > 0.86, p obesity was high in both sexes and across study sites (overall area under the curve of 0.97, sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 90%). The MUAC cut-off value to identify obesity was ~25 cm for both boys and girls. In country-specific analyses, the cut-off value to identify obesity ranged from 23.2 cm (boys in South Africa) to 26.2 cm (girls in the UK). Results from this 12-country study suggest that MUAC is a simple and accurate measurement that may be used to identify obesity in children aged 9-11 years. MUAC may be a promising screening tool for obesity in resource-limited settings. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Validation of Version 3.0 of the Breast Cancer Genetics Referral Screening Tool (B-RST™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellcross, Cecelia; Hermstad, April; Tallo, Christine; Stanislaw, Christine

    2018-05-08

    Despite increased awareness of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer among clinicians and the public, many BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remain unaware of their risk status. The Breast Cancer Genetics Referral Screening Tool (B-RST™) was created and validated to easily identify individuals at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer for referral to cancer genetics services. The purpose of this study was to revise B-RST™ to maximize sensitivity against BRCA1/2 mutation status. We analyzed pedigrees of 277 individuals who had undergone BRCA1/2 testing to determine modifications to the B-RST™ 2.0 algorithm that would maximize sensitivity for mutations, while maintaining simplicity. We used McNemar's chi-square test to compare validation measures between the revised version (3.0) and the 2.0 version. Algorithmic changes made to B-RST™ 2.0 increased the sensitivity against BRCA1/2 mutation analysis from 71.1 to 94.0% (P 3.0 demonstrates high sensitivity for BRCA1/2 mutations, yet remains a simple and quick screening tool for at-risk individuals.

  9. Computer Vision Tool and Technician as First Reader of Lung Cancer Screening CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Alexander J; Sanghera, Calvin; Jacobs, Colin; Zhang, Wei; Mayo, John; Schmidt, Heidi; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Stewart, Lori; Tsai, Scott; Manos, Daria; Seely, Jean M; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; van Ginneken, Bram; Tammemagi, Martin; Tsao, Ming Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    To implement a cost-effective low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening program at the population level, accurate and efficient interpretation of a large volume of LDCT scans is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a workflow strategy to identify abnormal LDCT scans in which a technician assisted by computer vision (CV) software acts as a first reader with the aim to improve speed, consistency, and quality of scan interpretation. Without knowledge of the diagnosis, a technician reviewed 828 randomly batched scans (136 with lung cancers, 556 with benign nodules, and 136 without nodules) from the baseline Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study that had been annotated by the CV software CIRRUS Lung Screening (Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). The scans were classified as either normal (no nodules ≥1 mm or benign nodules) or abnormal (nodules or other abnormality). The results were compared with the diagnostic interpretation by Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study radiologists. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the technician in identifying an abnormal scan were 97.8% (95% confidence interval: 96.4-98.8) and 98.0% (95% confidence interval: 89.5-99.7), respectively. Of the 112 prevalent nodules that were found to be malignant in follow-up, 92.9% were correctly identified by the technician plus CV compared with 84.8% by the study radiologists. The average time taken by the technician to review a scan after CV processing was 208 ± 120 seconds. Prescreening CV software and a technician as first reader is a promising strategy for improving the consistency and quality of screening interpretation of LDCT scans. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Central Venous Catheter Positioning and Exclusion of Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Rabia; Knio, Ziyad O; Mahmood, Feroze; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Leibowitz, Akiva; Bose, Ruma; Shaefi, Shahzad; Mitchell, John D; Ahmed, Muneeb; Bardia, Amit; Talmor, Daniel; Matyal, Robina

    2017-07-01

    Although real-time ultrasound guidance during central venous catheter insertion has become a standard of care, postinsertion chest radiograph remains the gold standard to confirm central venous catheter tip position and rule out associated lung complications like pneumothorax. We hypothesize that a combination of transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound is noninferior to chest radiograph when used to accurately assess central venous catheter positioning and screen for pneumothorax. All operating rooms and surgical and trauma ICUs at the institution. Single-center, prospective noninferiority study. Patients receiving ultrasound-guided subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheters. During ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement, correct positioning of central venous catheter was accomplished by real-time visualization of the guide wire and positive right atrial swirl sign using the subcostal four-chamber view. After insertion, pneumothorax was ruled out by the presence of lung sliding and seashore sign on M-mode. Data analysis was done for 137 patients. Chest radiograph ruled out pneumothorax in 137 of 137 patients (100%). Lung ultrasound was performed in 123 of 137 patients and successfully screened for pneumothorax in 123 of 123 (100%). Chest radiograph approximated accurate catheter tip position in 136 of 137 patients (99.3%). Adequate subcostal four-chamber views could not be obtained in 13 patients. Accurate positioning of central venous catheter with ultrasound was then confirmed in 121 of 124 patients (97.6%) as described previously. Transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound are noninferior to chest x-ray for screening of pneumothorax and accurate central venous catheter positioning. Thus, the point of care use of ultrasound can reduce central venous catheter insertion to use time, exposure to radiation, and improve patient safety.

  11. The utility of chest X-ray as a screening tool for blunt thoracic aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adam; Inaba, Kenji; Siboni, Stefano; Effron, Zachary; Haltmeier, Tobias; Jaffray, Paul; Reddy, Sravanthi; Lofthus, Alexander; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Dubose, Joseph; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    The early and accurate identification of patients with blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a challenge. Traditionally, a portable AP chest X-ray (CXR) is utilized as the initial screening modality for BTAI, however, there is controversy surrounding its sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of CXR as a screening modality for BTAI. After IRB approval, all adult (≥18 yo) blunt trauma patients admitted to LAC+USC (01/2011-12/2013) who underwent CXR and chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. Final radiology attending CXR readings were reviewed for mediastinal abnormalities (widened mediastinum, mediastinal to chest width ratio greater than 0.25, irregular aortic arch, blurred aortic contour, opacification of the aortopulmonary window, and apical pleural haematoma) suggestive of aortic injury. Chest CT final attending radiologist readings were utilized as the gold standard for diagnosis of BTAI. The primary outcome analyzed was CXR sensitivity. A total of 3728 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were male (72.6%); mean age was 43 (SD 20). Median ISS was 9 (IQR 4-17) and median GCS was 15 (IQR 14-15). The most common mechanism of injury was MVC (48.0%), followed by fall (20.6%), and AVP (16.9%). The total number of CXRs demonstrating a mediastinal abnormality was 200 (5.4%). Widened mediastinum was present on 191 (5.1%) of CXRs, blurred aortic contour on 10 (0.3%), and irregular aortic arch on 4 (0.1%). An acute aortic injury confirmed by chest CT was present in 17 (0.5%) patients. Only 7 of these with CT-confirmed BTAI had a mediastinal abnormality identified on CXR, for a sensitivity of 41% (95% CI: 19-67%). The results from this study suggest that CXR alone is not a reliable screening modality for BTAI. A combination of screening CXR and careful consideration of other factors, such as mechanism of injury, will be required to effectively discriminate between those who should and should not undergo chest

  12. An RNA polymerase II-driven Ebola virus minigenome system as an advanced tool for antiviral drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emily V; Pacheco, Jennifer R; Hume, Adam J; Cressey, Tessa N; Deflubé, Laure R; Ruedas, John B; Connor, John H; Ebihara, Hideki; Mühlberger, Elke

    2017-10-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe disease in humans with the potential for significant international public health consequences. Currently, treatments are limited to experimental vaccines and therapeutics. Therefore, research into prophylaxis and antiviral strategies to combat EBOV infections is of utmost importance. The requirement for high containment laboratories to study EBOV infection is a limiting factor for conducting EBOV research. To overcome this issue, minigenome systems have been used as valuable tools to study EBOV replication and transcription mechanisms and to screen for antiviral compounds at biosafety level 2. The most commonly used EBOV minigenome system relies on the ectopic expression of the T7 RNA polymerase (T7), which can be limiting for certain cell types. We have established an improved EBOV minigenome system that utilizes endogenous RNA polymerase II (pol II) as a driver for the synthesis of minigenome RNA. We show here that this system is as efficient as the T7-based minigenome system, but works in a wider range of cell types, including biologically relevant cell types such as bat cells. Importantly, we were also able to adapt this system to a reliable and cost-effective 96-well format antiviral screening assay with a Z-factor of 0.74, indicative of a robust assay. Using this format, we identified JG40, an inhibitor of Hsp70, as an inhibitor of EBOV replication, highlighting the potential for this system as a tool for antiviral drug screening. In summary, this updated EBOV minigenome system provides a convenient and effective means of advancing the field of EBOV research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD. 2014 APA

  14. Screening strategies and predictive diagnostic tools for the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phuong-Thu T Pham,1 Kari L Edling,2 Harini A Chakkera,3 Phuong-Chi T Pham,4 Phuong-Mai T Pham51Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, Kidney Transplant Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division Kidney Transplant Program, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Greater Los Angeles, Veterans Administration Health Care System, CA, USAAbstract: New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT is a serious and common complication following solid organ transplantation. NODAT has been reported in 2% to 53% of all solid organ transplants. Kidney transplant recipients who develop NODAT have variably been reported to be at increased risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and other adverse outcomes including infection, reduced patient survival, graft rejection, and accelerated graft loss compared with those who do not develop diabetes. Limited clinical studies in liver, heart, and lung transplants similarly suggested that NODAT has an adverse impact on patient and graft outcomes. Early detection and management of NODAT must, therefore, be integrated into the treatment of transplant recipients. Studies investigating the best screening or predictive tool for identifying patients at risk for developing NODAT early after transplantation, however, are lacking. We review the clinical predictive values of fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, and A1C in assessing the risk for NODAT development and as a screening tool. Simple diabetes prediction models that incorporate clinical and/or metabolic risk factors (such as age, body mass index, hypertriglyceridemia, or metabolic syndrome are also

  15. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals.A prospective (training cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77 and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86, respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex, symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68 and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively.We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  16. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxue; Wong, Angela; Kadri, Sudarshan R; Corovic, Andrej; O'Donovan, Maria; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Lovat, Laurence B; Burnham, Rodney W; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals. A prospective (training) cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE) of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM) with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77) and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86), respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex), symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain) and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68) and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77) for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively. We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  17. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  18. Two Screens and an Ocean: Collaborating across Continents and Cultures with Web-Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark; Andone, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and results of a cross-cultural pairing between college students in the United States and Romania who worked together over the period of one month to create a multimedia presentation that shared their learning about topics of multimedia and culture. Students could use any web-based collaboration tools of…

  19. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  20. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of the STarT back screening tool in chiropractic clinics: a cross-sectional study of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Johannesen, Else; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The STarT back screening tool (SBT) allocates low back pain (LBP) patients into three risk groups and is intended to assist clinicians in their decisions about choice of treatment. The tool consists of domains from larger questionnaires that previously have been shown to be predictive of non-reco...

  2. Using Collaborative Simulation Modeling to Develop a Web-Based Tool to Support Policy-Level Decision Making About Breast Cancer Screening Initiation Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Burnside MD, MPH, MS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no publicly available tools designed specifically to assist policy makers to make informed decisions about the optimal ages of breast cancer screening initiation for different populations of US women. Objective: To use three established simulation models to develop a web-based tool called Mammo OUTPuT. Methods: The simulation models use the 1970 US birth cohort and common parameters for incidence, digital screening performance, and treatment effects. Outcomes include breast cancers diagnosed, breast cancer deaths averted, breast cancer mortality reduction, false-positive mammograms, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis. The Mammo OUTPuT tool displays these outcomes for combinations of age at screening initiation (every year from 40 to 49, annual versus biennial interval, lifetime versus 10-year horizon, and breast density, compared to waiting to start biennial screening at age 50 and continuing to 74. The tool was piloted by decision makers (n = 16 who completed surveys. Results: The tool demonstrates that benefits in the 40s increase linearly with earlier initiation age, without a specific threshold age. Likewise, the harms of screening increase monotonically with earlier ages of initiation in the 40s. The tool also shows users how the balance of benefits and harms varies with breast density. Surveys revealed that 100% of users (16/16 liked the appearance of the site; 94% (15/16 found the tool helpful; and 94% (15/16 would recommend the tool to a colleague. Conclusions: This tool synthesizes a representative subset of the most current CISNET (Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network simulation model outcomes to provide policy makers with quantitative data on the benefits and harms of screening women in the 40s. Ultimate decisions will depend on program goals, the population served, and informed judgments about the weight of benefits and harms.

  3. Using the Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT) to screen elderly chronic kidney disease patients for frailty: the nurse experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Heather; Moorhouse, Paige; Mallery, Laurie; Landry, David; Tennankore, Karthik

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the prognostic significance of frailty for functional decline and poor health outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet, despite the development of clinical tools to screen for frailty, little is known about the experiential impact of screening for frailty in this setting. The Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT) evaluates frailty across 4 domains: mobility, function, social circumstances, and cognition. The purpose of this qualitative study was as follows: 1) explore the nurse experience of screening for frailty using the FACT tool in a specialized outpatient renal clinic; 2) determine how, if at all, provider perceptions of frailty changed after implementation of the frailty screening tool; and 3) determine the perceived factors that influence uptake and administration of the FACT screening tool in a specialized clinical setting. A semi-structured interview of 5 nurses from the Nova Scotia Health Authority, Central Zone Renal Clinic was conducted. A grounded theory approach was used to generate thematic categories and analysis models. Four primary themes emerged in the data analysis: "we were skeptical", "we made it work", "we learned how", and "we understand". As the renal nurses gained a sense of confidence in their ability to implement the FACT tool, initial barriers to implementation were attenuated. Implementation factors - such as realistic goals, clear guidelines, and ongoing training - were important factors for successful uptake of the frailty screening initiative. Nurse participants reported an overall positive experience using the FACT method to screen for frailty and indicated that their understanding of the multiple dimensions and subtleties of "frailty" were enhanced. Future nurse-led FACT screening initiatives should incorporate those factors identified as being integral to program success: realistic goals, clear guidelines, and ongoing training. Adopting the evaluation of frailty as a priority

  4. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  5. Criterion Validity of the “HRQOLISP-E”: A New Context-Specific Screening Tool for Poststroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The optimal tool for identifying postsroke depression (PSD is yet to be identified. In the present study, we rely on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D as a meaningful criterion to investigate the psychometric properties of the HRQOLISP-E, a new context-specific screening tool for PSD developed from a large cross-cultural sample. Methods. We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤one month stroke survivors. Depression was measured using the HADS-D and the HRQOLISP-E. We determined sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probability. The area under a receiver operator curve (AUC and the most appropriate HRQOLISP-E cut-off were also determined using standard procedures. Results. Using data derived from 387 recent stroke survivors, the HRQOLISP-E showed high agreement with the HADS-D, sensitivity = 73.7%, specificity = 79.3%, and posterior test probability = 88% (95% CI = 84%–91%. The AUC was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86. The HRQOLISP-E cut-off, corresponding to HADS-D score ≥ 8, was 20/21 (out of a total score of 30. Conclusions. Within limitations of using the HADS-D as a referent criterion, the present results provide justification for further development of the HRQOLISP-E as the first stroke-specific screening tool for depression.

  6. Quasi-experimental Study of Systematic Screening for Family Planning Services among Postpartum Women Attending Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Kumar, Somesh; Sethi, Reena; Charurat, Elaine; Lalchandani, Kamlesh; Schuster, Anne; Sood, Bulbul

    2018-01-25

    Systematic screening helps increase family planning uptake through integration with other services, including immunization. Though successfully demonstrated at health facilities, this strategy has not been demonstrated in communities. This study assessed the effectiveness of systematic screening to increase postpartum family planning use during community health days in India without adversely affecting immunization services. The study was conducted during 180 individual Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India. All health workers were trained in postpartum family planning counseling. Intervention providers were also trained in systematic screening. 217 postpartum women aged 15-49 years participated in baseline and endline exit interviews and routine service statistics were analyzed from 2,485 facility visits at affiliated health centers. No difference in family planning service use was found in the intervention group, but significantly fewer interviewed women reported receiving family planning services at endline in the comparison group (p = 0.014). Family planning acceptance at affiliated health centers increased significantly in intervention areas (p family planning services when integrated with community-based services in Jharkhand.

  7. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  8. Barriers and facilitators for implementing a new screening tool in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Jeanette W.; Sivertsen, Ditte M.; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to identify the factors that were perceived as most important as facilitators or barriers to the introduction and intended use of a new tool in the emergency department among nurses and a geriatric team. Background: A high incidence of functional decline after hospitalisation for...... that different cultures exist in the same local context and influence the perception of barriers and facilitators differently. These cultures must be identified and addressed when implementation is planned....

  9. Magnetic particles as powerful purification tool for high sensitive mass spectrometric screening procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen F; Otto, Angela M

    2010-02-01

    The effective isolation and purification of proteins from biological fluids is the most crucial step for a successful protein analysis when only minute amounts are available. While conventional purification methods such as dialysis, ultrafiltration or protein precipitation often lead to a marked loss of protein, SPE with small-sized particles is a powerful alternative. The implementation of particles with superparamagnetic cores facilitates the handling of those particles and allows the application of particles in the nanometer to low micrometer range. Due to the small diameters, magnetic particles are advantageous for increasing sensitivity when using subsequent MS analysis or gel electrophoresis. In the last years, different types of magnetic particles were developed for specific protein purification purposes followed by analysis or screening procedures using MS or SDS gel electrophoresis. In this review, the use of magnetic particles for different applications, such as, the extraction and analysis of DNA/RNA, peptides and proteins, is described.

  10. Assessing trauma and mental health in refugee children and youth: a systematic review of validated screening and measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeberg, A K; Montgomery, E; Frederiksen, H W; Norredam, M

    2017-06-01

    : It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems that may in turn increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Tools such as questionnaires and interview guides are being used extensively, despite the fact that only a few have been tested and their validity confirmed in refugee children and youth. : Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. : We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results : Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools for refugee children below the age of 6 was identified. : There is a lack of validated trauma and mental health tools, especially for refugees below the age of 6. Detection and treatment of mental health issues among refugee children and youth should be a priority both within the scientific community and in practice in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental risk assessment using the Persian version of the Home Falls And Screening Tool (HOME FAST in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Maghfouri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems among older people is falling. Falling inside the houses and streets makes up a large incidence between Iranian elderly, then the effort to identify environmental factors at home and home modification can reduce falls and injury in the elderly. The aim of this study is identifying elderly at risk of fall with using screening tool (HOME FAST and define reliability of this tool.Material and Methods: As a reliability, through the health housing of the town councils in five geographical regions of Tehran, 60 old person were selected. Participants aged 60 to 65 years and the HOME FAST tool was used in the two stages (inter rater and test-retest.Results: Test-retest reliability in the study showed that agreement between the items is over than 0.8, which shows very good reliability. The results showed that the relative of the each item in the Agreement between the domain is 1 - 0.65, which shows moderate to high reliability. And the results in this study showed that agreement between the items in Inter rater reliability is over than 0.8, which shows the level of reliability is very good. Also it showed that the relative of the each item in the agreement between the domain is 1 - 0.01, which shows poor to high reliability.Conclusion: This study shows that the reliability of the HOME FAST is high. The findings of these comments have been expected that the test objectives were appropriate to prevent falls and the tools showed acceptable reliability, then this test can be used as a tool for to professionals.

  12. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  13. Chest x-ray as a screening tool for blunt thoracic trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Woo, Kenneth; Brennan, Maureen; Palmer, Cameron S; Zs Ee, Michael; Sweeney, Brian; Crameri, Joe

    2013-10-01

    With the increasing use of thoracic computed tomography (CT) to screen for injuries in pediatric blunt thoracic trauma (BTT), we determined whether chest x-ray (CXR) and other clinical and epidemiologic variables could be used to predict significant thoracic injuries, to inform the selective use of CT in pediatric BTT. We further queried if these were discrepant from factors associated with the decision to obtain a thoracic CT. This retrospective cohort study included cases of BTT from three Level I pediatric trauma centers between April 1999 and March 2008. Pre-CT epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic variables associated with CT findings of any thoracic injury or a significant thoracic injury as well as the decision to obtain a thoracic CT were determined using logistic regression. Of 425 patients, 40% patients had a significant thoracic injury, 49% had nonsignificant thoracic injury, and 11% had no thoracic injury at all. Presence of hydrothorax and/or pneumothorax on CXR significantly increased the likelihood of significant chest injury visualized by CT (adjusted odds ratio 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-18), as did the presence of isolated subcutaneous emphysema (adjusted odds ratio, 19.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-168). Although a normal CXR finding was not statistically associated with a reduced risk of significant thoracic injury, 8 of the 9 cases with normal CXR findings and significant injuries involved occult pneumothoraces or hemothoraces not requiring intervention. Converse to features suggesting increased risk of significant injury, the decision to obtain a thoracic CT was only associated with later period in the study and obtaining a CT scan of another body region. CXR can be used to screen for significant thoracic injuries and direct the selective use of thoracic CT in pediatric BTT. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and develop guidelines that include CXR to define indications for thoracic CT in pediatric BTT

  14. Transposon activation mutagenesis as a screening tool for identifying resistance to cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Schmidt, Emmett V; Stuart, Lynda; Ohsumi, Toshiro K; Burgess, Shawn; Varshney, Gaurav K; Dastur, Anahita; Borowsky, Mark; Benes, Cyril; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The development of resistance to chemotherapies represents a significant barrier to successful cancer treatment. Resistance mechanisms are complex, can involve diverse and often unexpected cellular processes, and can vary with both the underlying genetic lesion and the origin or type of tumor. For these reasons developing experimental strategies that could be used to understand, identify and predict mechanisms of resistance in different malignant cells would be a major advance. Here we describe a gain-of-function forward genetic approach for identifying mechanisms of resistance. This approach uses a modified piggyBac transposon to generate libraries of mutagenized cells, each containing transposon insertions that randomly activate nearby gene expression. Genes of interest are identified using next-gen high-throughput sequencing and barcode multiplexing is used to reduce experimental cost. Using this approach we successfully identify genes involved in paclitaxel resistance in a variety of cancer cell lines, including the multidrug transporter ABCB1, a previously identified major paclitaxel resistance gene. Analysis of co-occurring transposons integration sites in single cell clone allows for the identification of genes that might act cooperatively to produce drug resistance a level of information not accessible using RNAi or ORF expression screening approaches. We have developed a powerful pipeline to systematically discover drug resistance in mammalian cells in vitro. This cost-effective approach can be readily applied to different cell lines, to identify canonical or context specific resistance mechanisms. Its ability to probe complex genetic context and non-coding genomic elements as well as cooperative resistance events makes it a good complement to RNAi or ORF expression based screens

  15. What are the most effective methods for assessment of nutritional status in outpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Vicente, Mariana; Barão, Katia; Silva, Tiago Donizetti; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate methods for the identification of nutrition risk and nutritional status in outpatients with colorectal (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC), and to compare the results to those obtained for patients already treated for these cancers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 patients: group 1 (n = 75) consisting of patients with GC or CRC, and group 2 (n = 62) consisting of patients after treatment of GC or CRC under follow up, who were tumor free for a period longer than 3 months. Nutritional status was assessed in these patients using objective methods [body mass index (BMI), phase angle, serum albumin]; nutritional screening tools [Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI)], and subjective assessment [Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA)]. The sensitivity and specificity of each method was calculated in relation to the PG-SGA used as gold standard. One hundred thirty seven patients participated in the study. Stage IV cancer patients were more common in group 1. There was no difference in BMI between groups (p = 0.67). Analysis of the association between methods of assessing nutritional status and PG-SGA showed that the nutritional screening tools provided more significant results (p nutritional screening tools MUST, NRI and MST were more sensitive than the objective methods. Phase angle measurement was the most sensitive objective method in group 1. The nutritional screening tools showed the best association with PG-SGA and were also more sensitive than the objective methods. The results suggest the combination of MUST and PG-SGA for patients with cancer before and after treatment. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Adverse Drug Reactions in Older People Using Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions and Screening Tool to Alert to Right Treatment Criteria: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Marie N; O'Sullivan, David; Gallagher, Paul F; Eustace, Joseph; Byrne, Stephen; O'Mahony, Denis

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether use of the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tool to Alert to Right Treatment (START) criteria reduces incident hospital-acquired adverse drug reactions (ADRs), 28-day medication costs, and median length of hospital stay in older adults admitted with acute illness. Single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of unselected older adults hospitalized over a 13-month period. Tertiary referral hospital in southern Ireland. Consecutively admitted individuals aged 65 and older (N = 732). Single time point presentation to attending physicians of potentially inappropriate medications according to the STOPP/START criteria. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants experiencing one or more ADRs during the index hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were median length of stay (LOS) and 28-day total medication cost. One or more ADRs occurred in 78 of the 372 control participants (21.0%; median age 78, interquartile range (IQR) 72-84) and in 42 of the 360 intervention participants (11.7%; median age 80, IQR 73-85) (absolute risk reduction = 9.3%, number needed to treat = 11). The median LOS in the hospital was 8 days (IQR 4-14 days) in both groups. At discharge, median medication cost was significantly lower in the intervention group (€73.16, IQR €38.68-121.72) than in the control group (€90.62, IQR €49.38-162.53) (Wilcoxon rank test Z statistic = -3.274, P older adults but did not affect median LOS. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  18. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities in a group of pregnant women in Khayelitsha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, HR; Visser, J; Tomlinson, M; Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Gissane, C; Harwood, J; LeRoux, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the gestational body mass index (BMI) method to screen for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities. Design This was a substudy of a randomised controlled trial, the Philani Mentor Mothers’ study. Setting and subjects The Philani Mentor Mothers’ study took place in a peri-urban settlement, Khayelitsha, between 2009 and 2010. Pregnant women living in the area in 2009-2010 were recruited for the study. Outcome measures Maternal anthropometry (height and weight) and gestational weeks were obtained at baseline to calculate the gestational BMI, which is maternal BMI adjusted for gestational age. Participants were classified into four gestational BMI categories: underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Birth outcomes and maternal morbidities were obtained from clinic cards after the births. Results Pregnant women were recruited into the study (n = 1 058). Significant differences were found between the different gestational BMI categories and the following birth outcomes: maternal (p-value = 0.019), infant hospital stay (p-value = 0.03), infants staying for over 24 hours in hospital (p-value = 0.001), delivery mode (p-value = 0.001), birthweight (p-value = 0.006), birth length (p-value = 0.007), birth head circumference (p-value = 0.007) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (p-value = 0.001). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has used the gestational BMI method in a peri-urban South African pregnant population. Based on the findings that this method is able to identify unfavourable birth outcomes, it is recommended that it is implemented as a pilot study in selected rural, peri-urban and urban primary health clinics, and that its ease and effectiveness as a screening tool is evaluated. Appropriate medical and nutritional advice can then be given to pregnant women to improve both their own and their infants’ birth-related outcomes and maternal morbidities

  19. PIGE as a screening tool for Per- and polyfluorinated substances in papers and textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Evelyn E.; Dickinson, Margaret E.; Harron, John P.; Lunderberg, David M.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Robel, Alix E.; Field, Jennifer A.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2017-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) comprise a large array of man-made fluorinated chemicals. It is an emerging chemical class of concern because many PFASs are environmentally persistent and some have known ecological and human toxicity. Consumer products treated with PFASs result in human exposure to PFASs through inhalation, ingestion, and environmental exposure to emissions from wastewater or from landfills. A rapid screening method based on total fluorine was developed and applied to quantify PFASs on consumer papers and textiles. Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) spectroscopy provides a non-destructive and quantitative measurement of total fluorine on papers and textiles. This technique is both rapid and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13 nmol F/cm2 for papers and 24-45 nmol F/cm2 for textiles, with reproducibility of ±12% RSD for both. PIGE is a high throughput (>20 samples/hr typically) method that was applied to 50 papers and 50 textiles in commerce to demonstrate the method.

  20. New Tools for Embryo Selection: Comprehensive Chromosome Screening by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n=203; repetitive implantation failure (n=188; severe male factor (n=116; previous trisomic pregnancy (n=33; and advanced maternal age (n=880. CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n=774; mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n=320; mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n=235; and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n=91. Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5–54.2% and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0–62.9% were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1% due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3% and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%. We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation.

  1. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Dalipi, Rogerta; Bontempi, Elza; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) in the field of food analysis. Elemental composition of food is of great importance, since food is the main source of essential, major and trace elements for animals and humans. Some potentially toxic elements, dangerous for human health may contaminate food, entering the food chain from the environment, processing, and storage. For this reason the elemental analysis of food is fundamental for safety assessment. Fast and sensitive analytical techniques, able to detect major and trace elements, are required as a result of the increasing demand on multi-elemental information and product screening. TXRF is suitable for elemental analysis of food, since it provides simultaneous multi-elemental identification in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Several different matrices may be analyzed obtaining results with a good precision and accuracy. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of TXRF for the analysis of food is reported. The focus is placed on the applications within food quality monitoring of drinks, beverages, vegetables, fruits, cereals, animal derivatives and dietary supplements. Furthermore, this paper provides a critical outlook on the developments required to transfer these methods from research to the industrial and analytical laboratories contexts.

  2. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  3. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease using a brief cognitive screening tool: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Chade

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. Methods: 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia, 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Results: Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. Conclusions: This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  4. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease with a brief cognitive screening tool: the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Anabel; Roca, María; Torralva, Teresa; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fabbro, Nicolás; Arévalo, Gonzalo Gómez; Gershanik, Oscar; Manes, Facundo

    2008-01-01

    Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia), 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  5. Evaluating FINDRISC as a screening tool for type 2 diabetes among overweight adults in the PREVIEW:NZ cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marta Paulino; Jiang, Yannan; Volkova, Katya; Chisholm, Hannah; Lee, Wonjoo; Poppitt, Sally Diana

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a high (≥12) Finnish diabetes risk (FINDRISC) score in identifying undiagnosed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an New Zealand population of overweight and obese individuals, across a variety of ethnic groups. We estimated the efficacy of elevated FINDRISC scores in predicting prediabetes and T2D in 424 overweight adults with no prior diagnosis recruited for the PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Interventions in Europe and Worldwide (PREVIEW) study. All participants who completed the FINDRISC questionnaire during a pre-screening phase with a score of ≥12 were then screened using a 2h oral glucose tolerance test (2h-OGTT) to identify undiagnosed dysglycaemia. Of the 424 participants, 65% (n=280) were pre-diabetic and 7% (n=32) had undiagnosed T2D. A higher FINDRISC score was significantly associated with prediabetes and T2D (P=0.02). There was a significant association between ethnicity and glycaemic status (normal vs prediabetes/T2D, P=0.02). Increasing the FINDRISC cut-off to ≥15 resulted in a non-significant increase in the proportion of participants correctly classified with dysglycaemia. ROC-AUC=0.6 with sensitivity=0.6026 (95% CI: 0.5459-0.6573) and specificity=0.5536 (95% CI: 0.4567-0.6476). Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was more efficient in predicting dysglycaemia than isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful and efficacious screening tool to identify unknown prediabetes and T2D in overweight New Zealanders, particularly in Maori individuals. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioritization, which require rapid computation of accurate estimates for diverse scenarios. To fulfil this need, we develop an accurate and rapid (high-throughput) model that estimates the fraction of organic chemicals migrating from polymeric packaging materials into foods. Several hundred step-wise simulations optimised the model coefficients to cover a range of user-defined scenarios (e.g. temperature). The developed model, operationalised in a spreadsheet for future dissemination, nearly instantaneously estimates chemical migration, and has improved performance over commonly used model simplifications. When using measured diffusion coefficients the model accurately predicted (R 2  = 0.9, standard error (S e ) = 0.5) hundreds of empirical data points for various scenarios. Diffusion coefficient modelling, which determines the speed of chemical transfer from package to food, was a major contributor to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R 2  = 0.4, S e  = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPV Testing from Dried Urine Spots as a Tool for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Elena Rosanna; Martinelli, Marianna; Fasoli, Ester; Colzani, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Binda, Sandro; Olivani, Pierfranco; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, several screening strategies are available to prevent cervical cancer, but inadequate resources, sociocultural barriers, and sampling issues impede their success in low-income countries. To overcome these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing from dried urine spots (DUS). Eighty-eight urine samples (including 56 HPV DNA positive specimens) were spotted on filter paper, dried, and stored in paper-bags. HPV DNA was detected from the DUS after 1 week and 4 weeks of storage using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the DUS-based HPV test were evaluated by comparing the results with those of HPV testing on fresh urine samples as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the test was 98.21% (95% CI: 90.56-99.68) for DUS stored for 1 week and 96.42% (95% CI: 87.88-99.01) for DUS stored for 4 weeks. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 89.28-100) at both time points. The concordance between DUS and fresh urine HPV testing was "almost perfect" using the κ statistic. These preliminary data suggest that a DUS-based assay could bypass sociocultural barriers and sampling issues and therefore could be a suitable, effective tool for epidemiological surveillance and screening programs, especially in low-income countries.

  8. HPV Testing from Dried Urine Spots as a Tool for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosanna Frati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several screening strategies are available to prevent cervical cancer, but inadequate resources, sociocultural barriers, and sampling issues impede their success in low-income countries. To overcome these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV testing from dried urine spots (DUS. Eighty-eight urine samples (including 56 HPV DNA positive specimens were spotted on filter paper, dried, and stored in paper-bags. HPV DNA was detected from the DUS after 1 week and 4 weeks of storage using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the DUS-based HPV test were evaluated by comparing the results with those of HPV testing on fresh urine samples as the gold sta