Sample records for nurturing reflective practices

  1. Nurturing the Respectful Community through Practical Life (United States)

    Bettmann, Joen


    Joen Bettmann's depiction of practical life exercises as character-building reveals how caring, careful, and independent work leads to higher self-esteem, more concern for others, better understanding for academic learning, and a self-nurturing, respectful classroom community. Particular aspects of movement and silence exercises bring out what…

  2. Nurturing Talent in the Australian Context: A Reflective Approach. (United States)

    Frydenberg, Erica; O'Mullane, Anne


    This article discusses historical and contemporary educational provisions for gifted and talented students in Australia. Five young adults reflect on their educational and career paths in the creative arts, sports, music, medicine, and business to illustrate how talents are nurtured in Australia at the end of the 20th century. (Contains extensive…

  3. Cognitive bias in clinical practice - nurturing healthy skepticism among medical students. (United States)

    Bhatti, Alysha


    Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Understanding the origin of these biases and their impact on clinical decision making helps stimulate reflective practice. This article outlines some of the common types of cognitive biases encountered in the clinical setting as well as cognitive debiasing strategies. Medical educators should nurture healthy skepticism among medical students by raising awareness of cognitive biases and equipping them with robust tools to circumvent such biases. This will enable tomorrow's doctors to improve the quality of care delivered, thus optimizing patient outcomes.

  4. Cognitive bias in clinical practicenurturing healthy skepticism among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti A


    Full Text Available Alysha Bhatti Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Understanding the origin of these biases and their impact on clinical decision making helps stimulate reflective practice. This article outlines some of the common types of cognitive biases encountered in the clinical setting as well as cognitive debiasing strategies. Medical educators should nurture healthy skepticism among medical students by raising awareness of cognitive biases and equipping them with robust tools to circumvent such biases. This will enable tomorrow’s doctors to improve the quality of care delivered, thus optimizing patient outcomes. Keywords: cognitive bias, diagnostic error, clinical decision making

  5. Under what conditions can local government nurture indigenous people’s democratic practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth; Nathan, Iben


    This paper asks whether and under what conditions participatory local government can best nurture indigenous peoples’ democratic practice. Based on fieldwork in two similar Ho communities in the Indian state Jharkhand, we show that their village assemblies function differently with regard...

  6. Child discipline and nurturing practices among a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand. (United States)

    Cowley-Malcolm, Esther Tumama; Fairbairn-Dunlop, Tagaloa Peggy; Paterson, Janis; Gao, Wanzhen; Williams, Maynard


    The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study is a longitudinal investigation of a cohort (N=1376) of Pacific infants born in New Zealand (NZ), and their mothers and fathers. The PIF study aimed to determine: (1) the prevalence of disciplinary and nurturing parenting practices used with children at 12 months of age, and (2) the demographic, maternal and lifestyle factors associated with parenting practices. At the 12-month measurement point, mothers (N=1207) were interviewed about their parenting practices using a modified version of the Parent Behaviour Checklist. High nurturance was significantly associated with Samoan ethnicity and post school qualifications, and low nurturance was significantly associated with post-natal depression, alcohol consumption and gambling. At the univariate level, high discipline scores were significantly associated with gambling, postnatal depression and lack of alignment to either Pacific or to European traditions. However the strongest association with discipline was the ethnicity variable with Tongan mothers reporting significantly higher disciplinary behaviours that all other ethnicities. It is clear that there are a number of common underlying lifestyle issues that need to be considered when dealing with parenting problems in families with young children. However specific to Pacific families, is Tongan ethnicity accounting for a strong cultural effect on parenting style, in particular high discipline scores relative to other Pacific groups. This important finding may be used to guide social policy and prevention programmes that are focused on the wellbeing of Pacific mothers and their children.

  7. Nature and nurture in the family physician's choice of practice location. (United States)

    Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Lovato, Chris; Bates, Joanna; Slade, Steve; Grand'Maison, Paul; Vanasse, Alain


    An understanding of the contextual, professional, and personal factors that affect choice of practice location for physicians is needed to support successful strategies in addressing geographic maldistribution of physicians. This study compared two categories of predictors of family practice location in non-metropolitan areas among undergraduate medical students: individual characteristics (nature), and the rural program component of their training program (nurture). The study aimed to identify factors that predict the location of practice 2 years post-residency training and determine the predictive value of combining nature and nurture variables using administrative data from two undergraduate medical education programs. Databases were developed from available administrative sources for a retrospective analysis of two undergraduate medical education programs in Canada: Université de Sherbrooke (UdeS) and University of British Columbia (UBC). Both schools have a strong mandate to evaluate the impact of their programs on physician distribution. The dependent variable was location of practice 2 years after completing postgraduate training in family medicine. Independent variables included individual and program characteristics. Separate analyses were conducted for each program using multiple logistic regression. The nature and nurture variables considered in the models explained only 21% to 27% of the variance in the eventual location of practice of family physician graduates. For UdeS, having an address in a rural/small-town environment at application to medical school (OR=2.61, 95% CI: 1.24-6.06) and for UBC, location of high school in a rural/small town (OR=4.03, 95% CI: 1.05-15.41), both increased the chances of practicing in a non-metropolitan area. For UdeS the nurture variable (ie length of clerkship in a non-metropolitan area) was the most significant predictor (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 1.067-1.22). For both medical schools, adding a single nurture variable to the

  8. An American and Dutch partnership for psychiatric mental health advance nursing practice: nurturing a relationship across the ocean. (United States)

    Maas, Lillian; Ezeobele, I Ezebuiro; Tetteroo, Marieke


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges and rewards of developing and nurturing an international clinical psychiatric mental health advanced nursing practice exchange between the Netherlands and the United States. Since 1997, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands has been participating in international clinical experiences for their psychiatric mental health (PMH) advanced practice nursing students. The international experience is mandatory prior to graduation and is the first of its kind in Europe to mandate such a unique experience. This study sample included eight Dutch PMH advanced practice nursing students enrolled in a full-time master's in advanced nursing practice program. The descriptive study included reflective reports and one-on-one discussions over a 3-year period. With proper planning, an international nursing experience provides a unique opportunity for nurses to think beyond their own culture and healthcare system. Solving problems together through different perspectives creates opportunities for creative solutions. International partnerships within PMH advanced practice nursing promotes sharing of knowledge and solutions as patients and diseases have no border. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reflections on evaluative practice in higher education: an experience collaborative

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    Suênya Marley Mourão Batista


    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the evaluation practice of higher education teachers generated from research conducted as part of a private higher education institution. The objective of this study is to characterize the assessment practices of teachers who work in higher education and collaborate in order to facilitate the expansion of dynamic assessment practices were used as theoretical and methodological support the studies of Vygotsky (2007, Liberali (2008, Ibiapina (2007, 2008, Meier (2007, Campione (2002 and Hoffmann (2011. Field research was conducted in a qualitative approach to collaborative type with 3 (three in higher education using the reflective interview as data collection tool to promote critical thinking about assessment practices to develop. The results showed the prevalence of use of traditional assessment practices by teachers and the possibility of performing dynamic assessment practices from the understanding of these nurtured by the research and training process.

  10. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael


    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  11. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

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    Paulus Kuswandono


    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI:

  12. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds. (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A


    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.


    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  14. Reflections in the clinical practice. (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C


    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.


    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  16. Developing Mathematical Practices through Reflection Cycles (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.


    This paper focuses on reflection in learning mathematical practices. While there is a long history of research on reflection in mathematics, it has focused primarily on the development of conceptual understanding. Building on notion of learning as participation in social practices, this paper broadens the theory of reflection in mathematics…

  17. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.


    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…

  18. The Importance of Reflective Practice in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Caldwell


    Full Text Available Reflection is an essential attribute for the development of autonomous, critical, and advanced practitioners (Mantzoukas & Jasper, 2004. According to Chong (2009, “Reflective practice should be a continuous cycle in which experience and reflection on experiences are inter-related” (p. 112. Studies have shown that nurses who take the time to reflect on their daily experiences provide enhanced nursing care, have a better understanding of theiractions, which in return develops their professional skills (Hansebo & Kihlgren, 2001. Reflective practice is the ability to examine ones actions and experiences with the outcome of developing their practice and enhancing clinicalknowledge. Reflective practice affects all levels of nursing, from students, to advanced practice nursing students, aswell as practicing nurses. Reflective practice is an important component of the nursing curriculum. Research has shown the relationship between student nurses and their mentors is vital. In order for reflection to be effective open-mindedness, courage, and a willingness to accept, and act on, criticism must be present (Bulmam, Lathlean, & Gobbi, 2012. This paper will explore the current literature and implications related to reflective practice in nursing.

  19. Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice (United States)

    Pearson, Margot; Kayrooz, Carole


    This paper describes the development of an instrument--The Reflective Supervisor Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ maps the domain of research supervisory practice as a facilitative process involving educational tasks and activities. It is designed to assist research supervisors explore, by means of self-reflection and reflection on feedback from…

  20. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory


    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  1. Teacher Reflective Practice in Jesuit High Schools (United States)

    Klug, Joseph H.


    Teachers who engage in reflective practice are more effective and may encourage higher student achievement. The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the methods that teachers use in order to engage in reflective practice. Further, it is essential to gain an understanding of how schools, including Jesuit high schools, promote reflective…

  2. Reflections on Ethics in Practice (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.


    Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

  3. Positive Stress and Reflective Practice Among Entrepreneurs

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    Kati Tikkamäki


    Full Text Available While heavy stress loads seem an unavoidable aspect of entrepreneurship, the positive side of stress (often referred to as ‘eustress’ remains a neglected area of research. This paper contributes to entrepreneurship research by linking the research streams of eustress and reflective practice. As a tool for analysing and developing thoughts and actions, reflective practice plays an important role in the interpretative work essential to positive stress experiences. Following an overview of approaches to stress at work, eustress and reflective practice, the paper explores how entrepreneurs experience the role of positive stress and reflective practice in their work and describes the reflective tools utilized by entrepreneurs in promoting eustress. The research process was designed to support reflective dialogue among the 21 Finnish entrepreneurs from different fields who participated in the study, with results based mainly on qualitative interviews. Nine of the interviewed entrepreneurs also kept a positive stress diary, including a three-day physiological measurement analysing their heartbeat variability. The findings suggest that positive stress and reflective practice are intertwined in the experiences of entrepreneurs and illustrate the role of reflective practice as a crucial toolset for promoting positive stress, comprising six reflective tools: studying oneself, changing one’s point of view, putting things into perspective, harnessing a feeling of trust, regulating resources and engaging in dialogue. Individual reflective capabilities vary, and a theory-driven division of reflective practice into individual, social and contextual dimensions is considered useful in understanding those differences. The research offers a starting point for exploring how eustress and reflective practice affect the well-being of entrepreneurs

  4. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.


    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (, a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...... web technologies....

  5. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study. (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A


    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  6. Nurturing creativity in the classroom

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    Kaufman, James C


    Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative development and expression without drifting into curricular chaos? Do curricular constraints necessarily lead to choosing conformity over creativity? This book combines the perspectives of top educators and psychologists to generate practical advice for considering and addressing the challenges of supporting creativity within the classroom. It is unique in its balance of practical recommendations for nurturing creativity and thoughtful appreciation of curricular constraints. This approach helps ensure that the insights and advice found in this collection will take root in educators’ practice, rather than being construed as yet another demand placed on their overflowing plate of ...

  7. Workplace diaries promoting reflective practice in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Naomi; Dempsey, Shane E.; Warren-Forward, Helen M.


    Competency standards usually describe that radiation therapists are expected to display characteristics of reflective practice. Many radiation therapists may be unequipped to undertake reflective practice or produce evidence of reflective practice due to limited understanding of the process. There are many models to guide practitioners in their reflective journeys, however, the literature describing reflective practice can appear confusing. This paper will discuss the role of reflective practice, provide a definition for reflective practice and define concepts central to reflective journaling or workplace diaries. The paper will offer practical advice to increase radiation therapists knowledge and skills in the use of reflective workplace diaries.

  8. Workplace diaries promoting reflective practice in radiation therapy

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    Chapman, Naomi [Medical Radiation Science, Faculty of Health Science, Box 16 Hunter Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)], E-mail:; Dempsey, Shane E. [Medical Radiation Science, Faculty of Health Science, Box 16 Hunter Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)], E-mail:; Warren-Forward, Helen M. [Medical Radiation Science, Faculty of Health Science, Box 16 Hunter Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)], E-mail:


    Competency standards usually describe that radiation therapists are expected to display characteristics of reflective practice. Many radiation therapists may be unequipped to undertake reflective practice or produce evidence of reflective practice due to limited understanding of the process. There are many models to guide practitioners in their reflective journeys, however, the literature describing reflective practice can appear confusing. This paper will discuss the role of reflective practice, provide a definition for reflective practice and define concepts central to reflective journaling or workplace diaries. The paper will offer practical advice to increase radiation therapists knowledge and skills in the use of reflective workplace diaries.

  9. Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Verpoorten, Dominique; Ternier, Stefaan; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus


    Tabuenca, B., Verpoorten, D., Ternier, S., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2012). Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies. In A. Moore, V. Pammer, L. Pannese, M. Prilla, K. Rajagopal, W. Reinhardt, Th. D. Ullman, & Ch. Voigt (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and

  10. Reflecting on Ethics in Practice Neuromarketing: Neuroethics

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    Marcos Ferreira Santos


    Full Text Available This article aims to answer to the following research problem: what are the relevant ethical questions related to neuromarketing practice? The objective is to explain the evolution of the field of neuromarketing from neurosciences and neuroeconomics; explain the main research techniques used on neuromarketing; to present the neuroethics field and apply the concept to the relevant ethical questions of the neuromarketing practice. Neuromarketing developed from neuroeconomics. By using the same techniques of image mapping, neuromarketing aims to investigate consumer behavior and utilize this information on marketing actions. The field of neuroethics can be understood as a reflection of the neuroscientific practices and ethical concepts. Questions of interest to neuroethics involve the practical applications of neurotechnology for people and the society in general. Marketing is a business activity with social implications and, therefore, can’t be done in the absence of values. This article contributes for the academic knowledge of neuromarketing beginning from a revision of international journals and the presentation of a new field of neuromarketing not discussed before by the academy in Brazil: neuroethics. The reflection about the ethics in the neuromarketing practice, neuroethics, it’s important to guide future and present researches in this field. 

  11. Nature, Nurture and Epigenetics (United States)

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Gore, Andrea C.; Skinner, Michael K.


    Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or ‘critical’ periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature vs. nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that it retards, rather than advances, our understanding of biological processes. Behavioral genetics has proven the obvious, that genes influences behavior and, vice versa, that behavior influences genes. The concept of Genes X Environment (G X E) and its modern variants was viewed as an improvement on nature-nurture but has proven that, except in rare instances, it is not possible to fractionate phenotypes into these constituent elements. The entanglement inherent in terms such as nature-nurture or GXE is a Gordian knot that cannot be dissected or even split. Given that the world today is not what it was less than a century ago, yet the arbitrator (differential survival and reproduction) has stayed constant, de novo principles and practices are needed to better predict what the future holds. Put simply, the transformation that is now occurring within and between individuals as a product of global endocrine disruption is quite independent of what has been regarded as evolution by selection. This new perspective should focus on how epigenetic modifications might revise approaches to understand how the phenotype and, in particular its components, is shaped. In this review we summarize the literature in this developing area, focusing on our research on the fungicide vinclozolin. PMID:25102229

  12. Nature, nurture and epigenetics. (United States)

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Gore, Andrea C; Skinner, Michael K


    Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or 'critical' periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature versus nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that it retards, rather than advances, our understanding of biological processes. Behavioral genetics has proven the obvious, that genes influence behavior and, vice versa, that behavior influences genes. The concept of Genes X Environment (G X E) and its modern variants was viewed as an improvement on nature-nurture but has proven that, except in rare instances, it is not possible to fractionate phenotypes into these constituent elements. The entanglement inherent in terms such as nature-nurture or G X E is a Gordian knot that cannot be dissected or even split. Given that the world today is not what it was less than a century ago, yet the arbitrator (differential survival and reproduction) has stayed constant, de novo principles and practices are needed to better predict what the future holds. Put simply, the transformation that is now occurring within and between individuals as a product of global endocrine disruption is quite independent of what has been regarded as evolution by selection. This new perspective should focus on how epigenetic modifications might revise approaches to understand how the phenotype and, in particular its components, is shaped. In this review we summarize the literature in this developing area, focusing on our research on the fungicide vinclozolin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The making of expert clinicians: reflective practice. (United States)

    Maestre, J M; Szyld, D; Del Moral, I; Ortiz, G; Rudolph, J W


    Debriefing is a rigorous reflection process which helps trainees recognize and resolve clinical and behavioral dilemmas raised by a clinical case. This approach emphasizes eliciting trainees'assumptions about the situation and their reasons for performing as they did (mental models). It analyses their impact on actions, to understand if it is necessary to maintain them or construct new ones that may lead to better performance in the future. It blends evidence and theory from education research, the social and cognitive sciences, and experience drawn from conducting and teaching debriefing to clinicians worldwide, on how to improve professional effectiveness through "reflective practice". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Pondering practice: Enhancing the art of reflection. (United States)

    Hayes, Carolyn; Jackson, Debra; Davidson, Patricia M; Daly, John; Power, Tamara


    The aim of this study was to describe the effect that immersive simulation experiences and guided reflection can have on the undergraduate nurses' understanding of how stressful environments impact their emotions, performance and ability to implement safe administration of medications. Patient safety can be jeopardised if nurses are unsure of how to appropriately manage and respond to interruptions. Medication administration errors are a major patient safety issue and often occur as a consequence of ineffective interruption management. The skills associated with medication administration are most often taught to, and performed by, undergraduate nurses in a controlled environment. However, the clinical environment in which nurses are expected to administer medications is often highly stressed and nurses are frequently interrupted. This study used role-play simulation and written reflections to facilitate deeper levels of student self-awareness. A qualitative approach was taken to explore students' understanding of the effects of interruptions on their ability to undertake safe medication administration. Convenience sampling of second-year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a medical-surgical subject was used in this study. Data were obtained from 451:528 (85.42%) of those students and analysed using thematic analysis. Students reported increasing consciousness and the importance of reflection for evaluating performance and gaining self-awareness. They described self-awareness, effective communication, compassion and empathy as significant factors in facilitating self-efficacy and improved patient care outcomes. Following a role-play simulation experience, student nurses reported new knowledge and skill acquisition related to patient safety, and new awareness of the need for empathetic and compassionate care during medication administration. Practicing medication administration in realistic settings adds to current strategies that aim to reduce medication

  15. Teachers' Reflective Practice in Lifelong Learning Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Thomassen, Anja Overgaard


    This chapter explores teachers' reflective practice in lifelong learning programs based on a qualitative study of five teachers representing three part-time Master's programs. The theoretical framework for analysis of the interview data is Ellström's (1996) model for categorizing levels of action......, knowledge and learning, activity theory (Engeström, 1987) and expansive learning (Engeström & Sannino, 2010). The results show a divergence between what the teachers perceive as the Master students' learning goals and the teachers' goals and objectives. This is highlighted through the teachers' experience...

  16. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

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    Farrell, T


    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups  discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  17. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education. (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K


    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself.

  18. Uses of Technology to Support Reflective Teaching Practices (United States)

    Brent, Wayne


    This dissertation researched and reported on how technology was used to facilitate and inform reflective teaching practices. It also identified the characteristics of benefits and barriers in using technology for teaching and reflection. The study, descriptive in nature, was designed to determine the reflective practices of instructors and how…

  19. Reflective Practice in Physiotherapy Education: A Critical Conversation. (United States)

    Clouder, Lynn


    Describes how reflective practice is conceptualized and interpreted by practicing physiotherapists and undergraduate physiotherapy students. Analysis of qualitative interviews and workshops highlights both contextual and practical differences in modes of reflection by practitioners. Discussion notes the context of the task-oriented culture of the…

  20. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education. (United States)

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine


    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  1. Narrating practice: reflective accounts and the textual construction of reality. (United States)

    Taylor, Carolyn


    Two approaches dominate current thinking in health and welfare: evidence-based practice and reflective practice. Whilst there is debate about the merits of evidence-based practice, reflective practice is generally accepted with critical debate as an important educational tool. Where critique does exist it tends to adopt a Foucauldian approach, focusing on the surveillance and self-regulatory aspects of reflective practice. This article acknowledges the critical purchase on the concept of reflective practice offered by Foucauldian approaches but argues that microsociological and discourse analytic approaches can further illuminate the subject and thus serve as a complement to them. The claims of proponents of reflective practice are explored, in opposition to the technical-rational approach of evidence-based practice. Reflective practice tends to adopt a naive or romantic realist position and fails to acknowledge the ways in which reflective accounts construct the world of practice. Microsociological approaches can help us to understand reflective accounts as examples of case-talk, constructed in a narrative form in the same way as case records and presentations.

  2. Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional education: implications for theory and practice. (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G


    Interprofessional education (IPE) involves learning, and learning requires reflection. Educators need to "reflect more on reflection" if they are to be effective teachers in ensuring the learning outcomes essential for teamwork and interprofessional practice (IPP), including incorporating both theory and practice into the development of educational interventions. First, this discussion surveys the IPE-relevant literature on reflection, and then defines and refines the multidimensional concept of reflection as it relates to IPE in developing and implementing teamwork learning programs and experiences. Second, specific methods to promote reflection are presented and explored, including self-assessments, journaling, and written papers. Actual samples from student journals and assignments provide examples of the impacts of using these methods on participant reflection and learning. Finally, implications for an expanded understanding and application of reflection for IPE will be discussed, and recommendations made for educational practice and research in this area.

  3. Honesty in Critically Reflective Essays: An Analysis of Student Practice (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan


    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…

  4. Reflective Practice for Psychology Students: The Use of Reflective Journal Feedback in Higher Education (United States)

    Bruno, Andreina; Dell'Aversana, Giuseppina


    Reflective journals have emerged as an effective means of monitoring and developing reflective practice in higher education, as part of a wider metacognitive strategy to transform traditional learning approaches. In addition, assessment procedures of reflective journals appear to be an important factor in enhancing commitment to learning and…

  5. Towards a Theory of the Ecology of Reflection: Reflective Practice for Experiential Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Harvey, Marina; Coulson, Debra; McMaugh, Anne


    Reflective practice is widely adopted across the field of experience-based learning subjects in higher education, including practicums, work-integrated learning, internships, service learning and community participation. This adoption of reflective practice implies that it supports student learning through experience. When reviewing the evidence…

  6. Reflections on independence in nurse practitioner practice. (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A


    To examine factors that influence the ability of nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice as independent primary care providers. Extensive literature search on CINAHL, OVID, MEDLINE, Internet journal sources, and professional association Web sites. The legal authority for NPs to practice independently is recognized; however, the ability to put that authority into practice is undermined by the historical failure of political, professional, and social entities to recognize NPs as providers capable of providing primary care autonomously. Nonrecognition is responsible for complex reimbursement policies (both federal and state) that economically and professionally restrain the NP role; hence, NPs remain in a financially dependent relationship despite 40 years of proven safe practice. NPs must articulate their independence as practitioners more vociferously in order to meet society's healthcare requirements, as well as to attain professional fulfillment and forge collegial relationships. NPs will never be seen as members of a profession by either themselves or others without the practicality of independence and autonomy. Although legal independence is a fact, real practice independence in the pragmatic sense is contingent upon reimbursement. Without fiscal sustainability, practice independence is an impossibility. And, without professional autonomy, NPs will have only an employee's voice in the dynamic healthcare system in which they are really key players in providing healthcare services to the poor and undeserved populations.

  7. Teaching Strategy: Reflections on Professional Practice (United States)

    Ruth, Damian


    This paper explores how strategic management concepts, especially the notion of 'wicked problems', can be useful in analysing the professional practice of teachers in higher education. The keeping of a dialogical journal with a colleague helped illuminate that strategic management and education have much in common. Both are situated in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ortega-Díaz


    Full Text Available One of the key priorities in the course of initial training for mainstream schools is the reflection of teaching practice, which is why it is necessary to learn how to analyze this process, for it is part of the deep learning approach; recognizing that reflection is central for innovation processes in professional practice. The research presented part of a qualitative study on the phenomenology depth interviews with students of fifth semester of the degree in early childhood education in a regular school in the State of Mexico apply. The results show that learning from reflection of teaching practice leans shallow focus.

  9. Practical Reflection and Metaprogramming for Dependent Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Raymond

    to program in these embedded languages. Interpreters and compilers must always take these invariants into account at each stage, and authors of embedded languages must work hard to relieve users of the burden of proving these properties. Idris is a dependently typed functional programming language whose......Embedded domain-specific languages are special-purpose programming languages that are implemented within existing generalpurpose programming languages. Dependent type systems allow strong invariants to be encoded in representations of domain-specific languages, but it can also make it difficult...... semantics are given by elaboration to a core dependent type theory through a tactic language. This dissertation introduces elaborator reflection, in which the core operators of the elaborator are realized as a type of computations that are executed during the elaboration process of Idris itself, along...

  10. Getting to why? Contemplative practice as reflection on intentionality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 31, 2015 ... reflection may be facilitated by contemplative practices such as mindfulness and ... something else, liked, disliked, or called good or bad by the phantom self, the ego. ..... meta-cognition, and finally the release of attentional.

  11. Translating children's stories - reflections and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguras Constantinescu


    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with the specificity of translations for children with an emphasis on the cultural dimension to be preserved in the target text. Following a brief historical and theoretical overview on the issue of translating texts for children, we undertake a succint analysis on a corpus made up of tales which display an overtness to the other while treating the identity-alterity issue. Starting from our own translation practice, we will insist upon those strategies and techniques fit to render the cultural dimension of the source text in order to give young readers access to a foreign culture. Translational strategies are analysed along editorial and pedagogical strategies, with a special focus on the paratext which aims at satisfying the readers’ curiosity and contributing to the development of their encyclopedic competence.

  12. Enhancing quality of student teachers' practices through reflective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the role of journal writing in enhancing student teachers' learning during school practice. It analyses data from 22 student teachers' journals and 23 questionnaires. The study focuses on the areas that student teachers reflected on most, the nature of their reflection and the extent to which previous ...

  13. Enhancing Reflective Practice in Multicultural Counseling through Cultural Auditing (United States)

    Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina


    Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…

  14. Guiding Moral Behavior through a Reflective Learning Practice (United States)

    Hedberg, Patricia R.


    Reflective learning practice embedded across the business curriculum is a powerful way to equip students with intentionally formed moral habits of the mind and heart. This article explores why and how to apply reflective learning to the teaching of business ethics. To act with integrity in complicated work organizations, students need skills and…

  15. Reflections around Artefacts: Using a Deliberative Approach to Teaching Reflective Practices in Fashion Studies (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Brough, Dean


    While requiring students to think reflectively is a desirable teaching goal, it is often fraught with complexity and is sometimes poorly implemented in higher education. In this paper, we describe an approach to academic reflective practices that fitted a design subject in fashion education and was perceived as effective in enhancing student…

  16. Nurturing Good Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); R.C. Kijkuit (Bob)


    textabstractManagers know that simply generating lots of ideas doesn’t necessarily produce good ones. What companies need are systems that nurture good ideas and cull bad ones—before they ever reach the decision maker’s desk. Our research shows that tapping the input of many people early in the

  17. How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)? (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E


    Do you teach physiology? Do you use best practices when you teach physiology? Have you ever thought about conducting educational research? Do you need collaborators to help with ideas for educational research or to expand your research populations? The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section has developed a biennial Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) through the APS Conference Program to address these issues. The first institute was held in June 2014, and the second institute was held in June 2016. A Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) was created to help connect the institute participants and other physiology educators and to share evidence-based teaching in physiology at all education levels. The 2018 APS ITL will be the next meeting to learn best practices, to share ideas with colleagues, and to find collaborators in improving the teaching of physiology for students. The meeting will include workshops modeling best practices, plenary talks about hot new issues in physiology and science education, and poster sessions and informal meals to discuss interests with colleagues. Even if one's primary responsibility is bench research or administration, the training from the institute will improve efficiency and effectiveness when teaching. The two prior ITLs (2014 and 2016) were highly evaluated by educators of both undergraduate and professional students who spent a week together emphasizing improvement in their teaching. This paper reports the outcomes of the 2016 ITL and encourages participation in the upcoming ITL in Madison, WI, June 18-22, 2018. Watch the APS Conference site for more information about the 2018 ITL ( Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Practicing Partnership with the Earth: Nurturing the Evolution of a Caring Alliance Based on Reciprocity and Respect


    Ann Amberg


    This article highlights the value and importance of partnership practices focused on deepening our personal relationship with nature. In a context of the movement from domination to partnership systems, the author suggests the possibility of identifying ourselves in a larger context, as planetary humans, and offers insight into the perceptive shifts required to cultivate reciprocal and respectful relationships with the natural world. Through the suggestion of accessible earth-focused partners...

  19. Reflective practice: a framework for case manager development. (United States)

    Brubakken, Karen; Grant, Sara; Johnson, Mary K; Kollauf, Cynthia


    The role of a nurse case manager (NCM) incorporates practice that is built upon knowledge gained in other roles as well as components unique to case management. The concept of reflective practice was used in creating a framework to recognize the developmental stages that occur within community based case management practice. The formation of this framework and its uses are described in this article. The practice setting is a community based case management department in a large midwestern metropolitan health care system with Magnet recognition. Advanced practice nurses provide care for clients with chronic health conditions. Twenty-four narratives were used to identify behaviors of community based case managers and to distinguish stages of practice. The behaviors of advanced practice found within the narratives were labeled and analyzed for similarities. Related behaviors were grouped and descriptor statements were written. These statements grouped into 3 domains of practice: relationship/partnership, coordination/collaboration, and clinical knowledge/decision making. The statements in each domain showed practice variations from competent to expert, and 3 stages were determined. Reliability and validity of the framework involved analysis of additional narratives. The reflective practice process, used for monthly case review presentations, provides opportunity for professional development and group learning focused on improving case manager practice. The framework is also being used in orientation as new case managers acclimate to the role. Reflective writing has unveiled the richness and depth of nurse case manager practice. The depth of knowledge and skills involved in community-based case management is captured within this reflective practice framework. This framework provides a format for describing community based case manager practice development over the course of time and has been used as a tool for orientation and peer review.

  20. Reflection sessions and triangular cooperation in "return" practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baard Johannessen


    Full Text Available The purpose for this qualitative study is to tighten the gap between the student teachers’ understanding of theory and practice.Reflection plenaries and returning practicum were explored; in an attempt to educate student teachers who are more equip to meet the future occupational challenges. The student teachers attend two instead of four different practicum schools during their practicums. Semi structured focus group interviews with a triangulation of data from headmasters, students, and teacher educators were gathered. The data was analyzed using inductive content analysis.The result reveals four categories, which influence student teachers` pedagogical insight through pre-service teaching practice: connections between theory and practical training, plenaries of reflections, pedagogical insight by understanding own role and possibilities for more time for pedagogical work in the classroom. Reflection plenaries enhances the students’ independence, level of reflection, and increase their ability to develop partnerships that are equal with their teacher educators and headmasters.

  1. Gender and nurturance in families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions. (United States)

    Shapiro, Danielle N; Dixon-Thomas, Pamela; Warschausky, Seth


    This study tested the hypothesis that gender differences in parent-reported nurturance of children would be attenuated in families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDCs). In this cross-sectional study, participants included 49 (29 male) children diagnosed with an NDC and 60 (30 male) typically developing (TD) children. Children in the NDC group had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP; n = 41) or spina bifida (SB; n = 8). Parental nurturance was measured using the nurturance subscale of the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI; Power, 1991). Data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 (gender × diagnosis) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with child age as the covariate. As a simple main effect, parents reported more nurturing behavior toward TD girls than TD boys. However, girls with an NDC received less nurturance, thereby eliminating the gender difference in parental nurturance in the NDC sample. This pattern was reflected in the larger ANCOVA as a 2-way interaction between diagnosis and gender. Group differences in other PDI subscales were not statistically significant. This pattern of results suggests that the parents of girls with NDCs may be less nurturing toward them, thereby attenuating gender differences observed in families with TD children. Findings highlight the need for more research on the gendered dynamics in families with a child with an NDC to develop systemic models of family functioning and targeted parenting interventions for this group. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Reflective Practice as a Fuel for Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Tikkamäki


    Full Text Available Learning theories and their interpretations in management research recognize the role of reflection as a central element in the learning process. There also exists a broad consensus that organizational learning (OL happens at three intertwined levels of the individual, the group and the organization. This tri-level analysis has been most influentially presented by Crossan, Lane and White (1999, as a premise for their 4I framework of OL. Though the 4I framework builds strongly on existing literature on OL, it does not address the role of reflection as a factor operating between the inputs and outcomes in 4I sub-processes. Though a large body of research exists regarding the notion of reflection and its importance in terms of OL, this has not been discussed in the specific context of the 4I framework. This article contributes to the development of the 4I model by discussing how reflective practice—on three levels and within 4I sub-processes—fuels the OL process. The argumentation is based on an extensive literature review in three dimensions of learning, illustrated with an empirical inquiry into three business organizations and their reflective practice. In addition, the aim is to increase the understanding of reflection as not only an individual or group process, but as an organized practice, enabled by the tools of management control.

  3. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability. (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir


    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Structured Ethical Reflection in Practitioner Inquiry: Theory, Pedagogy, and Practice (United States)

    Stevens, Douglas M.; Brydon-Miller, Mary; Raider-Roth, Miriam


    Practitioner inquiry provides a powerful tool for improving practice and addressing critical issues in classrooms, schools, and broader communities. However, it also raises unique ethical challenges that often go unrecognized and unresolved. Structured Ethical Reflection (SER) provides teacher researchers with a process for identifying core values…

  5. Reflecting on Hospitality Management Education through a Practice Lens (United States)

    Stierand, Marc; Zizka, Laura


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on hospitality management education from a "practice epistemology" and discuss how a connecting of savoir (theoretical knowledge or "knowing"), savoir-faire (knowing how to do tasks, i.e. task-related skills) and savoir-être (knowing how to be, i.e. behavior) can develop into…

  6. Reflective Teaching and Practice: Interview with Thomas Farrell (United States)

    Pang, Alvin


    Thomas Farrell is widely known for his views and publications on the topic of Reflective Practice, which is key to the professional development of teachers in 21st century classrooms. He is Professor of Applied Linguistics at Brock University, Canada. Farrell has been a language teacher and teacher educator since 1978 and has worked in Korea,…

  7. Turkish Prospective English Teachers' Reflections on Teaching Practice (United States)

    Yildiz, Mine; Geçikli, Merve; Yesilyurt, Savas


    This study is an attempt to present the reflections of prospective English teachers in Turkey on teaching practice over their experiences and perceptions. A mixed-method research design was conducted through the use of a questionnaire involving a 5-Likert scale and one open-ended question. The participants were 120 senior students at ELT…

  8. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené


    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  9. Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.


    "Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom" is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative…

  10. Intuition in medical practice: A reflection on Donald Schön's reflective practitioner. (United States)

    Mickleborough, Tim


    In a recent commentary, Dr. Abhishek Biswas asks the question whether physicians should rely on their "gut feeling" when making clinical decisions. Biswas describes a situation where his intuition resulted in an immediate course of action that prompted urgent medical attention for a patient who had "routine" pain. Inspired by the author's account, I would like to further Biswas' discussion and examine its importance using the educational theories of Donald Schön and his concept of the reflective practitioner. Schön argues that technical knowledge alone is not sufficient to solve the complex problems that professionals face on a daily basis and intuition, developed through a reflective practice, is crucial for any professional's practice, especially in a time of greater uncertainty in the workplace.

  11. The educational practice of preceptors in healthcare residencies: a study on reflective practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Barros RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to reflect on the practice of preceptorship as an educational practice in the training and qualifications of professional health information for the public health system. This is a theoretical reflection with support in the literature. The teacher addresses the teaching-learning process and transforms the activities in the work on educational moments. In this area arise questions about what is being preceptor and their role in health education. It is necessary to teach knowledge beyond the content of the discipline, and reflecting about preceptorship as an educational practice in the workplace, the preceptor needs pedagogical preparation. Herewith, being a preceptor means being a teacher? This reflection places us in front of a problem present in our daily exercise, which is the pedagogical training of those who teach for a transformation of practice in health.

  12. Web journaling. Using informational technology to teach reflective practice. (United States)

    Cohen, Judy A; Welch, Lorraine M


    Reflection is a process by which we think about experiences and relieve them. Web journaling is a tool that gives students opportunities to use reflection when they are away from the immediate clinical environment. Through such reflection the student's personal knowledge that informs their practice is revealed. The revelation of personal knowledge is key to structuring subsequent faculty guidance. The web journal is a vehicle for student/faculty dialogue aimed at expanding both the faculty's responses to students' learning needs and the students' responses to persons in their care. Questions formulated in the dialogue direct the student's web-based search for new information. Faculty guidance subsequently focuses on the student's decisions regarding the use of information to direct clinical practice. Web journaling done over several nursing courses reinforces a model of learning, which is increasingly more deliberative and intentional. Web journaling may contribute to the development of practice throughout a nursing career because it becomes a way for self-directed learning.

  13. The Role of Genre in Reflective Practice: Tracing the Development of a Beginning Teacher's Journaling Practice (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi; Adam, Amy Rousselo


    In this article, a teacher educator and a first-year teacher identify the role that genre, in a rhetorical sense, plays in reflective practice. As reflection in teacher education has been criticized for its potential to reinforce prior attitudes and dispositions within pre-service and beginning teachers, we see how meta-knowledge of genre is…

  14. Using Reflective Practice to Facilitate Conversations and Transform Instructional Practice for Middle School Science Teachers (United States)

    Higdon, Robbie L.

    The process of teaching, especially inquiry, is complex and requires extended time for developing one's instructional practice (Loucks-Horsley, Stiles, Mundry, Love, & Hewson, 2010). The implementation of a continued cycle of self-reflection can engage teachers in analyzing their prior experiences and understandings about their instructional practice to promote the accommodation of new concepts and transform their practice. However, many teachers have difficulty engaging in the cognitive dissonance needed to identify those problems and promote their own growth without support. As one's professional practice becomes more repetitive and routine, it is difficult for the practitioner to recognize opportunities in which to contemplate one's habitual actions (Schon, 1983). In this multi-case study, two middle school science teachers who were engaged within a sustained professional development initiative participated in a series of one-on-one reflective dialogues regarding the decisions they made about the utilization of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, these teachers were asked to reflect upon the criteria used to determine how and when to implement these inquiry-based practices. These reflective dialogue sessions provided the opportunity to observe teacher conceptions and stimulate teacher cognitive dissonance about instructional practice. Qualitative analysis of data collected from these reflective dialogues along with informal and formal classroom observations of instructional practice uncovered diverse perceptions regarding the implementation of inquiry-based methods into present teaching practice. The use of reflective dialogue within the existing structure of the professional development initiative allowed for the facilitators of the professional development initiative to tailor ongoing support and their effective implementation of inquiry-based instruction. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of reflective dialogue in achieving

  15. The Effects of Coaching Using a Reflective Framework on Early Childhood Science Teachers' Depth of Reflection and Change in Practice (United States)

    Bloomquist, Debra L.

    This embedded-mixed methods study examined if the use of a reflective framework with guiding prompts could support early childhood science teachers in improving their reflective practice and subsequently changing their pedagogy. It further investigated whether type of cognitive coaching group, individual or collaborative, impacted teacher depth of reflection and change in practice. Data included teacher reflections that were rated using the Level of Reflection-On-Action Assessment, reflective codes and inductive themes, as well as videos of participants lessons coded using the SCIIENCE instrument. Findings demonstrated that through guided reflection, teachers developed reflective thinking skills, and through this reflection became more critical and began to improve their pedagogical practice. Further findings supported that collaborative cognitive coaching may not be the most effective professional development for all teachers; as some teachers in the study were found to have difficulty improving their reflectivity and thus their teaching practice. Based on these findings it is recommended that coaches and designers of professional development continue to use reflective frameworks with guiding prompts to support teachers in the reflective process, but take into consideration that coaching may need to be differentiated for the various reflective levels demonstrated by teachers. Future studies will be needed to establish why some teachers have difficulty with the reflective process and how coaches or designers of professional development can further assist these teachers in becoming more critical reflectors.

  16. Techniques to Promote Reflective Practice and Empowered Learning. (United States)

    Nguyen-Truong, Connie Kim Yen; Davis, Andra; Spencer, Cassius; Rasmor, Melody; Dekker, Lida


    Health care environments are fraught with fast-paced critical demands and ethical dilemmas requiring decisive nursing actions. Nurse educators must prepare nursing students to practice skills, behaviors, and attitudes needed to meet the challenges of health care demands. Evidence-based, innovative, multimodal techniques with novice and seasoned nurses were incorporated into a baccalaureate (BSN) completion program (RN to-BSN) to deepen learning, complex skill building, reflective practice, teamwork, and compassion toward the experiences of others. Principles of popular education for engaged teaching-learning were applied. Nursing students experience equitable access to content through co-constructing knowledge with four creative techniques. Four creative techniques include poem reading aloud to facilitate connectedness; mindfulness to cultivate self-awareness; string figure activities to demonstrate indigenous knowledge and teamwork; and cartooning difficult subject matter. Nursing school curricula can promote a milieu for developing organizational skills to manage simultaneous priorities, practice reflectively, and develop empathy and the authenticity that effective nursing requires. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(2):115-120.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Register of practices and teacher training: reflection, memory and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina Teagno Lopes Marques


    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the contribution of the register of practices in the process of inservice training and teacher development. It is organized in three parts: first, we elucidateconcepts of different authors about our object (FREIRE, 1996; GUARNIERI, 2001; SÁ-CHAVES, 2004, WARSCHAUER, 1993, 2001; ZABALZA, 1994, 2004, in the second part, we analyze some register of practices produced by a professor of early childhood education, seeking to highlight elements that indicate the relationship between register, reflection and training; inthe end, we indicate the need to move the register as individual attitude to the register as a collective process, as suggested by the perspective of pedagogical documentation describedin Italian literature (BALSAMO, 1998; BENZONI, 2001; BORGHI, APOSTOLI, 2001; GANDINI, GOLDHABER, 2002. The register of practices can contribute to the processes of professional and organizational development, in a reflective school (ALARCÃO, 2002, 2003 and trulypublic because it makes visible to society by documentation of the experiences that teachersand children build together (MALAGUZZI, 1999.

  18. Professional Learning in Human Resource Management: Problematising the Teaching of Reflective Practice (United States)

    Griggs, V.; Holden, R.; Rae, J.; Lawless, A.


    Reflection and reflective practice are much discussed aspects of professional education. This paper conveys our efforts to problematise teaching reflective practice in human resources (HR) education. The research, on which the paper is based, engages with stakeholders involved in the professional learning and education of reflective practice in…

  19. Reflective practice as a tool to teach digital professionalism. (United States)

    Kung, Justin W; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Slanetz, Priscilla J


    Digital professionalism is increasingly being integrated into postgraduate medical education. We developed a small-group, reflective practice-based session incorporating radiology-specific cases to heighten residents' awareness about digital professionalism. Case-based, radiology-specific scenarios were created for a small-group, reflective practice-based session on digital professionalism. Anonymous pre- and postsession surveys evaluating residents' use of social media and their thoughts about the session were administered to the radiology residents. Twenty-five of 38 (66%) residents responded to the presession survey with 40% (10/25) reporting daily social media use; 50% (12/24) witnessing an unprofessional posting on Facebook; and 8% (2/25) posting something unprofessional themselves. Of the 21 residents who attended the session, 13 (62%) responded to the postsession survey. Residents reported that the session added to their understanding of professionalism 3.92, 95% CI (3.57-4.27). As a result of the session, residents stated that they were more aware of protecting patient privacy and confidentiality on social media sites 3.92, 95% CI (3.47-4.37), and would take a more active role in ensuring professional use of social media as it relates to patient care 4.00, 95% CI (3.66-4.34). Residents favorably viewed the reflective case-based session on digital professionalism as a means to be more aware of ways to avoid unprofessional interactions on the internet. Our results suggest that such reflective sessions are an effective method to educate residents on key concepts regarding digital professionalism. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Doctors’ Knowledge of Hypertension Guidelines Recommendations Reflected in Their Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmad


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate doctors’ knowledge, attitude, and practices and predictors of adherence to Malaysian hypertension guidelines (CPG 2008. Methods. Twenty-six doctors involved in hypertension management at Penang General Hospital were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Doctors’ knowledge and attitudes towards guidelines were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. Their practices were evaluated by noting their prescriptions written to 520 established hypertensive outpatients (20 prescriptions/doctor. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Results. Nineteen doctors (73.07% had adequate knowledge of guidelines. Specialists and consultants had significantly better knowledge about guidelines’ recommendations. Doctors were positive towards guidelines with mean attitude score of 23.15±1.34 points on a 30-point scale. The median number of guidelines compliant prescriptions was 13 (range 5–20. Statistically significant correlation (rs = 0.635, P<0.001 was observed between doctors’ knowledge and practice scores. A total of 349 (67.1% prescriptions written were guidelines compliant. In multivariate analysis hypertension clinic (OR = 0.398, P=0.008, left ventricular hypertrophy (OR = 0.091, P=0.001 and heart failure (OR = 1.923, P=0.039 were significantly associated with guidelines adherence. Conclusion. Doctors’ knowledge of guidelines is reflected in their practice. The gap between guidelines recommendations and practice was seen in the pharmacotherapy of uncomplicated hypertension and hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus.

  1. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases? (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David


    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank's study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff's judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank's proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as 'reflective practice,' deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. Design Research and Practice for the Public Good: A Reflection

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    Sabine Junginger

    Full Text Available Public sector managers and policymakers have begun to work with design researchers and design practitioners in an effort to create citizen-centric polices and user-centered public services. What role can design play in the approach taken by the public sector in organizational development and innovation? This paper reflects on an innovation project at a Brazilian Ministry where human-centered design was chosen as an approach to integrate innovation efforts among different government agencies and ministries. It offers an example of how human-centered design approaches can support efforts by civil servants to change their own design practices. Keywords: Design research, Design practice, Public sector, Civil servants, Organizational change & development

  3. Ideas worth nurturing

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Originally created in response to requests from experimentalists working in the collaborations, IdeaSquare has evolved into a place where innovative ideas meet established expertise. Although the project is still in its pilot phase, two EU-funded projects have found their home in the IdeaSquare building and 46 students have already participated in the Challenge-Based Innovation courses based there. More to come…   IdeaSquare, which will be inaugurated on 9 December, is the name given to the B3179 refurbished building at LHC Point 1. More importantly, IdeaSquare is the name of a project designed to nurture innovation at CERN. “The scope of the project is to bring together researchers, engineers, people from industry and young students and encourage them to come up with new ideas that are useful for society, inspired by CERN’s ongoing detector R&D and upgrade projects,” explains Markus Nordberg who, together with Marzio Nessi, set up IdeaSquare withi...

  4. Tools for Reflection: Video-Based Reflection Within a Preservice Community of Practice (United States)

    Hawkins, Susan; Park Rogers, Meredith


    Current reform in science education calls for teachers to understand student thinking within a lesson to effectively address students' needs (NRC in A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2012; NRC in Guide to implementing the Next Generation Science Standards. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2015). This study investigates how to scaffold preservice teachers with learning to attend to students' thinking for the purpose of guiding curricular decisions. The study focuses on one team teaching a science unit during their early field experience. We sought to understand how participants' thoughts and abilities changed through participation in a moderated community of practice using video of their own teaching as a reflective tool. We examined how these changes affected both their classroom practice and their decision-making for future lessons. Evidence shows growth in participants' ability to identify opportunities to elicit, assess, and use students' thinking to guide instructional decisions. Implications for use of the approach used in this study to begin developing novice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science are discussed.

  5. Using flash cards to engage Indonesian nursing students in reflection on their practice. (United States)

    Wanda, Dessie; Fowler, Cathrine; Wilson, Valerie


    Reflective practice is now widely used as a critical learning tool in undergraduate and postgraduate nursing programs in most developed countries. However in developing countries, reflective practice is in its infancy. To introduce reflective practice to postgraduate students in an Indonesian nursing education institution. This paper presents the positive meanings of reflection and reflective practice experienced by the students and the way they used reflection within their practice. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the meaning of reflection or reflective practice using flashcards. A clinical reflective practice model taking into consideration Indonesian culture was developed and applied during students' clinical placement. A few weeks post clinical placement, 21 students participated in an evaluation session. The meaning of reflection or reflective practice was explored using flash cards containing images of people and environment with different situations and events. Students were asked to choose a card that represented their viewpoints about reflective practice and share it with the group. Data were digitally captured and analyzed using thematic analysis. Reflection provided a positive experience for the students. In their own words, they discussed their journey of using reflection during the clinical placement period. The use of reflection was identified as expanding their view of nursing practice, providing a safe place to explore their experiences and clarity when they encountered challenging situations during their clinical practice. Reflecting on practice experiences resulted in increased self-awareness, and enhanced their learning. The findings indicate that reflective practice can be implemented successfully in Indonesia and may have value for other Eastern countries that share similar cultural characteristics. The use of flash cards assisted the students describe through stories their experiences of participating in this

  6. Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell


    Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.

  7. Exploring Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices through Reflective Practice: A Case Study (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Ives, Jessica


    This article presents a case study that explored and reflected on the relationship between the stated beliefs and observed classroom practices of one second language reading teacher. The findings of this study revealed that this particular teacher holds complex beliefs about teaching reading that were evident to some extent in many of his…

  8. Incorporating Self and Peer Assessment in Reflective Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ratminingsih


    Full Text Available More currently literature reviews suggests the use of authentic assessment, which aims to involve students to be more responsible with their learning. This article reports the findings of a descriptive study on student teachers’ perception on the use of self and peer assessment to give evaluation on planning the lesson and teaching performance in Reflective Teaching Class. There were 100 samples taken randomly from 234 students in a survey using questionnaire and 15 students participating in the focus group discussion (FGD. The finding from the questionnaire shows that they had a very positive perception toward the use of self and peer assessment. Additionally, from the FGD, they conveyed by practicing doing self assessment, they could learn to see self performance deeply, strengths and weaknesses. From peer-assessment, they could learn collaboratively from feedback given by peers how to make a better lesson plan and perform a more effective teaching. Hence, self and peer assessment is considered beneficial for preparing the real teaching practicum and future career development. However, there are some problems challenged them, such as feeling subjectivity in assessing both self or peers, embarrassed and less confidence, and time constraints to make evaluation and reflection in the classroom

  9. Relationships among the nurse work environment, self-nurturance and life satisfaction. (United States)

    Nemcek, Mary Ann; James, Gary D


    This paper is a report of a study to (1) ascertain the relationship among self-nurturance, perceived Magnet features and life satisfaction and (2) evaluate the predictive effects of self-nurturance and Magnet features on life satisfaction. Promoting health is a global priority for nurses and for the public who depend upon them to provide quality care. Health gains can be realized by modifying the work environment and by modifying lifestyle choices (self-nurturance). A study of nurses that examined perceptions of workplace features that enable nurses' professional practice (Magnet features), self-nurturance and healthy outcomes (life satisfaction) was not found in the literature. Survey data collected in May 2003 from a convenience sample of 310 Registered Nurses were used for this descriptive, correlational study. Self-nurturing nurses were more satisfied with life and perceived that more Magnet features were present in the workplace. Nurses with a master's degree were more self-nurturing than nurses without a baccalaureate degree. The synergistic effect of both self-nurturance and workplace factors predicted 29% of variance in nurses' life satisfaction. Higher levels of perceived Magnet features and frequent self-nurturance choices are important health influences on nurses' life satisfaction. Greater life satisfaction is known to reduce job dissatisfaction while improving retention. Approaches that incorporate both self-nurturance and workplace Magnet features are suggested to improve the health and retention of experienced nurses.

  10. Reflections from my Pedagogical Practice: Spontaneity versus Formalization

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    Carla Brenes-Jiménez


    Full Text Available This article describes an action research process undertaken with the main purpose of recognizing, re-evaluating and revising my pedagogical practices, together with the children I work with (two preschool groups: the first one is a preschool group I interacted with in 2012 comprised of 6 students ages 2 years and 3 months to 3 years and 3 months, while the second one is a group of 13 K-students ages 4 years and 3 months to 5 years and 3 months, with whom I shared in 2013.  This research process reflects the changes that drove me to a metamorphosis. In this process, evidence is given of findings, lessons learned and lessons unlearned which arose from the use of methodological strategies drawn from the naturalist paradigm. As part of the action research process, a change can be noted in my performance where I pass from a vertical epistemological position, in which my practices focused on memory, order and repetition, to a horizontal one in which children have the possibility of engaging in dialog, freely creating and sharing. The main tools to compile the information were filming and the classes shared with my students.

  11. Enhancing Self-Practice/Self-Reflection (SP/SR) approach to cognitive behaviour training through the use of reflective blogs. (United States)

    Farrand, Paul; Perry, Jon; Linsley, Sue


    Self-Practice/Self-Reflection (SP/SR) is increasingly beginning to feature as a central component of CBT training programmes (Bennett-Levy et al., 2001). Programmes including a reflective element, however, are not unproblematic and it has been documented that simply setting time aside for reflection does not necessarily result in trainees using such time to reflect. Such limitations may be overcome by including a requirement to post reflections on reflective blogs. To examine the effect that a requirement to contribute to a reflective blog had upon a SP/SR approach to CBT training. A focus group methodology was adopted with data analyzed using a general inductive qualitative approach. The requirement to use blogs to reflect upon the self-practice of CBT techniques enhanced SP/SR, established a learning community, and improved course supervision, although some technical difficulties arose. Consideration should be given towards using reflective blogs to support a SP/SR approach to CBT training. Benefits afforded by the use of reflective blogs further establish SP/SR as a valid and flexible training approach.

  12. Does high antibiotic consumption still reflect bad practices? (United States)

    Levent, T; Delfosse, F; Lambiotte, F; Dezorzi, S; Gosteau, L; Vasseur, M


    The authors had for aim to assess the quality of antibiotic prescription in an intensive care unit because of their high rate of consumption. A prospective 5-month study was made of the first 50 prescriptions of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and imipenem. Treatment was considered adequate at day 5 if the indication was relevant, with the right doses, and if the prescription was adapted to the antibiogram. Fifty treatments were evaluated (38 patients included). Eighty-four percent (42/50) was adequate at day 5. Glycopeptides and fluoroquinolones accounted for 2/3 of prescriptions. The absence of de-escalation was the most common mistake. The severity of presentations was evident with a mean SSI at 68 (22-113), and a mean BMI at 28 (18.5 - 50). Eighty-four percent (32/38) of patients were exposed to invasive devices, 47% died in the ICU. Most prescriptions were adequate. The patient profile could explain the high rate of antibiotic consumption. Bacteriological monitoring revealed an increased prevalence of resistant bacteria, which could explain a high rate of consumption along with adaptation of the dose to overweight. De-escalation, using aminosides more frequently, and shorter prescribed courses of fluoroquinolones should improve consumption rates does not always reflect bad practices, but may be adequate when considering bacterial ecology and patient profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Dermatology Practice

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    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu


    Full Text Available In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is a non-invasive method, imaging cellular structures in living skin at a level close to the histological resolution. It is easier to diagnose melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors especially in difficult cases when RCM features have been identified. Determination of the cellular features, presence of cellular and structural atypia with RCM allows the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. Preoperative differential diagnosis of malignant lesions, determining preoperative lesion borders in complicated cases, identification of local recurrence after excision of malignant lesions, monitoring the treatment efficacy in patients using topical treatment and who can not be operated, are the main areas of RCM in tumoral lesions. Besides, RCM is helpful in the establishing the diagnosis of inflammatory disease like psoriasis, contact dermatitis, lichen planus and in evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, detecting of infestation like tinea, skabiyes, demodicosis and determining the level of bullae in bullous disease. Due to being noninvasive, RCM is preferred in cosmetology, in clinical research and practice for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cosmetic products and cosmetic procedures.

  14. Management Matters. Nurture Your Vision (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    In many professional roles, long-term vision may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their vision and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…

  15. The Nature of Reflective Practice and Emotional Intelligence in Tutorial Settings (United States)

    Gill, Gobinder Singh


    The purpose of this paper was to assess the nature of reflective practice and emotional intelligence in tutorial settings. Following the completion of a self-report measure of emotional intelligence, practitioners incorporated a model of reflective practice into their tutorial sessions. Practitioners were instructed to utilise reflective practice…

  16. Eliciting and Assessing Reflective Practice: A Case Study in Web 2.0 Technologies (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Kajder, Sara


    This paper focuses on the role of multimodal technologies in facilitating reflective processes and the subsequent assessment of reflectivity for students in pre-professional programs. Reflective practice has been established as a critical tool for developing identity in and on practice. This paper will focus firstly on reviewing salient literature…

  17. Appreciated but Constrained: Reflective Practice of Student Teachers in Learning Communities in a Confucian Heritage Culture (United States)

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong


    This study aimed to understand the reflective practice of 23 Chinese student teachers in learning communities (LCs) during their practicum in a Confucian heritage culture. The reflective levels of the student teachers and the factors that mediated the effects of LCs on their reflective practice were explored using journals and post-journal…

  18. Practicing What We Preach: Teacher Reflection Groups on Cooperative Learning (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, George M.


    This article discusses the use of teacher reflection groups to aid teachers in their efforts to facilitate cooperative learning among their students. It is argued that these teacher reflection groups function best when they are organized with reference to eight cooperative learning principles. Furthermore, it is suggested that these reflective…

  19. Inquiry into Teaching: Using Reflective Teaching to Improve My Practice (United States)

    Pennington, Sarah E.


    How effective is reflective teaching in increasing the engagement and achievement of pre-service teachers when utilized by a first-year college instructor? This article documents a practitioner inquiry project in which I reflected both on my own observations and student feedback regarding what teaching methods were most beneficial in an…

  20. Tracing the Reflective Practices of Student Teachers in Online Modes (United States)

    Farr, Fiona; Riordan, Elaine


    During the course of pre-and in-service teacher education programmes, reflection can happen in a number of ways, for example: reflective journals, personal stories and pair/group co-operative discussions, professional development portfolios, and blogs and electronic portfolios. The aim of this paper is to examine various technologies such as…

  1. [Pedagogical reflective practice of nursing undergraduates: the portfolio as an instrument]. (United States)

    Vaz, Débora Rodrigues; Prado, Cláudia


    Analyzing the narratives related to the pedagogical practice experienced during the Supervised Curricular Internship reported in the portfolios of Nursing undergraduate students, regarding the levels of reflection. This is a documentary descriptive exploratory study that examined two of the activities proposed for the portfolio preparation. Among the 28 analyzed portfolios, all showed the three levels of reflection (technical, critical and metacritical). The students had the opportunity to experience the pedagogical practice and presented reflections at metacritical level, reflecting on their performance, the construction of their teaching identity, and about the importance of reflecting on the practice with the objective of transforming it and transforming themselves.

  2. Creative reflections on Enhancing Practice 16: new explorations, insights and inspirations for practice developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Baldie


    Full Text Available It began two years ago, then Arriving in Edinburgh the enthusiasm abounds. The first day arrives – oozing anticipation. Great to gather old friends, new friends; Clans and clever creativity, having fun Energy in the room, creating, innovating, Creative ways transforming minds, creating impact. The International Practice Development Collaborative (IPDC is loose network of practice developers, academics and researchers who are committed to working together to develop healthcare practice. The IPDC believes that the aim of practice development is to work with people to develop person-centred cultures that are dignified, compassionate and safer for all. One of its four pillars of work is a biennial Enhancing Practice conference. Moving round the world, the IPDC members take it in turns to host the conference; in early September 2016 it was the turn of Queen Margaret University (QMU in Edinburgh. This article has been created collaboratively by a number of the people who attended this three-day conference. The IPDJ team invited participants to offer ‘the line of a poem’ that captured or reflected their experience and/or learning. These were then collected and shared, and together we created a series of poems and a collection of haiku (a three-line Japanese poem with 17 syllables, 5-7-5. Other participants have subsequently offered reflections, which we would also like to share with you here. We offer this article to you, as a celebration of our time together; our learning, connections and creating, in the hope that there might be some learning in here for you and that you may consider joining us at our next conference in Basel, Switzerland in 2018.

  3. e-Portfolio as reflection tool during teaching practice: The interplay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strydom, SC, Dr


    Feb 1, 2017 ... skills, and, to a lesser degree, to the memorisation of content, which suggests that ... reflective practice and develop their own personal theories, to utilise such practices as .... experiences in terms of employability and work-.

  4. Journaling: A quasi-experimental study of student nurses’ reflective learning ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fakude


    Full Text Available The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning.

  5. Practicing health promotion in primary care -a reflective enquiry. (United States)

    Pati, S; Chauhan, A S; Mahapatra, S; Sinha, R; Pati, S


    Health promotion is an integral part of routine clinical practice. The physicians' role in improving the health status of the general population, through effective understanding and delivery of health promotion practice, is evident throughout the international literature. Data from India suggest that physicians have limited skills in delivering specific health promotion services. However, the data available on this is scarce. This study was planned to document the current health promotion knowledge, perception and practices of local primary care physicians in Odisha. An exploratory study was planned between the months of January - February 2013 in Odisha among primary care physicians working in government set up. This exploratory study was conducted, using a two-step self-administered questionnaire, thirty physicians practicing under government health system were asked to map their ideal and current health promotion practice, and potential health promotion elements to be worked upon to enhance the practice. The study recorded a significant difference between the mean of current and ideal health promotion practices. The study reported that physicians want to increase their practice on health education. We concluded that inclusion of health promotion practices in routine care is imperative for a strong healthcare system. It should be incorporated as a structured health promotion module in medical curriculum as well.

  6. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  7. Reflection in the training of nurses in clinical practice settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumann Scheel, Linda; Peters, Micah D J; Meinertz Møbjerg, Anna Christine


    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: This scoping review will seek to find answers for the following questions which will focus on the use of reflection in the education of nurses in clinical settings:The review will also extract and map data regarding: i) what outcomes have been found in relation to the use...... (e.g. first or second year undergraduate nursing students etc.); and v) barriers/challenges to the use of reflection approaches/tools. Additional details may also be extracted and mapped during the process of the scoping review and this will be explained in the final scoping review report....

  8. The ReflecTable: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice in Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hook, Jonathan; Hjermitslev, Thomas; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    The ReflecTable is a digital learning environment that explores how design games and video-led reflection might be combined to bridge the gap between the theoretical and practical components of design education. The concept seeks to leverage the qualities of exploratory design games and video...... to inspire design students to critically reflect upon the relationship between their evolving design practices and the theories and techniques they are taught in lectures, by allowing them to capture, review and reflect upon short videos of a design game. In this paper, we present the ReflecTable design...

  9. If These Walls Could Talk: Reflective Practice in Addiction Studies among Undergraduates in New Zealand (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin


    This exploratory study examined reflective practice among a class of students studying a "communities and addictions" course as part of the undergraduate health science degree. Most reflective practice publications are focused on medical or teachers' training rather than undergraduates in general. This is surprising given that reflective…

  10. Connections between Learning and Teaching: EFL Teachers' Reflective Practice (United States)

    Nguyen, Chinh Duc


    This study explores six Vietnamese, English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' reflections on their experiences of English language learning during the early 1980s to the late 1990s. Data collected in narrative interviews with the participating teachers revealed a wide range of issues that arose during their EFL learning, central to which was…

  11. Examining Transcription, Autonomy and Reflective Practice in Language Development (United States)

    Cooke, Simon D.


    This pilot study explores language development among a class of L2 students who were required to transcribe and reflect upon spoken performances. The class was given tasks for self and peer-evaluation and afforded the opportunity to assume more responsibility for assessing language development of both themselves and their peers. Several studies…

  12. Video Journaling as a Method of Reflective Practice (United States)

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Janson, Christopher; Singleton, Tiffany


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine seven school counseling students' experiences of creating reflective video journals during their first internship course. Specifically, this study focused on capturing the essence of the experiences related to personal reactions, feelings, and thoughts about creating two video journal…

  13. Nurturing gifted learners in Mainland China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong; Zhang, X.; Chen, N.


    -socio-intellectual model, illustrated the nature of human being and the nature of gifted learners. From the perspective of the BSI model, the authors suggested three aspects are very critical to curriculum design to meet the needs of gifted education: physical maturation or physical development, social maturation......In this article, based on the previous researches on the development of gifted learners, the authors summarized the problems in nurturing gifted learners due to lacking of the appropriate educational philosophy and educational methodology in Mainland China. The authors proposed the Bio...... or social and interpersonal development, and mental maturation or intellectual development. It was proved that BSI model has its theoretical rationality and practical validity in Mainland China...

  14. From evidence-based to evidence-reflected practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    “Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability......, cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust...... of the supremacy of this kind of knowledge, and traditional monopolies of knowledge are challenged (Gabbay & May, 2010). In the literature, there is an on-going debate about professional knowledge enacted in diverse settings. This debate presents a wide range of epistemological terminologies and typologies, which...

  15. Professionalism in anaesthesiology practice: ethical reflection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient relations, improving quality of and access to care, ... and are possibly artificial, and that they influence and .... the recognition of need in our fellow human beings, having the .... wisdom (practical intelligence or phronesis in Aristotle's.

  16. Reflective processes and competencies involved in teaching practice at university: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano da Costa


    Full Text Available Founded on practical rationality, this qualitative case study aimed to explore the teaching practice at university, focusing on teacher's reflections and competencies. To this end, teaching practices were described, analyzed, and interpreted. These interactions with students on a course in the pharmacy program, brought about situations involving dilemmas and learning opportunities for problem-solving and decision-making skills. Throughout the study, students were encouraged to use knowledge-in-action, reflection-in-action, and reflection-on-action, and these processes were also experienced by the teacher. Analysis of the records from classroom observation and the interviews with students and the teacher showed the fundamental role of such reflective processes, which led to attainment of the intended objectives. In this sense, the teacher's reflective practice was essential for supporting the application of each curricular component of the course.

  17. How Educators Conceptualize and Teach Reflective Practice: A Survey of North American Pediatric Medical Educators. (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Bannister, Susan L; Rubin, Allison; Forbes, Karen L


    The objectives of this study were to explore pediatric undergraduate medical educators' understanding of reflective practice, the barriers they face in teaching this, the curricular activities they use, and the value they assign to reflective practice. Nine survey questions were sent to members of the Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics, an international pediatric undergraduate medical educator group. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open-ended responses were analyzed qualitatively through an iterative process to establish themes representing understanding of reflective practice and barriers in teaching this. Respondents representing 56% of all North American schools answered at least 1 survey question. Qualitative analysis of understanding of reflection revealed 11 themes spanning all components of reflective practice, albeit with a narrow view on triggers for reflection and a lower emphasis on understanding the why of things and on perspective-taking. The most frequent barriers in teaching this were the lack of skilled educators and limited time. Most respondents valued reflective skills but few reported confidence in their ability to teach reflection. Several curricular activities were used to teach reflection, the most common being narrative writing. Pediatric undergraduate medical educators value reflection and endorse its teaching. However, many do not have a complete understanding of the construct and few report confidence in teaching this. Implementing longitudinal curricula in reflective practice may require a culture change; opportunities exist for faculty development about the meaning and value of reflective practice and how best to teach this. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing Holistic Practice through Reflection, Action and Theorising (United States)

    Glenn, Mairin


    This article outlines how I, as a primary teacher engaging with a self-study action research process, have come to a deeper understanding of my practice. It explains how I have also come to an understanding of why I work in the way I do; of how this understanding influences my work, and the significance of this new understanding. My work as a…

  19. Tweeting dignity: A practical theological reflection on Twitter's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social media makes an important contribution to a rapidly changing world in which various domains of meaning are described anew. The evolving nature and dynamic character of social media therefore provides for a rich praxis terrain with which to interact from a practical theological orientation. More specifically ...

  20. Autopsy practice in Ghana – reflections of a pathologist | Anim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autopsy practice in Ghana can be said to be far from satisfactory. Most Ghanaians do not know that there are different categories of death, which categories of death require an autopsy and who is required to perform the autopsy. The problems have further been complicated by the fact that, unlike other countries where ...

  1. Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism (United States)

    Ulrich, Werner


    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and…

  2. The Current Teacher Education Programs in Ethiopia: Reflection on Practice (United States)

    Mekonnen, Geberew Tulu


    This study threw light on the current practice of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching Program at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The study focused on the enrolment, graduation and attrition proportion of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching candidates in the year 2011 and 2015. The 2011 and 2015 academic years have been purposively selected because the…

  3. Developing critical reflection for professional practice through problem-based learning. (United States)

    Williams, B


    To explore the influence of current learning traditions in nursing on the development of reflection and critical reflection as professional practice skills and to offer suggestions for nursing education that will specifically facilitate the development of critical reflection. ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCTS: Mezirow's transformative learning theory, Barrows conceptualization of problem-based learning (PBL). Integrative literature review of published literature related to nursing, health science education and professional education from 1983-2000. Professional education scholars concur that specialized knowledge is clearly essential for professional practice, however, they also suggest that self-consciousness (reflection) and continual self-critique (critical reflection) are crucial to continued competence. While strategies to facilitate reflection have been outlined in the literature, specific strategies to facilitate the development of critical reflection and implications for nursing education are much less clear. Advocates of reflective and critically reflective practice suggest that the development of these abilities should be inextricably linked to professional development and can be developed through active repeated guided practice. In health care, PBL based on constructivism, has been identified as one way to facilitate the development of these skills. Nursing learners exposed to PBL develop the ability to be reflective and critically reflective in their learning and acquire the knowledge and skill within the discipline of nursing by encountering key professional practice situations as the stimulus and focus of their classroom learning. The learners' ability to be both reflective and critically reflective in their learning is developed by critical questioning of the faculty tutor during situational analysis, learning need determination, application of knowledge, critique of resources and personal problem-solving processes, and summarization of what was learned.

  4. Anti-Memorials and the Art of Forgetting: Critical Reflections on a Memorial Design Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SueAnne Ware


    Full Text Available Andreas Huyssen writes, ‘Remembrance as a vital human activity shapes our links to the past, and the ways we remember define us in the present. As individuals and societies, we need the past to construct and to anchor our identities and to nurture a vision of the future.’ Memory is continually affected by a complex spectrum of states such as forgetting, denial, repression, trauma, recounting and reconsidering, stimulated by equally complex changes in context and changes over time. The apprehension and reflective comprehension of landscape is similarly beset by such complexities. Just as the nature and qualities of memory comprise inherently fading, shifting and fleeting impressions of things which are themselves ever-changing, an understanding of a landscape, as well as the landscape itself, is a constantly evolving, emerging response to both immense and intimate influences. There is an incongruity between the inherent changeability of both landscapes and memories, and the conventional, formal strategies of commemoration that typify the constructed landscape memorial. The design work presented in this paper brings together such explorations of memory and landscape by examining the ‘memorial’. This article examines two projects. One concerns the fate of illegal refugees travelling to Australia: The SIEVX Memorial Project. The other, An Anti-Memorial to Heroin Overdose Victims, was designed by the author as part of the 2001 Melbourne Festival.

  5. Documenting Student Engagement Using an Intention/Reflection Exercise during an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (United States)

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.


    The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…

  6. Nature vs. nurture: two brothers with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Keltner, N L; James, C A; Darling, R J; Findley, L S; Oliver, K


    The nature vs. nurture argument as it pertains to two brothers. To explore the synergistic effects of heritability and environment in the cases of two brothers with schizophrenia. Review of the literature and the authors' clinical experience. The nature vs. nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces.

  7. Reflective pedagogical practices in an era of standards based reform: What do teachers do? An examination of science teachers' communities and their contribution to the facilitation of professional growth through authentic reflection (United States)

    Chowdhary, Bhawna

    National and international science reform movements are sweeping through the educational landscape aimed at improving scientific literacy in students across the world. A myriad of professional development (PD) initiatives by governing bodies are continually initiated to help improve teacher knowledge in both science content and process. Change in not accomplished easily as visions and mission are often challenged by deeply engrained ways of being. In this study we explore the salient cultural and contextual factors that support teacher learning through the framework of Reflective Practice. The research questions aim to answer the following: (1) To what extent do teachers see PD activities connected to their daily teaching practices and (2) What are the salient cultural and contextual factors within the educational environments that encourage reflection which leads to growth in teachers? Although the geographical location, culture and PD approach of the two educational contexts vary and therefore incomparable, salient commonalities were found within the two contexts that explained a varied pattern of behavior among the participating teachers. It was found that the role of the leaders in schools, accountability structures, interaction with technology, fidelity towards the program and cultural values of the educational context deeply influenced the drive and direction of PD initiatives that led to teacher knowledge growth and change that was either fully or at the least partially realized. The knowledge gained in this study does not aim to compare one context to another, rather it points to the direction that one can go with knowledge that proves to nurture and sustain teacher knowledge growth and development through a cycle of continuous change.

  8. [Clinical ethics consultation - an integrative model for practice and reflection]. (United States)

    Reiter-Theil, Stella


    Broad evidence exists that health care professionals are facing ethical difficulties in patient care demanding a spectrum of useful ethics support services. Clinical ethics consultation is one of these forms of ethics support being effective in the acute setting. An authentic case is presented as an illustration. We introduce an integrative model covering the activities being characteristic for ethics consultation and going beyond "school"-specific approaches. Finally, we formulate some do's and don'ts of ethics consultation that are considered to be key issues for successful practice.

  9. Adaptive trials for tuberculosis: early reflections on theory and practice. (United States)

    Montgomery, C M


    Adaptive designs (ADs) have been proposed for anti-tuberculosis treatment trials. This call for innovation occurs against the backdrop of fundamental changes in the acceptable evidence base in anti-tuberculosis treatment. To contextualise ADs for tuberculosis (TB) and explore early responses from those working in the field. In this qualitative study investigating processes of theoretical and practical change in randomised controlled trials, 24 interviews were conducted with professionals involved in AD trials, half of whom worked in the TB field. Clinical trialists working on AD trials in TB are positive about the efficiency these designs offer, but remain cautious about their suitability. In addition to technical concerns, informants discussed the challenges of implementing AD in developing countries, including limited regulatory capacity to evaluate proposals, investments needed in infrastructure and site capacity, and challenges regarding informed consent. Respondents identified funding, interdisciplinary communication and regulatory and policy responses as additional concerns potentially affecting the success of AD for TB. Empirical research is needed into patient experiences of AD, including informed consent. Further consideration of the contexts of innovation in trial design is needed. These are fundamental to the successful translation of theory into practice.

  10. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Picazzio Perez Batista


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults, Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos.

  11. Judith Butler's theories: reflections for nursing research and practice. (United States)

    Nagington, Maurice G


    Judith Butler is one of the most influential late 20th and early 21st century philosophers in regard to left wing politics, as well as an active campaigner for social justice within the United States and worldwide. Her academic work has been foundational to the academic discipline of queer theory and has been extensively critiqued and applied across a hugely wide range of disciplines. In addition, Butler's work itself is extensive covering topics such as gender, sexuality, race, literary theory, and warfare. This article can only serve as a taster for the potential application of her work in relation to nursing, which is in its infancy. This introduction covers three of the potentially most productive themes in Butler's work, namely power, performativity, and ethics. Each of these themes are critically explored in turn, sometimes in relation to their actual application in nursing literature, but also in relation to their potential for producing novel critiques of nursing practice. Suggestions are made about how Butler's work can develop nursing research and practice. The article concludes with a short summary of Butler's key works as well as suggested reading for people interested in examining how her theories have been applied across different academic settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reflective practice and vocational training: theoretical approaches in the field of Health and Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Netto


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Theoretical reflection that uses Reflexivity as a theoretical reference and its objective is to approach Donald Schön's reflective thinking, interrelating it with the innovative curriculum. Method: The writings of Schön and other authors who addressed the themes in their works were used. Results: The innovative curriculum as an expression of dissatisfaction with the fragmentation paradigm may favor reflective practice, since it is necessary to mobilize reflexivity for actions and contexts that are unpredictable in the field of health promotion. Conclusions: The innovative curriculum favors and is favored by a reflective practice and the development of competencies for the promotion of health. Implications for practice: The findings apply to the practice of nurses to deal with the conditioning and determinants of the health-disease process.

  13. Integrating 3D Printing into an Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Course: Reflections on Practice (United States)

    Sullivan, Pamela; McCartney, Holly


    This reflection on practice describes a case study integrating 3D printing into a creativity course for preservice teachers. The theoretical rationale is discussed, and the steps for integration are outlined. Student responses and reflections on the experience provide the basis for our analysis. Examples and resources are provided, as well as a…

  14. Unlocking reflective practice for nurses: innovations in working with master of nursing students in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Joyce-McCoach, Joanne T; Parrish, Dominique R; Andersen, Patrea R; Wall, Natalie


    Being reflective is well established as an important conduit of practice development, a desirable tertiary graduate quality and a core competency of health professional membership. By assisting students to be more effective in their ability to reflect, they are better able to formulate strategies to manage issues experienced within a professional context, which ultimately assists them to be better service providers. However, some students are challenged by the practice of reflection and these challenges are even more notable for international students. This paper presents a teaching initiative that focused specifically on enhancing the capacity of an international cohort of nursing students, to engage in reflective practice. The initiative centered on an evaluation of a reflective practice core subject, which was taught in a Master of Nursing programme delivered in Hong Kong. A learning-centered framework was used to evaluate the subject and identify innovative strategies that would better assist international students to develop reflective practices. The outcomes of curriculum and teaching analysis and proposed changes and innovations in teaching practice to support international students are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supporting Faculty During Pedagogical Change Through Reflective Teaching Practice: An Innovative Approach. (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah K; Asselin, Marilyn E

    Given the recent calls for transformation of nursing education, it is critical that faculty be reflective educators. Reflective teaching practice is a process of self-examination and self-evaluation to gain insight into teaching to improve the teaching-learning experience. Limited attention has been given to this notion in the nursing education literature. An innovative reflective teaching practice approach for nursing education is proposed, consisting of question cues, journaling, and a process of facilitated meetings. The authors describe their perceptions of using this approach with faculty during the implementation of a new pedagogy and suggest areas for further research.

  16. Nurturance and Imitation: The Mediating Role of Attraction (United States)

    Parton, David A.; Siebold, James R.


    Describes two experiments which examine the relationship between nurturance, attraction, and imitation. The results showed a significant relationship between nurturance and attraction and no relationship between nurturance and imitation. This suggests that positive relationships between nurturance and imitation are mediated by the child's…

  17. The utility of vignettes to stimulate reflection on professionalism: theory and practice. (United States)

    Bernabeo, E C; Holmboe, E S; Ross, K; Chesluk, B; Ginsburg, S


    Professionalism remains a substantive theme in medical literature. There is an emerging emphasis on sociological and complex adaptive systems perspectives that refocuses attention from just the individual role to working within one's system to enact professionalism in practice. Reflecting on responses to professional dilemmas may be one method to help practicing physicians identify both internal and external factors contributing to (un) professional behavior. We present a rationale and theoretical framework that supports and guides a reflective approach to the self assessment of professionalism. Guided by principles grounded in this theoretical framework, we developed and piloted a set of vignettes on professionally challenging situations, designed to stimulate reflection in practicing physicians. Findings show that participants found the vignettes to be authentic and typical, and reported the group experience as facilitative around discussions of professional ambiguity. Providing an opportunity for physicians to reflect on professional behavior in an open and safe forum may be a practical way to guide physicians to assess themselves on professional behavior and engage with the complexities of their work. The finding that the focus groups led to reflection at a group level suggests that effective reflection on professional behavior may require a socially interactive process. Emphasizing both the behaviors and the internal and external context in which they occur can thus be viewed as critically important for understanding professionalism in practicing physicians.

  18. Dialogue: network that intertwines the pedagogical relationship into the practical-reflective teaching. (United States)

    Lima, Margarete Maria de; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Kloh, Daiana; Vendruscolo, Carine; Corrêa, Aline Bússolo


    to understand how dialogue occurs in the pedagogical relation in the practical reflective teaching in an undergraduate program in nursing. qualitative research, case study. Data collection was conducted from May 2013 to September 2014 with eight professors of Nursing, by means of observation and interviews. Data analysis followed the operational proposal constituted by the exploratory stage and the interpretive stage. point the dialogue established within the pedagogical relation as a challenge to be faced in practical-reflective teaching, so professor and student build a relationship that foster thought and action in the theoretical context and in the field of practice. in establishing a dialogic-reflective tone in the pedagogical relationship, the professor opens paths to new discoveries, enabling the creation of teaching-learning spaces that stimulate autonomy, abilities, and critical and reflective attitudes of students along their education.

  19. Ways of knowing: Passionate humility and reflective practice in research and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.


    For all the attention that the concept of reflective practice has attracted, very little has been said concerning what might incline someone to be open to engage in it. My concern in this essay is with two characteristics of professional, including administrative, practice-a language of certainty

  20. Novice Teachers Reflect on Their Instructional Practices While Teaching Adults Math (United States)

    Ginsburg, Lynda


    Over three years, eighty-two teachers in their first or second year of teaching participated in orientation programs for new adult educators. During the programs, they reflected on their own instructional practices when teaching mathematics to adults. The teachers identified the practice they were likely to overemphasize and explained why they…

  1. A New Theory-to-Practice Model for Student Affairs: Integrating Scholarship, Context, and Reflection (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.


    In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…

  2. Learning With Reflection: Practices in an Osteopathic Surgery Clinical Clerkship Through an Online Module. (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Farber, Susan; Chen, Haiqin; Peska, Don N


    The value of reflective practices has gained momentum in osteopathic medical education. However, the use of reflective pedagogies has not been explored in the larger context of medical course delivery and design, to the authors' knowledge. To determine the types of reflection demonstrated by osteopathic medical students on an online discussion board and to explore differences in discussion engagement caused by the use of a reflective learning self-assessment tool. Using a mixed-method approach, reflection processes in an osteopathic surgery clinical clerkship online module were investigated in third-year osteopathic medical students. Discussion board messages were captured and coded. Both manual coding techniques and automated interrogation using NVivo9 (a computer program) for qualitative data were applied. Correlations of scores across 4 case-based discussion tasks and scores for self-reflection were computed as quantitative data. Twenty-eight students were included. Four main types of reflection (ie, content, contextual, dialogic, and personal) along with corresponding differentiated subthemes for each type of case-based discussion board group message were identified. Group collaboration revealed insights about the reflection process itself and also about the evidence of collective efforts, group engagements, and intragroup support among students. Student preparation revealed that students' metacognition was triggered when they judged their own contributions to group work. Challenges in completing readings and meeting deadlines were related to the students' long work hours. Reflective practices are essential to the practice of osteopathic medicine and medical education. Curricula can promote the development of reflective skills by integrating these deliberate practices in educational activities.

  3. A year on: a critical reflection on entering the world of practice development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Benson


    Full Text Available Background and context: The Foundation of Nursing Studies, in collaboration with Mrs Elizabeth Tompkins, offered The Richard Tompkins Nurse Development Scholarship, a development opportunity to improve person-centred cultures of care. This paper reflects my experience of this scholarship year, which included attendance at a five-day residential International Practice Development Collaborative (IPDC practice development school hosted by the England Centre for Practice Development, and 12 months’ mentorship from FoNS. Aims and objectives: To reflect on my learning during the scholarship year and on its impact on my professional and personal growth. Conclusions: This experience has enabled me to examine my own values and beliefs about practice development, develop my facilitation skills and work towards becoming an effective nurse leader by integrating the principles of practice development into my everyday practice. It has been a year of challenge and meaningful reflection. The future involves engaging key individuals within the organisation to progress practice development across the workplace. Implications for practice: • The power of this mentorship experience has highlighted the importance of developing all staff, but ensuring potential mentors have had the right investment to develop the necessary skills and qualities to be effective in their role • Practice development values and beliefs have the ability to support change in culture. Using its principles to underpin ways of working leads to an engaged and enthused workforce • Being a facilitator of practice development requires energy, creativity and commitment

  4. Nurture of human resources for geological repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.


    The Japanese geological repository program entered the implementing stage in 2002. At the implementing stage of the program, different sectors need various human resources to conduct their functions. This paper discusses a suitable framework of nurture of the human resources to progress the geological repository program. The discussion is based on considering of specific characters involved in the program and of the multidisciplinary knowledge related to geological disposal. Considering the specific characters of the project, two types of the human resources need to be nurtured. First type is the core persons with the highest knowledge on geological disposal. They are expected to communicate with the various stakeholders and pass down the whole knowledge of the project to the next generation. Another is to conduct the project as the managers, the engineers and the workers. The former human resources can be developed through the broad practice and experience in each sector. The latter human resources can be effectively developed by training of the fundamental knowledge on geological disposal at training centers as well as by conventional on-the-job training. The sectors involved in the program need to take their own roles in the nurture of these human resources. (author)

  5. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree


    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  6. reflective practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administration, I have long relied on Tinto's work to provide a foundation for my own ... researchers, think about how to promote college student success. .... particularly students who are older, working full-time, and/or supporting a family of .... balance between institutional autonomy and accountability to the government?

  7. Using photography to enhance GP trainees’ reflective practice and professional development.


    Rutherford,; Forde, Emer; Priego-Hernández, J.; Butcher, Aurelia; Wedderburn, Clare


    The capacity and the commitment to reflect are integral to the practice of medicine and are core components of most GP training programmes. Teaching through the Humanities is a growing area within medical education, but one which is often considered a voluntary ‘add on’ for the interested doctor. This article describes an evaluation of a highly innovative pedagogical project which used photography as a means to enhance GP trainees’ reflective capacity, self awareness and professional developm...

  8. Promoting self-reflection in clinical practice among Chinese nursing undergraduates in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Ip, Wan Yim; Lui, May H; Chien, Wai Tong; Lee, Iris F; Lam, Lai Wah; Lee, Diana T


    This study evaluated the effect of a structured education programme on improving the self-reflection skills of Chinese nursing undergraduates in managing clinical situations. Johns' Structured Reflection Model was used as a framework for the development of the education programme. Thirty-eight nursing undergraduates attended a 3-hour interactive workshop on reflective skills and were encouraged to practise the skills learned under the guidance of a nurse instructor during their 4-week clinical practicum. The findings indicated that the programme was helpful in improving the undergraduates' reflective skills though only a few of them reached the highest level as critical reflectors. Some undergraduates identified time constraints and the lack of a trusting relationship with their nurse instructor as barriers to their reflective learning. The findings may help nurse educators develop education programmes with structured learning strategies to promote nursing undergraduates' self-refection in clinical practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samrajya LAKSHMI


    Full Text Available Journal writing and Peer Observation in an educational context have become popular techniques, with several different types of applications. They have now been used quite widely in both language teaching and in teacher training. However, despite its reported advantages in both teaching and research, there are not many Peer Observation and Diary studies available based on the writing of experienced language teachers. The Teacher participants maintain Journal writing and Peer Observation as a means of reflective practice. They consider these practices as a mirror, which reflects the teacher’s own image as a practioner. The post-reflection discussion reveals that the teacher participants believe in reflective practice as an effective means of self-evaluation and of developing sensitivity to students’ learning. This paper examines Peer Observation and journal writing of two teachers working on the same language programme in terms of a variety of topic headings, and suggests that reflective practice can be a useful tool for both classroom research and teachers’ professional development.

  10. A Practice-Based Approach to Student Reflection in the Workplace during a Work-Integrated Learning Placement (United States)

    Sykes, Christopher; Dean, Bonnie Amelia


    In the Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) curriculum, reflection on workplace activities is widely used to support student learning. Recent critiques have demonstrated the limitations of current approaches to support students' reflective learning of workplace practices. By employing a practice-based approach, we seek to refocus WIL reflection on…

  11. A Reflection upon the "Getting Practical" Programme: Rethinking How We Teach Practical Science (United States)

    Brennan, Nikki


    In this article, the author provides an overview of the "Getting Practical" training programme of professional development for all those involved with teaching practical science at primary, secondary, and post-16 levels. The programme is being led by the ASE, working with its co-ordinating partners: the Centre for Science Education,…

  12. Constructivism and Reflective Practice in Practice: Challenges and Dilemmas of a Mathematics Educator. (United States)

    Frid, Sandra


    Examines some reasons for the gap between teacher education and school practices, a potential conflict between teacher educator's views and pre-service teacher's own views of their learning, and negligence in examining the discourses within which educational practices are constituted. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/ASK)

  13. The tacit care knowledge in reflective writing – a practical wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rykkje


    Full Text Available Background: The Norwegian municipal welfare system provides home healthcare and residential services to a growing population of older people. The skills and competence of the personnel providing these services need to keep pace with demand, and continuing education is vital. A concern, though, is the way positivist knowledge permeates both education and healthcare services; recognising other types of knowledge, such as tacit knowledge together with practical wisdom, is important to complement the focus on evidence-based practice. Aims and objectives: This article addresses the need for healthcare professionals to develop open-minded reflection in writing and in action, as keys to expressing tacit knowledge and thus making it more visible. Moreover, tacit knowledge may also represent practical wisdom, or ‘phronesis’. The aim is to bring forward examples of the often invisible and unrecognised expertise held by experienced nurses and other healthcare professionals. Method: This discussion paper is based on reflection notes written by students doing continuing education in advanced gerontology. Some of the situational dilemmas that students bring forward in their texts are retold, and these stories represent traces of tacit care knowledge, and practical wisdom or phronesis. Findings: Reflection may strengthen students’ ethical autonomy and imagination, which is important in healthcare professionals’ caregiving. Reflective writing is part of the educational pathway and contributes to the development of personal tacit knowledge and wisdom. The experiences put forward in the student’s stories become part of their ability to act and care; this embodied knowledge is understood as part of what phronesis might be. Implications for practice: Fostering healthcare professionals’ self-awareness through reflection can help them come to a realisation and understanding that opens up new alternatives for action Reflection may increase awareness of

  14. Reflections on the newly qualified social worker's journey : From university training to qualified practice


    Walker, Clare


    This qualitative research study explores the experience of graduating social workers making the transition from university training into work as qualified social work practitioners. Most studies in this area look at the practice readiness of the newly qualified professional. This study looks at the participants’ experience in the work place. How do participants experience this journey of transition? What skills, particularly reflective practice and supervision, learned in training, are import...

  15. Reflective Journaling for Critical Thinking Development in Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Students. (United States)

    Raterink, Ginger


    Critical thinking, clinical decision making, and critical reflection have been identified as skills required of nurses in every clinical situation. The Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation report suggested that critical reflection is a key to improving the educational process. Reflective journaling is a tool that helps develop such skills. This article presents the tool of reflective journaling and the use of this process by educators working with students. It describes the use of reflective journaling in graduate nursing education, as well as a scoring process to evaluate the reflection and provide feedback. Students and faculty found the journaling to be helpful for reflection of a clinical situation focused on critical thinking skill development. The rubric scoring tool provided faculty with a method for feedback. Reflective journaling is a tool that faculty and students can use to develop critical thinking skills for the role of the advanced practice RN. A rubric scoring system offers a consistent format for feedback. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Taking the learning beyond the individual: how reflection informs change in practice. (United States)

    Muir, Fiona; Scott, Mairi; McConville, Kevin; Watson, Kenneth; Behbehani, Kazem; Sukkar, Faten


    The purpose of this research was to explore the value of reflection and its application to practice through the implementation of educational modules within a new Diabetes Care and Education Master Degree Programme in Kuwait, and to realise how this teaching intervention informs changes in practice. A small exploratory case study was conducted within the Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait. A qualitative approach using focus group interviews was carried out with seventeen participants all of whom are studying on the Diabetes Care and Education Master Degree Programme in Kuwait. An inductive approach to thematic analysis, which focused on examining themes within data, was performed. The results indicate that participants value the opportunity to study through organised, structured and assessed reflection. The learning provides useful information and support to the participant by highlighting the role which reflection plays to enhance personal and professional development, the value of educational theory, continuing professional development, collaboration and enhancing patient education and practice. The significance of reflection is often seen in the literature as an important aspect of professional competence. This research has highlighted the value of reflection as a key component within a new educational programme.

  17. Mathematics teachers’ reflective practice within the context of adapted lesson study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Posthuma


    Full Text Available There seems to be paucity of research in South Africa on mathematics teachers’ reflective practice. In order to study this phenomenon, the context of lesson study (in an adapted form was introduced to five mathematics teachers in a rural school in the Free State. The purpose was to investigate their reflective practice whilst they collaboratively planned mathematics lessons and reflected on the teaching of the lessons. Data were obtained through interviews, video-recorded lesson observations, field notes taken during the lesson study group meetings and document analyses (lesson plans and reflective writings. The adapted lesson study context provided a safe space for teachers to reflect on their teaching and they reported an increase in self-knowledge and finding new ways of teaching mathematics to learners. This finding has some potential value for planning professional learning programmes in which teachers are encouraged to talk about their classroom experiences, share their joys and challenges with one another and strive to build a community of reflective practitioners to enhance their learners’ understanding of mathematics.

  18. e-Portfolio as reflection tool during teaching practice: The interplay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on an e-portfolio pilot initiative at the Faculty of Education ... expectations of an e-portfolio aligns with the current practices and attributes ... will impact the potential success of the integration of e-portfolios as reflective tools.

  19. The Role of Reflective Practices in Building Social Capital in Organizations from an HRD Perspective (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshie Tomozumi; Yorks, Lyle


    Social capital has been receiving increasing attention in the field of human resource development (HRD). However, little is known as to how social capital has been formed or has grown over time with HRD interventions. There is limited research and discussion on how reflective practices play a role in the development of social capital as…

  20. Blogging as a method to stimulate entrepreneurial reflective practice learning in physiotherapy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina


    The aim was to identify, create and test an easy and low cost method that stimulates physiotherapy students to become reflective practice learners. Thus blogging was selected as a tool for students to use in their learning process. Blogging is considered to be a useful tool to support students...

  1. Reflection into China's Business English Teaching Practices Based on GDUFS Graduates' Employment Status (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Wu, Si; Guo, Tingting


    GDUFS, as one of China's top three foreign language universities with the longest history in business English teaching, has accumulated over 20-year experiences in this discipline. This research reflects into its business English teaching practices based on its graduates' employment status in recent years, and concludes that the students of…

  2. Chat It Up: Backchanneling to Promote Reflective Practice among In-Service Teachers (United States)

    Kassner, Laura D.; Cassada, Kate M.


    In a graduate education course geared toward developing reflective teaching practice in in-service teachers, backchannels, in the form of chat rooms, were employed in small groups to facilitate peer feedback during viewings of video recorded instruction. This study examined the nature and quality of peer feedback exchanged in the digital medium…

  3. Reflective Practice as Professional Development: Experiences of Teachers of English in Japan (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsuko


    This book presents a researcher's work on reflective practice with a group of high school teachers of English in Japan. Beginning with a series of uncomfortable teacher training sessions delivered to unwilling participants, the book charts the author's development of new methods of engaging her participants and making use of their own experiences…

  4. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations (United States)

    Phan, Huy Phuong


    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  5. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve


    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  6. Reflective Practice in the Ballet Class: Bringing Progressive Pedagogy to the Classical Tradition (United States)

    Zeller, Jessica


    This research seeks to broaden the dialogue on progressive ballet pedagogy through an examination of reflective practices in the ballet class. Ballet's traditional model of instruction has long required students to quietly comply with the pedagogue's directives, and it has thus become notorious for promoting student passivity. Despite strong…

  7. Leveraging Faculty Reflective Practice to Understand Active Learning Spaces: Flashbacks and Re-Captures (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.


    Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…

  8. Some Reflections about Writing "A History of Thought and Practice in Educational Administration." (United States)

    Campbell, Roald F.

    A coauthor of a book on the history of thought and practice in educational administration reflects on issues raised during the writing of the book as follows: (1) Categories of administrative thought are difficult to establish. Two categories were derived from Richard Scott's rational systems approach--scientific management and bureaucracy. The…

  9. Mastery, Enjoyment, Tradition and Innovation: A Reflective Practice Model for Instrumental and Vocal Teachers (United States)

    Parkinson, Tom


    This article offers a model to assist music teachers in reflecting on their teaching practice in relation to their aims and values. Initially developed as a workshop aid for use on a music education MA program, the model is intended to provoke critical engagement with two prominent tensions in music education: that between mastery and enjoyment,…

  10. Care erosion in hospitals: Problems in reflective nursing practice and the role of cognitive dissonance. (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Timmins, Fiona


    Care erosion - gradual decline in care level - is an important problem in health care today. Unfortunately, the mechanism whereby it occurs is complex and poorly understood. This paper seeks to address this by emphasising problems in reflective nursing practice. Critical reflection on quality of care which should drive good care instead spawns justifications, denial, and trivialisation of deficient care. This perpetuates increasingly poor care levels. We argue that cognitive dissonance theory provides a highly effective understanding of this process and suggest for this approach to be incorporated in all efforts to address care erosion. The paper includes a detailed discussion of examples and implications for practice, in particular the need to restore critical reflection in nursing, the importance of embracing strong values and standards, and the need for increased awareness of signs of care erosion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultivating Critical Reflection: Educators Making Sense and Meaning of Professional Identity and Relational Dynamics in Complex Practice (United States)

    Morgan, Ann


    Critical reflection underpins socially just and inclusive practices that are distinguishing features of democratic learning communities. Critical reflection supports educators' interrogation of the underlying assumptions, intentions, values and beliefs that shape their worldview and sociocultural standpoint. Dominant sociocultural norms…

  12. A professional experience learning community for secondary mathematics: developing pre-service teachers' reflective practice (United States)

    Cavanagh, Michael; McMaster, Heather


    This paper reports on the reflective practice of a group of nine secondary mathematics pre-service teachers. The pre-service teachers participated in a year-long, school-based professional experience program which focussed on observing, co-teaching and reflecting on a series of problem-solving lessons in two junior secondary school mathematics classrooms. The study used a mixed methods approach to consider the impact of shared pedagogical conversations on pre-service teachers' written reflections. It also examined whether there were differences in the focus of reflections depending on whether the lesson was taught by an experienced mathematics teacher, or taught by a pair of their peers, or co-taught by themselves with a peer. Results suggest that after participants have observed lessons taught by an experienced teacher and reflected collaboratively on those lessons, they continue to reflect on lessons taught by their peers and on their own lessons when co-teaching, rather than just describe or evaluate them. However, their written reflections across all contexts continued to focus primarily on teacher actions and classroom management rather than on student learning.

  13. An Integrative Professional Theory and Practice Paper: Personal Reflections from the Journey through Clinical Pastoral Education. (United States)

    McLean, Gillian


    CPE is an experience-based approach to learning spiritual care which combines clinical care with qualified supervision, in-class education and group reflection (CASC-- Through didactic seminars, group presentations and personal reading there is opportunity for the student to acquire, apply and integrate relevant theoretical information into their practice. Written for my CPE Specialist application, this paper describes how, through the course of advanced CPE education, I learn to utilize and integrate theory into my clinical work. Beginning with three strands--authenticity, listening and storytelling--I then discuss how the behavioural sciences and theology inform my practice. Focusing on empathy, I speak of the application of disclosure, the use of counter-transference as a diagnostic tool, and the place of therapeutic termination. Group theory, family systems theory, theological reflection, liturgical ministry, and multi-faith practices are considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Standard Practice for Calculation of Photometric Transmittance and Reflectance of Materials to Solar Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice describes the calculation of luminous (photometric) transmittance and reflectance of materials from spectral radiant transmittance and reflectance data obtained from Test Method E 903. 1.2 Determination of luminous transmittance by this practice is preferred over measurement of photometric transmittance by methods using the sun as a source and a photometer as detector except for transmitting sheet materials that are inhomogeneous, patterned, or corrugated. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. TESOL, A Profession That Eats its Young: The Importance of Reflective Practice in Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SC Farrell


    Full Text Available The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL is similar to other fields in that we must not take it for granted that novice teachers will survive their first year without some kind of support. This paper outlines how three novice ESL teachers in Canada survived their first year without any support from the school they were placed. Specifically, the paper outlines how they, with the aid of a facilitator, engaged in reflective practice by using a framework for reflecting on practice to help them navigate complex issues and challenges they faced during their first year of teaching. Had they not engaged in such structured reflection during their first year, they would have probably become another statistic of those who quit the profession and contribute to the growing perception that TESOL is a profession that eats its young. The paper suggests that language teacher educators and novice teachers should not just wait until their first year to learn the skills of reflective practice but should do so much earlier in their teacher education programs so that they can be better prepared for the transition from their teacher education programs to the first year of teaching.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti


    Full Text Available Classroom management is commonly believed to be the key to the success of an instruction. Many student teachers, however, might find it very challenging to handle their classrooms. It is, therefore, necessary to advance their professional practice in the context of a real classroom such as through teaching practicum and reflective practice. This study is aimed at identifying classroom management problems of student-teachers as revealed in their reflective journal entries and to demonstrate how such journal can help them develop their classroom management skills. The participants were 10 student-teachers of the English Department, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Central Java, who underwent their teaching practicum at SMP 2 Salatiga. Through the participants’ journals, it was found that the problems lie in managing critical moments, activity, techniques, grouping and seating, authority, tools, and working with people. Further in this study, both pre- and in-service tertiary teachers, curriculum designers, and policy makers will be taken to deeply examine how reflective practice can help cultivate the pre-service’s classroom management skills and to consider the implication for pedagogical practices and innovations in curriculum development.

  17. Reflective practices at the Security Council: Children and armed conflict and the three United Nations. (United States)

    Bode, Ingvild


    The United Nations Security Council passed its first resolution on children in armed conflict in 1999, making it one of the oldest examples of Security Council engagement with a thematic mandate and leading to the creation of a dedicated working group in 2005. Existing theoretical accounts of the Security Council cannot account for the developing substance of the children and armed conflict agenda as they are macro-oriented and focus exclusively on states. I argue that Security Council decision-making on thematic mandates is a productive process whose outcomes are created by and through practices of actors across the three United Nations: member states (the first United Nations), United Nations officials (the second United Nations) and non-governmental organizations (the third United Nations). In presenting a practice-based, micro-oriented analysis of the children and armed conflict agenda, the article aims to deliver on the empirical promise of practice theories in International Relations. I make two contributions to practice-based understandings: first, I argue that actors across the three United Nations engage in reflective practices of a strategic or tactical nature to manage, arrange or create space in Security Council decision-making. Portraying practices as reflective rather than as only based on tacit knowledge highlights how actors may creatively adapt their practices to social situations. Second, I argue that particular individuals from the three United Nations are more likely to become recognized as competent performers of practices because of their personality, understood as plural socialization experiences. This adds varied individual agency to practice theories that, despite their micro-level interests, have focused on how agency is relationally constituted.

  18. Nurturing the Young Shoots of Talent: Using Action Research for Exploration and Theory Building (United States)

    Koshy, Valsa; Pascal, Christine


    This paper reports the outcomes of a set of action research projects carried out by teacher researchers in 14 local education authorities in England, working collaboratively with university tutors, over a period of three years. The common aim of all the projects was to explore practical ways of nurturing the gifts and talents of children aged…

  19. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi


    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph


    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  1. From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    From Survival to Sustainability : Nurturing Adaptive Livelihood Strategies in Pakistan. On October 8, 2005, an earthquake destroyed 90% of the town of tehsil Balakot, Mansehra district, Pakistan. According to the Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) the earthquake left a total of 24 511 dead and ...

  2. Nurturing Care for China's Orphaned Children (United States)

    Cotton, Janice N.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Zhao, Wen; Gelabert, Jeronia Muntaner


    Half the Sky, an international NGO, works in partnership with Chinese national and provincial governments inside state-run orphanages (welfare institutions). Through their infant nurture programs infants and toddlers in institutions begin to thrive through primary relationship-based care by trained community paraprofessionals. In preschool…

  3. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne


    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  4. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities. (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A


    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  5. Open access and knowledge sharing: reflections on the Pathfinder projects and Open Access Good Practice initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah DeGroff


    Full Text Available The following article provides a selection of reflections from a number of higher education institutions and their staff about participation in the UK-wide Pathfinder project scheme. These nine projects (comprising 30 institutions form the core of the Jisc-funded Open Access Good Practice initiative. They have produced a wide range of outputs which endorse and encourage best practice when implementing open access across institutions. Each project has a blog where progress and outputs can be tracked. Details are listed at the end of this article.

  6. Ethical issues in physiotherapy--reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice. (United States)

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues as they are understood and experienced by Danish physiotherapists in outpatient, private practice. A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analyzed, using a phenomenological hermeneutic framework. One main theme emerged: The ideal of being beneficent toward the patient. Here, the ethical issues uncovered in the interviews were embedded in three code-groups: 1) ethical issues related to equality; 2) feeling obligated to do one's best; and 3) transgression of boundaries. In an ethical perspective, physiotherapy in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized by asymmetrical power encounters where the parties are in close physical and emotional contact, practiced physiotherapy has many ethical issues embedded. Some physiotherapists meet these issues in a professional manner, but others meet them in unconscious or unprofessional ways. An explicit ethical consciousness among Danish physiotherapists in private practice seems to be needed. A debate of how to understand and respect the individual physiotherapist's moral versus the ethics of the profession needs to be addressed.

  7. Interpretative Social Work: On the Uses of Qualitative Methods for Practice, Reflection and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Völter


    Full Text Available Qualitative methods could play an important role in the context of a lively, life-world oriented, and emancipatory self-reflective social work. They are already applied in three realms of social work: social work research, the daily practice of social workers and professional self-reflection. Even though these three realms overlap they are three distinct spheres of knowledge and action, which have specific aims. Therefore qualitative methods have to be adjusted to the needs of social science, practice and practice reflection. When students and practitioners of social work learn to use qualitative methods in this sense, they gain a competence which can be referred to as "ethnographic sophistication." This "ethnographic sophistication" contains essential elements of social work professionalism. Familiarity with qualitative methods and their application are highly relevant for the acquisition of basic competencies in social work, i.e., that what has become known as "reconstructive social pedagogy" is much more than just one social work method among others. But a consequence of the introduction of academic reforms of the so called "Bologna process" all over Europe is that it has become more difficult in many universities and universities of applied sciences to implement this approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801563

  8. A Three-Year Reflective Writing Program as Part of Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (United States)

    Vaughn, Jessica; Kerr, Kevin; Zielenski, Christopher; Toppel, Brianna; Johnson, Lauren; McCauley, Patrina; Turner, Christopher J.


    Objectives. To implement and evaluate a 3-year reflective writing program incorporated into introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) in the first- through third-year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Design. Reflective writing was integrated into 6 IPPE courses to develop students’ lifelong learning skills. In their writing, students were required to self-assess their performance in patient care activities, identify and describe how they would incorporate learning opportunities, and then evaluate their progress. Practitioners, faculty members, and fourth-year PharmD students served as writing preceptors. Assessment. The success of the writing program was assessed by reviewing class performance and surveying writing preceptor’s opinions regarding the student’s achievement of program objectives. Class pass rates averaged greater than 99% over the 8 years of the program and the large majority of the writing preceptors reported that student learning objectives were met. A support pool of 99 writing preceptors was created. Conclusions. A 3-year reflective writing program improved pharmacy students’ reflection and reflective writing skills. PMID:23788811

  9. The experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice: a collaborative reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighide M. Lynch


    Full Text Available Background: In 2010 a community of practice was set up for and by doctoral students engaged in person-centred and practitioner research. After three years, this community became part of a larger international community of practice. Aims and objectives: Captured under the stanzas of a poem and supported by the literature, this paper uses member narratives and creative expressions in a critical reflection on the experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice. Conclusions: Membership in the community of practice was experienced as beneficial, providing both support and challenge to enrich the doctoral students’ development as person-centred researchers. Retaining connectivity across an international landscape and finding effective ways to integrate new members into the community presented the greatest challenges. Implications for practice development: • The theoretical foundation and experiential knowledge could assist others considering support structures for the development of person-centred practices • Shared learning and co-creation of knowledge add value to the experience of being a doctoral researcher • Membership fluctuations present challenges to continuity of learning and the maintenance of a safe space with communities of practice. Such fluctuations, however, create chances for community members to experience diverse roles within the group and encourage explicit attention to person-centredness

  10. The unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa: Reflections and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mookgo S. Kgatle


    Full Text Available This article reflects and makes recommendations on the recent unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa. Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa refer to churches that have crossed denominational boundaries. These churches idolise the miraculous, healing, deliverance and enactment of bizarre church performances often performed by charismatic and highly influential spiritual leaders. There have been unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches that include, among others, the eating of grass, eating of snakes, drinking of petrol, spraying of Doom on the congregants and other experiences. There are many possible theological, psychological and socio-economic explanations for these unusual practices. Given the facts that many South Africans experience various socio-economic challenges, it is argued here that the socio-economic factor is the main explanation for the support of these unusual practices. The unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa are critically unpacked by looking at various churches where the incidents happened. The possible theological, psychological and socio-economic explanations for such practices are outlined in detail. Recommendations are made based on the scientific findings on the unusual practices.

  11. Reflective Practice in the Clinical Setting: A Multi-Institutional Qualitative Study of Pediatric Faculty and Residents. (United States)

    Plant, Jennifer; Li, Su-Ting T; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Bogetz, Alyssa L; Long, Michele; Butani, Lavjay


    To explore when and in what form pediatric faculty and residents practice reflection. From February to June 2015, the authors conducted focus groups of pediatric faculty and residents at the University of California, Davis; Stanford University; and the University of California, San Francisco, until thematic saturation occurred. Transcripts were analyzed based on Mezirow's and Schon's models of reflection, using the constant comparative method associated with grounded theory. Two investigators independently coded transcripts and reconciled codes to develop themes. All investigators reviewed the codes and developed a final list of themes through consensus. Through iterative discussions, investigators developed a conceptual model of reflection in the clinical setting. Seventeen faculty and 20 residents from three institutions participated in six focus groups. Five themes emerged: triggers of reflection, intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors, timing, and outcome of reflection. Various triggers led to reflection; whether a specific trigger led to reflection depended on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. When reflection occurred, it happened in action or on action. Under optimal conditions, this reflection was goal and action directed and became critical reflection. In other instances, this process resulted in unproductive rumination or acted as an emotional release or supportive therapy. Participants reflected in clinical settings, but did not always explicitly identify it as reflection or reflect in growth-promoting ways. Strategies to enhance critical reflection include developing knowledge and skills in reflection, providing performance data to inform reflection, creating time and space for safe reflection, and providing mentorship to guide the process.

  12. Practical theology as ‘healing of memories’: Critical reflections on a specific methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Nell


    Full Text Available When developing new perspectives and paradigms for practical theology in South Africa, we obviously have to take our South African context seriously. We live in a post-conflict society in which gigantic sociocultural shifts have taken place since 1994. Many institutions and groups endeavour to address the conflict, injustices and pain of the past, including the Institute for the Healing of Memories (IHOM. The Institute makes use of a specific methodology in their workshops. Having participated in these workshops in congregational contexts as well as in the training of theological students, in this article I investigated the methodology of the Institute as a framework for new perspectives on practical theology in South Africa. Making use of Victor Turner’s theoretical construct of ‘social drama’ as one way of looking at the methodology of the IHOM, I reflected critically on the challenges that it poses to practical theology by making use of a ‘rhetorical frame’ and trying to delineate some constructive proposals for further reflections on practical theological paradigms and perspectives.

  13. Constructing Meaning from Letterforms: Reflections on the Development of a Practice-Based Research Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Jones


    Full Text Available Research paradigms are only starting to emerge in relation to art and design practice. Consequently, research design in this domain often employs perspectives and methods developed in other disciplines. This paper traces the development of a proposal that combines theories from cognitive linguistics with graphic design practice. It describes the resulting challenges to and transformations of my long-held assumptions and understanding about graphic design and the communication process. It also outlines the way in which semantic analysis (a method from cognitive linguistics will be used in conjunction with different forms of visualisation--with visualisation used as a method to generate data for analysis as well as to present findings. Finally, it argues for an engagement by designers with conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual blending theory, as a way to facilitate reflection on design practice.

  14. Tracing the becoming of reflective practitioner through the enactment of epistemic practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenca, Mihaela


    Purpose – This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for tracing the cognitive and affective micro-processes management accountants can draw upon to construct themselves as reflective practitioners within organizational context. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on pragmatic...... can resonate, leading to the development of functioning practices. Research limitations/implications – Providing a framework for tracing the micro-processes of epistemic practices can serve as a tool for researchers to acquire a more detailed account of the practice and. By looking...... for creating trustworthy knowledge and the processes through which actors can diminish the proactive-pragmatic truth gap. Findings – The framework shows how the participatory function of the mind, deeply rooted in affective processes, is implicated in creating empathic engagement with epistemic objects...

  15. Exploring the Principles and Practices of One Teacher of L2 Speaking: The Importance of Reflecting on Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell


    Full Text Available Teacher principles encompass a teacher’s stated assumptions, beliefs, and conceptions about acquiring and teaching a second language (L2. Due to the complex and diversified nature of how principles take form, an individual teacher’s principles will influence their judgements, perceptions and instructional decisions, thus affecting the outcome of classroom practices. Exploring teacher principles and their impact on classroom practices and vice versa is an invaluable and necessary component to research in L2 teaching and learning since it plays an influential role in instructional outcomes.This paper explores the nature of the principles/practice relationship through an investigative case study with an ESL teacher of L2 speaking. Additionally, the results of research on principles and practices related to L2 teaching when conducted by academics rarely gets back to teachers in the front lines. Thus the researchers shared their findings with the teacher who as a result of reflecting on the analysis came up with a set of principles she says guides her teaching of L2 speaking.

  16. Player-Driven Video Analysis to Enhance Reflective Soccer Practice in Talent Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Anders; Henriksen, Kristoffer; Elbæk, Lars


    consistent video analyses and tagging; coaches are important as role models and providers of feedback; and that the use of the platform primarily stimulated deliberate practice activities. PU can be seen as a source of inspiration for soccer players and clubs as to how analytical platforms can motivate......In the present article, we investigate the introduction of a cloud-based video analysis platform called Player Universe (PU). Video analysis is not a new performance-enhancing element in sports, but PU is innovative in how it facilitates reflective learning. Video analysis is executed in the PU...... platform by involving the players in the analysis process, in the sense that they are encouraged to tag game actions in video-documented soccer matches. Following this, players can get virtual feedback from their coach. Findings show that PU can improve youth soccer players' reflection skills through...

  17. Tracing the becoming of reflective practitioner through the enactment of epistemic practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenca, Mihaela


    Purpose - This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for tracing the cognitive and affective micro-processes management accountants can draw upon to construct themselves as reflective practitioners within organizational context. Design/methodology/approach - Drawing on pragmatic...... constructivism and Heron's (1992) theory of learning and personhood, the framework provides a methodology for tracing the way management accountants can construct themselves as reflective practitioners by enactig epistemic practices (Cetina, 2001). Furthermore, we enquire into the epistemological requirements...... for creating trustworthy knowledge and the processes through which actors can diminish the proactive-pragmatic truth gap. Findings - The framework shows how the participatory function of the mind, deeply rooted in affective processes, is implicated in creating empathic engagement with epistemic objects...

  18. Self-assessment, reflection on practice and critical thinking in nursing students. (United States)

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen


    In accordance with the principles of the European Higher Education Area, the aim of this study was to contribute to the implementation of self-assessment through the application of reflection on learning and critical thinking. The theoretical framework employed was Habermas's critical theory and emancipatory interest as a preliminary step to generate educational transformations. The methodological contribution is the design a student self-assessment document that promotes reflection on action and critical thinking. The development of assessment through peer evaluation and other intermediate solutions until achieving self-assessment entails a shift in the educational and scientific paradigm, but also involves the implementation in practice of democratic and ethical principles, values and premises in society. Self-assessment is a novel concept for students, and obliges them to reinterpret their role. Due to the diversity of students' principles, values, motivations, interests and aspirations, this reinterpretation of their role can have a positive outcome, stimulating an active and critical attitude towards group work and self-assessment; or, on the contrary, can generate a stance characterised by disinterest, passivity and lack of critical thinking. The forms of assessment adopted in a given educational system reflect ways of thinking related to ideologies, values, ethical principles and educational paradigms: in order to render implementation of effective self-assessment feasible, it is necessary to undertake structural and regulatory reforms. Students have little experience of reflection on practice or critical thinking. Massification and cultural and structural factors determine the form of assessment. In this context, it would seem advisable to move towards self-assessment gradually and cautiously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Personalized instructor responses to guided student reflections: Analysis of two instructors' perspectives and practices (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.


    One way to foster a supportive culture in physics departments is for instructors to provide students with personal attention regarding their academic difficulties. To this end, we have developed the Guided Reflection Form (GRF), an online tool that facilitates student reflections and personalized instructor responses. In the present work, we report on the experiences and practices of two instructors who used the GRF in an introductory physics lab course. Our analysis draws on two sources of data: (i) post-semester interviews with both instructors and (ii) the instructors' written responses to 134 student reflections. Interviews focused on the instructors' perceptions about the goals and framing of the GRF activity, and characteristics of good or bad feedback. Their GRF responses were analyzed for the presence of up to six types of statement: encouraging statements, normalizing statements, empathizing statements, strategy suggestions, resource suggestions, and feedback to the student on the structure of students' reflections. We find that both instructors used all six response types, in alignment with their perceptions of what counts as good feedback. In addition, although each instructor had their own unique feedback style, both instructors' feedback practices were compatible with two principles for effective feedback: praise should focus on effort, express confidence in students' abilities, and be sincere; and process-level feedback should be specific and strategy-oriented. This exploratory qualitative investigation demonstrates that the GRF can serve as a mechanism for instructors to pay personal attention to their students. In addition, it opens the door to future work about the impact of the GRF on student-teacher interactions.

  20. Empowering student leaders to nurture the first year experience through cross-cultural diversity. A Practice Report Nāu te raurau, Nāku te raurau, ka ora ai te iwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Laurs


    Full Text Available Victoria University offers a number of peer-support and mentoring programs for first-year students, including Te Pūtahi Atawahi (mentoring and holistic support for Māori and Pasifika students, PASS (Peer Assisted Study Support and Campus Coaches (Orientation Week guides. In the past, despite having similar goals of providing peer-support to foster a sense of community, such programs have operated in isolation. However, a recent initiative has seen the development of a core leadership training module, jointly designed and delivered by staff from Te Pūtahi Atawhai and Student Learning Support. Seeking to equip student-leaders with an understanding of some of the holistic Māori values, Kotahitanga (unity, Ako (teaching and learning, Manaakitanga (empathy/hospitality, Whakamana (respect, Whakanui (acknowledging success, Whakawhanaungatanga (building strong networks and Rangatiratanga (ability to bring groups together/Self-direction, this core training offers the potential to strengthen Treaty of Waitangi relationships and nurture inter-cultural awareness, developing a pan-university sense of belongingness in the process. 

  1. Interprofessional, practice-driven research: reflections of one "community of inquiry" based in acute stroke. (United States)

    Hubbard, I J; Vyslysel, G; Parsons, M W


    Research is often scholarship driven and the findings are then channelled into the practice community on the assumption that it is utilising an evidence-based approach in its service delivery. Because of persisting difficulties in bridging the practice-evidence gap in health care, there has been a call for more active links between researchers and practitioners. The authors were part of an interprofessional research initiative which originated from within an acute stroke clinical community. This research initiative aimed to encourage active participation of health professionals employed in the clinical setting and active collaboration across departments and institutions. On reflection, it appeared that in setting up an interprofessional, practice-driven research collaborative, achievements included the instigation of a community of inquiry and the affording of opportunities for allied health professionals to be actively involved in research projects directly related to their clinical setting. Strategies were put in place to overcome the challenges faced which included managing a demanding and frequently changing workplace, and overcoming differences in professional knowledge, skills and expertise. From our experience, we found that interprofessional, practice-driven research can encourage allied health professionals to bridge the practice-evidence gap, and is a worthwhile experience which we would encourage others to consider.

  2. The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education. (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen


    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. How do medical specialists value their own intercultural communication behaviour? A reflective practice study. (United States)

    Paternotte, E; Scheele, F; van Rossum, T R; Seeleman, M C; Scherpbier, A J J A; van Dulmen, A M


    Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how purposefully medical specialists think they practise intercultural communication and how they reflect on their own communication behaviour. Using reflective practice, 17 medical specialists independently watched two fragments of videotapes of their own outpatient consultations: one with a native patient and one with a non-native patient. They were asked to reflect on their own communication and on challenges they experience in intercultural communication. The interviews were open coded and analysed using thematic network analysis. The participants experienced only little differences in their communication with native and non-native patients. They mainly mentioned generic communication skills, such as listening and checking if the patient understood. Many participants experienced their communication with non-native patients positively. The participants mentioned critical incidences of intercultural communication: language barriers, cultural differences, the presence of an interpreter, the role of the family and the atmosphere. Despite extensive experience in intercultural communication, the participants of this study noticed hardly any differences between their own communication behaviour with native and non-native patients. This could mean that they are unaware that consultations with non-native patients might cause them to communicate differently than with native patients. The reason for this could be that medical specialists lack the skills to reflect on the process of the communication. The participants focused on their generic communication skills rather than on specific intercultural communication skills, which could either indicate their lack of awareness, or demonstrate that

  4. Social Media Impact: Utility of Reflective Approach in the Practice of Surgery. (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Zia; Shahid, Hassan; Shuaib, Waqas


    Social media is rapidly being incorporated into medical education. We created a small group, reflective practice sessions by integrating specific medical cases to improve awareness about professionalism on social media. Medical scenarios were generated for reflective practice sessions on social media professionalism. Anonymous pre/post-session surveys evaluated residents' use of social media and gathered their opinions on the session. Thirty-eight of 48 (79 %) residents replied to the presession survey with 50 % (19/38) reporting daily digital media use, 76 % (29/38) witnessed unprofessional postings on social media, and 21 % (8/38) posted unprofessional content themselves. Of the 79 % (30/38) residents who attended the session, 74 % (28/38) completed the post-session survey. Residents reported the session added to the longevity of their professional career 4.11, 95 % CI (3.89-4.36). As a result of the session, they were more conscious of using the social media more professionally 3.47, 95 % CI (2.88-3.96) and would be proactive in protecting patient privacy and confidentiality on social media sites 3.96, 95 % CI (3.50-4.37). In summary, reflective practice-based sessions regarding the impact of social media on professionalism in surgery was well favored by the residents. The majority agreed that it had important implications for the longevity of their professional career. Participants reported having an increased awareness to protect patient privacy and utilize social media more professionally.

  5. Neural networks of human nature and nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Levine


    Full Text Available Neural network methods have facilitated the unification of several unfortunate splits in psychology, including nature versus nurture. We review the contributions of this methodology and then discuss tentative network theories of caring behavior, of uncaring behavior, and of how the frontal lobes are involved in the choices between them. The implications of our theory are optimistic about the prospects of society to encourage the human potential for caring.

  6. Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in Terrorism (United States)


    Becomes Her: The Changing Roles of Women’s Role in Terror." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2010: 91-98. ———. Dying to Kill...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION . REPORT NUMBER Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warflghting School 7800 Hampton Blvd...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in

  7. Using the Real-time Instructor Observing Tool (RIOT) for Reflection on Teaching Practice (United States)

    Paul, Cassandra; West, Emily


    As physics educators, we are constantly looking for ways to improve our practice. There are many different kinds of professional development opportunities that have been shown to help us with this endeavor. We can seek assistance from professionals, like mentor teachers or centers for faculty development, we can attend workshops to learn new curricula or pedagogical skills, and we can engage in learning communities to develop shared visions and become more reflective educators. However, when these activities end, what can we do on our own to continue to improve? How can we track our improvement? And perhaps even most importantly, what can we do when these resources aren't available to us? While publications like The Physics Teacher offer excellent pedagogical practices we can try out in the classroom, how do we get feedback on what we decide to implement?

  8. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten


    position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations......Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged...

  9. Reflections from the Jury Box: Improving Evidence Based Practice through a Comparison with Our Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Coppenrath


    Full Text Available Background: An experience serving jury duty prompted reflection on the parallels between evidenced based medicine and our legal system. Findings: The steps of the legal system can be tied to each step of the practice of evidenced based medicine. Implications: Patients should be included in evidence based decisions. Pharmacists can act as resources for other providers practicing evidenced based medicine. Educators can use this analogy to teach evidence based medicine. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Commentary

  10. Studying Corporality in the Gym: Practical Reflections for the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sossa Rojas


    Full Text Available The study of the body has led to more than five decades of varied and prolific production by social scientists. However, their theoretical and methodological approaches have been as diverse as these investigations. This article, using concrete examples, reflects on the theoretical and methodological implications applied to the study of the body and corporality in the gyms, and aims to show that there is not a rigid set of embodied practices or one type of gym users; on the contrary, they can vary depending on multiple factors such as economic, cultural, or geographical context. It concludes with the author's opinion that Physical Cultural Studies offers an excellent set of tools to investigate the physical and subjective aspects of gym practices.

  11. Reflecting on practice development school for pre-registration nurses: a student nurse perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Agate


    Full Text Available Background: Practice development has been evolving as a movement in nursing for decades but was first conceptualised by Garbett and McCormack (2002. At its core are the principles that embody a shared intention of developing and improving both professional practice and patient care (McCormack et al., 2013. Through effective, supportive and motivational facilitation, practice development has the capacity to transform dominant and oppressive task-oriented cultures, run by hierarchical leaderships, into cultures that empower and value the contributions of all stakeholders, allowing for transformational and emancipatory learning (McCormack et al., 2013. Aims: Today, there are nine defining principles of practice development (McCormack et al., 2013. Based loosely on Kolb’s model of reflection (1998, this article is an in-depth critical evaluation of my own learning, which took place in the context of a practice development school for pre-registration nurses. I have chosen to focus on the practice development principle that I found to be most transformative. Principle number eight states: ‘Practice development is associated with a set of processes including skilled facilitation that can be translated into a specific skill set required as near to the interface of care as possible’. Conclusions and implications for practice: This journey has taught me that knowledge and experience will inevitably influence facilitation (Crisp and Wilson, 2011. However, the skills and attributes embodied by an effective facilitator are multifaceted and the evolution of my own facilitation expertise will continue alongside with my journey as a practice developer. On the journey so far, I have learned to appreciate the value of authentic and meaningful engagement, how to inspire and evoke it, and to what extent it has the potential to influence effective facilitation. I have learned to use various facilitation methods to create and sustain high levels of engagement

  12. Tweeting dignity: A practical theological reflection on Twitter’s normative function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert Van den Berg


    Full Text Available Social media makes an important contribution to a rapidly changing world in which various domains of meaning are described anew. The evolving nature and dynamic character of social media therefore provides for a rich praxis terrain with which to interact from a practical theological orientation. More specifically associated with the theme of this contribution, the social media sphere also provides an excellent space not only to rethink but also to reenact expressions of dignity in society. The research is facilitated from a practical theological orientation, with particular focus on a normative dimension as embodied in aspects of dignity. Through the use of an interdisciplinary approach and methodology, some contours of dignity specifically associated with South African politics as well as the so-called Charlie Hebdo attacks in 2015 in Paris expressed on the social media platform, Twitter, are described and discussed. From this empirical analysis, description and discussion, a practical theological reflection is offered in which aspects of dignity associated with a normativity function are described. Some practical theological perspectives contributing to future relevant tweeting on dignity are also formulated and provided in conclusion.

  13. [Moral case deliberation: time for ethical reflection in the daily practice of mental health care]. (United States)

    Vellinga, A; van Melle-Baaijens, E A H


    Nowadays, reflecting on ethics, which we choose to call moral case deliberation, is occurring more and more frequently in psychiatric institutions. We have personal experience of organising and supervising moral case deliberation in a large psychiatric institute and we can confirm the positive effects of moral case deliberation which have been reported in the literature. To describe a structured method for moral case deliberation which enables care-givers in health care and/or addiction care to reflect on moral dilemmas. We refer to the main findings in relevant literature and describe how we developed a structured method for implementing moral case deliberation. Our studies of the literature indicate that systematic reflection about ethical dilemmas can improve the quality of care and make care-givers more satisfied with their work. This is why we have developed our own method which is applicable particularly to psychiatric and/or addition care and which can be used systematically in discussions of moral dilemmas. Our method for discussing ethical issues works well in clinical practice, particularly when it is embedded in a multidisciplinary context. Of course, to ensure the continuity of the system, deliberation about moral and ethical issues needs to be financially safeguarded and embedded in the organisation. Discussion of moral issues improves the quality of care and increases care-givers' satisfaction with their work.

  14. The good, the bad and the 'not so bad': reflecting on moral appraisal in practice. (United States)

    Begley, Ann Marie


    The aim of this study is to facilitate reflection on the moral merit of practitioners in various contexts. Insight is gained from Aristotelian and Kantian accounts of moral character and an original framework for reflection is presented as an adjunct to ethical theory and principles considered when appraising others. In relation to states of character, there is an irreconcilable difference between Kantian (deontic) and Aristotelian (aretaic) conceptions of the nature of full virtue (excellence of character), but at the same time it can be argued that in relation to practice their approaches complement each other. It is also argued that in relation to caring for the vulnerable, Aristotle's conception of full virtue is more compelling than Kant's. On the other hand, Kant's notion of self-serving action is important in nursing and it therefore needs to be considered when reflecting on professional conduct. The conclusion reached is that Aristotelian and Kantian accounts of character appraisal should be used in a combined approach to moral appraisal. This approach draws on the accounts of both philosophers and offers valuable insight into moral character, professional conduct and, in a more formal setting, fitness to practise. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Ethical issues in physiotherapy – Reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    Background: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues as they are u......Background: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues......: The ideal of being beneficent toward the patient. Here, the ethical issues uncovered in the interviews were embedded in three code-groups: 1) ethical issues related to equality; 2) feeling obligated to do one's best; and 3) transgression of boundaries. Conclusions: In an ethical perspective, physiotherapy...... in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized...

  16. Promoting Media Literacy’ as Practicing “Media Reform”: Reflecting on Personal Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Tsai


    Full Text Available This paper assesses conceptions and practices in critical media literacy. In particular, it focuses on teaching experience and the processes which combine the educator’s reflection of theories of the ‘public sphere’, ‘media literacy’, and ‘communication civil rights’. The paper is divided into three main parts. The first of four sections will briefly cover the history of media reform and the relationship between the media reform movement and critical media literacy lessons in community colleges. It will connect this to the idea of ‘turn to the public’. The meaning and position of ‘media literacy’ in the broad media reform movement will also be analyzed. Following this, in the second section, conceptualizations of the ‘public sphere’, ‘public pedagogy’, and ‘critical media literacy pedagogy’ will be developed. Finally, three stages of the lesson design and practical interactions will be examined dialectically. In particular, the community college field research on my teaching experience will be described in the third section, and the suggestions, reflections and conclusions from the research will be examined in the last section.

  17. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding. (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S


    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Using photography to enhance GP trainees' reflective practice and professional development. (United States)

    Rutherford; Forde, Emer; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline; Butcher, Aurelia; Wedderburn, Clare


    The capacity and the commitment to reflect are integral to the practice of medicine and are core components of most general practitioners (GP) training programmes. Teaching through the humanities is a growing area within medical education, but one which is often considered a voluntary 'add-on' for the interested doctor. This article describes an evaluation of a highly innovative pedagogical project which used photography as a means to enhance GP trainees' reflective capacity, self-awareness and professional development. Photography was used as a tool to develop GP trainees' skills in recognising and articulating the attitudes, feelings and values that might impact on their clinical work and to enhance their confidence in their ability to deal with these concerns/issues. We submit that photography is uniquely well suited for facilitating insight and self-reflection because it provides the ability to record 'at the touch of a button' those scenes and images to which our attention is intuitively drawn without the need for-or the interference of-conscious decisions. This allows us the opportunity to reflect later on the reasons for our intuitive attraction to these scenes. These photography workshops were a compulsory part of the GP training programme and, despite the participants' traditional scientific backgrounds, the results clearly demonstrate the willingness of participants to accept-even embrace-the use of art as a tool for learning. The GP trainees who took part in this project acknowledged it to be beneficial for both their personal and professional development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Reflective Practice and Competencies in Global Health Training: Lesson for Serving Diverse Patient Populations (United States)

    Castillo, Jonathan; Goldenhar, Linda M.; Baker, Raymond C.; Kahn, Robert S.; DeWitt, Thomas G.


    Background Resident interest in global health care training is growing and has been shown to have a positive effect on participants' clinical skills and cultural competency. In addition, it is associated with career choices in primary care, public health, and in the service of underserved populations. The purpose of this study was to explore, through reflective practice, how participation in a formal global health training program influences pediatric residents' perspectives when caring for diverse patient populations. Methods Thirteen pediatric and combined-program residents enrolled in a year-long Global Health Scholars Program at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center during the 2007–2008 academic year. Educational interventions included a written curriculum, a lecture series, one-on-one mentoring sessions, an experience abroad, and reflective journaling assignments. The American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene global health competencies were used as an a priori coding framework to qualitatively analyze the reflective journal entries of the residents. Results Four themes emerged from the coded journal passages from all 13 residents: (1) the burden of global disease, as a heightened awareness of the diseases that affect humans worldwide; (2) immigrant/underserved health, reflected in a desire to apply lessons learned abroad at home to provide more culturally effective care to immigrant patients in the United States; (3) parenting, or observed parental, longing to assure that their children receive health care; and (4) humanitarianism, expressed as the desire to volunteer in future humanitarian health efforts in the United States and abroad. Conclusions Our findings suggest that participating in a global health training program helped residents begin to acquire competence in the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene competency domains. Such training also may strengthen residents' acquisition of professional skills, including the

  20. Tracking Reflective Practice-Based Learning by Medical Students during an Ambulatory Clerkship (United States)

    Goldberg, Harry


    Objective To explore the use of web and palm digital assistant (PDA)-based patient logs to facilitate reflective learning in an ambulatory medicine clerkship. Design Thematic analysis of convenience sample of three successive rotations of medical students’ patient log entries. Setting Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Participants MS3 and MS4 students rotating through a required block ambulatory medicine clerkship. Interventions Students are required to enter patient encounters into a web-based log system during the clerkship. Patient-linked entries included an open text field entitled, “Learning Need.” Students were encouraged to use this field to enter goals for future study or teaching points related to the encounter. Measurement and Main Results The logs of 59 students were examined. These students entered 3,051 patient encounters, and 51 students entered 1,347 learning need entries (44.1% of encounters). The use of the “Learning Need” field was not correlated with MS year, gender or end-of-clerkship knowledge test performance. There were strong correlations between the use of diagnostic thinking comments and observations of therapeutic relationships (Pearson’s r=.42, p<0.001), and between diagnostic thinking and primary interpretation skills (Pearson’s r=.60, p<0.001), but not between diagnostic thinking and factual knowledge (Pearson’s r =.10, p=.46). CONCLUSIONS We found that when clerkship students were cued to reflect on each patient encounter with the electronic log system, student entries grouped into categories that suggested different levels of reflective thinking. Future efforts should explore the use of such entries to encourage and track habits of reflective practice in the clinical curriculum. PMID:17786523

  1. Relevance of the nature vs nurture debate to clinical nursing. (United States)

    McVicar, A; Clancy, J

    The philosophy of holistic care underpins nurse education, and the 'nature-nurture debate' is frequently used to facilitate discussion regarding the influence of interactions with the environment in 'shaping' the individual. A limitation to this approach is that much of the work cited in the literature relates primarily to psychosocial interactions. This conveys a narrow perspective on holism, and creates an impression that the debate cannot be applied to other aspects of health and wellbeing, yet models of nursing care emphasize the need for nurses to appreciate the interactional basis of health. This article uses examples from mental health, physical health and the influence of ageing, to argue that interactions must be viewed from a much wider perspective. Only in doing so can the principles and application of holistic care, and an understanding of the bases of health education practices, be appreciated.

  2. Using an Intention/Reflection Practice to Focus Students towards Future Professions in a Short-Term International Travel Experience (United States)

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.; Bastianelli, Karen; Vogelsang, Lisa; Tornabene, Ladona


    The article describes a student-centered approach to generating meaningful learning outcomes in a short-term study abroad program. A practice named Intention/Reflection (I/R) was used to help students to identify, articulate, and reflect upon learning objectives that were personally meaningful, within the broader framework of the intended outcomes…

  3. More than Social Media: Using Twitter with Preservice Teachers as a Means of Reflection and Engagement in Communities of Practice (United States)

    Benko, Susanna L.; Guise, Megan; Earl, Casey E.; Gill, Witny


    English teacher education programs often look for ways to help preservice teachers engage in critical reflection, participate in communities of practice, and write for authentic audiences in order to be able to teach in the 21st century. In this article, the authors describe how they used Twitter to provide opportunities for reflection and…

  4. Experiences of self-practice/self-reflection in cognitive behavioural therapy: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. (United States)

    Gale, Corinne; Schröder, Thomas


    Self-practice/self-reflection is a valuable training strategy which involves therapists applying therapeutic techniques to themselves, and reflecting on the process. To undertake a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies exploring therapists' experiences of self-practice/self-reflection in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). This would integrate, and interpret, the current literature in order to develop a new understanding, and contribute to the development of CBT training programmes. The meta-synthesis encompassed three distinct phases: undertaking a comprehensive and systematic literature search; critically appraising the papers; and synthesising the data using the meta-ethnographic method. The literature search identified 378 papers, ten met the criteria for inclusion. After critical appraisal, all were included in the synthesis. The synthesis identified 14 constructs, which fell into three broad categories: 'experience of self-practice/self-reflection'; 'outcomes of self-practice/self-reflection'; and 'implications for training'. This synthesis found that self-practice allows therapists to put themselves into their clients' shoes, experiencing the benefits that therapy can bring but also the problems that clients can run in to. This experience increases therapists' empathy for their clients, allowing them to draw on their own experiences in therapy. As a result, therapists tend to feel both more confident in themselves and more competent as a therapist. The self-practice/self-reflection process was facilitated by reflective writing and working with others, particularly peers. Self-practice/self-reflection is a valuable training strategy in CBT, which has a range of beneficial outcomes. It can also be used as a means of continuing personal and professional development. Self-practice of CBT techniques, and reflecting on the process, can be a useful training strategy and helpful for ongoing development Therapists could consider developing a 'self-case' study

  5. A reflective analysis of medical education research on self-regulation in learning and practice. (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Butler, Deborah


    In the health professions we expect practitioners and trainees to engage in self-regulation of their learning and practice. For example, doctors are responsible for diagnosing their own learning needs and pursuing professional development opportunities; medical residents are expected to identify what they do not know when caring for patients and to seek help from supervisors when they need it, and medical school curricula are increasingly called upon to support self-regulation as a central learning outcome. Given the importance of self-regulation in both health professions education and ongoing professional practice, our aim was to generate a snapshot of the state of the science in medical education research in this area. To achieve this goal, we gathered literature focused on self-regulation or self-directed learning undertaken from multiple perspectives. Then, with support from a multi-component theoretical framework, we created an overarching map of the themes addressed thus far and emerging findings. We built from that integrative overview to consider contributions, connections and gaps in research on self-regulation to date. Based on this reflective analysis, we conclude that the medical education community's understanding about self-regulation will continue to advance as we: (i) consider how learning is undertaken within the complex social contexts of clinical training and practice; (ii) think of self-regulation within an integrative perspective that allows us to combine disparate strands of research and to consider self-regulation across the training continuum in medicine, from learning to practice; (iii) attend to the grain size of analysis both thoughtfully and intentionally, and (iv) most essentially, extend our efforts to understand the need for and best practices in support of self-regulation. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  6. Analysis of the Teacher´s Educational Practice: Didactic Thinking, Interaction and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benilde García Cabrero


    Full Text Available The educational practice of teachers is considered as a dynamic, reflexive activity that involves events that occur in the context of student–teacher interaction, but that is not limited to what has been conceived as teaching practice, that is to say, the educational processes taking place within the classroom, but related also to the pedagogical intervention that occurs before and after the interactive processes within the classroom. This paper describes a proposal that includes three dimensions to evaluate teaching practice: 1 didactic thinking and planning; 2 educational interaction in the classroom and 3 reflection upon goals attained as a result of the operationalization of the first two dimensions. These three dimensions are interdependent, so each one affects and is affected by the other two, hence the necessity to consider them in an integral way. This proposal considers that teaching improvement programs should stem from carrying out teaching evaluation in the first place, and then proceed to teachers´ training.

  7. The "enduring mission" of Zing-Yang Kuo to eliminate the nature-nurture dichotomy in psychology. (United States)

    Honeycutt, Hunter


    This paper reviews the arguments against the instinct concept and the nature-nurture dichotomy put forward by Zing-Yang Kuo (1898-1970) during the 1920s. Kuo insisted that nativism represented a kind of finished psychology, and that the labels of nature and nurture reflected and promoted one's ignorance of the development of a trait. Also discussed are his lesser known lines of research on the origins of the so-called rat-killing instinct in cats and his analysis on the determinants of animal fighting. His research illustrated the shortcomings of a nature-nurture framework and highlighted the necessity of his developmentally grounded alternative to studying behavior. Reasons for why Kuo's work has been marginalized in modern histories of psychology are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nature and Nurture of Human Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Belfer


    Full Text Available Humans are very different when it comes to pain. Some get painful piercings and tattoos; others can not stand even a flu shot. Interindividual variability is one of the main characteristics of human pain on every level including the processing of nociceptive impulses at the periphery, modification of pain signal in the central nervous system, perception of pain, and response to analgesic strategies. As for many other complex behaviors, the sources of this variability come from both nurture (environment and nature (genes. Here, I will discuss how these factors contribute to human pain separately and via interplay and how epigenetic mechanisms add to the complexity of their effects.


    Sparrow, Joshua


    The infant mental health field can amplify its effects when it extends its purview beyond the dyad to the larger contexts in which infants and adult caregivers interact and develop over time. Within health, mental health, education, and other human service organizations, the quality of relationships is a critical variable in the individual-level outcomes that such organizations seek. The goals of this work and the means for accomplishing them are highly dependent on human qualities and interactions that are shaped by organizational processes. In communities, too, processes that shape relationships also strongly influence child-, family-, and community-level outcomes. The Touchpoints approach to reflective practice can guide relational processes among professionals, parents, and infants in organizations and communities that influence these outcomes. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Challenges of recruiting ESL immigrants into cancer education studies: reflections from practice notes. (United States)

    Thomson, Maria D; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie


    Changing population demographics and immigration patterns have resulted in increasing numbers of Canadians who report speaking a language other than French or English. Inclusion of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) immigrants in cancer education research is critical if disparities in access and use of preventive health care services are to be addressed. This article describes the challenges experienced recruiting and interviewing older ESL immigrant women for a colon cancer prevention study. Factors influencing the recruitment and interview of ESL immigrant women were identified through regular team meetings, interviews, and reflective practice notes. Issues included the importance of community contacts, language barriers, and the motivations of the women for participating. Recommendations for recruitment and inclusion of ESL immigrants in cancer education research are provided.

  11. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

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    Tarja Tiainen


    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  12. Narrative reflective practice in medical education for residents: composing shifting identities. (United States)

    Clandinin, Jean; Cave, Marie Thérèse; Cave, Andrew


    As researchers note, medical educators need to create situations to work with physicians in training to help them attend to the development of their professional identities. While there is a call for such changes to be included in medical education, educational approaches that facilitate attention to the development of medical students' professional identities, that is, who they are and who they are becoming as physicians, are still under development. One pedagogical strategy involves narrative reflective practice as a way to develop physician identity. Using this approach, medical residents first write narrative accounts of their experiences with patients in what are called "parallel charts". They then engage in a collaborative narrative inquiry within a sustained inquiry group of other residents and two researcher/facilitators (one physician, one narrative researcher). Preliminary studies of this approach are underway. Drawing on the experiences of one medical resident in one such inquiry group, we show how this pedagogical strategy enables attending to physician identity making.

  13. Educational heritage and museums: reflections on practical research, historical preservation and dissemination

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    Margarida Louro Felgueiras


    Full Text Available The preservation of educational heritage and assets in Portugal emerges, almost simultaneously, between teachers and historians of education. School memories along with searching and recording of the collections of teachers were introduced in Portuguese and in Brazilian historiography in the nineties of the twentieth century. Simultaneously the need for civic intervention in order to safeguard the sources became visible, and gradually, also the awareness of its importance to pass on as a legacy. The study of, and the gathering, exhibition and creation of an inventory of artefacts, seeks to establish a school culture in its materiality. In this article, following an epistemological point of view, we propose to reflect upon the significance of these practical activities, either for educational historiography, for knowledge diffusion or in the interest of museums.

  14. Teacher as researcher of its own practice: the importance of reflection for health education

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    Edison Rivas A


    Full Text Available Objective: to present the process and results of an action research in the educational dimension, the growth and development program of a health institution in Medellin. Methodology: following Stenhouse’s ideas about a teacherresearcher, it was developed a reflective process where the program’s teams, researched their pedagogical practices, and analyzed them taking in consideration their own experience as well as theory coming from past research done in their institution, and the scientific literature. Results: through a reflective process and by investigating their pedagogical process, educators were able to design the program from a wider perspective: child rearing. Also they were able to locate themselves in a different way with respect to education and to parents generating alternative proposal for education Discussion: research experience shows the difficulty of making changes in pedagogical perspectives in health education, usually based on traditional or behavioral models. According to the results, this research proposal is presented as a way to forward in the strengthening of a educational dimension in health field from an alternative perspective.

  15. The contribution of audio recording using portable digital voice recorders to the development of reflective practice with trainee teachers in a Further Education setting


    Knill, Marta; Samuels, Mary


    Developing reflective skills and habits during initial teacher education and progressing to deeper and more critical reflection are challenges for trainee teachers. This small-scale action research study investigates how two structured tasks using Digital Voice Recorders (DVRs) initiated, sustained and improved reflection and reflective practice. Trainee teachers reported benefits in increased understanding of reflection, development of reflective skills, deepening of reflection and improveme...

  16. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Hope as psychological resource for nurturant professionals (medicine case study)]. (United States)

    Водопьянова, Наталия Е; Чикер, Вера А; Потявина, Валерия В

    In the article, the issues concerning hope, which is one of the most important resources for specialists of many nurturant professions, are observed. The theoretical analysis of hope and its categorization from the perspective of subjective and resource-based view is given. The special scientific and practical interest to human subjective and personal resources is determined by their unique role not only in human life support, but also in overcoming hard situations and extreme obstacles, including crisis situations in professional activity, with the example of the profession of a doctor. The aim of the empirical research is studying the correlation between hope and such manifestations of subjective regulations medical practice as inner subjective control and failure avoidance motivation. 120 doctors (60 men and 60 women) working in St. Petersburg hospitals took part in the research. Several research methods were used, such as 'Resource map' application form, R. Snyder's hope scale adapted by K. Muzdybayev, 'Subjective control level' method by E. Bazhin, E. Golynkina and L. Etkind, 'Failure avoidance motivation' method by T. Ehlers. Doctors think that Hope and Optimism are among important components of their professional practice, together with willing features helping them to reach their goals (such as persistence, patience, eagerness, insistence and endurance) and such personal qualities as self-assuredness, motion control in different situations, ability to solve hard problems. According the data of correlation and regression analyses, the anticipation that hope is determined by high level of inner control locus and low failure avoidance motivation (responsibility for patients' lives) within medical practice. Most doctors have average or high level of hope, which lets determine this personal disposition quality as one of the important ones for this profession. Being the positive result of professional practice and not depending on the doctors' sex and

  18. Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development. (United States)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Nkara, Frances


    We consider nurture's (including culture's) sculpting influences on the evolved psychological predispositions that are expressed in religious and spiritual (R&S) development. An integrated understanding of R&S development requires a move away from the largely one-sided (nature-or-nurture) and additive (nature + nurture) accounts provided in the extant literature. R&S development has been understood as an expression of evolved cognitive modules (nature) on the one hand, and of socialization and social learning (nurture) on the other, or in similar albeit additive terms (e.g., nature produces the brain/mind, culture fills in the details). We argue that humans' evolved psychological predispositions are substantially co-shaped by environmental/cultural input, such as relational experiences and modelling at the microlevel through belief and value systems at the macrolevel. Nurture's sculpting of nature is, then, expressed in R&S development. Finally, for heuristic purposes, we illustrate a fully integrated nature-nurture model with attachment theory and its application to R&S development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Development unfolds as a function of nature-nurture interaction. R&S development has mostly been understood from the point of view of separate nature or nurture models. What does this study add? A collected consideration of the intricate interactions between nature and nurture in development. A sketch, examples, and a conceptual toolbox of how nature and nurture interact in R&S development. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The interaction between reflection and practice in the professional development of a secondary education science teachers: Case study (United States)

    Vazquez Bernal, Bartolome

    The work that we describe here is a case study of two secondary education science teachers about how action-oriented reflection and action itself interact, and their influence on professional development. The study was carried out from two different viewpoints: a study with a qualitative orientation on the one hand, using diverse data collection and analysis instruments, and collaborative action research on the other, to form the backbone of professional development. In our theoretical outline, we stress the concepts of reflection which sustain the theoretical-practical dialectic, and of complexity which is seen to be a progression hypothesis of central importance, and in which we distinguish three dimensions: technique, practice, and criticism. The reflection data collection instruments were the teacher's diaries and memos, transcriptions of the work group meetings, questionnaires, and interviews. For the classroom practice the ethnographic notes and extracts from the videotapes of the class sessions, and other documentary sources such. The fundamental instrument for data analysis, both for reflection and practice, was the System of Categories that includes six analytical frames: ideological, teacher education, psychological, contextual, epistemological, and curricular. We also used third-order instruments for the representation, such as complexity spheres for reflection and practice and the reflection-practice integration horizon, which allowed the evolution of the teachers to be viewed over the course of the two school years that the research lasted, as well as giving an overall representation of the integration of reflection and practice. The results showed the teachers to be in transition from a technical to a practical dimension, with both her reflection and her classroom practice in the process of becoming more complex, and with the two being closely integrated. It was also found that she had a hard core of obstacles impeding her professional development. We

  20. Improving the quality of cognitive behaviour therapy case conceptualization: the role of self-practice/self-reflection. (United States)

    Haarhoff, Beverly; Gibson, Kerry; Flett, Ross


    CBT case conceptualization is considered to be a key competency. Prior to the publication in 2009 of Kuyken, Padesky and Dudley's book, little has been documented concerning methods for training conceptualization skills and the conceptualization process is usually perceived as predominantly an intellectual process. In this paper, the Declarative-Procedural-Reflective model of therapist skill acquisition provides a route to understanding how different kinds of knowledge systems can be integrated to enhance therapist skill acquisition. Sixteen recent graduates of a postgraduate diploma in cognitive behaviour therapy worked independently through a self-practice/self-reflection workbook designed to lead them through a series of CBT interventions commonly used to elicit the information required for a CBT conceptualization. The participants' self-reflections were thematically analyzed and uncovered the following inter-related themes: increased theoretical understanding of the CBT model, self-awareness, empathy, conceptualization of the therapeutic relationship, and adaptation of clinical interventions and practice. A tentative conclusion reached, based on the self-reflections of the participants, was that targeted self-practice/self-reflection enhanced case conceptualization skill by consolidating the Declarative, Procedural and Reflective systems important in therapist skill acquisition. © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2011

  1. The practice of reflection in the russian goodwill when buying enterprises as a property complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ovchinnikova


    Full Text Available When buying enterprises as a property complex, firm-the buyer can pay for it as excess cost of the acquired entity on its balance sheet, and an amount less than the value of the assets on the balance sheet of the acquiree. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, in the account of the buyer acquires an intangible asset that distinguishes the Russian from the international practice. International financial reporting standards do not recognize goodwill an intangible asset of the buyer enterprise. Therefore, it is necessary to specify the Russian practice of accounting transactions in the purchase of enterprises as property complex. The article presents a definition of the property complex, based on the requirements of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, highlighted the stages of transfer of the property complex of the specified accounting documents that must be decorated, the analysis of the approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the recognition and measurement of goodwill, studied the specificity of the requirements of the Russian normative-legislative acts to the category “goodwill”, “intangible asset”. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, a positive goodwill is recognized in intangible asset (goodwill, in contrast to the negative goodwill (badwill, which immediately applies on other income of the organisation – the buyer of the enterprise – a property complex. On the positive business reputation, then the requirements of the Russian legislation, a positive goodwill is recognized intangible asset. In this paper, the authors proposed a model accounting for the purchase of enterprise as property complex as a result of which the acquisition price of an enterprise as a property complex exceeds its carrying amount of the assessment, therefore, in accounting, the buyer acquires an intangible asset in the form of a positive business reputation, compiled and substantiated recommended to reflect this

  2. Enhancement of medical student performance through narrative reflective practice: a pilot project

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    Alan Thomson


    Full Text Available Background: Narrative Reflective Practice (NRP is a process that helps medical students become better listeners and physicians. We hypothesized that NRP would enhance students’ performance on multiple choice question exams (MCQs, on objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs, and on subjective clinical evaluations (SCEs. Methods: The MCQs, OSCEs and SCEs test scores from 139 third year University of Alberta medical students from the same class doing their Internal Medicine rotation were collected over a 12 month period. All preceptors followed the same one-hour clinical teaching format, except for the single preceptor who incorporated 2 weeks of NRP in the usual clinical teaching of 16 students. The testing was done at the end of each 8-week rotation, and all students within each cohort received the same MCQs, OSCE and SCEs Results: Independent t-tests were used to assess group differences in the mean MCQ, OSCE and SCE scores. The group receiving NRP training scored 4.7 % higher on the MCQ component than those who did not. The mean differences for OSCE and SCE scores were non-significant. Conclusions: Two weeks NRP exposure produced an absolute increase in students’ MCQ score. Longer periods of NRP exposure may also increase the OSCE and SCE scores. This promising pilot project needs to be confirmed using several trained preceptors and trainees at different levels of their clinical experience.


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    Breydy Dayanna Álvarez Mahecha


    Full Text Available The current dynamics that involve biology teachers in a particular context, try to recreate a subject with an externalized profile setting aside each one of the teacher’s particularities and experiences that can built outside and inside the classroom. Given the above and the reflected on during the academic formation process in the biology department, it is consider important develop a research work inside the pedagogical practices about the biology teacher’s being and to-do in a scholar context. Such task developed in construction with the research line: “pathways and happenings. Studies of teacher’s being and to-do from the pedagogy” initiating a personal relation with the author formative interest. Finally, it is established as final considerations that biology teachers even in a scholar context with stablished dynamics by the institution, can recreate their diary tasks as subjects of change taking pedagogy as way a thought that question the intent of giving the teacher a profile.

  4. Narrative reflective practice in medical education for residents: composing shifting identities

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    Jean Clandinin


    Full Text Available Jean Clandinin1, Marie Thérèse Cave2, Andrew Cave21Center for Research for Teacher Education and Development, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: As researchers note, medical educators need to create situations to work with physicians in training to help them attend to the development of their professional identities. While there is a call for such changes to be included in medical education, educational approaches that facilitate attention to the development of medical students' professional identities, that is, who they are and who they are becoming as physicians, are still under development. One pedagogical strategy involves narrative reflective practice as a way to develop physician identity. Using this approach, medical residents first write narrative accounts of their experiences with patients in what are called "parallel charts". They then engage in a collaborative narrative inquiry within a sustained inquiry group of other residents and two researcher/facilitators (one physician, one narrative researcher. Preliminary studies of this approach are underway. Drawing on the experiences of one medical resident in one such inquiry group, we show how this pedagogical strategy enables attending to physician identity making.Keywords: physician identity formation, residency

  5. Assessing High Impact Practices Using NVivo: An Automated Approach to Analyzing Student Reflections for Program Improvement (United States)

    Blaney, Jennifer; Filer, Kimberly; Lyon, Julie


    Critical reflection allows students to synthesize their learning and deepen their understanding of an experience (Ash & Clayton, 2009). A recommended reflection method is for students to write essays about their experiences. However, on a large scale, such reflection essays become difficult to analyze in a meaningful way. At Roanoke College,…

  6. Nurturing Environments for Boys and Men of Color with Trauma Exposure. (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Yaros, Anna; Lowe, Ashley; McDaniel, Mark S


    Boys and men of color are exposed to traumatic experiences at significantly higher rates than are other demographic groups. To understand and address the mental and behavioral health effects of trauma, including violent incidents, on this population, we review the literature showing the context for, outcomes of, and potential responses to trauma exposure. We present the existing research about the unique challenges and associated negative outcomes for boys and men of color, as well as identify the gaps in the literature. We present the potential nurturing responses by systems such as schools, law enforcement, and communities to trauma-exposed boys and men of color, and we describe evidence-based programs and practices that directly address trauma. Finally, we argue that, rather than using a deficit model, a model of optimal development can be used to understand how to support and protect boys and men of color through nurturing environments.

  7. Registered nurses' self-nurturance and life and career satisfaction. (United States)

    Nemcek, Mary Ann


    Knowledge of factors that help nurses thrive, including satisfaction with life and self-nurturance, can be used to enhance retention of a healthy work force. This study determined whether nurses are happy or satisfied with their lives; how self-nurturing or "good to self" they are; and whether a relationship exists among self-nurturance, life satisfaction, and career satisfaction. A descriptive, correlational study of 136 registered nurses involving measures of self-nurturance and life and career satisfaction was conducted. Mean scores for life satisfaction and self-nurturance were consistent with those from studies of well adults. Self-nurturance, life satisfaction, and career satisfaction were positively correlated with each other; thus, improving one is expected to improve the others. Knowledge of the significant positive correlation among life satisfaction, self-nurturance, and career satisfaction may prove useful in improving the mental health and safety of nurses. Strategies consistent with Magnet hospital characteristics are suggested for the occupational health nurse.

  8. Experimental analysis of nature-nurture interactions. (United States)

    Wyman, Robert J


    The presumed opposition of nature and nurture has been a major concern of western civilization since its beginnings. Christian theologians interpreted Adam and Eve's eating of the forbidden fruit as the origin of an inherited 'original sin'. Saint Augustine explicitly applied the concept to human mental development, arguing that, because of original sin, children are inclined toward evil and education requires physical punishment. For centuries, it was considered parents' moral and religious obligation, not to nurture their children, in our current sense of that word, but to beat the willfulness out of them. 16thC humanists fought back, arguing that "schools have become torture chambers" while it is adults "who corrupt young minds with evil". Locke's (1690) statement that children are born as a 'white paper' was crucial in rejecting the dogma of an inborn (and sinful) nature. The original sin vs. white paper argument merged with another ancient dichotomy: inborn instinct (which controls animal behavior) vs. the reason and free will which humans have. Darwin made the concept of inherited instinct, common to both man and animals, one cornerstone of his theory of evolution. The 20(th)C saw scientists recast the debate as instinct vs. learning, bitterly argued between behaviorists and ethologists. Laboratory experimentation and field observation showed that behavior could develop without learning but also that conditioning paradigms could powerfully mold behavior. The progress of genetics and neurobiology has led to the modern synthesis that neural development, and hence behavior, results from the interdependent action of both heredity and environment. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Review of Beyond the reflection: The role of the mirror paradigm in clinical practice. (United States)

    Zelnick, Lawrence


    Reviews the book, Beyond the reflection: The role of the mirror paradigm in clinical practice by Paulina Kernberg, Bernadette Buhl-Nielsen, and Lina Normandin (see record 2007-00911-000). This modestly presented volume overflows with insight and new ways of looking at the mirroring experience for children and adolescents. Kernberg and her collaborators present the rich history of the image, metaphor, and pervasive role of the mirror in human experience; they carefully describe the "subjective experience of wonder, admiration, and an objective dimension of truth" in the mirror paradigm (2006, p. xv). For the psychotherapist, Kernberg's work provides a rich resource; the review of past and current research and theorizing about the mirroring function of mothers and primary caregivers is thorough and up-to-date with the most recent advances in neuroscience, attachment theory, and infant research. From Freud to Lacan, from Winnicott to Stern, and from Schore to Gergely, Kernberg presents a sweeping exposition of the various images of the mirror. This volume is worthwhile if only for its presentation of this body of recent research. But there is so much more to be found here. While this is not the first time that Kernberg has presented us with her work with mirror observation and interviews (Kernberg, 1984, 1987), this volume integrates the research about early mother- child experience, and the mirroring paradigm in the psychoanalytic theories about child development, with the phenomenology of child and adolescent psychotherapy. The clinician will find a useful application of the theory to clinical practice and diagnosis that is hard to find in the literature. Beebe and Lachmann (2002) have accomplished this integration between infant research and adult treatment, but Kernberg's application of her research and the demonstrated correlation between the findings of mirror experience, attachment histories, and clinical experience is a rare and welcome addition to the

  10. Ethical Issues related to First Time Patient Encounters – reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor


    of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance...... reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well....... to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting...

  11. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

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    Rodolfo Langhi


    Full Text Available This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching autonomy, we had as a main objective the search for the chance to achieve progressive levels of teachers autonomy, according to its three teacher professionalization models, present in a critical and transformative perspective, relating them to the current formative paradigms: the contents based one, the humanist, the activist, the reflective and the technical (approaches we called CHART. Taking into consideration future physics teachers´ collective reflections about their own teaching practice, this research was supported by the following methodological instruments: focus group, coaching, self-confrontation and formative assessment, taking the discourse analysis as background. The outcomes of this research, which followed a sample of 40 future High School physics teachers during three semesters, through the use of five formative steps (planning, implementation, reflection, socialization, involvement and continuity, revealed the evidences of teachers autonomy construction, probably provided by their own teaching practice collective reflections, according to the analytical device used. This research showed that the reflections brakes provided during the process can allow the future teachers to position themselves critically in relation to their future pedagogical activities, even after their initial training. This experience leads us to rethink how subjects like Methodology and Teaching Practice have been teaching in the teachers’ education programs at

  12. Collecting and analysing cost data for complex public health trials: reflections on practice (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Agrawal, Priya; Bagra, Archana; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Colbourn, Tim; Greco, Giulia; Hossain, Tanvir; Sinha, Rajesh; Thapa, Bidur; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene


    Background Current guidelines for the conduct of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are mainly applicable to facility-based interventions in high-income settings. Differences in the unit of analysis and the high cost of data collection can make these guidelines challenging to follow within public health trials in low- and middle- income settings. Objective This paper reflects on the challenges experienced within our own work and proposes solutions that may be useful to others attempting to collect, analyse, and compare cost data between public health research sites in low- and middle-income countries. Design We describe the generally accepted methods (norms) for collecting and analysing cost data in a single-site trial from the provider perspective. We then describe our own experience applying these methods within eight comparable cluster randomised, controlled, trials. We describe the strategies used to maximise adherence to the norm, highlight ways in which we deviated from the norm, and reflect on the learning and limitations that resulted. Results When the expenses incurred by a number of small research sites are used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of delivering an intervention on a national scale, then deciding which expenses constitute ‘start-up’ costs will be a nontrivial decision that may differ among sites. Similarly, the decision to include or exclude research or monitoring and evaluation costs can have a significant impact on the findings. We separated out research costs and argued that monitoring and evaluation costs should be reported as part of the total trial cost. The human resource constraints that we experienced are also likely to be common to other trials. As we did not have an economist in each site, we collaborated with key personnel at each site who were trained to use a standardised cost collection tool. This approach both accommodated our resource constraints and served as a knowledge sharing and capacity building process within the

  13. Collecting and analysing cost data for complex public health trials: reflections on practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Batura


    Full Text Available Background: Current guidelines for the conduct of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA are mainly applicable to facility-based interventions in high-income settings. Differences in the unit of analysis and the high cost of data collection can make these guidelines challenging to follow within public health trials in low- and middle- income settings. Objective: This paper reflects on the challenges experienced within our own work and proposes solutions that may be useful to others attempting to collect, analyse, and compare cost data between public health research sites in low- and middle-income countries. Design: We describe the generally accepted methods (norms for collecting and analysing cost data in a single-site trial from the provider perspective. We then describe our own experience applying these methods within eight comparable cluster randomised, controlled, trials. We describe the strategies used to maximise adherence to the norm, highlight ways in which we deviated from the norm, and reflect on the learning and limitations that resulted. Results: When the expenses incurred by a number of small research sites are used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of delivering an intervention on a national scale, then deciding which expenses constitute ‘start-up’ costs will be a nontrivial decision that may differ among sites. Similarly, the decision to include or exclude research or monitoring and evaluation costs can have a significant impact on the findings. We separated out research costs and argued that monitoring and evaluation costs should be reported as part of the total trial cost. The human resource constraints that we experienced are also likely to be common to other trials. As we did not have an economist in each site, we collaborated with key personnel at each site who were trained to use a standardised cost collection tool. This approach both accommodated our resource constraints and served as a knowledge sharing and capacity

  14. Origin of clear cell carcinoma: nature or nurture? (United States)

    Kolin, David L; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Crum, Christopher P


    A rare but serious complication of endometriosis is the development of carcinoma, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are the two most common malignancies which arise from endometriosis. They are distinct diseases, characterized by unique morphologies, immunohistochemical profiles, and responses to treatment. However, both arise in endometriosis and can share common mutations. The overlapping mutational profiles of clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas suggest that their varied histologies may be due to a different cell of origin which gives rise to each type of cancer. Cochrane and colleagues address this question in a recent article in this journal. They show that a marker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, cystathionine gamma lyase, is expressed in ciliated cells. Similarly, they show that markers of secretory cells (estrogen receptor and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) are expressed in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Taken together, they suggest that endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas arise from cells related to secretory and ciliated cells, respectively. We discuss Cochrane et al's work in the context of other efforts to determine the cell of origin of gynecological malignancies, with an emphasis on recent developments and challenges unique to the area. These limitations complicate our interpretation of tumor differentiation; does it reflect nature imposed by a specific cell of origin or nurture, by either mutation(s) or environment? Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Role of Reflection in the Pedagogical Thinking and Practice of the MPA Programme at Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ry Nielsen, Jens Carl


    Reflection plays a significant role in the pedagogical thinking and practice at the Copenhagen Business School Master of Public Administration Programme. It is thus embedded in one of the pedagogical models we have developed based on ideas from Argyris, Schön, Vygotsky, Senge, Lave and Wenger...

  16. Structure and Agency in Learning: A Critical Realist Theory of the Development of Capacity to Reflect on Academic Practice (United States)

    Kahn, Peter; Qualter, Anne; Young, Richard


    Theories of learning typically downplay the interplay between social structure and student agency. In this article, we adapt a causal hypothesis from realist social theory and draw on wider perspectives from critical realism to account for the development of capacity to engage in reflection on professional practice in academic roles. We thereby…

  17. The Role of Reflection in the Pedagogical Thinking and Practice of the MPA Programme at Copenhagen Business School (United States)

    Ry Nielsen, J. C.


    Reflection plays a significant role in the pedagogical thinking and practice at the Copenhagen Business School Master of Public Administration Programme. It is thus embedded in one of the pedagogical models we have developed based on ideas from Argyris, Schön, Vygotsky, Senge, Lave and Wenger, and Schein. The model has four interrelated…

  18. "Creative Blocs": Action Research Study on the Implementation of Lego as a Tool for Reflective Practice with Social Care Practitioners (United States)

    Cavaliero, Tamsin


    The aim of this study is to investigate whether Lego could be used as a tool for reflective practice with social care practitioners (SCPs) and student practitioners. This article outlines an action research study conducted in an institute of higher education in Ireland. Findings from this study suggest that Lego can be used to support student…

  19. The Relation between Science Student Teachers' Approaches to Studying and Their Attitude to Reflective Practice (United States)

    Efe, Rifat


    In this study, the relation between science student teachers' approaches to studying and their attitude to reflective practice were investigated. The participants were 345 science student teachers on teacher education course during 2015-2016 academic year. The data was collected through Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST)…

  20. Nurturing Your Child's Development from 24 to 36 Months (United States)

    ... lots of conversations with your child. This will boost his language skills, introduce him to the pleasure ... self-confidence, and lang… Explore more from Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Resource | Disponible en español ...

  1. Teachers’ Reflection Process to Improve Learning Assessment Practices in the Context of Education for Youngsters and Adults (EPJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ariel Muñoz Olivero


    Full Text Available Education for youngsters and adults (in Spanish, EPJA has reached prominence in the Chilean educational system. It has had to give a new chance to a large number of young people who, for one reason or another, did not complete their studies in traditional training. In this scenario, it explores pedagogical practices developed by teachers working with youngsters and adults, especially those who refer to learning assessment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present the results of a reflection carried out by a group of teachers from a comprehensive adult education center, in order to improve their practices to evaluate their students’ learning. The research model is based on the qualitative approach with a case study design. It makes a comprehensive diagnostic of teaching practices, conducted through discussion groups. The analysis of the results shows that most teachers working at this educational center follow traditional assessment practices. They tend to copy conceptions of assessment centered around products that can be scored in order to check goal achievement, rather than around providing feedback that promotes self-regulated learning. However, the reflection also shows that teachers are willing to participate in pedagogical reflection sessions that guide them to improve their assessment practices.

  2. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen


    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on…

  3. Encouraging Reflective Practice in Conservatoire Students: A Pathway to Autonomous Learning? (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Harrison, Scott; Dwyer, Rachael


    This paper reports on first-year conservatoire students' reflections on their one-to-one performance learning through a reflective journal. One-to-one lessons have been a central part of the education of performing musicians, although their place in the twenty-first-century conservatoire is not beyond challenge. Recent research has indicated that…

  4. Teaching Research Methodology Using a Project-Based Three Course Sequence Critical Reflections on Practice (United States)

    Braguglia, Kay H.; Jackson, Kanata A.


    This article presents a reflective analysis of teaching research methodology through a three course sequence using a project-based approach. The authors reflect critically on their experiences in teaching research methods courses in an undergraduate business management program. The introduction of a range of specific techniques including student…

  5. Nature or Nurture – Will Epigenomics Solve the Dilemma?


    Płonka Beata


    The concept of “nature and nurture” is used to distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the formation of individual, mainly behavioral, traits. Different approaches that interpret nature and nurture as completely opposite or complementary aspects of human development have been discussed for decades. The paper addresses the most important points of nature vs nurture debate from the perspective of biological research, especially in the light of the recent findings in the fiel...

  6. How do educators in one New Zealand undergraduate Bachelor of Oral Health course teach and nurture professionalism? (United States)

    Smith, L; Adam, L; Moffat, S; Meldrum, A; Ahmadi, R


    Research on integrated dental hygiene and dental therapy courses is scarce; studies reporting on how staff in these combined scope courses teach professionalism are even more scarce. This study aimed to partially fill these research gaps. In 2016, online surveys were sent to 34 staff members who taught into the integrated Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH) course at the University of Otago's Faculty of Dentistry; 13 were returned. Two focus groups were conducted with six BOH educators. Aspects of professionalism were taught and nurtured in the formal curriculum, the clinic and the informal curriculum. In the formal curriculum, policies outlining the professional standards of behaviour expected of oral health practitioners and students in New Zealand and the Faculty were discussed. In the clinic, educators taught professionalism through modelling clinical skills, assessing students' performance and commenting on their reflective logbooks. In the informal curriculum, BOH teachers nurtured professionalism through discussions about standards of behaviour outside of the university. Role modelling was the most common method that participants reported they taught or nurtured professionalism in their students. Professionalism is a complex concept that is taught and nurtured in a number of ways over all aspects of the course. Oral Health educators need to maintain a high standard of professionalism when interacting with students and patients, as well as in public spaces, in order to model professionalism to their students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nature vs. nurture: a case report. (United States)

    Sandhu, Jagwinder S; Kuprevich, Carol L


    This case report of a young adult male, Mr. A., describes the vulnerability and effects of genetic and environmental factors on the development of psychopathology that can lead to long-term in-patient stays. Mr. A. was born to a mother who had untreated mental and substance use conditions. After a premature birth his brain suffered a significant insult as a result of hypoxia and hypoglycemia, and he remained in a neonatal intensive care unit for three weeks. His early childhood was spent in a chaotic and socioeconomically poor environment with a minimally involved mother and father. During childhood, latency, and adolescence Mr. A. experienced significant interpersonal issues. Mr. A. lived primarily with an aunt. He was unable to maintain employment. He is hospitalized in a public facility, is on multiple medications, and has had unsuccessful attempts to maintain community living. The person to whom he refers to as important in his life is his mother, who remains noninvolved. We present this case to illustrate how genetic and environmental influences interact to impact normal developmental pathways. Has nature or nurture played the strongest role in the life of Mr. A.?

  8. An exploratory study of selected female registered nurses: meaning and expression of nurturance. (United States)

    Geissler, E M


    The words 'nurse' and 'nursing' originate in the word 'nurture' which dates back to the 14th century. 'Nurturance' appeared for the first time in the 1976 Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary and in a United States dictionary in 1983. Etymologically and semantically bound to nursing, little is known about the term nurturance. An exploratory design using phenomenological analysis was applied to understand the female registered nurses' experience of nurturing patients throughout the life-span and to uncover behaviours commonly believed nurturant. Interviews with 14 RNs practising in diverse settings revealed 39 nurturant behaviours that were intuited into four themes describing the subjects' perceived structure of nurturance as: (1) enabling maximum potential; (2) providing physical and emotional protection; (3) engaging in a supportive interaction; and (4) conveying shared humanity. Data were formulated into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon nurturance. Additionally, the results support Greenberg-Edelstein's theoretical model of the positive reciprocity of nurturance between nurse and patient.

  9. The contribution of audio recording using portable digital voice recorders to the development of reflective practice with trainee teachers in a Further Education setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knill, Marta


    Full Text Available Developing reflective skills and habits during initial teacher education and progressing to deeper and more critical reflection are challenges for trainee teachers. This small-scale action research study investigates how two structured tasks using Digital Voice Recorders (DVRs initiated, sustained and improved reflection and reflective practice. Trainee teachers reported benefits in increased understanding of reflection, development of reflective skills, deepening of reflection and improvements in practice through joint reflection with Teacher Educators on specific aspects of teaching and learning. The structuring of the tasks with prompts and dialogue clearly contributed to the positive outcomes. The study suggests that use of the small, convenient and relatively low cost DVR technology has a place in learning to reflect.

  10. Psychology teaching in nursing education: a review of and reflection on approaches, issues, and contemporary practice. (United States)

    de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona


    This paper highlights the relevance of psychology for nurses and the issues around the inclusion of psychology as an essential part of nursing education. Considerable international variations in the extent to which psychology is incorporated in nursing education suggest a need for discussion and reflection on this topic. This paper aims to (a) examine and reflect on scholarly literature in English addressing psychology of nursing in education and (b) present and reflect on an example of psychology teaching in a school of nursing and midwifery in Ireland. A review of the literature took place, which included a search of various databases and an analysis of emerging psychology for nursing textbooks over the period 1906-2011. Findings were used as a framework for reflection on a local example. The literature review yielded numerous commentaries, discussion papers, textbook reviews and editorials but very few empirical studies. Three topics were identified as appearing most frequently in the literature: the relevance of psychology in the nursing curriculum; depth and content of coverage; and whether integrated or separate instruction of psychology should be chosen. Findings suggest that overall the relevance of psychology to nursing education is not contested, but debates have emerged regarding how best to approach and integrate psychology. The outcomes of these debates are mostly inconclusive at present. Educators are encouraged to become active in these discussions and reflections, which are hampered by lack of empirical evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The art of practice. Understanding the process of musical maturation through reflection


    Esslin-Peard, Monica; Shorrocks, Tony; Welch, Graham F.


    Much has been written in the last 30 years about musical practice and performance, but there is little consensus over what practice really means, or how musicians progress by practising. Researchers tend to focus on specific elements in practice rather than maintaining a more holistic perspective. Whilst academics historically focused on (primarily Western) classical musicians, more recent research has encompassed popular, jazz and folk musicians. The current research project at the Universit...

  12. Celebrating international collaboration: reflections on the first Virtual International Practice Development Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Stephens


    Full Text Available This article reports on the first Virtual International Practice Development Conference, held in May 2015 to celebrate International Nurses Day. The article describes key aspects of its planning, offers a flavour of the event itself and sets out an evaluation, including learning points and recommendations to assist with planning similar events in the future. Central to our learning are: The need for practice developers to grasp skills in technology associated with virtual space The need to embrace virtual space itself as another means by which creative and communicative spaces can be established for active learning and practice development activities The potential advantages that international virtual engagement has over face-to-face national or international engagement The delivery of this virtual event made a significant international contribution to global practice development activity within the International Practice Development Collaborative and to enabling practice developers to connect and celebrate on a more global basis. Implications for practice: Virtual space technology skills can assist with sharing and translating practice development research, innovations and critical commentary Virtual space can provide an adjunct to creative and communicative learning spaces Global networking opportunities can be developed and enhanced through the use of virtual space technology Practice developers need to role model the use of virtual technologies

  13. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction


    Rodolfo Langhi; Roberto Nardi


    This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching ...

  14. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah


    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  15. Macro Photography for Reflectance Transformation Imaging: A Practical Guide to the Highlights Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino


    Full Text Available Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI is increasingly being used for art documentation and analysis and it can be successful also for the examination of features on the order of hundreds of microns. This paper evaluates some macro scale photography methods specifically for RTI employing the Highlights method for documenting sub-millimeter details. This RTI technique consists in including one reflective sphere in the scene photographed so that the processing software can calculate for each photo the direction of the light source from its reflection on the sphere. RTI documentation can be performed also with an RTI dome, but the Highlights method is preferred because is more mobile and more affordable. This technique is demonstrated in the documentation of some prints ranging from the XV to the XX century from to the Ingels collection in Sweden. The images are here examined and discussed, showing the application of macro RTI for identifying features of prints.

  16. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Kun; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Yue


    Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss's and Stokes's theorems have been related to Green's theorem in a novel way.

  17. Didactic friction – challenges and reflections n interlinking PBL and discipline-specific tuition practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Wind, Simon


    This is a discussion paper that is based on the didactics reflections of three junior academics at the Architecture and Urban Design (A&UD) programme at Aalborg University. The discussion is moored in two narratives representing two typical student tuition situations. Unfolding two touch points...... didactic friction. This friction necessitates teachers and supervisors to critically reflect upon their teaching and supervision styles, and upon how ‘the problem’ is put into play in their tuition of students. The paper argues that teachers and supervisors have a heightened obligation and responsibility...

  18. Un-earthing emotions through art: facilitating reflective practice with poetry and photographic imagery. (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer; Yau, Terrence; Church, Kathryn; Ruttonsha, Perin; David, Alison Matthews


    In this article, we comment upon and provide an arts-informed example of an emotive-focused reflection of a health care practitioner. Specifically, we use poetry and photographic imagery as tools to un-earth practitioners' emotions within agonizing and traumatic clinical encounters. In order to recognize one's own humanness and authentically engage in the art of medicine, we immerse ourselves in the first author's poetic and photographic self-reflection. The poem and image are intended to inspire interpretation and meaning based on the reader's own professional and/or personal context. The last line of the poem is "I take off the gloves. My hands are marked."

  19. Technology-supported reflection : towards bridging the gap between theory and practice in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almodaires, Abdullah Abdulaziz


    The ability to convert theoretical knowledge into practical behavior is a common obstacle facing newly graduated employees in most professions. To overcome this obstacle, educational institutes are offering some kind of field training courses that allow their students to practice and gain experience

  20. The Teacher Technology Integration Experience: Practice and Reflection in the Classroom (United States)

    Ruggiero, Dana; Mong, Christopher J.


    Previous studies indicated that the technology integration practices of teachers in the classroom often did not match their teaching styles. Researchers concluded that this was due, at least partially, to external barriers that prevented teachers from using technology in ways that matched their practiced teaching style. Many of these barriers,…

  1. Teacher Classroom Practices and Mathematics Performance in South African Schools: A Reflection on TIMSS 2011 (United States)

    Arends, Fabian; Winnaar, Lolita; Mosimege, Mogege


    Teachers play an important role in the provision of quality education. The variety of classroom practices they use in interacting with learners play a critical role in the understanding of mathematical concepts and overall performance in Mathematics. Following the work done by Hattie (2009, 2012) in relation to classroom practices this study…

  2. Reflection as a Deliberative and Distributed Practice: Assessing Neuro-Enhancement Technologies via Mutual Learning Exercises (MLEs). (United States)

    Zwart, Hub; Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Eduard, Peter; Krabbenborg, Lotte; Laursen, Sheena; Revuelta, Gema; Toonders, Winnie


    In 1968, Jürgen Habermas claimed that, in an advanced technological society, the emancipatory force of knowledge can only be regained by actively recovering the 'forgotten experience of reflection'. In this article, we argue that, in the contemporary situation, critical reflection requires a deliberative ambiance, a process of mutual learning, a consciously organised process of deliberative and distributed reflection. And this especially applies, we argue, to critical reflection concerning a specific subset of technologies which are actually oriented towards optimising human cognition (neuro-enhancement). In order to create a deliberative ambiance, fostering critical upstream reflection on emerging technologies, we developed (in the context of a European 7 th Framework Programme project on neuro-enhancement and responsible research and innovation, called NERRI) the concept of a mutual learning exercise (MLE). Building on a number of case studies, we analyse what an MLE involves, both practically and conceptually, focussing on key aspects such as ambiance and expertise, the role of 'genres of the imagination' and the profiles of various 'subcultures of debate'. Ideally, an MLE becomes a contemporary version of the Socratic agora, providing a stage where multiple and sometimes unexpected voices and perspectives mutually challenge each other, in order to strength-en the societal robustness and responsiveness of emerg-ing technologies.

  3. Introducing Advanced Practice Nurses / Nurse Practitioners in health care systems: a framework for reflection and analysis. (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Moons, Philip; Callens, Betty; Gut, Chris; Lindpaintner, Lyn; Spirig, Rebecca


    An increasing number of countries are exploring the option of introducing Advanced Practice Nurses (APN), such as Nurse Practitioners (NP), as part of the health care workforce. This is particular relevant in light of the increase of the elderly and chronically ill. It is crucial that this introduction is preceded by an in depth understanding of the concept of advanced practice nursing as well as an analysis of the context. Firstly, a conceptual clarification of Advanced Practice Nurses and Nurse Practitioners is provided. Secondly, a framework is introduced that assists in the analysis of the introduction and development of Advanced Practice Nurse roles in a particular health care system. Thirdly, outcomes research on Advanced Practice Nursing is presented. Argumentation developed using data based papers and policy reports on Advanced Practice Nursing. The proposed framework consists of five drivers: (1) the health care needs of the population, (2) education, (3) workforce, (4) practice patterns and (5) legal and health policy framework. These drivers act synergistically and are dynamic in time and space. Outcomes research shows that nurse practitioners show clinical outcomes similar to or better than those of physicians. Further examples demonstrate favourable outcomes in view of the six Ds of outcome research; death, disease, disability, discomfort, dissatisfaction and dollars, for models of care in which Advanced Practice Nurses play a prominent role. Advanced Practice Nurses such as Nurse Practitioners show potential to contribute favourably to guaranteeing optimal health care. Advanced Practice Nurses will wield the greatest influence on health care by focusing on the most pressing health problems in society, especially the care of the chronically ill.

  4. Reflection as Situated Practice: A Memory-Work Study of Lived Experience in Teacher Education (United States)

    Ovens, Alan; Tinning, Richard


    The aim of this paper is to understand whether student teachers enact reflection differently as they encounter different situations within their teacher education programme. Group memory-work was used to generate and analyse five participants' memories of learning to teach. Three different discursive contexts were identified in the students'…

  5. Reflections on Practical Approaches to Involving Children and Young People in the Data Analysis Process (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Evans, Ruth


    This article reflects on key methodological issues emerging from children and young people's involvement in data analysis processes. We outline a pragmatic framework illustrating different approaches to engaging children, using two case studies of children's experiences of participating in data analysis. The article highlights methods of…

  6. Practicing What Is Preached: Self-Reflections on Memory in a Memory Course (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.


    To apply several principles of memory covered in a first-year university memory course, I developed a series of one-page self-reflection papers on memory that require students to engage with the material in a meaningful way. These short papers cover topics related to memory, and the assignment itself applies these same principles, reinforcing…

  7. Undergraduate Reflective Journaling in Work Integrated Learning: Is It Relevant to Professional Practice? (United States)

    Edgar, Susan; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Connaughton, Joanne


    This paper presents the research findings from a study reviewing graduates' opinions on completing online reflective journaling tasks during work integrated learning as an undergraduate. The study was divided into two parts with an initial focus group conducted with six physiotherapy graduates seven months following graduation. Findings from the…

  8. Player-Driven Video Analysis to Enhance Reflective Soccer Practice in Talent Development (United States)

    Hjort, Anders; Henriksen, Kristoffer; Elbæk, Lars


    In the present article, we investigate the introduction of a cloud-based video analysis platform called Player Universe (PU). Video analysis is not a new performance-enhancing element in sports, but PU is innovative in how it facilitates reflective learning. Video analysis is executed in the PU platform by involving the players in the analysis…

  9. Reflective Practices for Future Journalism: The Need, the Resistance and the Way Forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timon Ramaker; Jan van der Stoep; Mark Deuze


    In newsrooms journalists encounter numerous constraints accelerated by increasing technological and economic pressures. The complexity of the job and the need for (constant) innovation coupled with the rising call for transparency and accountability ask for journalists who “reflect-in-action”.

  10. Didactic Friction--Challenges and Reflections on Interlinking PBL and Discipline-Specific Tuition Practices (United States)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Wind, Simon


    This is a discussion paper based on didactic reflections of three junior academics at the Architecture and Urban Design (A&UD) programme at Aalborg University. The discussion unfolds "didactic friction", where principles of PBL come into contact with architectural didactics, causing challenging teaching situations. This discussion of…

  11. Stop and Think: Exploring Mobile Notifications to Foster Reflective Practice on Meta-Learning (United States)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus


    Nowadays, smartphone users are constantly receiving notifications from applications that provide feedback, as reminders, recommendations or announcements. Nevertheless, there is little research on the effects of mobile notifications to foster meta-learning. This paper explores the effectiveness of mobile notifications to foster reflection on…

  12. Improving Collaborative Planning and Reflection Practices at International Baccalaureate Diploma Schools in Amman (United States)

    Saa'd AlDin, Kawther


    In 2010, the International Baccalaureate (IB) Organization mandated that all its schools, including Diploma (DP) schools, adhere to the collaborative planning and reflection requirements, which emphasized the importance of integrating its theory of knowledge (TOK) core component into all disciplines. Many schools officials and educations in Amman…

  13. Reflective practice in sport coaching: an autoethnographic exploration into the lived experiences of one coach


    Ang, Denis


    This study seeks to contribute to the growing pool of knowledge on the use of alternative representation of lived experiences to advance practical understandings in sport coaching. Documenting a self-inquiry into my coaching practice, this study demonstrates the value of autoethnography as a methodology to deepen knowledge from experiences. By illuminating my coach-researcher voice through a self-narrative, this study shows how autoethnography is able to immerse the sport researcher in his or...

  14. Introducing Player-Driven Video Analysis to Enhance Reflective Soccer Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Anders; Elbæk, Lars; Henriksen, Kristoffer


    . The implementation and evaluation of PU took place in the FC Copenhagen (FCK) School of Excellence. Findings show that PU can improve youth football players’ reflection skills through consistent video analyses and tagging, that coaches are important as role models and providers of feedback, and that the use......In the present study, we investigated the introduction of a cloud-based video analysis platform called Player Universe (PU) in a Danish football club. Video analysis is not a new performance-enhancing element in sport, but PU is innovative in the way players and coaches produce footage and how...... it facilitates reflective learning. Video analysis is executed in the (PU) platform by involving the players in the analysis process, in the sense that they are encouraged to tag game actions in video-documented football matches. Following this, players can get virtual feedback from their coach. The philosophy...

  15. Migrations of theory, method and practice: a reflection on themes in migration studies (Review article)


    Palmary, Ingrid


    In this review article, I offer some reflection on three themes in migration research, namely, the categorisation and quantification of migration, the role of trauma and distress in such categorisation, and the feminisation of migration. I was prompted to explore these three themes after reading a recent publication on migration in southern Africa (edited by Kok, Gelderblom, Oucho and Van Zyl, 2006). In this paper I raise these as three areas that appear to be determining the boundaries of th...

  16. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu


    Full Text Available Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss’s and Stokes’s theorems have been related to Green’s theorem in a novel way.

  17. Parental authority, nurturance, and two-dimensional self-esteem. (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Wild, Nicole; Ho, Caroline


    This study examined the relations of parental permissiveness, authoritativeness, authoritarianism, and nurturance with two dimensions of self-esteem - self-liking and self-competence. In a sample of 207 two-parent families, university students and both their parents provided independent reports on all the above variables. Covariance structure analysis was used to eliminate reporter-specific bias and unreliability in predicting student self-esteem from parenting behavior. The results revealed highly redundant positive associations of mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and nurturance with both self-liking and self-competence. The pattern of these associations suggests that the significance of parental authoritativeness for the child's self-esteem is due mainly to the nurturance it provides. Contrary to expectation, mothers' and fathers' authoritarianism was also positively associated with self-liking. As discussed, however, this is likely to be an artifact of the specific measures and testing methods used.

  18. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer


    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  19. When culture clashes with individual human rights: A practical theological reflection on the dignity of widows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift T. Baloyi


    Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of human beings (men and women as an egalitarian one even beyond cultural expectations. It argues against some cultural practices on women, especially widows, which claim supremacy and bind the widows to its ritual processes among the Tsonga people. It stresses the importance of human individual that overtakes everything from God�s creation, including cultural rituals which are created by human beings. It claims that the existence of culture depends solely on the existence or presence of human beings and their communities. Therefore, culture cannot use humans to shape itself and to transform the community. It is humans themselves who use culture to identify themselves and ultimately change their communities. Although the paper is theological in its approach, it argues for individual human rights to be respected and weighed above all cultural practices. It further concludes that such cultural practices are not static and that they can be removed from the rest of culture.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article, from a practical theological view, challenges the African cultural rituals that claim authority over women�s rights and dignity. The interdisciplinary nature of this article indicates the sanctity of human individuals especially widows and thereby calls for paradigm shift to deconstruct certain oppressive teachings and practices against widows among African women. This article concludes thus, cultural deconstruction is possible.

  20. Critical reflections on the theory versus practice debate in communication for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linje Manyozo


    Full Text Available Even though the cliché ‘theory is practice’ registers in most communication for development debates, available evidence seems to suggest there is a growing chasm between the theory and practice of communication for development. This discussion argues that, with the increasing demand by governments and organisations for communication for development specialists, universities and training providers should rethink their graduate curricula. As course content, teaching methodologies and theoretical paradigms are revisited, trainers need to grill students on how the contestation of power is central to the application of communication in development. This paper advances two arguments. The first is that communication for development training has to begin listening to the innovative thinking that is shaping practice on the ground if the curriculum is to stay relevant. The second is that such programmes have forge strong linkages with development studies departments to ensure that students are well-grounded in development theory and practice.

  1. Innovative practices in teaching information sciences and technology experience reports and reflections

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    Carroll, John M


    University teaching and learning has never been more innovative than it is now.This has been enabled by a better contemporary understanding of teaching and learning. Instructors now present situated projects and practices to their students, not just foundational principles. Lectures and structured practice are now often replaced by engaging and constructivist learning activities that leverage what students know about, think about and care about.Teaching innovation has also been enabled by online learning in the classroom, beyond the classroom and beyond the campus. Learning online is perhaps n

  2. The Implementation of One-Week-One-Article Program in a Reading Class: A Reflective Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Rahmatullah


    Full Text Available This article presents my reflections on the implementation of one-week-one-article program. Fifty-three students participated in this program. Every week they presented the article they had read. I found that the majority of students actively participated in this program, showing seriousness in understanding the content of the article, the pronunciation of difficult words, and the flow of the presentation. This program at least promoted three aspects: students’ motivation, cooperative learning, and their critical thinking. Even though this program was conducted for university students, it is likely to be working with students of junior and senior secondary school with some modification

  3. Expanding the "ports of entry" for speech-language pathologists: a relational and reflective model for clinical practice. (United States)

    Geller, Elaine; Foley, Gilbert M


    To outline an expanded framework for clinical practice in speech-language pathology. This framework broadens the focus on discipline-specific knowledge and infuses mental health constructs within the study of communication sciences and disorders, with the objective of expanding the potential "ports or points of entry" (D. Stern, 1995) for clinical intervention with young children who are language impaired. Specific mental health constructs are highlighted in this article. These include relationship-based learning, attachment theory, working dyadically (the client is the child and parent), reflective practice, transference-countertransference, and the use of self. Each construct is explored as to the way it has been applied in traditional and contemporary models of clinical practice. The underlying premise in this framework is that working from a relationally based and reflective perspective augments change and growth in both client and parent(s). The challenge is for speech-language pathologists to embed mental health constructs within their discipline-specific expertise. This leads to paying attention to both observable aspects of clients' behaviors as well as their internal affective states.

  4. The research and practice of integrating conservation and development: Self-reflections by researchers on methodologies, objectives and influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Pasgaard


    Full Text Available This study examines the application of mixed-method and participatory approaches to conservation and development research. Both approaches were applied in a research project on the relationship between ecosystem governance and the wellbeing of local communities adjacent to a protected area in Laos. By encouraging four of the involved field researchers to reflect upon and expose their practical approaches as scientific experts (in terms of methodologies, objectives, reliability of results and research influence, this article aims to improve our learning from research practice and to promote reflexivity in research. The reflexive study presented here emphasizes the social and political context or real world situation against which research outputs can and should be evaluated, and retrospectively sheds light on the barriers to reach research objectives. In essence, the article addresses the relation between science and policy, and underlines the political undercurrent of conservation and development research in facilitating institutional change. The article outlines the very role of researchers in developing conservation policies, and provides a foundation for institutions and individual researchers to promote critical and constructive self-reflections in scientific practices.

  5. Revisiting the need for virtue in medical practice: A reflection upon the teaching of Edmund Pellegrino

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bain, Luchuo Engelbert


    Edmund Pellegrino considered medicine as a skill, art, and perhaps most importantly, a moral enterprise. In this essay, I attempt to exemplify how the legacy and contributions of Edmund Pellegrino, as a teacher and a physician, could allow for a renaissance of medical practice in which physicians

  6. Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty Impact: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan


    A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is practiced. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the impact of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…

  7. Do Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers Reflect Their Beliefs about Constructivism in Their Teaching Practices? (United States)

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen; Boz, Yezdan; Kirbulut, Demet; Bektas, Oktay


    This study aimed to explore pre-service chemistry teachers' beliefs about constructivism and the influence of their beliefs in their teaching practice. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight pre-service teachers in order to understand their belief structures. Pre-service teachers' beliefs about constructivism were…

  8. The MBA Capstone Course: Building Theoretical, Practical, Applied, and Reflective Skills (United States)

    Inamdar, Syeda Noorein; Roldan, Malu


    The capstone strategy course is used in many management education programs to provide practical business relevance as a means for students to transition to the business world. We conducted an empirical study to determine to what extent capstone strategy courses are teaching the following four skills that prepare students to meet business job…

  9. Classroom Conversation Analysis and Critical Reflective Practice: Self-Evaluation of Teacher Talk Framework in Focus (United States)

    Ghafarpour, Hajar


    The uniqueness of the Language Classroom and its complexity raises a need for foreign language teachers to develop necessary skills and knowledge to observe, analyse and evaluate their classroom discourse. Hence, interactional awareness of language teachers is an integral part of pedagogical and practical knowledge. In this article, the…

  10. Peer Assisted Learning and Blogging: A Strategy to Promote Reflective Practice during Clinical Fieldwork (United States)

    Ladyshewsky, Richard K.; Gardner, Peter


    The use of peer assisted learning in clinical education is explored in this case study. Groups of undergraduate physiotherapy students were structured into communities of practice during the second half of their clinical fieldwork program. They collaborated online in an asynchronous manner, using information communications technology (blogs) and…

  11. School Librarian as Inquisitor of Practice: Reimagine, Reflect, and React with the New Standards (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth


    The modern school library is a complex social setting "grounded in standards and best practice" (AASL 2018). The new "National School Library Standards" have refreshed the student learning standards and aligned new Shared Foundations to the school library. Additionally, the competencies for learners are now complemented by…

  12. Pedagogical Perspectives and Practices Reflected in Metaphors of Learning and Digital Learning of ICT Leaders (United States)

    Blau, Ina; Grinberg, Ronen; Shamir-Inbal, Tamar


    This study examines the meaning attributed to the contribution of technology to pedagogical practices from the perspective of school ICT leaders. While previous studies use metaphors for bottom-up exploration, this study employs an innovative combination of bottom-up and top-down metaphor analysis based on two frameworks: (a) metaphors of general…

  13. Practicing What We Teach? An Autobiographical Reflection on Navigating Academia as a Single Mother (United States)

    Schlehofer, Michele


    Despite the contributions of feminist theory and practice to improve workplace conditions in various sectors of business and industry, academic workplaces largely remain structured around a traditionally hierarchical, male workplace model and culture, which can inhibit women's career advancement. Using autobiographical narrative, I draw upon my…

  14. Restorative Justice as Reflective Practice and Applied Pedagogy on College Campuses (United States)

    Rinker, Jeremy A.; Jonason, Chelsey


    Restorative justice (RJ) is both a methodology for dealing with conflict and a process for modeling more positive human relations after social harm. As both method and process, the benefits of developing restorative practices on college campuses go well beyond just the many positive community-oriented outcomes of facilitated conflict resolution…

  15. Preparing for Principalship from the Crucible of Experience: Reflecting on Theory, Practice and Research (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Wildy, Helen


    This paper examines the theories of organisation that have informed our understanding of schools as complex social worlds and the practice of school leadership that seems to be required in such environments. This understanding has, in turn, determined the research approach we have adopted for investigating principals' work and for ascertaining the…

  16. Supervising Snowsport Activities: A Reflection upon Legislation, Policies, Guidelines and Practice (United States)

    Dickson, Tracey J.; Terwiel, F. Anne


    This paper explores on-snow supervision in school-based snowsport excursions by investigating snowsport participation and safety data and relevant legislation and policies that form the framework for practice. Snowsports may present a more complex environment for managing of participants than many other outdoor environments and provide a valuable…

  17. Introduction to the contributions of the Symposium "Practice Research in Discussion: a pause for reflection"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkum, van C.; Reijmerink, W.; Wagemakers, A.


    In 2011, the Amsterdam University of Applied Science (HvA), the Dutch Organization of Methodology in the Social sciences (NOSMO), and the Alumni Circle Adult Education of Amsterdam University (ACA) organized a symposium about practice-oriented research. An onset to this symposium was that

  18. The emperor's new clothes - Reflections on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) practice in South Africa

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    Retief, Francois; Jones, Carys; Jay, Stephen


    This paper presents the results of research which evaluated the performance of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) practice in South Africa in order to develop understanding of how SEA functions within a developing country with a voluntary SEA system. The research applied a combination of methods in a mixed research strategy, including a macro level survey of the SEA system together with case study reviews exploring micro level application. Three main 'system features' emerged, namely expansion of voluntary practice, diversity in practice and general ineffectiveness. The results also highlight a number of 'application features' such as a lack of focus due to an inability to deal with the concepts of 'sustainability' and 'significance', as well as poor understanding and integration with decision-making processes. Moreover, it emerged that none of the case studies seem to have conducted an 'assessment' per se, but rather provided a framework for strategic decision-making. The paper puts forward a number of interrelated explanations for these system and application features. In a parallel to the fable of the 'emperor's new clothes', SEA in South Africa appears to be regarded as the answer to all environmental problems, whilst being ineffective in practice

  19. Reflective Practice as "Enrichment": How New Early Childhood Teachers Enact Preservice Values in Their Classrooms (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Beck, Lisa M.


    This article is part of a larger exploratory study that followed preservice early childhood teachers through their program and into their first year of practice, giving voice to their understandings of quality teaching and learning, and insight into the ways their preservice program prepared them for the challenges of teaching in diverse settings.…

  20. The Soul of Teaching and Professional Learning: An Appreciative Inquiry into the Enneagram of Reflective Practice (United States)

    Luckcock, Tim


    This paper makes a contribution to the theory and practice of educational action research by introducing two theoretical and methodological resources as part of a personal review of sustained professional experience: "appreciative inquiry" and the "enneagram". It is more than a theoretical exercise, however, because it also…

  1. Epidemiological reflections of the contribution of anthropology to public health policy and practice. (United States)

    Porter, John D H


    Academic disciplines like anthropology and epidemiology provide a niche for researchers to speak the same language, and to interrogate the assumptions that they use to investigate problems. How anthropological and epidemiological methods communicate and relate to each other affects the way public health policy is created but the philosophical underpinnings of each discipline makes this difficult. Anthropology is reflective, subjective and investigates complexity and the individual; epidemiology, in contrast, is objective and studies populations. Within epidemiological methods there is the utilitarian concept of potentially sacrificing the interests of the individual for the benefits of maximizing population welfare, whereas in anthropology the individual is always included. Other strengths of anthropology in the creation of public health policy include: its attention to complexity, questioning the familiar; helping with language and translation; reconfiguring boundaries to create novel frameworks; and being reflective. Public health requires research that is multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary. To do this, there is a need for each discipline to respect the 'dignity of difference' between disciplines in order to help create appropriate and effective public health policy.

  2. "Reflection-Before-Practice" Improves Self-Assessment and End-Performance in Laparoscopic Surgical Skills Training. (United States)

    Ganni, Sandeep; Botden, Sanne M B I; Schaap, Dennis P; Verhoeven, Bas H; Goossens, Richard H M; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    To establish whether a systematized approach to self-assessment in a laparoscopic surgical skills course improves accordance between expert- and self-assessment. A systematic training course in self-assessment using Competency Assessment Tool was introduced into the normal course of evaluation within a Laparoscopic Surgical Skills training course for the test group (n = 30). Differences between these and a control group (n = 30) who did not receive the additional training were assessed. Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (n = 27), and GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, India (n = 33). Sixty postgraduate year 2 and 3 surgical residents who attended the 2-day Laparoscopic Surgical Skills grade 1 level 1 curriculum were invited to participate. The test group (n = 30) showed better accordance between expert- and self-assessment (difference of 1.5, standard deviation [SD] = 0.2 versus 3.83, SD = 0.6, p = 0.009) as well as half the number (7 versus 14) of cases of overreporting. Furthermore, the test group also showed higher overall mean performance (mean = 38.1, SD = 0.7 versus mean = 31.8, SD = 1.0, p assessment can be viewed as responsible for this and can be seen as "reflection-before-practice" within the framework of reflective practice as defined by Donald Schon. Our results suggest that "reflection-before-practice" in implementing self-assessment is an important step in the development of surgical skills, yielding both better understanding of one's strengths and weaknesses and also improving overall performance. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. "(Dis)Empowered by What We See … ": Exploring the Use of Video-Stimulated Reflection in Physical Education Pedagogy and Practice (United States)

    Mooney, Amanda; Hickey, Chris


    Reflexive accounts of physical education (PE) pedagogy and practice offer potential to reveal much about the intended and unintended learning, for both students and teachers, that can result from certain pedagogic encounters. Despite the promotion of reflective practice/s as a possible "panacea" for improved teaching and learning, there…

  4. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools (United States)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  5. The practice of reflection in the russian goodwill when buying enterprises as a property complex


    O. A. Ovchinnikova; T. O. Bazdаreva; V. N. Harina


    When buying enterprises as a property complex, firm-the buyer can pay for it as excess cost of the acquired entity on its balance sheet, and an amount less than the value of the assets on the balance sheet of the acquiree. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, in the account of the buyer acquires an intangible asset that distinguishes the Russian from the international practice. International financial reporting standards do not recognize goodwill an intangible asset of the bu...

  6. Sustainable Entrepreneurship Orientation: A Reflection on Status-Quo Research on Factors Facilitating Responsible Managerial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kraus


    Full Text Available With the global financial system having undergone vast changes since the financial crisis of 2007, scientific research concerning the investor’s point of view on sustainable investments has drastically increased. However, there remains a lack of research focused on the entrepreneur’s angle regarding sustainable oriented investments. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of sustainable financial markets by bringing together entrepreneurial and financial research. This paper provides a structured literature review, based on which the authors identify three relevant levels that they believe have an effect on the successful implementation of managerial sustainable practices; these are the individual, the firm, and the contextual levels. The results show that on the individual level sustainable entrepreneurs tend to derive their will to act more sustainably from their personal values or traits. On the organizational level, though, it can be concluded that an small and medium sized enterprise’s internal culture and the reconfiguration of resources are critical determinants for adopting a sustainable entrepreneurial orientation. Finally, on the contextual level, researchers have focused on a better understanding of how entrepreneurs can help society and the environment through sustainable entrepreneurship, and how they can act as role models or change agents in light of the fact that the choice of investing or financing based on sustainability is still in its infancy. By providing an overview on facilitating factors for responsible managerial practices on the entrepreneur’s side, this research contributes to a better understanding for both theory and practice on how sustainable practices can be implemented and facilitated.

  7. Hippocrates' First Aphorism: Reflections on Ageless Principles for the Practice of Medicine. (United States)

    Loscalzo, Joseph


    Hippocrates' first aphorism presents a structurally simple but conceptually complex series of observations on the art and science of medicine. Its principles are timeless, relevant to physicians in antiquity as well as in the current era. This article analyzes Hippocrates' aphorism in light of Galen's and others' commentaries on it and interprets the principles espoused by Hippocrates in light of the perennial challenges of the practice of medicine.

  8. Is anybody listening? A qualitative study of nurses' reflections on practice. (United States)

    Huntington, Annette; Gilmour, Jean; Tuckett, Anthony; Neville, Stephen; Wilson, Denise; Turner, Catherine


    To explore nurses' perceptions of the reality of practice based on data from the Nurses and Midwives e-cohort Study which examined the workforce characteristics, work-life balance and health of nurses. Recruitment and retention of the nursing workforce is of international concern as demands increase due to demographic changes, political pressure and community expectations, in a climate of economic constraint. Qualitative analysis of data from a cohort of Australian, New Zealand and UK nurses. Of the 7604 participants in the electronic cohort, 1909 provided qualitative comments of which 162 related to nursing practice; thematic analysis resulted in four high order themes. The analytical discussion is structured around 'care' as the organising construct. Four themes emerged: 'embodied care' which discusses the impact of work on the nurse's physical and emotional health; 'quantity/quality care' which addresses increasing pressures of work and ability to provide quality care; 'organisational (non)care' raising the seeming lack of support from management; and '(un)collegial/self care' where bullying and professional relationships were raised. Issues raised by participants have been discussed in the nursing literature for several years yet nurses still experience these negative aspects of nursing. It appears there is a significant gap between what is known about the practice environment, recommendations for change and change occurring: the management equivalent of the theory-practice gap, resulting in nurses intending to leave the profession. Research demonstrates that a well-qualified, stable nursing workforce improves quality of health care and health outcomes. Changing the work environment and fostering a positive workplace culture seems fundamental to supporting the retention of nurses, that this is not occurring in some areas in the current climate is a concern for the profession and those responsible for the provision of care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The Teacher Technology Integration Experience: Practice and Reflection in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ruggiero


    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that the technology integration practices of teachers in the classroom often did not match their teaching styles. Researchers concluded that this was due, at least partially, to external barriers that prevented teachers from using technology in ways that matched their practiced teaching style. Many of these barriers, such as professional support and access to hardware and software, have been largely diminished over the last twenty years due to an influx of money and strategies for enhancing technology in primary and secondary schools in the United States. This mixed-methods research study was designed to examine the question, “What technology do teachers use and how do they use that technology to facilitate student learning?” K-12 classroom teachers were purposefully selected based on their full-time employment in a public, private, or religious school in a Midwestern state in the United States, supported by the endorsement of a school official. There were 1048 teachers from over 100 school corporations who completed an online survey consisting of six questions about classroom technology tools and professional development involving technology. Survey results suggest that technology integration is pervasive in the classroom with the most often used technology tool identified as PowerPoint. Moreover, teachers identified that training about technology is most effective when it is contextually based in their own classroom. Follow-up interviews were conducted with ten percent (n=111 of the teachers in order to examine the relationship between teachers’ daily classroom use of technology and their pedagogical practices. Results suggest a close relationship; for example, teachers with student-centric technology activities were supported by student-centric pedagogical practices in other areas. Moreover, teachers with strongly student-centered practices tended to exhibit a more pronounced need to create learning

  10. Musical Nurture in the Early Years of Children. (United States)

    Miller, Samuel D.

    Children are naturally musical and should be musically educated. Music provides a unique way for children to grow intellectually, emotionally and socially. Music fulfills an inner drive to express feelings and experiences in a symbolic, abstract, creative, and acceptable manner which is positive and valued. Musical nurture should begin within the…

  11. Nurturing Positive Mental Health: Mindfulness for Wellbeing in Counseling (United States)

    Rybak, Christopher


    As increasing attention has been given in the past decade to positive psychology, this has likewise been directed toward understanding methods of nurturing positive mental health. These methods have moved toward empowering clients in the development of skills to enhance their own sense of wellbeing (Khong, Counseling and Spirituality, 25, 67-84,…

  12. Examining Unproven Assumptions of Galton's Nature-Nurture Paradigm (United States)

    McLafferty, Charles L.


    Sir Francis Galton's (1869/1892) notion of nature versus nurture is a cornerstone of psychology: It was recently featured in two issues of the Monitor (March and April 2004) and was infused throughout the January 2005 issue of the American Psychologist. R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd offered keen insights into the pitfalls in…

  13. Issues in Sociobiology: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate. (United States)

    Lorenzen, Eric


    Explains the two theories on the origins of human and animal behavior. Introduces the new discipline of sociobiology, a merging of biology and sociology. Describes the central dogma of sociobiology and its societal implications, and discusses criticism of sociobiology. Presents the nature vs. nurture debate. (YDS)

  14. The continuing legacy of nature versus nurture in biolinguistics. (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel L


    Theories of language evolution that separate biological and cultural contributions perpetuate a false dichotomy between nature and nurture. The explanatory power of future theories will depend on acknowledging the reality of gene-culture interaction and how it makes language possible.

  15. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy. (United States)

    Forester-Miller, Holly


    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  16. Nurturing Ethical Values in the 21st Century Adolescent (United States)

    Kuttner, Joanne Fitzmaurice


    There is a wise proverb that insists it takes a whole village to raise a child to adulthood. In light of the expanding convolution of contemporary values, it is especially important to attentively nurture the inherent desire in each developing human person to seek good and avoid evil, especially during the critical years of adolescent formation.…

  17. NEWPATH: An Innovative Program to Nurture IT Entrepreneurs (United States)

    Soundarajan, Neelam; Camp, Stephen M.; Lee, David; Ramnath, Rajiv; Weide, Bruce W.


    The number of freshmen interested in entrepreneurship has grown dramatically in the last few years. In response, many universities have created entrepreneurship programs, including ones focused on engineering entrepreneurship. In this paper, we report on NEWPATH, an innovative NSF-supported program at Ohio State, designed to nurture students to…

  18. Do published guidelines for evaluation of Irritable Bowel Syndrome reflect practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Susan L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The only US guidelines listed in the National Guideline Warehouse for the diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS are the expert opinion guidelines published by The American Gastroenterology Association. Although the listed target audience of these guidelines includes family physicians and general internists, the care recommended in the guidelines has not been compared to actual primary care practice. This study was designed to compare expert opinion guidelines with the actual primary care provided and to assess outcomes in the 3 years following the IBS diagnosis. Methods This is a retrospective medical record review study using a random sample of incident IBS cases from all Olmsted County, Minnesota providers diagnosed between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1995. Data was collected on all care and testing provided to the subjects as well as 3-year outcomes related to the IBS diagnosis. Results Of the 149 IBS patients, 99 were women and the mean age was 47.6 years. No patient had all of the diagnostic tests recommended in the guidelines. 42% had the basic blood tests of CBC and a chemistry panel. Sedimentation rate (2% and serum thyroxine level (3% were uncommon. Colon imaging studies were done in 41% including 74% of those over the age of 50. In the 3 years following the diagnosis, only one person had a change in diagnosis and no diagnoses of gastro-intestinal malignancies were made in the cohort. Conclusions Primary care practice based diagnostic evaluations for IBS differ significantly from the specialty expert opinion-based guidelines. Implementation of the specialty guidelines in primary care practice would increase utilization with apparent limited improvement in diagnostic outcomes.

  19. Excellence in the stacks strategies, practices and reflections of award-winning libraries

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    Hill, Jacob


    Excellence in the Stacks details the philosophies, practices and innovations of award-winning libraries over the last ten years. It will inform the profession and highlight the themes and strategies these liberal-arts colleges share, and where they differ. Using the Association of Research and College Libraries Excellence in Academic Libraries Award standards as guidelines for exploring librarianship, this book gathers the perspectives of all types of librarians at all levels of employment. By highlighting winners' holistic approaches it helps define and focus the energies of college libraries

  20. Reflections on Klein's radical notion of phantasy and its implications for analytic practice. (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B


    Analysts may incorporate many of Melanie Klein's important contributions (e.g., on preoedipal dynamics, envy, and projective identification) without transforming their basic analytic approach. In this paper I argue that adopting the Kleinian notion of unconscious phantasy is transformative. While it is grounded in Freud's thinking and draws out something essential to his work, this notion of phantasy introduces a radical change that defines Kleinian thinking and practice and significantly impacts the analyst's basic clinical approach. This impact and its technical implications in the analytic situation are illustrated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  1. Revisiting the need for virtue in medical practice: a reflection upon the teaching of Edmund Pellegrino. (United States)

    Bain, Luchuo Engelbert


    Edmund Pellegrino considered medicine as a skill, art, and perhaps most importantly, a moral enterprise. In this essay, I attempt to exemplify how the legacy and contributions of Edmund Pellegrino, as a teacher and a physician, could allow for a renaissance of medical practice in which physicians engage intellectual and moral virtue to both effect sound care, and do so in a humanitarian way, rather than in simple accordance with a business model of medicine. The virtues are viewed in a renewed light as being key characteristics of physicians, and important to patient centered care.

  2. The state of Danish nursing ethnographic research: flowering, nurtured or malnurtured - a critical review. (United States)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Martinsen, Bente; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard


    Nursing was established in Denmark as a scholarly tradition in the late nineteen eighties, and ethnography was a preferred method. No critical review has yet summarised accomplishments and gaps and pointing at directions for the future methodological development and research herein. This review critically examines the current state of the use of ethnographic methodology in the body of knowledge from Danish nursing scholars. We performed a systematic literature search in relevant databases from 2003 to 2016. The studies included were critically appraised by all authors for methodological robustness using the ten-item instrument QARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. Two hundred and eight studies met our inclusion criteria and 45 papers were included; the critical appraisal gave evidence of studies with certain robustness, except for the first question concerning the congruity between the papers philosophical perspective and methodology and the seventh question concerning reflections about the influence of the researcher on the study and vice versa. In most studies (n = 34), study aims and arguments for selecting ethnographic research are presented. Additionally, method sections in many studies illustrated that ethnographical methodology is nurtured by references such as Hammersley and Atkinson or Spradley. Evidence exists that Danish nursing scholars' body of knowledge nurtures the ethnographic methodology mainly by the same few authors; however, whether this is an expression of a deliberate strategy or malnutrition in the form of lack of knowledge of other methodological options appears yet unanswered. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Reflections on Ethics and Humanity in Pediatric Neurology: the Value of Recognizing Ethical Issues in Common Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Rosenbaum, Peter L


    Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice. We start with a few common situations with which many of us tend to struggle. We describe what we understand as ethics and how and why developments in technology, novel potential interventions, policies, and societal perspectives challenge us to think about and debate ethical issues. Individual patients are not a singular population; each patient has their own unique life situations, culture, goals, and expectations that need to be considered with a good dose of humanity and humility. We believe that using an ethical lens-by which we mean making an explicit effort to identify and consider these issues openly-will help us to achieve this goal in practice, education, and research.

  4. Does the MUNIX Method Reflect Clinical Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Practical Experience. (United States)

    Gawel, Malgorzata; Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena


    The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of the MUNIX method in reflecting the clinical dysfunction in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as to assess an intra-rater reproducibility of MUNIX. The study group consisted of a total of 15 ALS patients. The mean age of symptoms onset was 55 years, and the mean disease duration was 10 months. The muscle strength and patients' functional status were assessed according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) and by ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R), respectively. The MUNIX was performed in 6 muscles: abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), biceps brachii (BB), tibial anterior (TA), extensor digitorum brevis (EDB), and abductor hallucis (AH), unilaterally, at a less affected side. Both muscle-specific and global MRC and MUNIX scores were calculated. In 11 patients, the study protocol was repeated at least twice every 3 months. An additional testing of the intra-rater reliability was performed at the first visit.There were no significant differences between MUNIX test and re-test values in the APB, ADM, BB, TA, EDB, and AH muscles (P >0.05). The highest variability of the test-retest values was found in the BB muscle (7.53%). Although there was a significant test-retest difference in the global MUNIX score (P = 0.02), the variability of the results was as low as 1.26%. The MUNIX value correlated with the muscle-specific MRC score in ABP, ADM, TA, EDB and AH (P <0.05), and the global MUNIX values correlated with global MRC scores (P <0.05). There was also a significant correlation between the global MUNIX score and the clinical dysfunction measured by the ALSFRS-R scale (P <0.05). The global MUNIX showed a higher monthly decline (4.3%) as compared with ALFRS-R (0.7%) and the MRC global score (0.5%).This study confirms that the MUNIX method is a sensitive, reliable, and accurate tool reflecting both motor dysfunction and disease progression in ALS

  5. The sea: place of ultimate freedom? Ethnographic reflection on in-between places and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Rogelja


    Full Text Available As a result of the rapid development of navigation and communication technology, boat building technology, popularity of travel and the sea, increased living standards, mobile work opportunities, as well as recessions and disillusionment with the nation-state system and postindustrial economy, a constantly increasing number of people adopt mobility on the sea as a way of life. The paper explores the connection between sea imaginaries and maritime lifestyle migration, discussing the process by which sea imaginaries are translated into practice but also how the physical maritime environment influences the experience of lifestyle migrants. In doing so, the concept of liminality, as previously tailored to the lifestyle migration literature and initially introduced by Arnold Van Gennep and Victor Turner, will be put in a dialogue with the ethnographic material. First, the paper explains the theoretical foundations of lifestyle migration, emphasizing the relation between the social construction of places and choices of lifestyle migrants, while also introducing the debate on liminality; second, it discusses the importance of these cultural dimensions in the specific ethnographic setting among Westerners in the Mediterranean who live, travel and work on sailing boats. Finally, the sea images, the maritime environment and details from individualized biographies will be put in a dialogue with each other in order to discuss in-between practices and places.

  6. Nurturing Medical Professionalism in the Surgical Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The teaching of professionalism worldwide is changing for effectiveness. Our aim was to explore the reflection of the surgical teaching community in a Kenyan context on how professionalism can be effectively inculcated through the socio-cultural concept of activity theory. Methods: A sequential mixed-methods ...

  7. Categories of difference in science and policy: Reflections on academic practices, conceptualizations and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen


    Full Text Available Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policy-making. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences. The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be.

  8. French regulatory practice and reflections on the leak-before-break concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachin, B.; Jamet, P.


    For nuclear units in the design phase, the vendor (FRAMATOME) and the utility (EDF) examine the possibility of applying the leak-before-break criterion to a certain number of circuits, particularly the primary circuit and various parts of the secondary circuit. EDF has not completed its reflection on the leak-before-break approach and consequently, French safety authorities have not been officially notified of any request for assessment of the acceptability of such an approach. Nevertheless, from a strict safety point of view, it is possible to determine minimal conditions required in the implementation of such a course of action. Firstly, removing pipe breaks from the design basis of the plant will significantly weaken the application of the defense in-depth concept. This must be counter-balanced by reinforced manufacturing non destructive examinations and a stringent in-service inspection. Secondly, the demonstration of the existence of leaks before breaks must be obtained with a high degree of certainty, which requires large investments in a certain number of fields. The exact methodology will be defined by the Vendor and the utility at a later stage. However, from our point of view, analysis should involve the following steps: Definition of a maximum size defect; analysis of evolution under normal loads; stability analysis, definition of the critical defect; Definition of the detectable defect. This paper develops each of these points, and specifies, for each discipline, the domains in which present knowledge must be expanded and deepened [fr

  9. The research, policy and practice interface: reflections on using applied social research to promote equity in health in Malawi. (United States)

    Theobald, Sally; Nhlema-Simwaka, Bertha


    The case for research to promote equity in health in resource poor contexts such as Malawi is compelling. In Malawi, nearly half of all the people with tuberculosis cannot afford to access free tuberculosis services. In this scenario, there is a clear need to understand the multiple barriers poor women and men face in accessing services and pilot interventions to address these in a way that engages policy makers, practitioners and communities. This paper provides a critical reflection on our experience as applied social researchers working at the REACH (Research for Equity and Community Health) Trust in Malawi. Our work largely uses qualitative research methodologies as a tool for applied social research to explore the equity dimensions of health services in the country. We argue that a key strength of qualitative research methods and analysis is the ability to bring the perceptions and experiences of marginalised groups to policy makers and practitioners. The focus of this paper is two-fold. The first focus lies in synthesising the opportunities and challenges we have encountered in promoting the use of applied social research, and in particular qualitative research methods, on TB and HIV in Malawi. The second focus is on documenting and reflecting on our experiences of using applied social research to promote gender equity in TB/HIV policy and practice in Malawi. In this paper, we reflect on the strategic frameworks we have used in the Malawian context to try and bring the voices of poor women and men to policy makers and practitioners and hence intensify the research to policy and practice interface.

  10. The Educational Project as a pivotal framework for pedagogical practice: reflections and proposals for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The basic features of an educational task are sufficiently complex to demand their «construction» from theoretical-pedagogical frameworks that are consistent, rigorous and ethically founded. To achieve this end, the coherence and meaning of such a task become transformed into indispensable elements which need to be projected, both into the school and into the classroom, which, in the last resort, is where the important pedagogical formulae that have been adopted on consensus are given shape. Taking these considerations into account, we analyse in the present research the importance of the educational School Project, as a text which upholds the pedagogical task, before going on to formulate a series of postulates which should be upheld in our professional practice. Thus elements such as the pedagogy of listening, unhurried learning, and intuition, creativity, curiosity and pleasure in learning emerge and are visible in the pedagogical scene.

  11. Domesticating Uncertainty - Reflections on electoral and bureaucratic practices in a election office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadgård, Anne Kathrine Pihl

    Election Day is often considered a celebration of democracy in which politicians and voters alike partake in the festivities. They vote, campaign discuss, and engage. Election Day is, however, also the culmination of months and months of preparation behind the scene. In the bureaucratic engine ro...... discussions of accountability and control with remote bureaucratic sites.......Election Day is often considered a celebration of democracy in which politicians and voters alike partake in the festivities. They vote, campaign discuss, and engage. Election Day is, however, also the culmination of months and months of preparation behind the scene. In the bureaucratic engine room...... – the election office – every little step towards this celebratory day and the subsequent counting of the ballots are planned meticulously. By following these often mundane and ordinary practices at a Danish election office this paper discusses the bureaucratic infrastructures, in which electoral and democratic...

  12. Progress on nature and nurture: Commentary on Granqvist and Nkara's 'Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development'. (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J


    This commentary addresses several key ideas in the Granqvist and Nkara (this issue) conceptual piece on the need for a more sophisticated understanding of how nature and nurture interact to influence religious and spiritual development. Cultural and genetic factors are explored. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. School feeding, moving from practice to policy: reflections on building sustainable monitoring and evaluation systems. (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Espejo, Francisco


    To provide an overview of the status of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of school feeding across sub-Saharan Africa and to reflect on the experience on strengthening M&E systems to influence policy making in low-income countries. Literature review on the M&E of school feeding programmes as well as data from World Food Programme surveys. Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries implementing school feeding. Only two randomized controlled impact evaluations have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. Where M&E data collection is underway, the focus is on process and service delivery and not on child outcomes. M&E systems generally operate under the Ministry of Education, with other Ministries represented within technical steering groups supporting implementation. There is no internationally accepted standardized framework for the M&E of school feeding. There have been examples where evidence of programme performance has influenced policy: considering the popularity of school feeding these cases though are anecdotal, highlighting the opportunity for systemic changes. There is strong buy-in on school feeding from governments in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this demand, development partners have been harmonizing their support to strengthen national programmes, with a focus on M&E. However, policy processes are complex and can be influenced by a number of factors. A comprehensive but simple approach is needed where the first step is to ensure a valid mandate to intervene, legitimizing the interaction with key stakeholders, involving them in the problem definition and problem solving. This process has been facilitated through the provision of technical assistance and exposure to successful experiences through South–South cooperation and knowledge exchange.

  14. ‘It’s quite weird to write … you feel like a nut job’: the practical and emotional consequences of writing personal reflections for assessment in psychology


    Marsh, Claire


    Setting the tone for reflective writing – should the first person, populated approach that currently dominates be ethically questioned? An active voice is recommended to enhance ‘power’ and emotional investment in reflection, but often presents practical difficulties for students conditioned in ‘scientific’ depopulated ways. Beyond the practical, being instructed to employ a personal tone could exacerbate the emotional risks involved for vulnerable students. Ethical questioning is an area of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    indigenous approaches, local socio-economic conditions and cultural underpinnings would ... practice. The definition stresses that use of theories and recognition of .... management, hospital social work, rural and urban development planning,.

  16. Corporal Punishment of Child: Nurturance or Violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Meghdadi


    Full Text Available Nowadays despite cumulative effort faring for advocacy of children, various kinds of violence and oppression against them especially in corporal punishment mode still hold. This article by studying advanced standpoints and reviewing of the results of corporal punishment intends to answer these questions: is child corporal punishment allowed along decorum and nurturance of him? And do standpoint of the shia (fighhe imamie and rules of the Iranian civil code hereupon accord with the convention on the Rights of the child? امروزه، به رغم تلاش فزاینده‌ای که در حمایت از کودکان صوت می‌گیرد، هنوز شکل‌های مختلفی از خشونت و آزار علیه آن‌ها به ویژه در قالب تنبیه بدنی ادامه دارد. بسیاری بر این باورند که به موجب سرپرستی والدین و مسئولیت مربیان در تربیت کودکان و جلوگیری از کج‌روی‌ آن‌ها، در مواردی می‌توان تنبیه بدنی را به کار برد. این در حالی است که دانشمندان زیادی برای حمایت از پیمان‌نامه حقوقی کودک، بر ممنوعیت هرگونه بدرفتاری و خشونت علیه کودکان تأکید می‌نمایند. مقاله حاضر با مطالعه دیدگاه‌های ارائه شده در این زمینه و بررسی نتایج تنبیه بدنی، در صدد است این پرسش را پاسخ گوید که آیا تنبیه بدنی کودک در راستای ادب‌آموزی و تربیت وی جایز است و آیا دیدگاه فقه امامیه و مقررات قانون مدنی ایران در این خصوص با پیمان‌نامه حقوق کودک سازگاری دارد؟

  17. Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SK


    Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (χ2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not

  18. Information Literacy Education in the UK: Reflections on Perspectives and Practical Approaches of Curricular Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Andretta


    Full Text Available This paper has two main aims, to present the current position of information literacy education in UK-based academic institutions and to propose a strategy that ensures the integration of this phenomenon in learning and teaching institutional practices. The first part of the paper offers an insight into the perceptions of information literacy by exploring four distinct perspectives, including the institutional angle and the views associated with faculty staff, library staff and students. What transpires from the findings is that information literacy from an institutional perspective is dominated by the need to measure information skills within the context of information as a discipline in its own right. Another issue that is raised by the data points to a great deal of misinformation regarding information literacy, and that, as a result, a clear marketing strategy must be adopted by information professionals to address the misconceptions held by faculty staff and students alike. We aim to address these points by drawing on recent scholarship and research in the field which demonstrates the validity of information literacy as a process for fostering independent learning. The second part of the paper explains how a Fellowship project has placed information literacy on the pedagogical agenda of the University of Staffordshire in the UK by promoting information literacy education as an integrated element of the curriculum.

  19. Ten years of open practice: a reflection on the impact of OpenLearn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrina Law


    Full Text Available The Open University (OU makes a proportion of all its taught modules available to the public via OpenLearn each year. This process involves the modification, of module excerpts, showcasing subject matter and teaching approach. This activity serves both the University's social and business missions through the delivery of free courses to the public, but increasingly its students are using it to inform module choice, to augment their studies and to boost confidence. In a year that celebrates 10 years of OpenLearn, this paper reports on the growth and impact of the platform as a vast open, learning resource and how a new study underlines how this is also serving the OU’s own students in terms of supporting motivation for learning and impact on achievements. The paper also discusses how the OU is mainstreaming open practice via module production in releasing content on OpenLearn from its paid-for modules in order to improve student module choice and preparedness and in doing so, is providing a richer learning experience for informal learners.

  20. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde


    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  1. Estimates of leaf area index from spectral reflectance of wheat under different cultural practices and solar angle (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Yoshida, M.


    The influence of management practices and solar illumination angle on the leaf area index (LAI) was estimated from measurements of wheat canopy reflectance evaluated by two methods, a regression formula and an indirect technique. The date of planting and the time of irrigation in relation to the stage of plant growth were found to have significant effects on the development of leaves in spring wheat. A reduction in soil moisture adversely affected both the duration and magnitude of the maximum LAI for late planting dates. In general, water stress during vegetative stages resulted in a reduction in maximum LAI, while water stress during the reproductive period shortened the duration of green LAI in spring wheat. Canopy geometry and solar angle also affected the spectral properties of the canopies, and hence the estimated LAI. Increase in solar zenith angles resulted in a general increase in estimated LAI obtained from both methods.

  2. Examining value creation in a community of learning practice: Methodological reflections on story-telling and story-reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filitsa Dingyloudi


    Full Text Available Despite the abundant research on communities in various shapes and settings, examination of what community members gained from their participation remains a thorny issue. For this purpose, we adopted and refined the value creation framework developed by Wenger, Trayner and De Laat (2011 to divulge experienced values by community members through “scaffolded narratives” and categorization of the values reported through their stories. However, in doing so two methodological issues emerged – in particular in relation to “values”. This paper reports on our methodological reflection on the challenging process of capturing community members’ value creation within a community of learning practice. More specifically, we reflect on the following questions: (1 To what extent can the values that the participants originally intended to report be identified as such by the researchers/analysts’ without bias due to the researchers/analysts’ own perspectives? and (2 To what extent does a theoretically-driven pre-defined typology of values confine or enrich the range of possible values that can be identified? What adds to this challenging research endeavour is the concept of value in theoretical terms and its associated typologies. Hence, these methodological questions need to be discussed in order to comprehend both the phenomenon of value (creation per se as well as how it is examined – as close to the participants’ reality as possible – since value creation is the driving force for the sustainability of a community.

  3. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Grandchildren towards Grandparent Nurturing


    Yusuf, Muhammed; Mai, Mohammed Y. M.; Salih, Maria


    Persisting writing on grandparents' enthusiasm towards grandchildren’s development shows that numerous grandparents take part in raising their grandchildren at a young age and preparing them for a better future. Grandparents motivate their grandchildren to excel scholastically and morally. The present study investigates grandchildren’s perceptions towards their grandparents’ nurturing educationally, culturally, socially, and religiously. One hundred and eighty one grandchildren from two ...

  4. A Qualitative Inquiry into Nursing Students’ Experience of Facilitating Reflection in Clinical Setting

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    Shahnaz Karimi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Reflection is known as a skill that is central to nursing students’ professional development. Due to the importance and the role of reflection in clinical areas of nursing, it is important to know how to achieve it. However, nursing trainers face the challenge of how to help their students to improve reflection in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the nursing students’ experiences of facilitating reflection during clinical practice. This qualitative study was conducted by qualitative content analysis approach. Twenty nursing students during the second to eighth semester of their educational program were selected for participation using purposive sampling. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. The interview was transcribed verbatim, and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. From the data analysis, four main themes were extracted. Motivation to reflect, complex experiences, efficient trainer, and effective relations were four main themes obtained from study that, in interaction with each other, had facilitating roles in students’ reflective process on experiences. The findings revealed that the nursing students’ reflection in clinical settings is effective in personal and professional level. Reflection of nursing students depends on motivational and educational factors and these factors increase the quality of care in patients. Furthermore, nursing educators need to create nurturing climate as well as supporting reflective behaviors of nursing students.

  5. The causes and nature of the June 2016 protests in the city of Tshwane: A practical theological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mookgo S. Kgatle


    Full Text Available South Africa has recently experienced a series of public protests. The common element is that violence is becoming evident in these protests. This article uses the June 2016 protests in the city of Tshwane as an example to address the root causes of such protests. On 20 June 2016, the African National Congress (ANC announced that the city of Tshwane mayoral candidate for the 3 August 2016 municipal elections in South Africa is the former public works minister and ANC National Executive Committee member, Thoko Didiza. Consequently, public protests in the city of Tshwane emerged immediately after this announcement. These public protests were very violent, such as protesters killed one another, burned buses, looted shops and barricaded roads. The root causes of these violent protests are identified as factionalism, tribalism, sexism, economic exclusion and patronage politics. The purpose of this article is a practical theological reflection on the root causes of June 2016 protests in the city of Tshwane. The main aim of this article is a practical theological solution to the general problem of violent protests.

  6. Improving access to important recovery information for heart patients with low health literacy: reflections on practice-based initiatives. (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Biuso, Catuscia; Jennings, Amanda; Patsamanis, Harry


    Evidence exists for the association between health literacy and heart health outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation is critical for recovery from heart attack and reducing hospital readmissions. Despite this, literacy. This brief case study reflects and documents practice-based initiatives by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. Three key initiatives, namely the Six Steps To Cardiac Recovery resource, the Love Your Heart book and the nurse ambassador program, were implemented informed by mixed methods that assessed need and capacity at the individual, organisational and systems levels. Key outcomes included increased access to recovery information for patients with low health literacy, nurse knowledge and confidence to engage with patients on recovery information, improved education of patients and improved availability and accessibility of information for patients in diverse formats. Given the challenges involved in addressing heart health literacy, multifaceted practice-based approaches are essential to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What is known about the topic? Significant challenges exist for patients with lower health literacy receiving recovery information after a heart attack in hospitals. What does this paper add? This case study provides insights into a practice-based initiative by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What are the implications for practitioners? Strategies to improve recovery through increased heart health literacy must address the needs of patients, nursing staff and the health system within hospitals. Such strategies need to be multifaceted and designed to build the capacity of nurses, heart patients and their carers, as well as support from hospital management.

  7. Does a summative portfolio foster the development of capabilities such as reflective practice and understanding ethics? An evaluation from two medical schools. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Howe, Amanda C; Miles, Susan; Harris, Peter; Hughes, Chris S; Jones, Philip; Scicluna, Helen; Leinster, Sam J


    Portfolios need to be evaluated to determine whether they encourage students to develop in capabilities such as reflective practice and ethical judgment. The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether preparing a portfolio helps promote students' development in a range of capabilities including understanding ethical and legal principles, reflective practice and effective communication, and (ii) to determine to what extent the format of the portfolio affected the outcome by comparing the experiences of students at two different medical schools. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate undergraduate medical students' experiences of completing a portfolio at two medical schools. A total of 526 (45% response rate) students answered the on-line questionnaire. Students from both medical schools gave the highest ranking for the portfolio as a trigger for reflective practice. 63% of students agreed their portfolio helped them develop reflective practice skills (p portfolios helped them understand ethical and legal principles whereas 29% disagreed (p portfolio helped them to develop effective communication. Students perceive portfolio preparation as an effective learning tool for the development of capabilities such as understanding ethical and legal principles and reflective practice, whereas other capabilities such as effective communication require complementary techniques and other modes of assessment.

  8. Teaching health-care trainees empathy and homelessness IQ through service learning, reflective practice, and altruistic attribution. (United States)

    Chrisman-Khawam, Leanne; Abdullah, Neelab; Dhoopar, Arjun


    This article describes a novel inter-professional curriculum designed to address the needs of homeless patients in a Midwestern region of the United States which has high rates of poverty. The curriculum is intended for healthcare trainees coming from undergraduate pre-medical programs, nursing, pharmacy, social work, clinical psychology, medical school and post-graduate medical training in family medicine, medicine-pediatrics, and psychiatry. The clinical component is specifically designed to reach destitute patients and the curriculum is structured to reverse commonly held myths about homelessness among the trainees, thereby improving their Homelessness Information Quotient, the ability to more fully understand homelessness. Participants across all disciplines and specialties have shown greater empathy and helper behavior as determined by qualitative measures. Learners have also developed a greater understanding of health-care systems allowing them to more consistently address social determinants of health identified by the authors as their Disparity Information Quotient. This article outlines the process of initiating a homeless service program, a curriculum for addressing common myths about homelessness and the effective use of narrative methods, relational connections, and reflective practice to enable trainees to process their experience and decrease burnout by focusing on the value of altruism and finding meaning in their work.

  9. Reflection: an educational strategy to develop emotionally-competent nurse leaders. (United States)

    Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Sherwood, Gwen


    This paper explores educational strategies for nurses that focus on reflectivity and promote the development of self-awareness, relationship and communication skills and ability to lead with presence and compassion in the midst of change. Today nurses move rapidly from carefully-controlled educational experiences to a fast-paced clinical world of increasing patient complexity amid calls for improved quality of care. Making the transition to clinical competence and leadership in practice requires a strong sense of self and emotional intelligence. Pedagogies that integrate theoretical and data-based textbook learning with experiential learning and reflection are a foundation for the development of emotionally- and intellectually-competent leaders and requires new ways of assessing learner outcomes. Reflection is a key instructional strategy for preparing transformational nurse leaders for interdisciplinary settings where they lead patient care management. The remarkable global spread of reflection in nursing education, practice and research follows an emphasis on developing self-awareness as a leadership strategy for improving individual and organizational performance. Empirical, experiential and anecdotal evidence suggests that reflection has the potential to prepare emotionally-capable nurse leaders. As educators create more reflective and nurturing learning environments, they will promote the development of emotionally-competent nurse leaders who will, in turn, inspire individual and organizational growth and positive change in society.

  10. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Victoire Ticha


    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios. Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used. Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE. Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathonah K. Daud


    Full Text Available The discourse of paraphilia has become public attention. Enforcing religious values and sex education since on the early stage is an inevitable need by the society. Theologically and psychologically, there are paraphilia which characteristically given (nature and also nurture or affected by its environment. This article tries to explore the existence of paraphilia, theologically based on Islamic law and physiologically, which is for longtime based on the societal norm judged as deviant, but today the norm was questioned, even criticized through the reason of human right. Even theologically, Islamic teaching has clearly prohibited sexual relation which is not properly following the sharia law.

  12. Nature plus nurture: the triggering of multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Wekerle, Hartmut


    Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that multiple sclerosis develops as consequence of a failed interplay between genetic ("nature") and environmental ("nurture") factors. A large number of risk genes favour an autoimmune response against the body's own brain matter. New experimental data indicate that the actual trigger of this attack is however provided by an interaction of brain-specific immune cells with components of the regular commensal gut flora, the intestinal microbiota. This concept opens the way for new therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the microbiota by dietary or antibiotic regimens.

  13. Supporting Reflective Practices in Social Change Processes with the Dynamic Learning Agenda: An Example of Learning about the Process towards Disability Inclusive Development (United States)

    van Veen, Saskia C.; de Wildt-Liesveld, Renée; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Regeer, Barbara J.


    Change processes are increasingly seen as the solution to entrenched (social) problems. However, change is difficult to realise while dealing with multiple actors, values, and approaches. (Inter)organisational learning is seen as a way to facilitate reflective practices in social change that support emergent changes, vicarious learning, and…

  14. Evidence, Policy and Guidance for Practice: A Critical Reflection on the Case of Social Housing Landlords and Antisocial Behaviour in Scotland (United States)

    Anderson, Isobel


    This paper examines the role of guidance for practitioners in the evidence-policy-practice relationship through a critical reflection of the process of developing evidence-informed guidance for housing practitioners working in the area of antisocial behaviour in Scotland. The paper applies theoretical models for the use of evidence in policy and…

  15. The Use of Orientation/Decision/Do/Discuss/Reflect (OD3R) Method to Increase Critical Thinking Skill and Practical Skill in Biochemistry Learning (United States)

    Anwar, Yunita Arian Sani; Senam, Senam; Laksono, Endang W.


    We have developed an OD3R method that can be applied on Biochemistry learning. This OD3R consists of 5 phases: orientation, decision, do, discuss, and reflect to connect lessons in the class with practice in the laboratory. Implementation of OD3R method was done in 2 universities in Yogyakarta to increase critical thinking skill and practical…

  16. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina


    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  17. How current Clinical Practice Guidelines for low back pain reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: a systematic review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. METHODS: We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. RESULTS: Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54% mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure. However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure. Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (subacute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (subacute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.

  18. The Unnatural Nature of Nature and Nurture: Questioning the Romantic Heritage (United States)

    Stables, Andrew


    From a cultural-historical perspective, nature and nurture (and thus education) are contested concepts. The paper focuses on the nature/nurture debate in the work of William Shakespeare (influenced by Montaigne) and in the Romantic tradition (evidenced by Rousseau and Wordsworth), and argues that while our Romantic inheritance (still highly…

  19. Parental Nurturance and the Mental Health and Parenting of Urban African American Adolescent Mothers (United States)

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.


    This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Khuza’i


    Full Text Available There are three things examined in this article, the definition of gender, the concept of nature, and the concept of nurture. These three things need to be studied, because they are the keywords for feminists to spread their ideas to the world of Islam. The existence of feminism should be criticized, as historically this understanding did not make women better in running their lives. That because of problems in the concept of feminism and itsnegative effect. The caution is needed, because the gender activists often point to the backwardness of women and the suppression of them by showing the incorrect reasons. In addressing the differences between men and women, Islam has a better concept than feminism. Islam has a concept of fitrah and amanah. This paper tries to study theconcept of nature and nurture in the Islamic perspective, tries to present an alternative in addressing the differences between men and women, also tries to shows the proof whether Islam leans to the one of two concepts being debated.

  1. Nature or Nurture – Will Epigenomics Solve the Dilemma?

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    Płonka Beata


    Full Text Available The concept of “nature and nurture” is used to distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the formation of individual, mainly behavioral, traits. Different approaches that interpret nature and nurture as completely opposite or complementary aspects of human development have been discussed for decades. The paper addresses the most important points of nature vs nurture debate from the perspective of biological research, especially in the light of the recent findings in the field of epigenetics. The most important biological concepts, such as the trait, phenotype and genotype, as well as the evolution of other crucial notions are presented. Various attempts to find the main source of human variation are discussed - mainly the search for structural variants and the genome-wide association studies (GWAS. A new approach resulting from the discovery of “missing heritability”, as well as the current knowledge about the possible influence of epigenetic mechanisms on human traits are analyzed. Finally, the impact of epigenetic revolution on the society (public attitude, health policy, human rights etc. is discussed.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: nature-nurture interactions. (United States)

    Clancy, John; Nobes, Maggie

    A person's health status is rarely constant, it is usually subject to continual change as a person moves from health to illness and usually back to health again; the health-illness continuum illustrates this dynamism. This highlights the person's various states of health and illness (ranging from extremely good health to clinically defined mild, moderate and severe illness) and their fluctuations throughout the life span, until ultimately leading to the pathology associated with the person's death. Maintenance of a stable homeostatic environment within the body to support the stability of this continuum depends on a complex series of ultimately intracellular chemical reactions. These reactions are activated by environmental factors that cause the expression of genes associated with healthy phenotypes as well as illness susceptibility genes associated with homeostatic imbalances. Obviously, the body aims to support intracellular and extracellular environments allied with health; however, the complexity of these nature-nurture interactions results in illness throughout an individual's life span. This paper will discuss the nature-nurture interactions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. (United States)

    Kong, Augustine; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Frigge, Michael L; Vilhjalmsson, Bjarni J; Young, Alexander I; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Benonisdottir, Stefania; Oddsson, Asmundur; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Masson, Gisli; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Helgason, Agnar; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari


    Sequence variants in the parental genomes that are not transmitted to a child (the proband) are often ignored in genetic studies. Here we show that nontransmitted alleles can affect a child through their impacts on the parents and other relatives, a phenomenon we call "genetic nurture." Using results from a meta-analysis of educational attainment, we find that the polygenic score computed for the nontransmitted alleles of 21,637 probands with at least one parent genotyped has an estimated effect on the educational attainment of the proband that is 29.9% ( P = 1.6 × 10 -14 ) of that of the transmitted polygenic score. Genetic nurturing effects of this polygenic score extend to other traits. Paternal and maternal polygenic scores have similar effects on educational attainment, but mothers contribute more than fathers to nutrition- and heath-related traits. Copyright © 2018, The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. The Station Community Mental Health Centre Inc: nurturing and empowering. (United States)

    Taylor, Judy; Jones, Rosalind M; O'Reilly, Peta; Oldfield, Wayne; Blackburn, Anne


    data sets, a model was developed that identified important contextual factors that linked with two groups of program mechanisms that produced positive outcomes for members. Program mechanisms are categorised by descriptive themes referred to as 'nurturing' and 'empowering'. Nurturing' is experienced as feeling of belonging and being accepted 'as one is' and 'empowerment' mechanisms engender a belief in oneself. Respondents identified features of The Station's program, policies, atmosphere, connections and networks, stakeholder relationships, and staff and volunteers that are nurturing and empowering. Five key contextual factors enable the program mechanisms to work. The Station's coordinators ensure that nurturing and empowerment processes are highlighted through careful facilitation. The governance arrangements, policies, and administrative systems at The Station are well developed but flexibly implemented so that they support the nurturing and empowerment processes. Support and legitimacy for the program is obtained from the mental health system at state and local levels. The Station obtains resources and connections to its rural community through key stakeholders and a peak organisation One Voice Network acts as an advocate. Information about the benefits and limitations of consumer-driven mental health services in rural and remote Australia is in short supply. Increasing the available information about the contribution these services make may result in services being legitimised, understood, and resourced within mental health systems thus making the services sustainable. The benefits of consumer-driven services are that they provide flexibility and adaptation, an ability to capture the energy and passion of rural communities to improve the wellbeing of community members, and they overcome the power differential that exists between professionals and 'patients' or 'clients'.

  5. Bending Back To Move Forward: Using Reflective Practice To Develop a High School Civic Education/Aikido Course. (United States)

    Miller-Lane, Jonathan

    This paper describes the development of a high school social studies course, Citizenship and World Affairs. Course development involved two forms of reflection: deliberative and personalistic. The author's deliberative reflection, reported in part one of the paper, began as he reviewed research regarding how teachers should foster citizenship…

  6. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich


    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  7. Theoretical Perspectives on Critical Thinking Teaching: Reflections from Field Experiences from a Norwegian Lower Secondary School in Comparison to Tanzanian Secondary School Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatitia Gabriel Mashaza


    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical perspectives relevant to critical thinking as my topic of research during my teaching practice period which was conducted from 12th -28th October 2015 at Eidsvag secondary school in Bergen, Norway. As a requirement for Masters’ degree in social science education, all master students were required to engage in teaching practice in different Norwegian primary and secondary schools. Importantly, every student teacher was given a topic of concentration as a mini-research for the whole teaching practice period. My topic of research focused at exploring and gaining the theoretical and practical perspectives on critical thinking teaching by drawing some experiences from a Norwegian lower secondary school (Eidsvag skole in reflection to secondary school teaching practice experiences in Tanzania. Therefore, in this paper, my reflections with regard to the conditions favoring the possibility for critical thinking teaching and how it was enhanced by teachers at my practice school will be discussed. Further to that, I will also present the observed challenges of which, in my view, in way or another intervened the possibility for effective critical thinking teaching to take place.

  8. Exploring Self-Regulation through a Reflective Practicum: A Case Study of Improvement through Mindful Piano Practice (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.


    Learning to self-regulate during practice is one of the most important skills that music majors must learn. Yet, because practising tends to occur mostly in private, there can be a disconnect between instructors' approaches to teaching practice skills in the lesson and students' actual behaviour in the practice room. This case study explored the…

  9. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting. (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  10. Practical research on junior high school mathematics about students' learning processes : using 'reflective sheet' (the Math Journal) et al.


    吉岡, 睦美; 重松, 敬一


    In this paper, we discuss the case study of mathematics education for Junior High School students' learning processes focusing students' metacognition and knowledge using 'Reflective Sheet' (the Math Journal) et al.. The metacognition is rather than direct action on the environment and the perception that target cognitive function and cognitive recognition of that, and say what happens in the mind. Especially, we use Reflective Sheet which is formed to check students' cognitive and metacognit...

  11. Effect of two additional interventions, test and reflection, added to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation training on seventh grade students' practical skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised trial. (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Herlitz, Johan; Svensson, Leif; Nilsson, Lennart


    The aim of this research is to investigate if two additional interventions, test and reflection, after standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training facilitate learning by comparing 13-year-old students' practical skills and willingness to act. Seventh grade students in council schools of two municipalities in south-east Sweden. School classes were randomised to CPR training only (O), CPR training with a practical test including feedback (T) or CPR training with reflection and a practical test including feedback (RT). Measures of practical skills and willingness to act in a potential life-threatening situation were studied directly after training and at 6 months using a digital reporting system and a survey. A modified Cardiff test was used to register the practical skills, where scores in each of 12 items resulted in a total score of 12-48 points. The study was conducted in accordance with current European Resuscitation Council guidelines during December 2013 to October 2014. 29 classes for a total of 587 seventh grade students were included in the study. The total score of the modified Cardiff test at 6 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were the total score directly after training, the 12 individual items of the modified Cardiff test and willingness to act. At 6 months, the T and O groups scored 32 (3.9) and 30 (4.0) points, respectively (ptraining improved the students' acquisition of practical CPR skills. Reflection did not increase further CPR skills. At 6-month follow-up, no intervention effect was found regarding willingness to make a life-saving effort. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture? (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.


    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  13. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...



    Esau, Merlene; Keet, Anneline


    Social justice and human dignity are core components of social work principles and ethics; therefore social work education should lead to socially just practice. Social workers’ ability to practise in a socially just manner relies significantly on their ability to reflect on the influence of their personal and professional socialisation and the structural inequalities that influence the lives of service users. In order to achieve a deep sense of social justice, social workers should be educat...

  15. Keeping the Faith: Reflections on Religious Nurture among Young British Sikhs (United States)

    Singh, Jasjit


    Although young Sikhs are regularly accused of not attending "gurdwara" and not being interested in Sikhism, many young Sikhs are now learning about Sikhism outside traditional religious institutions. Using data gathered as part of a research project studying the transmission of Sikhism among 18- to 30-year-old British Sikhs, this essay…

  16. [Nurturing clinician investigators is the best way to promote innovative drug development from academia]. (United States)

    Fukuhara, Shunichi; Sakushima, Ken; Nishimura, Masaharu


    Clinical research in Japan is still lacking in quality and quantity, and that situation is worsening. One important cause of those problems is the dearth of clinician-investigators. A recent change in the system for post-graduate clinical training affected the career paths of medical residents and reduced the number of young doctors who enter graduate school. Even those who are interested in clinical research now have incentives to avoid graduate school. In Japan, 19th-century biological absolutism is still the dominant paradigm in the medical-research community. Science for public health in the 21st century will benefit from a probabilistic paradigm, which can help to restore an appropriate balance between basic sciences and clinical research. Research done by clinician-investigators should be based on clinical questions that arise in medical practice. That research includes investigation of disease and practice, exploration of associations between causes and outcomes, evaluation of diagnostic tests, and studies of the efficacy of treatments and prevention strategies. We emphasize the importance of nurturing clinician-investigators for the development of clinical research in Japan. This may not be the fastest way to promote innovative drug development from academia, but it is certainly the best.

  17. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles


    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  18. Genes, environment and sport performance: why the nature-nurture dualism is no longer relevant. (United States)

    Davids, Keith; Baker, Joseph


    The historical debate on the relative influences of genes (i.e. nature) and environment (i.e. nurture) on human behaviour has been characterised by extreme positions leading to reductionist and polemic conclusions. Our analysis of research on sport and exercise behaviours shows that currently there is little support for either biologically or environmentally deterministic perspectives on elite athletic performance. In sports medicine, recent molecular biological advances in genomic studies have been over-interpreted, leading to a questionable 'single-gene-as-magic-bullet' philosophy adopted by some practitioners. Similarly, although extensive involvement in training and practice is needed at elite levels, it has become apparent that the acquisition of expertise is not merely about amassing a requisite number of practice hours. Although an interactionist perspective has been mooted over the years, a powerful explanatory framework has been lacking. In this article, we propose how the complementary nature of degenerate neurobiological systems might provide the theoretical basis for explaining the interactive influence of genetic and environmental constraints on elite athletic performance. We argue that, due to inherent human degeneracy, there are many different trajectories to achieving elite athletic performance. While the greatest training responses may be theoretically associated with the most favourable genotypes being exposed to highly specialised training environments, this is a rare and complex outcome. The concept of degeneracy provides us with a basis for understanding why each of the major interacting constraints might act in a compensatory manner on the acquisition of elite athletic performance.

  19. Investigating Philosophies Underpinning Dietetic Private Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Harper


    Full Text Available There is limited theory or knowledge regarding dietitians’ practice philosophies and how these philosophies are generated and incorporated into their professional practices. For the purposes of this study, a conceptual framework will explain and define the ‘philosophies’ as three different types of knowledge; episteme, techne, and phronesis. This study aimed to develop an explanatory theory of how dietitians in private practice source, utilise, and integrate practice philosophies. A grounded theory qualitative methodology was used to inform the sampling strategy, data collection, and analytical processes. Semi-structured interviews with dietitians in private practice were undertaken and data were collected and analysed concurrently. The results show that dietitians form collaborative relationships with their clients, in order to nurture change over time. They use intrinsic and intertwined forms of episteme, techne, and phronesis, which allow them to respond both practically and sensitively to their clients’ needs. The learning and integration of these forms of knowledge are situated in their own practice experience. Dietitians adapt through experience, feedback, and reflection. This study highlights that private practice offers a unique context in which dietitians deal with complex issues, by utilising and adapting their philosophies.

  20. An Investigation of Students' Perceptions of Ethical Practice: Engaging a Reflective Dialogue about Ethics Education in the Health Professions (United States)

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Phelan, Shanon K.; Lala, Anna Park; Mom, Vanna


    The ethical climate in which occupational therapists, and other health practitioners, currently practice is increasingly complex. There have been a number of calls for greater attention to ethics education within health science curricula. This study investigated occupational therapy students' perceptions of the meaning of ethical practice as a…

  1. Beginning Teachers Reflect on Inclusive Practices--"I Didn't Realize That He Only Had Half a Hand" (United States)

    Hamilton, Carol; Kecskemeti, Maria


    Learning to value difference and diversity is a central goal of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) professional practice programmes in New Zealand. Yet the authors have continued to struggle to work with their ITE students to move them as a group towards such valuing in both theory and practice. In this article events that lead up to the changes…

  2. Nurturing Opportunity Identification for Business Sophistication in a Cross-disciplinary Study Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oganisjana


    Full Text Available Opportunity identification is the key element of the entrepreneurial process; therefore the issue of developing this skill in students is a crucial task in contemporary European education which has recognized entrepreneurship as one of the lifelong learning key competences. The earlier opportunity identification becomes a habitual way of thinking and behavior across a broad range of contexts, the more likely that entrepreneurial disposition will steadily reside in students. In order to nurture opportunity identification in students for making them able to organize sophisticated businesses in the future, certain demands ought to be put forward as well to the teacher – the person who is to promote these qualities in their students. The paper reflects some findings of a research conducted within the frameworks of a workplace learning project for the teachers of one of Riga secondary schools (Latvia. The main goal of the project was to teach the teachers to identify hidden inner links between apparently unrelated things, phenomena and events within 10th grade study curriculum and connect them together and create new opportunities. The creation and solution of cross-disciplinary tasks were the means for achieving this goal.


    Weatherston, Deborah J


    This essay discusses infant mental health (IMH) as well as its origins and relational framework. The author then reflects, professionally and personally, on the meaning of psychological vulnerability of boys under 5 years of age, the importance of early caregiving relationships to the reduction of risk, and implications for education and training in the IMH field. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. R-NEST: Design-Based Research for Technology-Enhanced Reflective Practice in Initial Teacher Education (United States)

    Thompson Long, Bonnie; Hall, Tony


    This paper reports research into developing digital storytelling (DST) to enhance reflection within a specific professional learning context--that of a programme of teacher education--while concomitantly producing a transferrable design framework for adaption into other, similar post-secondary educational contexts. There has been limited…

  5. Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières. (United States)

    Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri


    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations.

  6. Writing Became a Chore Like the Laundry: The Realities of Using Journals To Encourage a Reflective Approach to Practice. (United States)

    Lewison, Mitzi

    This action research study investigated a model of professional development designed to encourage elementary language arts teachers to adopt a more reflective approach to literacy instruction. The model consisted of monthly negotiated-topic study group sessions, theoretically-based reading, and dialogue journal writing. This paper focuses on the…

  7. What is on our children's minds? : an analysis of children's writings as reflections of group-specific socialization practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denessen, E.; Hornstra, L.; Bergh, van den L.


    In the present study it has been examined how children's creative writing tasks may contribute to teachers' understanding of children's values. Writings of 300 elementary school children about what they would do if they were the boss of The Netherlands were obtained and seemed to reflect different

  8. What is on our children's minds? An analysis of children's writings as reflections of group-specific socialisation practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Hornstra, T.E.; Bergh, L. van den


    In the present study it has been examined how children's creative writing tasks may contribute to teachers' understanding of children's values. Writings of 300 elementary school children about what they would do if they were the boss of The Netherlands were obtained and seemed to reflect different

  9. Teacher Educators' Reflections on Moments in a Secondary Teacher Education Course: Thinking Forward by Challenging Our Teaching Practices (United States)

    Freedman, Debra M.; Bullock, Patricia L.; Duque, Genevieve S.


    In this paper the authors explore two pedagogical moments that occurred within a diversity-focused secondary teacher education course, giving specific attention to Genevieve's and Debra's reflections as course instructors. We explore the ways in which instructors find themselves challenged, engaged and provoked to rethink taken for granted ideas…

  10. Supporting communities of practice: A reflection on the benefits and challenges facing communities of practice for research and engagement in nursing

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    Maretha De Waal


    Full Text Available Because of its potential self-sustainability, communities of practice may serve as useful practice-based knowledge sharing platforms for collaborative research and training, and thereby enhance development of human resources in the health sector. However, communities of practice are complex structures and need support from their host organisations and commitment from their members.  This article examines the diverse ways in which communities of nurse educators and practitioners who were part of a funded program in Tshwane District, South Africa evolved over a period of seven years. Adopting an ethnographic approach of reflexivity and learning, we compared and analysed the ways in which the communities of practice became sustainable over time. Our recommendations for institutional support of communities of practice in the health sector are based on the lessons we learned during the program that contributed to the configuration and reconfiguration of some of our communities of practice and the disengagement of others. We believe that our findings may have implications for replicability and sustainability of other communities of practice. Keywords: collaborative learning, collective knowledge, self-sustainability

  11. The promotion of mental health through cultural values, institutions, and practices: a reflection on some aspects of botswana culture. (United States)

    Sabone, Motshedisi B


    Botswana has seen rapid socioeconomic development since the 1970s that has contributed to the erosion of the values, institutions, and practices that are believed to be supportive of mental health. In this paper, the author argues that the aspects of culture that are supportive of mental health have been diluted by the process of urbanization and the interactions of Batswana (the indigenous people of Botswana) with other cultural groups, particularly those from the western hemisphere. The paper further highlights some of the values, institutions, and practices native to Botswana and describes how they promote mental health. Lastly, recommendations for reviving the cultural values, institutions, and practices of Botswana are discussed.

  12. Reflections of Practical Implementation of the academic course Analysis and Design of Algorithms taught in the Universities of Pakistan

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    Faryal Shamsi


    Full Text Available This Analysis and Design of Algorithm is considered as a compulsory course in the field of Computer Science. It increases the logical and problem solving skills of the students and make their solutions efficient in terms of time and space.  These objectives can only be achieved if a student practically implements what he or she has studied throughout the course. But if the contents of this course are merely studied and rarely practiced then the actual goals of the course is not fulfilled. This article will explore the extent of practical implementation of the course of analysis and design of algorithm. Problems faced by the computer science community and major barriers in the field are also enumerated. Finally, some recommendations are made to overcome the obstacles in the practical implementation of analysis and design of algorithms.

  13. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

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    Sonja Wessels


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  14. Nurturing ECSU Research Talent (NERT & AASERT) 1997-98 Annual Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayden, Linda


    This report documents the activities of the Augmentation Award for Science and Engineering Research Training Program as well as the activities of the parent grant entitled Nurturing ECSU Research Talent...

  15. More than words: applying the discipline of literary creative writing to the practice of reflective writing in health care education. (United States)

    Kerr, Lisa


    This paper examines definitions and uses of reflective and creative writing in health care education classrooms and professional development settings. A review of articles related to writing in health care reveals that when teaching narrative competence is the goal, creative writing may produce the best outcomes. Ultimately, the paper describes the importance of defining literary creative writing as a distinct form of writing and recommends scholars interested in using literary creative writing to teach narrative competence study pedagogy of the field.

  16. Antibiotics in urinary-tract infections. Sustained change in prescribing habits by practice test and self-reflection: a mixed methods before-after study. (United States)

    Kuehlein, T; Goetz, K; Laux, G; Gutscher, A; Szecsenyi, J; Joos, S


    BACKGROUND The German guideline recommends trimethoprim (TMP) for the treatment of uncomplicated lower-urinary-tract infections (uLUTI) in primary care. In the authors' research network, the participating general practitioners (GPs) were asked why they prescribe mostly quinolones instead. The GPs stated the perception of a high rate of therapy failure of TMP and strongly rejected the guideline. OBJECTIVE To examine prescribing behaviour for uLUTI and whether a practice test of TMP might effect a change in prescribing habits. METHODS The study was conducted using observational and qualitative elements. A first focus-group (n=6) assessed reasons for current prescribing behaviour. In a 3-month practice test, patients with uLUTI were prescribed TMP (150 mg twice for 3 days). In a second focus group, the GPs (n=12) were presented with the results of the practice test. RESULTS The first focus group revealed that prescribing was mainly driven by former hospital training and what was perceived as common therapy. GPs felt no need to change a successful regimen. In the practice test, TMP had a success rate of 94% (84 episodes of uLUTI). The second focus group revealed that the practice test had strongly changed opinions in favour of TMP. Self-reflection and ownership of data acquisition were seen as major contributions for change in prescribing. After the test period, TMP remained the antibiotic most often prescribed. CONCLUSION Internal evidence and peer-group opinion are strong determinants for clinical decisions. A self-conducted practice test, together with self-reflection in a peer group, strongly supports the process of change.


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    Nikolay Govorov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of children nurturing. Given the provisions of the recommended use of Russian national fairy tales in children nurturing. We consider the role of a fairy tale, as an aspect of the success of educational processes in a child immersed in the atmosphere of a modern cyber information of his being. It rips the need to address the problem of writing the words of imagery of Russian fairy tales.

  18. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters


    Peterson, Camille C.


    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...

  19. Self-practice and self-reflection in cognitive behaviour therapy training: what factors influence trainees' engagement and experience of benefit? (United States)

    Bennett-Levy, James; Lee, Nicole K


    Previous studies of self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) CBT training have found that trainees report significant benefits from practising CBT techniques on themselves (self-practice) and reflecting on their experience (self-reflection) as a formal part of their CBT training. However, not all trainees experience the same level of benefit from SP/SR and not all types of training course produce benefits to the same extent. This paper examines the question: What factors influence trainees' reported benefit from SP/SR? The aim was to develop a model to maximize the value of SP/SR training. The authors used a grounded theory analysis of four SP/SR training courses, varying along several dimensions, to derive a model that could account for the data. A model was derived comprising of seven elements: Two outcomes - "Experience of Benefit" and "Engagement with the Process" - that mutually influence one another; and five other influencing factors - "Course Structure and Requirements", "Expectation of Benefit", "Feeling of Safety with the Process", "Group Process", and "Available Personal Resources" - that mediate the impact on Engagement with the Process and Experience of Benefit from SP/SR. A model that provides guidance about the best ways to set up and develop SP/SR programs has been developed. This model may now be subject to empirical testing by trainers and researchers. Implications and recommendations for the design and development of future SP/SR programs are discussed.

  20. Reflections on Rasāyana, Bcud Len and Related Practices in Nyingma (Rnying Ma Tantric Ritual

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    Cathy Cantwell


    Full Text Available The Tibetan term, bcud len, "imbibing the essence juice", is considered an equivalent for the Sanskrit term, rasāyana. But in Tibetan Buddhist ritual manuals, both terms occur, apparently with slightly different connotations. Practices classified as bcud len are frequently relatively short, and seem primarily designed for the use of individual yogis, usually as a subsidiary practice to complement their main tantric meditation. The production of bcud len pills which are said to sustain, rejuvenate and extend the life of the body, or even to bring immortality, is often an integral part of the practice. The term, rasāyana, is used in Tibetan transliteration (ra sā ya na, not as a title or classification for a specific ritual practice or recipe for pills, but rather to refer to the processes of alchemical transformation of substances within complex ritual "medicinal accomplishment" (sman sgrub performances which are generally communal. In this case too, pills are produced, of the broader "sacred elixir dharma medicine" (dam rdzas bdud rtsi chos sman type. This paper will consider a range of the practices, and of substances used in the sacred medicinal compounds.

  1. From bouncing back, to nurturing emergence: reframing the concept of resilience in health systems strengthening. (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Cloete, Keith; Gilson, Lucy


    Recent health system shocks such as the Ebola disease outbreak have focused global health attention on the notion of resilient health systems. In this commentary, we reflect on the current framing of the concept of resilience in health systems discourse and propose a reframing. Specifically, we propose that: (1) in addition to sudden shocks, health systems face the ongoing strain of multiple factors. Health systems need the capacity to continue to deliver services of good quality and respond effectively to wider health challenges. We call this capacity everyday resilience; (2) health system resilience entails more than bouncing back from shock. In complex adaptive systems (CAS), resilience emerges from a combination of absorptive, adaptive and transformative strategies; (3) nurturing the resilience of health systems requires understanding health systems as comprising not only hardware elements (such as finances and infrastructure), but also software elements (such as leadership capacity, power relations, values and appropriate organizational culture). We also reflect on current criticisms of the concept of resilient health systems, such as that it assumes that systems are apolitical, ignoring actor agency, promoting inaction, and requiring that we accept and embrace vulnerability, rather than strive for stronger and more responsive systems. We observe that these criticisms are warranted to the extent that they refer to notions of resilience that are mismatched with the reality of health systems as CAS. We argue that the observed weaknesses of resilience thinking can be addressed by reframing and applying a resilience lens that is better suited to the attributes of health systems as CAS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. A Bicultural Researcher's Reflections on Ethical Research Practices With Muslim Immigrant Women: Merging Boundaries and Challenging Binaries. (United States)

    Salma, Jordana; Ogilvie, Linda; Keating, Norah; Hunter, Kathleen F

    Bicultural researchers are well positioned to identify tensions, disrupt binaries of positions, and reconcile differences across cultural contexts to ensure ethical research practices. This article focuses on a bicultural researcher's experiences of ethically important moments in research activities with Muslim immigrant women. Three ethical principles of respect, justice, and concern for welfare are highlighted, revealing the implications of binary constructions of identity, the value of situated knowledge in creating ethical research practices, and the need to recognize agency as a counterforce to oppressive narratives about Muslim women.

  3. What happened when I invited students to see me? A Black queer professor's reflections on practicing embodied vulnerability in the classroom. (United States)

    Hill, Dominique C


    What are the hesitations, dangers, and potentialities to inviting students to peruse my body? What possibilities arise from centering and leading with the body in the teaching/learning process? What risks and possibilities does this enactment pose to a Black lesbian educator? This auto/ethnography journeys through and reflects upon my experience enacting what I have coined "embodied vulnerability" as a pedagogical practice. Within this essay, I explore the interrelationship of race, gender, and embodiment (or, the performance of self). In addition, I reflect upon the pedagogical exercise-enacted over the last seven years-of asking students to see me and name what they see to illumine how social identities are read alongside context/location, as well as in relation to other assumed identities. Due to the historical and contemporary framing of Blackness and femininity-as paradoxical in popular culture and popular constructions of Blackness and queerness as antithesis-my queerness is undetectable in predominantly White classroom spaces. This essay documents my experience working through this contentious reality and offers the practice "embodied vulnerability" as a feminist practice and educative tool for mediating how the body is understood in the classroom, invoking identity and mobilizing the body in teaching/learning processes.

  4. A review of the nurtured heart approach to parenting: evaluation of its theoretical and empirical foundations. (United States)

    Hektner, Joel M; Brennan, Alison L; Brotherson, Sean E


    The Nurtured Heart Approach to parenting (NHA; Glasser & Easley, 2008) is summarized and evaluated in terms of its alignment with current theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence in family studies and developmental science. Originally conceived and promoted as a behavior management approach for parents of difficult children (i.e., with behavior disorders), NHA is increasingly offered as a valuable strategy for parents of any children, despite a lack of published empirical support. Parents using NHA are trained to minimize attention to undesired behaviors, provide positive attention and praise for compliance with rules, help children be successful by scaffolding and shaping desired behavior, and establish a set of clear rules and consequences. Many elements of the approach have strong support in the theoretical and empirical literature; however, some of the assumptions are more questionable, such as that negative child behavior can always be attributed to unintentional positive reinforcement by parents responding with negative attention. On balance, NHA appears to promote effective and validated parenting practices, but its effectiveness now needs to be tested empirically. © FPI, Inc.

  5. Spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality: A case study in Proverbs

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    Anneke Viljoen


    Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference

  6. Quality Assurance and Foreign Languages--Reflecting on Oral Assessment Practices in Two University Spanish Language Programs in Australia (United States)

    Díaz, Adriana R.; Hortiguera, Hugo; Espinoza Vera, Marcia


    In the era of quality assurance (QA), close scrutiny of assessment practices has been intensified worldwide across the board. However, in the Australian context, trends in QA efforts have not reached the field of modern/foreign languages. This has largely resulted in leaving the establishment of language proficiency benchmarking up to individual…

  7. Professional Dialogue, Reflective Practice and Teacher Research: Engaging Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers in Collegial Dialogue about Curriculum Innovation (United States)

    Simoncini, Kym M.; Lasen, Michelle; Rocco, Sharn


    While embedded in teacher professional standards and assumed aspects of teacher professionalism, willingness and ability to engage in professional dialogue about practice and curriculum initiatives are rarely examined or explicitly taught in teacher education programs. With this in mind, the authors designed an assessment task for pre-service…

  8. Legitimate Peripheral Participation of Pre-Service Science Teachers: Collaborative Reflections in an Online Community of Practice, Twitter (United States)

    Kim, Minkee; Cavas, Bulent


    As a key to decide a success or risk of a community of practice, legitimacy of a participant has been conceptually discussed in abundant theoretical literature. Achieving legitimacy is interpreted as gaining credibility from peers, enlarging divisions of labor in a social environment, collecting reinforcement from colleague teachers in the…

  9. "Refreshed…reinforced…reflective": A qualitative exploration of interprofessional education facilitators' own interprofessional learning and collaborative practice. (United States)

    Evans, Sherryn; Shaw, Nicole; Ward, Catherine; Hayley, Alexa


    While there is extensive research examining the outcomes of interprofessional education (IPE) for students, minimal research has investigated how facilitating student learning influences the facilitators themselves. This exploratory case study aimed to explore whether and how facilitating IPE influences facilitators' own collaborative practice attitudes, knowledge, and workplace behaviours. Sixteen facilitators of an online pre-licensure IPE unit for an Australian university participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Inductive thematic analysis revealed three emergent themes and associated subthemes characterising participants' reflexivity as IPE facilitators: interprofessional learning; professional behaviour change; and collaborative practice expertise. Participants experienced interprofessional learning in their role as facilitators, improving their understanding of other professionals' roles, theoretical and empirical knowledge underlying collaborative practice, and the use and value of online communication. Participants also reported having changed several professional behaviours, including improved interprofessional collaboration with colleagues, a change in care plan focus, a less didactic approach to supervising students and staff, and greater enthusiasm impressing the value of collaborative practice on placement students. Participants reported having acquired their prior interprofessional collaboration expertise via professional experience rather than formal learning opportunities and believed access to formal IPE as learners would aid their continuing professional development. Overall, the outcomes of the IPE experience extended past the intended audience of the student learners and positively impacted on the facilitators as well.

  10. Second Language Aquisition and The Development through Nature-Nurture

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    Syahfitri Purnama


    Full Text Available There are some factors regarding which aspect of second language acquisition is affected by individual learner factors, age, learning style. aptitude, motivation, and personality. This research is about English language acquisition of fourth-year child by nature and nurture. The child acquired her second language acquisition at home and also in one of the courses in Jakarta. She schooled by her parents in order to be able to speak English well as a target language for her future time. The purpose of this paper is to see and examine individual learner difference especially in using English as a second language. This study is a library research and retrieved data collected, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed descriptively. The results can be concluded: the child is able to communicate well and also able to construct simple sentences, complex sentences, sentence statement, phrase questions, and explain something when her teacher asks her at school. She is able to communicate by making a simple sentence or compound sentence in well-form (two clauses or three clauses, even though she still not focus to use the past tense form and sometimes she forgets to put bound morpheme -s in third person singular but she can use turn-taking in her utterances. It is a very long process since the child does the second language acquisition. The family and teacher should participate and assist the child, the proven child can learn the first and the second language at the same time.

  11. Nurturing girls: a key to promoting maternal health. (United States)


    Mothers should invest in women's health and in the health of the next generation by taking good care of their daughters beginning at birth. Indeed girls who develop healthily, confidently, and is strong are more apt to have a safe motherhood and nurture their own children so they can reach their full potential. Nevertheless many obstacles to this occurring exist. Even though both girls and boys live in poverty, girls encounter the additional obstacle of sexual discrimination. For example, female infants have an elevated natural immunity level to fight off diseases than do male infants, female infant mortality exceeds male infant mortality in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. In addition, excessive death rates among small girls occur in some countries of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America. Reduced breast feeding, amount of food, immunization coverage, health care, and school enrollment for females contribute to these excessive death rates among females. In fact, if these deprivations do not result in death, they do cause poor health throughout life and greater risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Motherhood drains the already stunted and anemic bodies. For example, malnourished pregnant women, as evidenced by stunting, often have too small or deformed pelvises making it difficult to delivery a child normally. Anemic mothers cannot easily endure hemorrhaging loss during childbirth and abortion. Finally, deprivation influences a girl's mental ability to manage motherhood. Moreover, it reduces self esteem which in turn renders them reluctant to demand improvements in maternal care which would reduce maternal mortality.

  12. Culture Embrained: Going Beyond the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy. (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Salvador, Cristina E


    Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby calling for a systematic exploration of other ethnic groups. To address these issues, this article reviews recent work in cultural neuroscience, while paying close attention to Latino Americans-the single most rapidly growing minority group in the United States. We focus on research that has employed neural measures and show that culture has systematic influences on the brain. We also point out that, unlike more traditional self-report or performance-based measures, neural indicators of culture are reliably linked to theoretically relevant individual difference variables such as self-construal and acculturation. Cultural neuroscience offers the framework to go beyond the dichotomy between nature and nurture and to explore how they may dynamically interact.

  13. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey through Reflections on Classroom Practice (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer


    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study…

  14. Gods, daemons and banshees on the journey to the magic scroll: the use of myth as a framework for reflective practice in nurse education. (United States)

    Morgan, S


    This paper reports the use of a mythic journey scenario within a student nurse groupwork session. This approach was introduced as a means to facilitate personal and interpersonal sharing and self-knowledge. These processes are held as important for the development of critical reflective process as a cornerstone of contemporary nursing practice. The use of myth invoked a coherent and supportive student environment within which previously reticent students appeared confident enough to contribute and explore their educational experience in nursing. The mythic allegoric process also identified some poignant themes and enemies, common across the student body. Monsters no less!

  15. Organizational Learning from Experience in High-Hazard Industries: Problem Investigation as Off-Line Reflective Practice


    Rudolph, Jenny; Hatakenaka, Sachi; Carroll, John S.


    Learning from experience, the cyclical interplay of thinking and doing, is increasingly important as organizations struggle to cope with rapidly changing environments and more complex and interdependent sets of knowledge. This paper confronts two central issues for organizational learning: (1) how is local learning (by individuals or small groups) integrated into collective learning by organizations? and (2) what are the differences between learning practices that focus on control, eliminatio...

  16. The concept of "psychosomatic" in general practice. Reflections on body language and a tentative model for understanding. (United States)

    Mattsson, Bengt; Mattsson, Monica


    In medicine, the concept "psychosomatic" indicates both dualism and polarisation. "Could it mean something psychic or is it something somatic?" This artificial dichotomy and body/mind split is not as apparent in general practice as it is in other medical disciplines. In general practice, the prerequisites for a division are overlooked. Following the work of Piaget, the article outlines manifestations of a body/mind unity as exposed in the language. Words and expressions describing the way we move, stand and walk therefore indicate our attitude and state of mind. Our body language conveys a message. The importance of breathing and its relation to our emotions is highlighted. The function of breathing is said to represent a bridge between the conscious and the unconscious--breathing can be controlled by our will, but generally we breathe reflexively. Restricted breathing is not just a mechanical process; it is shown that there is a connection between breathing and our emotions. Finally, a model of the "human organism" is presented linking four concepts, "human activity", "organ functions", "physical body" and "neurophysiological functions". Activities within the different systems are linked and relate to each other. The model supports the necessity to overcome the body/mind split, which is one of the obstacles to the fulfillment of good quality general practice.

  17. Globalisation as we enter the 21st century: reflections and directions for nursing education, science, research and clinical practice. (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Meleis, Afaf; Daly, John; Douglas, Marilyn Marty


    The events of September 11th, 2001 in the United States and the Bali bombings of October 2002 are chastening examples of the entangled web of the religious, political, health, cultural and economic forces we experience living in a global community. To view these forces as independent, singular, linearly deterministic entities of globalisation is irrational and illogical. Understanding the concept of globalisation has significant implications not only for world health and international politics, but also the health of individuals. Depending on an individual's political stance and world-view, globalisation may be perceived as an emancipatory force, having the potential to bridge the chasm between rich and poor or, in stark contrast, the very essence of the divide. It is important that nurses appreciate that globalisation does not pertain solely to the realms of economic theory and world politics, but also that it impacts on our daily nursing practice and the welfare of our patients. Globalisation and the closer interactions of human activity that result, have implications for international governance, policy and theory development as well as nursing education, research and clinical practice. Nurses, individually and collectively, have the political power and social consciousness to influence the forces of globalisation to improve health for all. This paper defines and discusses globalisation in today's world and its implications for contemporary nursing education, science, research and clinical practice.


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    Nuria Pons Vilardell Camas


    Full Text Available This article has its origin in the discussions promoted by the members of the Interinstitutional Study Group of Digital Culture and Education (Federal University of Paraná, University of Ceará and Catholic University of São Paulo (Núcleo de Estudos Interinstitucional da Cultura Digital e Educação (NEICDE – UFPR/ UNICE - Universidade Ceará e a PUC-SP.The goal of this work is to understand, analyze and examine the theoretical basis and the reflections necessary regarding the complexity and the challenges of education for the use of technologies in our century; in the rupture of the fragmentation paradigms that the use of information and communication technologies demand of education.

  19. Identifying emotional intelligence in professional nursing practice. (United States)

    Kooker, Barbara Molina; Shoultz, Jan; Codier, Estelle E


    The National Center for Health Workforce Analysis projects that the shortage of registered nurses in the United States will double by 2010 and will nearly quadruple to 20% by 2015 (Bureau of Health Professionals Health Resources and Services Administration. [2002]. Projected supply, demand, and shortages of registered nurses, 2000-2020 [On-line]. Available: The purpose of this study was to use the conceptual framework of emotional intelligence to analyze nurses' stories about their practice to identify factors that could be related to improved nurse retention and patient/client outcomes. The stories reflected evidence of the competencies and domains of emotional intelligence and were related to nurse retention and improved outcomes. Nurses recognized their own strengths and limitations, displayed empathy and recognized client needs, nurtured relationships, used personal influence, and acted as change agents. Nurses were frustrated when organizational barriers conflicted with their knowledge/intuition about nursing practice, their communications were disregarded, or their attempts to create a shared vision and teamwork were ignored. Elements of professional nursing practice, such as autonomy, nurse satisfaction, respect, and the professional practice environment, were identified in the excerpts of the stories. The shortage of practicing nurses continues to be a national issue. The use of emotional intelligence concepts may provide fresh insights into ways to keep nurses engaged in practice and to improve nurse retention and patient/client outcomes.

  20. Journaling: a quasi-experimental study of student nurses' reflective learning ability. (United States)

    Fakude, L P; Bruce, J C


    The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning. The study design enabled comparisons between two groups: one group of students assigned to do journaling (experimental group) and another group of students (control group) who did not journal. The students in the experimental group were given a period of eight weeks to journal their clinical experiences. At the end of this period, both groups were given an exercise, based on a clinical situation, to analyse reflectively and a comparison made on their performance. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data and Fisher's Exact Test was used to determine the significance of differences observed within and between groups. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better in exploring alternatives of action (p < 0.10) and formulating responses in similar future situations (p < 0.05) during the process of reflection. There was no significant difference between the groups' scores with regard to their ability to describe the clinical experience, to explore their related feelings, to evaluate the experience and to interpret/create meaning for themselves. Recommendations are made for continued student support and guidance during clinical education if reflection is considered to enhance reflective, thoughtful nursing practice.


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    Dimas Hadi Prayoga


    Full Text Available Introduction: The deviation problem of smoking activity an adolescent is come to anxious level for parents, teachers, and society. The correlation between parents nurture model and smoking activity of adolescent needs to be examined further. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between parents nurture model with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old. Method: This was correlational research with cross sectional approach. The sample were 84 adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk. The independent variables was parents nurture model and the dependent variable was adolescent smoking activity. Data were collected by using questionnare, then examined by using chi square with the level of significant α=0,05. Result: Statistical analysis had showed the low correlation between permissive parents nurture model with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk (p=0,049; r = 0,210 and no correlation between democratic nurture model (p=0,554 and authoritative nurture model (p=0,418 with smoking activity of adolescent (12-15 years old at MTs Mojosari Nganjuk, but only permissive model which correlate with smoking activity. The permissive parents with no control and demand caused adolescent to be feeling unimpeded to do smoking activity since there is no warning and punishment from the parents. Discussion: So that, School nurses should provide health promotion to parents in making appropriate parenting in adolescence. Parents should have the right parenting provided in accordance with the age and development of adolescents because appropriate parenting will have a positive impact on adolescent behavior. Further research on parenting questionnaires must be checked for cross-compatibility between questionnaire answers given adolescent and parents to know the truth in filling out the questionnaire. The differences in this study compared to previous studies is the researcher doing research in

  2. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael


    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken. PMID:28680412

  3. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts. (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Rowe, Michael


    Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health "first-person" (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer) movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The "take home message" of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the 'adoptee's' practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  4. Rehabilitation goal setting with community dwelling adults with acquired brain injury: a theoretical framework derived from clinicians' reflections on practice. (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah


    The aim of this study was to explore clinicians' experiences of implementing goal setting with community dwelling clients with acquired brain injury, to develop a goal setting practice framework. Grounded theory methodology was employed. Clinicians, representing six disciplines across seven services, were recruited and interviewed until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 22 clinicians were interviewed. A theoretical framework was developed to explain how clinicians support clients to actively engage in goal setting in routine practice. The framework incorporates three phases: a needs identification phase, a goal operationalisation phase, and an intervention phase. Contextual factors, including personal and environmental influences, also affect how clinicians and clients engage in this process. Clinicians use additional strategies to support clients with impaired self-awareness. These include structured communication and metacognitive strategies to operationalise goals. For clients with emotional distress, clinicians provide additional time and intervention directed at new identity development. The goal setting practice framework may guide clinician's understanding of how to engage in client-centred goal setting in brain injury rehabilitation. There is a predilection towards a client-centred goal setting approach in the community setting, however, contextual factors can inhibit implementation of this approach. Implications for Rehabilitation The theoretical framework describes processes used to develop achievable client-centred goals with people with brain injury. Building rapport is a core strategy to engage clients with brain injury in goal setting. Clients with self-awareness impairment benefit from additional metacognitive strategies to participate in goal setting. Clients with emotional distress may need additional time for new identity development.

  5. Taking the Concept of Citizenship in Mental Health across Countries. Reflections on Transferring Principles and Practice to Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa


    Full Text Available Transferring principles and practices to different sociocultural and professional contexts in the field of mental health can be very complex. Previous research on public health policy points to difficulties in different areas such as the understanding the new concepts, their applicability in different health systems, and suitable approaches to its effective implementation. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of transferring the concept of Citizenship, from its United States origins in mental health outreach work with persons who are homeless to Catalonia, Spain. We define Citizenship as promoting the rights, responsibilities, roles, resources and relationships of persons with mental illnesses, along with a sense of belonging that is validated by other citizens. The process of this transition involves embedding Citizenship in the mental health “first-person” (internationally known as Consumer/Survivor/Peer movement in Catalonia. The paper includes a discussion of the concept of transference, including a case example of the adoption of the concept of mental health recovery in different countries. Following this, we describe the United States Citizenship model and key elements of its development. We then turn to Spain and the evolution of its mental health system, and then to Catalonia for a brief case history of transference of the principles and practices of Citizenship to that region. The “take home message” of this work is that concepts being brought from one sociocultural and national context to another, must focus on contextualization in the ‘adoptee’s’ practices, including the balance between personal involvement and professional rigor, the involvement of key actors, and ongoing evaluation of actions taken.

  6. Some Reflections on the Characterisation and Assessment of the Environmental Practice and Competence Development in Companies and Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    The paper discusses the concept of coorporate environmental competence and a methodology for the application of the concept in analyses of the shaping of corporate environmental competence in companies and product chains. The paper is based on a number of studies ig the shaping of environmental p...... practice in Danish companies and the interaction within supply chains and other types of network relations.......The paper discusses the concept of coorporate environmental competence and a methodology for the application of the concept in analyses of the shaping of corporate environmental competence in companies and product chains. The paper is based on a number of studies ig the shaping of environmental...

  7. Increasing awareness about self and facilitation practice in preparation for transitioning to a new role – the critical reflective process of becoming a certified professional facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Bergin


    Full Text Available Background and context: I have been working as a practice developer in the Australian healthcare system for more than 10 years. For the last seven of those I was a lead facilitator for a practice development programme that is being implemented across a large statewide health service. The programme’s purpose is to create person-centred care environments that enable patient and staff empowerment. My role was in a small team that supported facilitators predominantly at local health district and state levels. The intent was to phase out the team over time as capacity increased and local teams gained the required skills and knowledge to continue implementing the programme. During the two-year final transition phase, a strategic plan was implemented to guide the development of systems and capacity that would support the programme once the team had exited. A decision was made to shorten the phasing-out period and during this transition period I found myself facing an unknown and unpredictable future, for the first time in my career promoting something other than my clinical nursing skills. As I transitioned into an independent facilitator role I wanted to consolidate my expertise as a facilitator, to gain further learning in specific areas and to achieve recognition of the facilitation skill set I had honed over time, and which has now become my way of working. Given that my experience was limited to the healthcare context, diverse though it is, I pondered which of my skills would stand me in good stead to enable groups and organisations as an independent professional facilitator and what additional skills I’d need. I was encouraged to become a certified professional facilitator by colleagues who were using process facilitation and person-centredness more broadly. This paper reflects my experience of the preparation, assessment and accreditation process, the feedback I received from my international assessors and how these are influencing my


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kirkegaard Bejder


    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper that is based on the didactics reflections of three junior academics at the Architecture and Urban Design (A&UD programme at Aalborg University. The discussion is moored in two narratives representing two typical student tuition situations. Unfolding two touch points where PBL and architectural and engineering teaching converge, this paper discusses how ‘the problem’ and ‘supervision’ at the A&UD programme are hybrid tuition focus points, where principles of PBL and more traditional tuition styles within architecture and engineering come into contact and cause didactic friction. This friction necessitates teachers and supervisors to critically reflect upon their teaching and supervision styles, and upon how ‘the problem’ is put into play in their tuition of students. The paper argues that teachers and supervisors have a heightened obligation and responsibility to monitor, assess, reflect and adjust the integration of the different teaching approaches in their hybrid tuition practices at A&UD.

  9. Tri-sector partnerships in social entrepreneurship: discourse and practice of the actors from the circles of action and reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bronzo


    Full Text Available This article discusses the construction of tri-sector partnerships in three projects conducted in Brazil in different fields of intervention of public policy (access to water, basic education and performance of boards of rights of children and adolescents. Collaborative articulations involving the players from three sectors (the State, civil society and the market are practices that are little studied in the Brazilian and even in the international context, as tri-sector partnerships are rare, despite the proliferation of lines of discourse in support of alliances between governments and civil society or between companies and NGOs in the management of public policy. As a research strategy, this study resorted to cooperative inquiry, a method that involves breaking down the boundaries between the subjects and the objects of the analysis. Besides working toward a better understanding of the challenges of building tri-sector partnerships in the Brazilian context, the article also tries to show the relevance to public policy studies of investigative methods based on the subjects studied, as a means of developing an understanding of the practices, lines of discourse and dilemmas linked to social action in social programs.

  10. Integration and Differentiation as the Universal Scientific Categories and their Reflection in the Theory and Practice of Natural Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova


    Full Text Available The post-industrial society gives way to the qualitatively new formation of education, integrated at its every level: integration with science and production; cooperation of different educational establishments; succession of educational levels; cross-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary expertise development; choice of methods, technologies and organizational forms of education and upbringing, etc. The integration and differentiation in their didactic unity reflect the complexity and contradiction of educational process, either of them dominating in certain socio-economic conditions of the given historic period. The retrospective analysis of the above correlation regarding the natural science disciplines demonstrates the lack of theoretical and methodological bases for integration, and its accidental unsystematic character in educational processes. The main conclusion of the study is the need for the complex competence model to combine the ideas of integration and differentiation providing both the wide outlook and professional training. For overcoming the predominance of differentiated education, the author suggests adapting the concepts of post-non-classical science, and selection and structuring of educational information with the reference to the semantic universals of systematic synergetic approach. The research findings can be used in pedagogic research methodology, educational process design and modeling, its content, technology and organization. 

  11. UniEdge: A first year transition program and its continued evolution through a reflective approach. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lefroy


    Full Text Available Phillipa Sturgess 14.00 800x600 The shift in Australian higher education policy to widen participation and ensure equity across all student cohorts has led to the need for specific, structured transition programs. The First Year Advisor Network at Murdoch University in Perth, Australia has designed and implemented a transition program for commencing students called UniEdge. The aims of the program are: (1 to help foster a sense of community for first year students; (2 to  make new students aware of the support services available; and (3 to improve the confidence and preparedness of new students. The program has received high praise from students, but rates of attendance have been problematic. By reflecting on student and staff feedback, the program has been adapted over multiple semesters, resulting in increased student attendance and therefore a greater impact on the first year experience at Murdoch University. Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Nature versus nurture: identical twins and bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Hagedorn, Judith C; Morton, John M


    Genetics and environment both play a role in weight maintenance. Twin studies may help clarify the influence of nature vs nurture in weight loss. We present the largest U.S. experience with monozygotic (MZ) twins undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four sets of MZ twins who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement at three different institutions. BMI and co-morbidities were examined pre- and postoperatively, and laboratory values were recorded. All four sets of twins are female, live together, and have similar professions. Twin cohort 1 had near identical weight loss patterns after open RYGBP surgery in 1996 (preop 146/142 kg; 2 years 82/82; and 10 years 108/107). Twin cohort 1 also both underwent cholecystectomies within the first year postoperatively. Twin cohort 2 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP surgery and also required cholecystectomies in the first postoperative year. Cohort 2 also experienced nearly identical weight loss at 1 year (36.7% vs 37.0% BMI loss). Twin cohort 3 underwent LAGB placement with two different surgeons with differing amounts of weight loss at 6 months (6.5% vs 15.7% BMI loss). Finally, twin cohort 4 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP with 2-year BMI loss of 39% vs 34%. In twin cohort 4, the twin who lost less weight lived apart from her twin and extended family, and her weight loss was less than the twin living with her family. Two sets of MZ twins had identical responses to bariatric surgery. The other two sets of identical twins had differential weight loss results, possibly due to differences in surgical approach and social support. While genetics do exert a strong influence on weight loss and maintenance, this case series demonstrates the potential effect of social support and postoperative management upon postoperative weight loss in the presence of identical genetics.

  13. Properties of Galaxies and Groups: Nature versus Nurture (United States)

    Niemi, Sami-Matias


    Due to the inherently nonlinear nature of gravity cosmological N-body simulations have become an invaluable tool when the growth of structure is being studied and modelled closer to the present epoch. Large simulations with high dynamical range have made it possible to model the formation and growth of cosmic structure with unprecedented accuracy. Moreover, galaxies, the basic building blocks of the Universe, can also be modelled in cosmological context. However, despite all the simulations and successes in recent decades, there are still many unanswered questions in the field of galaxy formation and evolution. One of the longest standing issue being the significance of the formation place and thus initial conditions to a galaxy's evolution in respect to environment, often formulated simply as "nature versus nurture" like in human development and psychology. Unfortunately, our understanding of galaxy evolution in different environments is still limited, albeit, for example, the morphology-density relation has shown that the density of the galaxy's local environment can affect its properties. Consequently, the environment should play a role in galaxy evolution, however despite the efforts, the exact role of the galaxy's local environment to its evolution remains open. This thesis introduction discusses briefly the background cosmology, cosmological N-body simulations and semi-analytical models. The second part is reserved for groups of galaxies, whether they are gravitationally bound, and what this may imply for galaxy evolution. The third part of the thesis concentrates on describing results of a case study of isolated field elliptical galaxies. The final chapter discusses another case study of luminous infra-red galaxies.

  14. Reflections on the role of consultant radiographers in the UK: The perceived impact on practice and factors that support and hinder the role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henwood, S.; Booth, L.; Miller, P.K.


    Study context: This paper is the third paper arising from a two year long, in-depth case study exploring various components of the role of consultant radiographers in the UK. This paper focuses particularly upon the perceived impact of the role and factors that support and hinder the role in practice. Methods: A longitudinal case study method was used to explore the role of consultant radiographers. Interviewing was informed and guided by a phenomenological approach to promote a deeper understanding of consultants' experiences in the role. Eight consultant radiographers participated, with six involved throughout the whole study. Over an 18 month period each of those six consultants was interviewed three times. Two consultants only participated in the first interview; these interviews are also reported here. A total of 20 interviews were conducted. Findings: Interviews explored the impact of the consultant role as perceived by consultants themselves, and encouraged individual reflection on factors which had both supported and hindered success therein. Analysis demonstrated that there was substantial variation in the experiences communicated yet, and without any exception, all consultants reported that the introduction of their role had been beneficial to service delivery and quality of patient care. A number of obstacles were outlined, as well as a range of support mechanisms. Recommendations are thus made as to how the consultant role might be more effectively supported in the future. - Highlights: • The perceived impact of the consultant radiographer role in practice. • Reflections upon what supported the consultants in their role. • Reflections upon what hindered the consultants in their role.

  15. Against professionalizing leadership: the roles of self-formation and practical wisdom in leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Svane, Marita Susanna


    misconceives the role of leadership education to be only a question of acquiring epistemic (rational and universal) knowledge and skills while it fails to acknowledge technê as craft and art and local and situated awareness and sensitivity. Practical wisdom involves all dimensions. Leadership education......Based on the concepts self-formation and phronesis (practical wisdom), this chapter argues against professionalizing leadership. Professionalization implies rules, guidelines, procedures, and accreditation standards in relation to contents, curricula and the pedagogy of education. It thus...... is important because of its potential to nurture a creative, critical and responsible relation to the world. Leadership thus requires a practice-based educational program and a “free space” for experimentation, reflection and self-formation, which is inconsistent with turning leadership into a profession....

  16. Palliative sedation: not just normal medical practice. Ethical reflections on the Royal Dutch Medical Association's guideline on palliative sedation. (United States)

    Janssens, Rien; van Delden, Johannes J M; Widdershoven, Guy A M


    The main premise of the Royal Dutch Medical Association's (RDMA) guideline on palliative sedation is that palliative sedation, contrary to euthanasia, is normal medical practice. Although we do not deny the ethical distinctions between euthanasia and palliative sedation, we will critically analyse the guideline's argumentation strategy with which euthanasia is demarcated from palliative sedation. First, we will analyse the guideline's main premise, which entails that palliative sedation is normal medical treatment. After this, we will critically discuss three crucial propositions of the guideline that are used to support this premise: (1) the patient's life expectancy should not exceed 2 weeks; (2) the aim of the physician should be to relieve suffering and (3) expert consultation is optional. We will conclude that, if inherent problematic aspects of palliative sedation are taken seriously, palliative sedation is less normal than it is now depicted in the guideline.

  17. The Aesthetic Turn in Mental Health: Reflections on an Explorative Study into Practices in the Arts Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Samaritter


    Full Text Available The paper will draw on materials from arts therapies literature and comments from experts’ panels to discuss some specific characteristics of the arts therapies and to investigate the role of aesthetic engagement for resilience and mental well-being. The arts increasingly find their way as interventions in mental health domains. However, explorations into the specific mechanisms that underpin the therapeutic effect of arts-based activities are still scarce. Qualitative data were collected from a thematic literature review and expert comments on meaningful working procedures in arts therapies. Analysis of multiple data sources revealed core themes and core procedures that occur across arts therapy modalities. This paper presents a practice informed model of arts-based methods in mental health that may serve as a conceptual frame of reference for arts therapists and as study material on the applicability of arts therapy interventions for specific mental health settings.

  18. The use of reflective and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation and stormwater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Harvey, J T; Holland, T J; Kayhanian, M


    To help address the built environmental issues of both heat island and stormwater runoff, strategies that make pavements cooler and permeable have been investigated through measurements and modeling of a set of pavement test sections. The investigation included the hydraulic and thermal performance of the pavements. The permeability results showed that permeable interlocking concrete pavers have the highest permeability (or infiltration rate, ∼0.5 cm s −1 ). The two permeable asphalt pavements showed the lowest permeability, but still had an infiltration rate of ∼0.1 cm s −1 , which is adequate to drain rainwater without generating surface runoff during most typical rain events in central California. An increase in albedo can significantly reduce the daytime high surface temperature in summer. Permeable pavements under wet conditions could give lower surface temperatures than impermeable pavements. The cooling effect highly depends on the availability of moisture near the surface layer and the evaporation rate. The peak cooling effect of watering for the test sections was approximately 15–35 °C on the pavement surface temperature in the early afternoon during summer in central California. The evaporative cooling effect on the pavement surface temperature at 4:00 pm on the third day (25 h after watering) was still 2–7 °C lower compared to that on the second day, without considering the higher air temperature on the third day. A separate and related simulation study performed by UCPRC showed that full depth permeable pavements, if designed properly, can carry both light-duty traffic and certain heavy-duty vehicles while retaining the runoff volume captured from an average California storm event. These preliminarily results indicated the technical feasibility of combined reflective and permeable pavements for addressing the built environment issues related to both heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff management. (letter)

  19. A measurable impact of a self-practice/self-reflection programme on the therapeutic skills of experienced cognitive-behavioural therapists. (United States)

    Davis, Melanie L; Thwaites, Richard; Freeston, Mark H; Bennett-Levy, James


    The need for effective training methods for enhancing cognitive-behavioural therapist competency is not only relevant to new therapists but also to experienced therapists looking to retain and further enhance their skills. Self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) is a self-experiential cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) training programme, which combines the experience of practicing CBT methods on oneself with structured reflection on the implications of the experience for clinical practice. In order to build on previous qualitative studies of SP/SR, which have mainly focused on trainee CBT therapists, the aim of the current study was to quantify the impact of SP/SR on the therapeutic skills of an experienced cohort of CBT therapists. Fourteen CBT therapists were recruited to participate in an SP/SR programme specifically adapted for experienced therapists. In the context of a quasi-experimental design including multiple baselines within a single-case methodology, therapists provided self-ratings of technical cognitive therapy skill and interpersonal empathic skill at four critical time points: baseline, pre-SP/SR and post-SP/SR and follow-up. Analysis of programme completers (n = 7) indicated that SP/SR enhances both technical skill and interpersonal therapeutic skill. Further intention-to-treat group (n = 14) analyses including both those who left the programme early (n = 3) and those who partially completed the programme (n = 4) added to the robustness of findings with respect to technical cognitive therapy skills but not interpersonal empathic skills. It was concluded that SP/SR, as a training and development programme, could offer an avenue to further therapeutic skill enhancement in already experienced CBT therapists. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. ‘Successful Ageing’ in Practice: Reflections on Health, Activity and Normality in Old Age in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Alftberg


    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the critical examination of the notions of health and activity, and to discuss how these cultural and social constructs have impact on elderly people’s lives. An ethnographic perspective gives fruitful inputs to explore how old people deal with the image of old age as one of decay and decline, while they simultaneously relate to the normative idea of so-called successful ageing. The focus is thus on how elderly people create meaning, and how they manage and make use of the contradictory cultural beliefs that are both understood as normality: old age as a passive period of life involving decline and disease, and activity as an individual responsibility in order to stay healthy. The study sample is created with two different methods, qualitative interviews and two different questionnaires, and the majority of the respondents are 65+ years old. The article demonstrates the intersection between old age and a health-promoting active lifestyle. The notion of activity includes moral values, which shape the beliefs and narratives of being old. This forms part of the concept of self-care management, which in old age is also called successful ageing. The idea that activities are health promoting is the framework in which activities are performed, but significance and meaning are rather created from practice.

  1. Evolution of Hereditary Breast Cancer Genetic Services: Are Changes Reflected in the Knowledge and Clinical Practices of Florida Providers? (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Scherr, Courtney; Camperlengo, Lucia; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Pal, Tuya


    We describe practitioner knowledge and practices related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in an evolving landscape of genetic testing. A survey was mailed in late 2013 to Florida providers who order HBOC testing. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize participants' responses. Of 101 respondents, 66% indicated either no genetics education or education through a commercial laboratory. Although 79% of respondents were aware of the Supreme Court ruling resulting in the loss of Myriad Genetics' BRCA gene patent, only 19% had ordered testing from a different laboratory. With regard to pretest counseling, 78% of respondents indicated they usually discuss 11 of 14 nationally recommended elements for informed consent. Pretest discussion times varied from 3 to 120 min, with approximately half spending 40% of respondents included (1) possibility of a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and (2) issues related to life/disability insurance. With regard to genetic testing for HBOC, 88% would test an unaffected sister of a breast cancer patient identified with a BRCA VUS. Results highlight the need to identify whether variability in hereditary cancer service delivery impacts patient outcomes. Findings also reveal opportunities to facilitate ongoing outreach and education.

  2. Understanding the space of nursing practice in Colombia: A critical reflection on the effects of health system reform. (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Pilar


    Worldwide, healthcare has been touched by neoliberal policies to the extent that it has some of its characteristics, such as being asymmetrical, competitive, dehumanized, and profit driven. In Colombia, Law 100/93 was created as an ambitious reform aimed at integrating the social security and public sectors of healthcare in order to create universal access, and at the same time to generate market competence with the objective of improving effectiveness and responsiveness. Instead, however, Colombian health reform has served to generate competition which has aggravated inequalities among people. Within this context, we practice nursing. As nurses, our responsibility is to advocate for our patients. We cannot ignore what is happening worldwide in hospitals and community health settings because our responsibility is to promote health, prevent disease, and care for human beings. So, today, when the world pushes for economical profit and competence on one hand, and, on the other, for moral compromises to care, respect, and advocacy for all human beings, being a nurse in the Colombian health system represents a challenge for us. This challenge is especially significant because harm and benefit, justice and injustice, respect and disrespect are separated by a fine line that is easy to transgress. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.


    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  4. Reported positive and negative outcomes associated with a self-practice/self-reflection cognitive-behavioural therapy exercise for CBT trainees. (United States)

    Spendelow, Jason S; Butler, Lisa J


    The aim of the current study was to identify outcomes of a self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) exercise for trainee clinical psychologists. Thirty-two trainees enrolled in their first year of a UK university doctoral clinical psychology training programme completed an online questionnaire following an eight-week exercise. Findings indicated an endorsement of many previously reported benefits of exercise participation, but also the identification of negative outcomes. Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that outcomes could be grouped into two main thematic domains (individual task outcomes and task organization issues) along with several subordinate themes. SP/SR is a useful tool in the development of trainee CBT therapist competences. There has been limited previous recognition of potential negative outcomes from this type of exercise. However, these can provide additional impetus for therapist skill development.

  5. Religious and spiritual development are determined 100% by nature, and 100% by nurture: A playful response to Boyatzis. (United States)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Nkara, Frances


    In this response, we respond to Boyatzis' commentary to our paper 'Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development'. We also provide additional elaborations on how nurture might co-sculpt nature in the context of religious and spiritual development. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. In the Eye of the Beholder: Self-Esteem and Children's vs. Parents' Assessments of Parental Nurturance and Discipline. (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Past research has implicated the familial variables of parental nurturance and parental discipline in the development of global self-esteem in children. This study examined college students' levels of self-esteem as a function of their own versus their parents' appraisals of parental nurturance and parental authority. Subjects were 128 college…

  7. Developing a sustainable electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) program that fosters reflective practice and incorporates CanMEDS competencies into the undergraduate medical curriculum. (United States)

    Hall, Pippa; Byszewski, Anna; Sutherland, Stephanie; Stodel, Emma J


    The University of Ottawa (uOttawa) Faculty of Medicine in 2008 launched a revised undergraduate medical education (UGME) curriculum that was based on the seven CanMEDS roles (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, health advocate, manager, scholar, and professional) and added an eighth role of person to incorporate the dimension of mindfulness and personal well-being. In this article, the authors describe the development of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) program that enables uOttawa medical students to document their activities and to demonstrate their development of competence in each of the eight roles. The ePortfolio program supports reflective practice, an important component of professional competence, and provides a means for addressing the "hidden curriculum." It is bilingual, mandatory, and spans the four years of UGME. It includes both an online component for students to document their personal development and for student-coach dialogue, as well as twice-yearly, small-group meetings in which students engage in reflective discussions and learn to give and receive feedback.The authors reflect on the challenges they faced in the development and implementation of the ePortfolio program and share the lessons they have learned along the way to a successful and sustainable program. These lessons include switching from a complex information technology system to a user-friendly, Web-based blog platform; rethinking orientation sessions to ensure that faculty and students understand the value of the ePortfolio program; soliciting student input to improve the program and increase student buy-in; and providing faculty development opportunities and recognition.

  8. The Challenges of OER to Academic Practice (United States)

    Browne, Tom; Holding, Richard; Howell, Anna; Rodway-Dyer, Sue


    The degree to which Open Educational Resources (OER) reflect the values of its institutional provider depends on questions of economics and the level of support amongst its academics. For project managers establishing OER repositories, the latter question--how to cultivate, nurture and maintain academic engagement--is critical. Whilst…

  9. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui


    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  10. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course (United States)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity

  11. Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Robbins


    Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when

  12. Increasing research capacity and changing the culture of primary care towards reflective inquiring practice: the experience of the West London Research Network (WeLReN). (United States)

    Thomas, P; While, A


    A number of primary care research networks were set up throughout England in 1998 in order to (1) improve the quality of primary care research (2) increase the research capacity of primary care, and (3) change the culture of primary care towards reflective inquiring practice (NHSE, 2000b). It is not clear how best to operate a network to achieve these diverse aims. This paper describes the first 30 months of a network that adopted a whole system approach in the belief that this would offer the best chance of simultaneously achieving the three aims. A cycle of activity was designed to facilitate the formation of multidisciplinary coalitions of interest for research with complementary 'top down' and 'bottom up' programmes of work co-existing. At least 330 people participated in the generation of research questions of whom one third (33%) were general practitioners, 16% community nurses, 6% practice managers and other primary care practitioners. Over two fifths (43%) were 'key allies'--academics, health authority staff, community workers and project workers. One fifth (110) of all practices (500) in the WeLReN area have collaborated in at least one research project. The ratio of doctor:nurse participation in the 24 research project teams was markedly different in the supported coalitions (2:1) compared to projects devised and led by more experienced researchers (6:1). The evidence suggests that it is possible to operate a primary care research network in a way that develops coalitions of interest from different parts of the health care system as well as both 'top down' and 'bottom up' led projects. It is too early to tell if the approach will be able to achieve its aims in the long-term but the activity data are encouraging. There is a need for more research on the theoretical basis of network operation.

  13. Beloved Women: Nurturing the Sacred Fire of Leadership from an American Indian Perspective (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Garrett, Michael Tlanusta


    American Indian women have been consistently involved in leadership throughout indigenous history. Their leadership provides a strong, nurturing influence passed down from generation to generation. In the U.S. society, this type of leadership style is recognized among contemporary authors of leadership manuals as relational and is attributed to…

  14. Place-Based Stewardship Education: Nurturing Aspirations to Protect the Rural Commons (United States)

    Gallay, Erin; Marckini-Polk, Lisa; Schroeder, Brandon; Flanagan, Constance


    In this mixed-methods study, we examine the potential of place-based stewardship education (PBSE) for nurturing rural students' community attachment and aspirations to contribute to the preservation of the environmental "commons." Analyzing pre- and post-experience surveys (n = 240) and open-ended responses (n = 275) collected from…

  15. Nurture thru Nature: Creating Natural Science Identities in Populations of Disadvantaged Children through Community Education Partnership (United States)

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha


    In this article we describe the development, implementation, and some of the early impacts of Nurture thru Nature (NtN), an American after-school and summer program designed to introduce elementary school students in disadvantaged, urban public schools to natural science and environmental education. The program, which began operations in 2010 as a…

  16. Nurturing Young Children's Moral Development through Literature in Japan and the USA (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Scott, Jerrie C.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the views of American and Japanese early childhood teachers regarding the nurturing of young children's moral development using literature. The data consisted of responses to a questionnaire and written explanations of 36 American and 36 Japanese teachers. By comparing responses of the two groups, it was…

  17. Drawing as Driver of Creativity: Nurturing an Intelligence of Seeing in Art Students (United States)

    Riley, Howard


    The article reasserts the primacy of drawing as a driver of creativity within art schools. It reviews specific aspects of visual perception theory and visual communication theory relevant to a pedagogical strategy as a means of nurturing an "intelligence of seeing" in art students. The domain of drawing is theorised as a…

  18. Nurture Groups in a Scottish Secondary School: Purpose, Features, Value and Areas for Development (United States)

    Kourmoulaki, Athina


    Nurture groups (NGs) are increasingly being established in Scottish secondary schools yet research in this context is limited. The current study explores the purpose, features and value of two NGs in a Scottish secondary school through interviewing current and former NG members, parents/carers, NG staff and other school staff. A thematic analysis…

  19. Nature, Nurture and Neuroscience: Some Future Directions for Historians of Education (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard


    Following a short introduction this article is divided into three main sections. The first provides definitions and brief histories of the nature-nurture debate and of neuroscience. The second section shows how in recent decades neuroscientific research has impacted on the debate with particular reference to our understanding of human intelligence…

  20. Stability of Parental Nurturance as a Salient Predictor of Self-Esteem. (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    In the recent past there has been a growing interest in the investigation of the self. A primary area of investigation has revolved around the question of the stability of the self-concept. This study investigated parental nurturance as a stable predictor of self-esteem across adolescent and young adult age groups. Subjects (N=784) were students…

  1. Supporting Parents to Provide Nurturing Care for Young Children: The Fundamental Ingredients for a Better World (United States)

    Richter, Linda M.


    The global community is recognizing how "nurturing care" is critical for the developing child. The term encompasses health and nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and opportunities for inclusive early learning, all of which are afforded by loving parents and families and supportive communities. Public policies and…

  2. Re-Imagining Specialized STEM Academies: Igniting and Nurturing "Decidedly Different Minds", by Design (United States)

    Marshall, Stephanie Pace


    This article offers a personal vision and conceptual design for reimagining specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academies designed to nurture "decidedly different" STEM minds and ignite a new generation of global STEM talent, innovation, and entrepreneurial leadership. This design enables students to engage…

  3. Predictors of Maternal and Early Adolescent Attitudes Toward Children's Nurturance and Self-Determination Rights (United States)

    Peterson-Badali, Michele; Morine, Stephany L.; Ruck, Martin D.; Slonim, Naomi


    Children's rights to nurturance and self-determination have been included in social policy agendas for many years. Children's and parents' attitudes concerning children's rights are likely an important determinant of whether rights on paper actually serve to protect the well-being of children, yet there is little research on factors associated…

  4. Revisiting Nature vs. Nurture: Implications for the Teaching/Learning Process. (United States)

    French, Fred


    Child development theories conclude that nature and nurture interactively shape individual development. Implications for education are that children learn better when they feel wanted and are in a supportive environment. Teaching needs to go beyond pure content and focus on learning how to learn. Assessment should focus on the use of knowledge…

  5. Nature and nurture in the development of postural control in human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HaddersAlgra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    Nowadays, the controversy on ''nature'' and ''nurture'' in motor development focuses on the development of automatic motor patterns. The present paper discusses this issue within the framework of a recent study on the effect of maturation and training on the development of postural adjustments in

  6. The role of academia and industry in nurturing women in physics in Kenya (United States)

    Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Kasina, Angeline; Muthui, Zipporah W.; Awuor, Emily; Baki, Paul


    The authors look at some of the primary initiatives taken by the government, academia, and industry to nurture the goals and dreams of Kenyan women physicists. They discuss key transformative lines of progress as evidenced by statistics, and the enabling environments and platforms upon which these were made possible.

  7. Nurturing Reading Proficiency of Pupils through Phonics: Entrepreneurial Opportunities for Early Childhood Educators in Nigeria (United States)

    Shoaga, Opeyemi; Akintola, Olugbenga Adeyanju; Okpor, Christiana Isiwat


    Nurturing reading proficiency among the Nigerian children has become pivotal to a functional and development-oriented education. The place of phonics in achieving this strategic goal seems unquestionable with attendant entrepreneurial opportunities for early childhood educators. This study therefore, investigates the influence of phonics in…

  8. Reflections on Contemporary Construction Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    Indledningskapitlet til bogen, Tectonic Visions in Architecture, som behandler det for arkitketuren centrale tektonikbegreb. Gennem analyse af et antal moderne bygningsværker berøres arkitekturens teknologiske aspekter og produktonsformer og ikke mindst industrielle processer og miljøtilpasset...

  9. Everyday Ethics: Reflections on Practice (United States)

    Rossman, Gretchen B.; Rallis, Sharon F.


    This introductory article frames the contributions for this issue on everyday ethics--moments that demand moral considerations and ethical choices that researchers encounter. We discuss concerns raised within the research community about the tendency to observe merely obligatory ethical procedures as outlined in Human Subjects Review regulations.…

  10. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William


    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  11. Further Study is Needed to Define and Measure the Use of Reflective Practice in Library and Information Science. A review of: Grant, Maria J. “The Role of Reflection in the Library and Information Sector: A Systematic Review.” Health Information and Libraries Journal 24.3 (2007: 155‐66.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman


    Full Text Available Objectives ‐ To identify and review the literature of reflective practice in library and information science (LIS in order to understand its role, particularly with regard to health libraries.Design ‐ Systematic reviewSetting ‐ LIS English‐language articles published between 1969 and 2006, and indexed in the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database.Subjects ‐ 929 citations retrieved from the LISA database.Methods ‐ The author conducted free text searches in the LISA database for the terms ‘reflective,’ ‘reflection*,’ or ‘reflexion*.’ An initial search series was conducted in 2004 in order to retrieve items published between 1969‐2003, then in 2007 for articles published between 2004‐2006. In all, 929 article citations were retrieved. Exclusion criteria included those articles addressing the facilitation of reflective practices in others, as well as non‐English language materials,and those pre-dating 1969. After review, 55 articles met the author’s relevance standard.Citation tracking then added 10 articles to the total. From this dataset, full‐text articles were obtained where possible, if determined on initial scrutiny to be deserving of further examination. Thirteen articles (.013% were ultimately selected for analysis. These articles were categorized as analytical or non‐analytical, with respect to perspective (individual or organizational, and recency of events (retrospective or recent. In addition, a determination was made about whether the articles’ foci were reflection occurring on (in retrospect to or in (during practice.Main results ‐ Of thirteen articles, five were found to be non‐analytical, with the other six being analytical. Three of the non-analytical items were the reflections of an individual, while the remaining two offered an organizational perspective. The non-analytical accounts were found to be descriptive accounts by an individual, mostly retrospective and offering

  12. Nurturing professional social work in Malawi | Kakowa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further to this, there is no regulating or coordinating body for social work ... A regulating body of social work in Malawi would enhance development of the ... A reflexive approach where curriculum and practice would inform each other is ...

  13. Some Reflections From Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Practice Teaching on the Area of Understanding Data in the Math-Teaching Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With developing technology statistical information and data sources become a very important issues and from primary school it has become necessary to gain the skills for making interpreting and making sense of data. These skills consist of collecting information, arrangement and analysis of collected data and the interpretation of the results. The duty of guiding students in their process of making statistical information meaningful falls upon teachers. This study, whose aim was to investigate prepared course content for sub-learning area in grade 1-4 math course and obtained experiences by pre-service elementary teachers in the schools they went as a part of teaching practice course, was conducted with nine fourth-year students attending an undergraduate program of elementary teaching in a state university during 2013-2014 academic year. Pre-service teachers were each asked to prepare and conduct a lesson plan suitable for the lesson outcomes and the level of the classes that they were to teach. Their applications were assessed by semi-structured observation form about data teaching developed by the researchers. It was observed that pre-service teachers could not reflect given lesson outcomes on the topic of data to the lessons they prepared to teach during their teaching practice. In the implementations, it was noted that pre-service teachers could not effectively include students in both collecting and arrangement as well as interpretation processes of the information and that they taught in teacher-centered manner although they prepared a correct activity. It was also noted that pre-service teachers could not well enough differentiate category and concept of variable in table and graph activities.

  14. More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzkat, Anika


    Full Text Available The terminology which has been used up until now within interprofessional healthcare has been characterised by a certain definitional weakness, which, among other factors, has been caused by an uncritical adoption of language conventions and a lack of theoretical reflection. However, as terminological clarity plays a significant role in the development and profiling of a discipline, the clarification and definition of commonly-used terminology has manifested itself as a considerable objective for the interprofessional research community. One of the most important journals for research in the area of interprofessional education and care, the Journal of Interprofessional Care, has expanded its author guidelines relating to terminology, modeled after the conceptual considerations of the research group around Barr et. al and Reeves et al. A German translation of the suggested terms therein has been presented in this contribution, and discussed in light of the challenges to a possible adaptation for the German-speaking world. The objective is to assist communication in practice and research in becoming clearer, while promoting an increasing awareness to and the transparency of determined definitions and terminologies.

  15. Family context, victimization, and child trauma symptoms: variations in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships during early and middle childhood. (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Leeb, Rebecca T; Mercy, James A; Holt, Melissa


    Based on a nationally representative sample of 2,017 children age 2-9 years, this study examines variations in "safe, stable, and nurturing" relationships (SSNRs), including several forms of family perpetrated victimization, and documents associations between these factors and child trauma symptoms. Findings show that many children were exposed to multiple forms of victimization within the family (such as physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, child neglect, sibling victimization, and witnessing family violence), as evidenced by substantial intercorrelations among the different forms of victimization. Moreover, victimization exposure was significantly associated with several indices of parental dysfunction, family adversity, residential instability, and problematic parenting practices. Of all SSNR variables considered, emotional abuse and inconsistent or hostile parenting emerged as having the most powerful independent effects on child trauma symptoms. Also, findings supported a cumulative risk model, whereby trauma symptom levels increased with each additional SSNR risk factor to which children were exposed. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  16. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.


    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  17. Understanding family dynasty: Nurturing the corporate identity across generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemilentsev, M.


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the Ahlstrom annual reports. The content analysis contributes to family business corporate identity. According to the results family business corporate identity is based both on history and on the future. Human resource management, customer relationships, high quality, and also family ownership reflect corporate identity in large family corporations. Modern family business corporate identity is based on continuously developing the business concept and its core competency. Meeting the needs of customers and technical quality standards combined with upgrading and developing the business idea characterises family business corporate identity.

  18. Equity Audit: A Teacher Leadership Tool for Nurturing Teacher Research (United States)

    View, Jenice L.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Stribling, Stacia; Dodman, Stephanie; Ra, Sophia; Hall, Beth; Swalwell, Katy


    This is a three-part essay featuring six teacher educators and one classroom teacher researcher. Part one describes faculty efforts to build curriculum for teacher research, scaffold the research process, and analyze outcomes. Part two shares one teacher researcher's experience using an equity audit tool in several contexts: her teaching practice,…

  19. Medical Students' Empathy for Vulnerable Groups: Results From a Survey and Reflective Writing Assignment. (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam


    As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.

  20. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using