WorldWideScience

Sample records for numbering based addressing

  1. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  2. ADDRESSED IN EMPIRICALLY BASED PSYCHOTHERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. La Roche

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura psicológica sobre procesos implícitos (IP, que abarca los pensamientos, acciones y sentimientosde un individuo que ocurren independientemente de la conciencia, se ha expandido en las últimas dos décadas. Durante este mismo período, la proliferación de psicoterapias con base empírica (PBE, con énfasis en los procesos conscientes, ha cobrado impulsoentre muchos profesionales de la salud mental. Sin embargo, la literatura sobre el papel de los IP en psicoterapias basadas empíricamente (EBP es escasa. El objetivo principal de este documento es sugerir hallazgos de IP que puedan usarse para mejorar laeficacia y efectividad de EBP. Se destacan siete hallazgos de IP que pueden tener aplicaciones importantes para EBP. Dentro de cada una de estas siete consideraciones, se discute el impacto de los IP en el proceso psicoterapéutico.

  3. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... address for its Region II office and to update the main telephone number. The Region II office move and... update the NRC Region II office street address and office main telephone number. The physical location of...

  4. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  5. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  6. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  7. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%). Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007). They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001). More physicians (79.7%) would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%). However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001). There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039). Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number. PMID:21426591

  8. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freud Tamar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  9. 77 FR 46289 - Technical Corrections to Organizational Names, Addresses, and OMB Control Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Organizational Names, Addresses, and OMB Control Numbers AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). These amendments will make EPA's regulations more accurate and user... prior proposal and opportunity for comment. These changes update the organizational name of the EPA...

  10. I-TNT: PHONE NUMBER EXPANSION AND TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGING INTERCONNECTIVITY ADDRESSING IN SIP PEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. KHUDHER

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP subscribers is growing vastly in the recent years due to the ever increase in smartphones, 3G, WiFi, etc. This growth leads the VoIP service providers to peer with each other through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP peering for low/free cost of voice communication. Naturally, this growth is not without challenges, especially in phone addressing. This paper proposes an I-TNT (Infrastructure-Phone Number Translation numbering system to expand the range of the existing E.164 numbers and mapping between private and public number at the edge of the signalling path. As a result, I-TNT numbering system is successfully implemented and able to allocate the expanded phone numbers to end-users in one service provider.

  11. Phase-image-based content-addressable holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2004-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate the use of phase images for content-addressable holographic data storage. Use of binary phase-based data pages with 0 and π phase changes, produces uniform spectral distribution at the Fourier plane. The absence of strong DC component at the Fourier plane and more intensity of higher order spatial frequencies facilitate better recording of higher spatial frequencies, and improves the discrimination capability of the content-addressable memory. This improves the results of the associative recall in a holographic memory system, and can give low number of false hits even for small search arguments. The phase-modulated pixels also provide an opportunity of subtraction among data pixels leading to better discrimination between similar data pages.

  12. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  13. Address-event-based platform for bioinspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, A.; Luján, C. D.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Rivas, M.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows a real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons, located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems, it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) reading AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualizing it on the screen, and (b) converting conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and injecting it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. In the other hand, the use of a commercial personal computer implies to depend on software tools and operating systems that can make the system slower and un-robust. This paper addresses the problem of communicating several AER based chips to compose a powerful processing system. The problem was discussed in the Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop of 2006. The platform is based basically on an embedded computer, a powerful FPGA and serial links, to make the system faster and be stand alone (independent from a PC). A new platform is presented that allow to connect up to eight AER based chips to a Spartan 3 4000 FPGA. The FPGA is responsible of the network communication based in Address-Event and, at the same time, to map and transform the address space of the traffic to implement a pre-processing. A MMU microprocessor (Intel XScale 400MHz Gumstix Connex computer) is also connected to the FPGA

  14. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  15. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  16. Faculty Perceptions of Student Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…

  17. Student Perceptions of Faculty Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…

  18. BCB polymer based row-column addressed CMUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Ommen, Martin Lind; Silvestre, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an inexpensive, low temperature and rapid fabrication method for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT). The fabrication utilizes the bonding and dielectric properties of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene (BCB). A BCB based row-column addressed CMUT w...

  19. Big Numbers about Small Children: Estimating the Economic Benefits of Addressing Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Puett, Chloe

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches have been used to estimate the economic benefits of reducing undernutrition and to estimate the costs of investing in such programs on a global scale. While many of these studies are ultimately based on evidence from well-designed efficacy trials, all require a number of assumptions to project the impact of such trials to larger populations and to translate the value of the expected improvement in nutritional status into economic terms. This paper provides a short critique of some approaches to estimating the benefits of investments in child nutrition and then presents an alternative set of estimates based on different core data. These new estimates reinforce the basic conclusions of the existing literature: the economic value from reducing undernutrition in undernourished populations is likely to be substantial.

  20. 77 FR 14059 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Name, Address and Phone Number Change: Van Tol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR Doc. 2012..., Address and Phone Number Change: Van Tol Surety Company, Incorporated (NAIC 30279) AGENCY: Financial...

  1. Challenging structures through addressing gender-based violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting the past right in West Africa and beyond: Addressing gender-based ... 2 See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women .... 6 The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the ...

  2. Resistive content addressable memory based in-memory computation architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Kurdahi, Fadi; Eltawil, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Various examples are provided examples related to resistive content addressable memory (RCAM) based in-memory computation architectures. In one example, a system includes a content addressable memory (CAM) including an array of cells having a memristor based crossbar and an interconnection switch matrix having a gateless memristor array, which is coupled to an output of the CAM. In another example, a method, includes comparing activated bit values stored a key register with corresponding bit values in a row of a CAM, setting a tag bit value to indicate that the activated bit values match the corresponding bit values, and writing masked key bit values to corresponding bit locations in the row of the CAM based on the tag bit value.

  3. Resistive content addressable memory based in-memory computation architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-12-08

    Various examples are provided examples related to resistive content addressable memory (RCAM) based in-memory computation architectures. In one example, a system includes a content addressable memory (CAM) including an array of cells having a memristor based crossbar and an interconnection switch matrix having a gateless memristor array, which is coupled to an output of the CAM. In another example, a method, includes comparing activated bit values stored a key register with corresponding bit values in a row of a CAM, setting a tag bit value to indicate that the activated bit values match the corresponding bit values, and writing masked key bit values to corresponding bit locations in the row of the CAM based on the tag bit value.

  4. 77 FR 60453 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Sponsor's Notice of Change of Address, Form Number I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... submitting comments by email, please make sure to add [Insert OMB Control Number 1615-0076] in the subject.... For additional information please read the Privacy Act notice that is available via the link in the...

  5. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  6. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  7. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  8. 7 CFR 46.13 - Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bankruptcy laws. A new license is required in case of a change in the ownership of a firm, the addition or withdrawal of partners in a partnership, or in case business is conducted under a different corporate charter...; (4) Any change in the number and address of any branches or additional business facilities, and; (5...

  9. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%). Ninety-three (46.5%) responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5%) would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5%) who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6%) said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7%) said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7%) were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow of clinical practice

  10. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Roni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow

  11. Addressing grammar in the interaction task-based learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Brent M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in language teaching is developing grammatical accuracy. This paper proposes that using error correction based on a functional grammar in a task-based learning approach may be a suitable solution. Towards this end an emic (using categories intrinsic to the language functional grammar of the verb phrase is proposed and a description of how this fits into the focus on form component of task-based learning is provided.

  12. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  13. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  14. Energy information data base: report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used. (RWR)

  15. Energy information data base: report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used

  16. A new pseudorandom number generator based on a complex number chaotic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Tong Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various chaotic equation based pseudorandom number generators have been proposed. However, the chaotic equations are all defined in the real number field. In this paper, an equation is proposed and proved to be chaotic in the imaginary axis. And a pseudorandom number generator is constructed based on the chaotic equation. The alteration of the definitional domain of the chaotic equation from the real number field to the complex one provides a new approach to the construction of chaotic equations, and a new method to generate pseudorandom number sequences accordingly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the sequences generated by the proposed pseudorandom number generator possess many good properties

  17. The Story Behind the Numbers: Lessons Learned from the Integration of Monitoring Resources in Addressing an ISS Water Quality Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Torin; Flint, Stephanie; Straub, John, II; Gazda, Dan; Schultz, John

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in June of 2010 an environmental mystery was unfolding on the International Space Station (ISS). The U.S. Water Processor Assembly (WPA) began to produce water with increasing levels of total organic carbon (TOC). A surprisingly consistent upward TOC trend was observed through weekly in-flight total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) monitoring. As TOC is a general organics indicator, return of water archive samples was needed to make better-informed crew health decisions and to aid in WPA troubleshooting. TOCA-measured TOC was more than halfway to its health-based screening limit before archive samples could be returned on Soyuz 22 and analyzed. Although TOC was confirmed to be elevated, somewhat surprisingly, none of the typical target compounds were the source. After some solid detective work, it was confirmed that the TOC was associated with a compound known as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). DMSD is believed to be a breakdown product of silicon-containing compounds present on ISS. A toxicological limit was set for DMSD and a forward plan developed for operations given this new understanding of the source of the TOC. This required extensive coordination with ISS stakeholders and innovative use of available in-flight and archive monitoring resources. Behind the numbers and scientific detail surrounding this anomaly, there exists a compelling story of multi-disciplinary awareness, teamwork, and important environmental lessons learned.

  18. Integration between WSNs and Internet based on Address Internetworking for Web

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Hee Kim; Do Hyeun Kim; Ho Young Kwak; Yung Cheol Byun

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in wireless sensor networks as a new technology to realize ubiquitous computing, and demands for internetworking technology between the wireless sensor networks and the Internet which is based on IP address. For this purpose, this paper proposes and implements the internetworking scheme which assigns IP addresses to the sensor nodes and internetworks based on the gateway-based integration for internetworking between the wireless sensor networks and the In...

  19. Exploring the Role of Faith-Based Organizations in Addressing Adolescent Relationship Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erica; Freedman, Lori R; Fernandez Y Garcia, Erik; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is prevalent with significant health and social consequences. Faith-based organizations could play an important role in ARA prevention and intervention. Studies on the role of faith-based organizations in interpersonal violence have focused on adult survivor perspectives rather than adolescents. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with faith-based organization leaders, parents, and youth. Findings highlight that church leaders, parents, and youth all expect that faith-based organizations can play a role in educating teens about healthy relationships. Divergent perspectives about how faith-based organizations should address adolescent sexuality and privacy need to be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. 76 FR 72124 - Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Docket No. 10-191; FCC 11-123] Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering AGENCY: Federal..., the information collection associated with the Commission's Internet- Based Telecommunications Relay... Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering, CG Docket No. 03-123; WC Docket No. 05-196; WC Docket No. 10-191; FCC 11...

  1. A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Motaharul Islam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

  2. A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2011-01-01

    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

  3. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY DATA-COLLECTION MODES IN AN ADDRESS-BASED SAMPLING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ashley; Leclere, Felicia; Carris, Kari; Liao, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    As address-based sampling becomes increasingly popular for multimode surveys, researchers continue to refine data-collection best practices. While much work has been conducted to improve efficiency within a given mode, additional research is needed on how multimode designs can be optimized across modes. Previous research has not evaluated the consequences of mode sequencing on multimode mail and phone surveys, nor has significant research been conducted to evaluate mode sequencing on a variety of indicators beyond response rates. We conducted an experiment within the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the U.S. Risk Factor Survey (REACH U.S.) to evaluate two multimode case-flow designs: (1) phone followed by mail (phone-first) and (2) mail followed by phone (mail-first). We compared response rates, cost, timeliness, and data quality to identify differences across case-flow design. Because surveys often differ on the rarity of the target population, we also examined whether changes in the eligibility rate altered the choice of optimal case flow. Our results suggested that, on most metrics, the mail-first design was superior to the phone-first design. Compared with phone-first, mail-first achieved a higher yield rate at a lower cost with equivalent data quality. While the phone-first design initially achieved more interviews compared to the mail-first design, over time the mail-first design surpassed it and obtained the greatest number of interviews.

  4. Vegetable oil and fat viscosity forecast models based on iodine number and saponification number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, G.; Riva, G.; Foppa Pedretti, E.; Duca, D.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oil and fats can be considered as an important renewable source for the energy production. There are many applications where these biofuels are used directly in engines. However, the use of pure vegetable oils causes some problems as consequence of its chemical and physical characteristic. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters affecting several physical and mechanical processes of the operation of the engine. The determination of this parameter at different tis important to determine the behavior of the vegetable oil and fats. In this work we investigated the effects of two analytical chemical parameters (iodine number and saponification number) and forecasting models have been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Vegetable oil and fat viscosity is predicted by mathematical model based on saponification number and iodine number. ► Unsaturated vegetable oils with small size molecules of fatty acids have a lower viscosity values. ► The models proposed show an average error lower than 12%

  5. Efficient implementation of Bailey and Borwein pseudo-random number generator based on normal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, G.; Creighton, D.; Johnstone, M.; Wilkin, T.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) based on the binary representation of the normal number α, and of a combined generator based on that LCG. The base LCG with the modulus 333 provides a quality sequence with the period ≈3.7ṡ1015, which passes all but two statistical tests from BigCrush test suite. We improved on the original implementation by adapting Barrett's modular reduction method, which resulted in four-fold increase in efficiency. The combined generator has the period of ≈1023 and passes all tests from BigCrush suite.

  6. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing

  7. 77 FR 1039 - Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [WC Docket No. 10-191; Report No. 2939] Internet... toll-free numbers by users of Internet- based Telecommunications Relay Services (iTRS). DATES... any rules of particular applicability. Subject: Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service...

  8. Creating a three level building classification using topographic and address-based data for Manchester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M.; Chen, D.

    2014-11-01

    Buildings, the basic unit of an urban landscape, host most of its socio-economic activities and play an important role in the creation of urban land-use patterns. The spatial arrangement of different building types creates varied urban land-use clusters which can provide an insight to understand the relationships between social, economic, and living spaces. The classification of such urban clusters can help in policy-making and resource management. In many countries including the UK no national-level cadastral database containing information on individual building types exists in public domain. In this paper, we present a framework for inferring functional types of buildings based on the analysis of their form (e.g. geometrical properties, such as area and perimeter, layout) and spatial relationship from large topographic and address-based GIS database. Machine learning algorithms along with exploratory spatial analysis techniques are used to create the classification rules. The classification is extended to two further levels based on the functions (use) of buildings derived from address-based data. The developed methodology was applied to the Manchester metropolitan area using the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap®, a large-scale topographic and address-based data available for the UK.

  9. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  10. Addressing special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem through aspect-based image search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we focus on a number of issues regarding special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem, most notably the effects of image selection based on partial relevance on the clustering behavior of examples. We propose a simple scheme, aspect-based image search, which

  11. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  12. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  13. Developing a nursing personnel policy to address body art using an evidence-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwart, Shawna D; Kuntz, Sandra W; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2010-12-01

    An increase in the prevalence of body art as a form of self-expression has motivated health care organizations to develop policies addressing nursing personnel's body art. A systematic review of literature on body art was completed and a telephone survey of 15 hospitals was conducted to query existing policy statements addressing nursing personnel's body art. The literature established no prevalence of body art among nurses or effect of nurses' body art. Of the 13 hospitals (86%) that shared their policy on body art, none provided a rationale or references to support their existing policies. A lack of published evidence identifying the effect of body art among nurses shifts the burden of determining care outcomes to the leadership of individual hospitals. Further research on patients' perception of nursing personnel with visible body art, using an evidence-based model, is recommended. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Family-Based Benchmarking of Copy Number Variation Detection Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutsua, Marcel Elie; Fischer, Annegret; Nebel, Almut; Hofmann, Sylvia; Schreiber, Stefan; Krawczak, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of structural variants, in particular of copy-number variations (CNVs), has proven valuable in unraveling the genetic basis of human diseases. Hence, a large number of algorithms have been developed for the detection of CNVs in SNP array signal intensity data. Using the European and African HapMap trio data, we undertook a comparative evaluation of six commonly used CNV detection software tools, namely Affymetrix Power Tools (APT), QuantiSNP, PennCNV, GLAD, R-gada and VEGA, and assessed their level of pair-wise prediction concordance. The tool-specific CNV prediction accuracy was assessed in silico by way of intra-familial validation. Software tools differed greatly in terms of the number and length of the CNVs predicted as well as the number of markers included in a CNV. All software tools predicted substantially more deletions than duplications. Intra-familial validation revealed consistently low levels of prediction accuracy as measured by the proportion of validated CNVs (34-60%). Moreover, up to 20% of apparent family-based validations were found to be due to chance alone. Software using Hidden Markov models (HMM) showed a trend to predict fewer CNVs than segmentation-based algorithms albeit with greater validity. PennCNV yielded the highest prediction accuracy (60.9%). Finally, the pairwise concordance of CNV prediction was found to vary widely with the software tools involved. We recommend HMM-based software, in particular PennCNV, rather than segmentation-based algorithms when validity is the primary concern of CNV detection. QuantiSNP may be used as an additional tool to detect sets of CNVs not detectable by the other tools. Our study also reemphasizes the need for laboratory-based validation, such as qPCR, of CNVs predicted in silico.

  15. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    1998-07-01

    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  16. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, Test of Attention (D2 Test, and Spielberger’s Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented.

  17. Success Factors of Biotechnology Industry Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of competitive advantage and value chain, this paper establishes the indicator system, and develop the strategic framework using the fuzzy Delphi method. Then the triangular fuzzy number model is established using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, and the key factors influencing biotechnology industry are extracted. The results show that in terms of weight, the key factors influencing the success of biotechnology industry are sequenced as follows: “open innovation capaci...

  18. Addressing the future of clinical information systems--Web-based multilayer visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chueh-Loo; Kitney, Richard I; Shrestha, Rasu B K

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses some key issues relating to the development of new technology for clinical information systems (CIS) in relation to imaging and visualizing data. With the increasing importance of molecular and cellular biology, a new type of medicine, molecular based medicine, is now developing. This will significantly alter the way in which medicine is practiced. The view is presented that CIS will need to operate seamlessly across the Biological Continuum, i.e., the hierarchy of the human organism comprising systems, viscera, tissue, cells, proteins, and genes. We propose a multilayered visualization interface, which operates across the Biological Continuum, based on Web-based technology. A visualization interface package for two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data at the visceral and cellular levels is described. Two application examples are presented: 1) MR knee images, at the visceral level and 2) endothelial nuclei images, acquired from confocal laser microscopy, at the cellular level.

  19. Video rate morphological processor based on a redundant number representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczborski, Wojciech; Attikiouzel, Yianni; Crebbin, Gregory A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a video rate morphological processor for automated visual inspection of printed circuit boards, integrated circuit masks, and other complex objects. Inspection algorithms are based on gray-scale mathematical morphology. Hardware complexity of the known methods of real-time implementation of gray-scale morphology--the umbra transform and the threshold decomposition--has prompted us to propose a novel technique which applied an arithmetic system without carrying propagation. After considering several arithmetic systems, a redundant number representation has been selected for implementation. Two options are analyzed here. The first is a pure signed digit number representation (SDNR) with the base of 4. The second option is a combination of the base-2 SDNR (to represent gray levels of images) and the conventional twos complement code (to represent gray levels of structuring elements). Operation principle of the morphological processor is based on the concept of the digit level systolic array. Individual processing units and small memory elements create a pipeline. The memory elements store current image windows (kernels). All operation primitives of processing units apply a unified direction of digit processing: most significant digit first (MSDF). The implementation technology is based on the field programmable gate arrays by Xilinx. This paper justified the rationality of a new approach to logic design, which is the decomposition of Boolean functions instead of Boolean minimization.

  20. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Calder, Kathryn; Du, Li; El Emam, Khaled; Hyde-Lay, Robyn; Isasi, Rosario; Joly, Yann; Kerr, Ian; Malin, Bradley; McDonald, Michael; Penney, Steven; Piat, Gayle; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vercauteren, Suzanne; Verhenneman, Griet; West, Lori; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-02-03

    The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors' clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants' ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that privacy risks associated with cell-based

  1. Addressing imperfect maintenance modelling uncertainty in unavailability and cost based optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Ana [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Carlos, Sofia [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Martorell, Sebastian [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.es; Villanueva, Jose F. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Optimization of testing and maintenance activities performed in the different systems of a complex industrial plant is of great interest as the plant availability and economy strongly depend on the maintenance activities planned. Traditionally, two types of models, i.e. deterministic and probabilistic, have been considered to simulate the impact of testing and maintenance activities on equipment unavailability and the cost involved. Both models present uncertainties that are often categorized as either aleatory or epistemic uncertainties. The second group applies when there is limited knowledge on the proper model to represent a problem, and/or the values associated to the model parameters, so the results of the calculation performed with them incorporate uncertainty. This paper addresses the problem of testing and maintenance optimization based on unavailability and cost criteria and considering epistemic uncertainty in the imperfect maintenance modelling. It is framed as a multiple criteria decision making problem where unavailability and cost act as uncertain and conflicting decision criteria. A tolerance interval based approach is used to address uncertainty with regard to effectiveness parameter and imperfect maintenance model embedded within a multiple-objective genetic algorithm. A case of application for a stand-by safety related system of a nuclear power plant is presented. The results obtained in this application show the importance of considering uncertainties in the modelling of imperfect maintenance, as the optimal solutions found are associated with a large uncertainty that influences the final decision making depending on, for example, if the decision maker is risk averse or risk neutral.

  2. Addressing imperfect maintenance modelling uncertainty in unavailability and cost based optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ana; Carlos, Sofia; Martorell, Sebastian; Villanueva, Jose F.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of testing and maintenance activities performed in the different systems of a complex industrial plant is of great interest as the plant availability and economy strongly depend on the maintenance activities planned. Traditionally, two types of models, i.e. deterministic and probabilistic, have been considered to simulate the impact of testing and maintenance activities on equipment unavailability and the cost involved. Both models present uncertainties that are often categorized as either aleatory or epistemic uncertainties. The second group applies when there is limited knowledge on the proper model to represent a problem, and/or the values associated to the model parameters, so the results of the calculation performed with them incorporate uncertainty. This paper addresses the problem of testing and maintenance optimization based on unavailability and cost criteria and considering epistemic uncertainty in the imperfect maintenance modelling. It is framed as a multiple criteria decision making problem where unavailability and cost act as uncertain and conflicting decision criteria. A tolerance interval based approach is used to address uncertainty with regard to effectiveness parameter and imperfect maintenance model embedded within a multiple-objective genetic algorithm. A case of application for a stand-by safety related system of a nuclear power plant is presented. The results obtained in this application show the importance of considering uncertainties in the modelling of imperfect maintenance, as the optimal solutions found are associated with a large uncertainty that influences the final decision making depending on, for example, if the decision maker is risk averse or risk neutral

  3. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  4. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  5. Memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) for data-intensive computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Le; Shin, Sangho; Steve Kang, Sung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    A memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) is presented. Each mTCAM cell, consisting of five transistors and two memristors to store and search for ternary data, is capable of remarkable nonvolatility and higher storage density than conventional CMOS-based TCAMs. Each memristor in the cell can be programmed individually such that high impedance is always present between searchlines to reduce static energy consumption. A unique two-step write scheme offers reliable and energy-efficient write operations. The search voltage is designed to ensure optimum sensing margins with the presence of variations in memristor devices. Simulations of the proposed mTCAM demonstrate functionalities in write and search modes, as well as a search delay of 2 ns and a search of 0.99 fJ/bit/search for a word width of 128 bits. (paper)

  6. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  7. ID card number detection algorithm based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Ma, Hanjie; Feng, Jie; Dai, Leiyan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new detection algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Network is presented in order to realize the fast and convenient ID information extraction in multiple scenarios. The algorithm uses the mobile device equipped with Android operating system to locate and extract the ID number; Use the special color distribution of the ID card, select the appropriate channel component; Use the image threshold segmentation, noise processing and morphological processing to take the binary processing for image; At the same time, the image rotation and projection method are used for horizontal correction when image was tilting; Finally, the single character is extracted by the projection method, and recognized by using Convolutional Neural Network. Through test shows that, A single ID number image from the extraction to the identification time is about 80ms, the accuracy rate is about 99%, It can be applied to the actual production and living environment.

  8. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  9. Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.

  10. Transportation optimization with fuzzy trapezoidal numbers based on possibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods.

  11. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  12. Guide for health professionals addressing oral care for individuals in oncological treatment based on scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Caroline Gomes; Medeiros-Filho, João Batista; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2018-02-22

    Oncological treatment can cause changes in the oral cavity compromising oral functions. The aim of the study was, based on a systematic review, to draft a guide directed at the team of health professionals involved in the oral care of oncological patients. A systematic search of the literature was performed for articles published between 2000 and April 2017. Searches were made of electronic databases and hand search. The inclusion criteria were systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and RCTs published in English, involving pediatric and adult oncological patients and focused on the prevention and treatment of oral complications as well as studies addressing the maintenance of oral health. Among the 1237 studies identified, 129 were pre-selected and 54 were selected to form the basis for the clinical guide. The studies analyzed stress the need for oral assessments as well as preventive and curative actions prior to oncological treatment. To minimize the severity of oral problems, the studies emphasize daily oral care, the treatment of xerostomia with saliva substitute and hydration, and low-level laser therapy, nystatin, acyclovir, respectively, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis, oral candidiasis, and infection by herpes simplex virus. Thus, the guide produced addresses oral assessments and professional and home care before, during, and after oncological treatment. The guide drafted has the function of assisting health professionals involved in the oral care of patients with cancer, enabling the prevention or treatment of oral complications stemming from oncological treatment.

  13. A Case Study of Policies and Procedures to Address Cyberbullying at a Technology-Based Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Bettina Polite

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…

  14. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature.

  15. Nutrition-based interventions to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Lorenzo T; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Arviso, Karen P; Brochetti, Denise; Becker, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to identify nutrition-based interventions that may be effective for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in the Navajo. Metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects almost half of the Navajo population. The diet of the Navajo, heavy in fat and refined carbohydrates, has been identified as an important contributing factor to the high rates of metabolic syndrome in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify studies published before October, 2013, involving nutrition-based interventions in adult populations similar to the Navajo targeting at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Data on efficacy and participation were gathered and synthesised qualitatively. Out of 19 studies included in this systematic review, 11 interventions were identified to be effective at improving at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Level of exposure to the intervention, frequency of intervention activities, family and social support, cultural adaptation and case management were identified as factors that may improve the efficacy of an intervention. Multiple nutrition-based interventions have been found to be effective in populations similar to the Navajo. Development of a strategy to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo may involve aspects from multiple interventions to increase efficacy and maximise participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Optimizing the number and locations of turbines in a wind farm addressing energy-noise trade-off: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Prateek; Mitra, Kishalay; Kulkarni, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Concurrent resolution of turbine number and locations during micro-siting. • Effect of noise on energy-noise multi-objective optimization is demonstrated. • A hybrid algorithm is proposed utilizing probabilistic and deterministic methods. • ∼24% improved performance is achieved over the benchmark case study. • ∼29% enhanced efficiency over real-binary genetic algorithm alone can be observed. - Abstract: Micro-siting is an optimal way of placing turbines inside a wind farm while considering various design objectives and constraints. Using a well-established Jensen wake model and ISO-9613-2 noise calculation, this study performs a wind farm layout optimization based on a multi-objective trade-off between minimization of the noise propagation and maximization of the energy generation. A novel hybrid methodology is developed which is a combination of probabilistic real-binary coded multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and a newly proposed deterministic gradient based non-dominated normalized normal constraint method. Based on the Inverted Generational Distance metric, the performance of the proposed method is found to be better than the conventional normalized normal constraint method or the concerned evolutionary method alone. Moreover, in contrast to the previous studies, the generated non-dominated front is capable of providing a trade-off between various alternative energy-noise solutions, along with an additional information about the corresponding turbine numbers and their optimal location coordinates. As a result, the decision maker can choose from different competing wind turbine layouts based on existing noise and other standard regulations.

  17. Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhshani, A.; Akhavan, A.; Mobaraki, A.; Lim, S.-C.; Hassan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years dissipative quantum maps were widely used as informative models of quantum chaos. In this paper, a new scheme for generating good pseudo-random numbers (PRNG), based on quantum logistic map is proposed. Note that the PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the quantum chaotic map. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hardware and thus computation speed is fast. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRNG in quantum cryptography and other practical applications, the proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests using well-known test suites such as NIST, DIEHARD, ENT and TestU01. The results of the statistical tests were promising, as the proposed PRNG successfully passed all these tests. Moreover, the degree of non-periodicity of the chaotic sequences of the quantum map is investigated through the Scale index technique. The obtained result shows that, the sequence is more non-periodic. From these results it can be concluded that, the new scheme can generate a high percentage of usable pseudo-random numbers for simulation and other applications in scientific computing.

  18. Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-05-21

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.

  19. Generative Learning Objects Instantiated with Random Numbers Based Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan Chirila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of interactive e-learning content requires special skills like programming techniques, web integration, graphic design etc. Generally, online educators do not possess such skills and their e-learning products tend to be static like presentation slides and textbooks. In this paper we propose a new interactive model of generative learning objects as a compromise betweenstatic, dull materials and dynamic, complex software e-learning materials developed by specialized teams. We find that random numbers based automatic initialization learning objects increases content diversity, interactivity thus enabling learners’ engagement. The resulted learning object model is at a limited level of complexity related to special e-learning software, intuitive and capable of increasing learners’ interactivity, engagement and motivation through dynamic content. The approach was applied successfully on several computer programing disciplines.

  20. Community-based approaches to address childhood undernutrition and obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Community-based approaches have been the mainstay of interventions to address the problem of child malnutrition in developing societies. Many programs have been in operation in several countries for decades and originated largely as social welfare, food security and poverty eradication programs. Increasingly conceptual frameworks to guide this activity have been developed as our understanding of the complex nature of the determinants of undernutrition improves. Alongside this evolution, is the accumulation of evidence on the types of interventions in the community that are effective, practical and sustainable. The changing environment is probably determining the altering scenario of child nutrition in developing societies, with rapid developmental transition and urbanization being responsible for the emerging problems of obesity and other metabolic disorders that are largely the result of the now well-recognized linkages between child undernutrition and early onset adult chronic diseases. This dramatic change is contributing to the double burden of malnutrition in developing countries. Community interventions hence need to be integrated and joined up to reduce both aspects of malnutrition in societies. The evidence that community-based nutrition interventions can have a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes and child undernutrition needs to be evaluated to enable programs to prioritize and incorporate the interventions that work in the community. Programs that are operational and successful also need to be evaluated and disseminated in order to enable countries to generate their own programs tailored to tackling the changing nutritional problems of the children in their society. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Addressing dependability by applying an approach for model-based risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Bjorn Axel; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P.-J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how an approach for model-based risk assessment (MBRA) can be applied for addressing different dependability factors in a critical application. Dependability factors, such as availability, reliability, safety and security, are important when assessing the dependability degree of total systems involving digital instrumentation and control (I and C) sub-systems. In order to identify risk sources their roles with regard to intentional system aspects such as system functions, component behaviours and intercommunications must be clarified. Traditional risk assessment is based on fault or risk models of the system. In contrast to this, MBRA utilizes success-oriented models describing all intended system aspects, including functional, operational and organizational aspects of the target. The EU-funded CORAS project developed a tool-supported methodology for the application of MBRA in security-critical systems. The methodology has been tried out within the telemedicine and e-commerce areas, and provided through a series of seven trials a sound basis for risk assessments. In this paper the results from the CORAS project are presented, and it is discussed how the approach for applying MBRA meets the needs of a risk-informed Man-Technology-Organization (MTO) model, and how methodology can be applied as a part of a trust case development

  2. Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Michael W; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R; Osborn, Larry; Mokdad, Ali H

    2006-11-15

    Use of random-digit dialing (RDD) for conducting health surveys is increasingly problematic because of declining participation rates and eroding frame coverage. Alternative survey modes and sampling frames may improve response rates and increase the validity of survey estimates. In a 2005 pilot study conducted in six states as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database. The authors compared estimates based on data from the completed mail surveys (n = 3,010) with those from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys (n = 18,780). The mail survey data appeared reasonably complete, and estimates based on data from the two survey modes were largely equivalent. Differences found, such as differences in the estimated prevalences of binge drinking (mail = 20.3%, telephone = 13.1%) or behaviors linked to human immunodeficiency virus transmission (mail = 7.1%, telephone = 4.2%), were consistent with previous research showing that, for questions about sensitive behaviors, self-administered surveys generally produce higher estimates than interviewer-administered surveys. The mail survey also provided access to cell-phone-only households and households without telephones, which cannot be reached by means of standard RDD surveys.

  3. Addressing dependability by applying an approach for model-based risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gran, Bjorn Axel [Institutt for energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.axel.gran@hrp.no; Fredriksen, Rune [Institutt for energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)]. E-mail: rune.fredriksen@hrp.no; Thunem, Atoosa P.-J. [Institutt for energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)]. E-mail: atoosa.p-j.thunem@hrp.no

    2007-11-15

    This paper describes how an approach for model-based risk assessment (MBRA) can be applied for addressing different dependability factors in a critical application. Dependability factors, such as availability, reliability, safety and security, are important when assessing the dependability degree of total systems involving digital instrumentation and control (I and C) sub-systems. In order to identify risk sources their roles with regard to intentional system aspects such as system functions, component behaviours and intercommunications must be clarified. Traditional risk assessment is based on fault or risk models of the system. In contrast to this, MBRA utilizes success-oriented models describing all intended system aspects, including functional, operational and organizational aspects of the target. The EU-funded CORAS project developed a tool-supported methodology for the application of MBRA in security-critical systems. The methodology has been tried out within the telemedicine and e-commerce areas, and provided through a series of seven trials a sound basis for risk assessments. In this paper the results from the CORAS project are presented, and it is discussed how the approach for applying MBRA meets the needs of a risk-informed Man-Technology-Organization (MTO) model, and how methodology can be applied as a part of a trust case development.

  4. An Address Event Representation-Based Processing System for a Biped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uziel Jaramillo-Avila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several important advances have been made in the fields of both biologically inspired sensorial processing and locomotion systems, such as Address Event Representation-based cameras (or Dynamic Vision Sensors and in human-like robot locomotion, e.g., the walking of a biped robot. However, making these fields merge properly is not an easy task. In this regard, Neuromorphic Engineering is a fast-growing research field, the main goal of which is the biologically inspired design of hybrid hardware systems in order to mimic neural architectures and to process information in the manner of the brain. However, few robotic applications exist to illustrate them. The main goal of this work is to demonstrate, by creating a closed-loop system using only bio-inspired techniques, how such applications can work properly. We present an algorithm using Spiking Neural Networks (SNN for a biped robot equipped with a Dynamic Vision Sensor, which is designed to follow a line drawn on the floor. This is a commonly used method for demonstrating control techniques. Most of them are fairly simple to implement without very sophisticated components; however, it can still serve as a good test in more elaborate circumstances. In addition, the locomotion system proposed is able to coordinately control the six DOFs of a biped robot in switching between basic forms of movement. The latter has been implemented as a FPGA-based neuromorphic system. Numerical tests and hardware validation are presented.

  5. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: Addressing Zika outbreak by a phylogeny-based drug target study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Preyesh; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Since the first major outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2007, ZIKV is spreading explosively through South and Central America, and recent reports in highly populated developing countries alarm the possibility of a more catastrophic outbreak. ZIKV infection in pregnant women leads to embryonic microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. At present, there is limited understanding of the infectious mechanism, and no approved therapy has been reported. Despite the withdrawal of public health emergency, the WHO still considers the ZIKV as a highly significant and long-term public health challenge that the situation has to be addressed rapidly. Non-structural protein 5 is essential for capping and replication of viral RNA and comprises a methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. We used molecular modeling to obtain the structure of ZIKV RdRp, and by molecular docking and phylogeny analysis, we here demonstrate the potential sites for drug screening. Two metal binding sites and an NS3-interacting region in ZIKV RdRp are demonstrated as potential drug screening sites. The docked structures reveal a remarkable degree of conservation at the substrate binding site and the potential drug screening sites. A phylogeny-based approach is provided for an emergency preparedness, where similar class of ligands could target phylogenetically related proteins. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Addressing and Presenting Quality of Satellite Data via Web-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, C.; Ahmad, S.; Fox, P.; Zednik, S.; West, P.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent attention to climate change and proliferation of remote-sensing data utilization, climate model and various environmental monitoring and protection applications have begun to increasingly rely on satellite measurements. Research application users seek good quality satellite data, with uncertainties and biases provided for each data point. However, different communities address remote sensing quality issues rather inconsistently and differently. We describe our attempt to systematically characterize, capture, and provision quality and uncertainty information as it applies to the NASA MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth data product. In particular, we note the semantic differences in quality/bias/uncertainty at the pixel, granule, product, and record levels. We outline various factors contributing to uncertainty or error budget; errors. Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having directly managing complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. We describe our experiences developing a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to NASA Giovanni web-based Earth science data analysis tool as part of the ESTO AIST-funded Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor project.

  8. Addressing security, collaboration, and usability with tactical edge mobile devices and strategic cloud-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    Success in the future battle space is increasingly dependent on rapid access to the right information. Faced with a shrinking budget, the Government has a mandate to improve intelligence productivity, quality, and reliability. To achieve increased ISR effectiveness, leverage of tactical edge mobile devices via integration with strategic cloud-based infrastructure is the single, most likely candidate area for dramatic near-term impact. This paper discusses security, collaboration, and usability components of this evolving space. These three paramount tenets outlined below, embody how mission information is exchanged securely, efficiently, with social media cooperativeness. Tenet 1: Complete security, privacy, and data integrity, must be ensured within the net-centric battle space. This paper discusses data security on a mobile device, data at rest on a cloud-based system, authorization and access control, and securing data transport between entities. Tenet 2: Lack of collaborative information sharing and content reliability jeopardizes mission objectives and limits the end user capability. This paper discusses cooperative pairing of mobile devices and cloud systems, enabling social media style interaction via tagging, meta-data refinement, and sharing of pertinent data. Tenet 3: Fielded mobile solutions must address usability and complexity. Simplicity is a powerful paradigm on mobile platforms, where complex applications are not utilized, and simple, yet powerful, applications flourish. This paper discusses strategies for ensuring mobile applications are streamlined and usable at the tactical edge through focused features sets, leveraging the power of the back-end cloud, minimization of differing HMI concepts, and directed end-user feedback.teInput=

  9. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  10. Dependence assessment in human reliability analysis based on D numbers and AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Deng, Xinyang; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • D numbers and AHP are combined to implement dependence assessment in HRA. • A new tool, called D numbers, is used to deal with the uncertainty in HRA. • The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. • The proposed method is well applicable in dependence assessment which inherently has a linguistic assessment process. - Abstract: Since human errors always cause heavy loss especially in nuclear engineering, human reliability analysis (HRA) has attracted more and more attention. Dependence assessment plays a vital role in HRA, measuring the dependence degree of human errors. Many researches have been done while still have improvement space. In this paper, a dependence assessment model based on D numbers and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed. Firstly, identify the factors used to measure the dependence level of two human operations. Besides, in terms of the suggested dependence level, determine and quantify the anchor points for each factor. Secondly, D numbers and AHP are adopted in model. Experts evaluate the dependence level of human operations for each factor. Then, the evaluation results are presented as D numbers and fused by D number’s combination rule that can obtain the dependence probability of human operations for each factor. The weights of factors can be determined by AHP. Thirdly, based on the dependence probability for each factor and its corresponding weight, the dependence probability of two human operations and its confidence can be obtained. The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. The proposed method is well applicable to assess the dependence degree of human errors in HRA which inherently has a linguistic assessment process.

  11. Dependence assessment in human reliability analysis based on D numbers and AHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Deng, Xinyang [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Yong, E-mail: ydeng@swu.edu.cn [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Mahadevan, Sankaran [School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • D numbers and AHP are combined to implement dependence assessment in HRA. • A new tool, called D numbers, is used to deal with the uncertainty in HRA. • The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. • The proposed method is well applicable in dependence assessment which inherently has a linguistic assessment process. - Abstract: Since human errors always cause heavy loss especially in nuclear engineering, human reliability analysis (HRA) has attracted more and more attention. Dependence assessment plays a vital role in HRA, measuring the dependence degree of human errors. Many researches have been done while still have improvement space. In this paper, a dependence assessment model based on D numbers and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed. Firstly, identify the factors used to measure the dependence level of two human operations. Besides, in terms of the suggested dependence level, determine and quantify the anchor points for each factor. Secondly, D numbers and AHP are adopted in model. Experts evaluate the dependence level of human operations for each factor. Then, the evaluation results are presented as D numbers and fused by D number’s combination rule that can obtain the dependence probability of human operations for each factor. The weights of factors can be determined by AHP. Thirdly, based on the dependence probability for each factor and its corresponding weight, the dependence probability of two human operations and its confidence can be obtained. The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. The proposed method is well applicable to assess the dependence degree of human errors in HRA which inherently has a linguistic assessment process.

  12. Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Map Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huaping; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    A one-way coupled chaotic map lattice is used for generating pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that with suitable cooperative applications of both chaotic and conventional approaches, the output of the spatiotemporally chaotic system can easily meet the practical requirements of random numbers, i.e., excellent random statistical properties, long periodicity of computer realizations, and fast speed of random number generations. This pseudo-random number generator system can be used as ideal synchronous and self-synchronizing stream cipher systems for secure communications.

  13. Aerosol-cirrus interactions: a number based phenomenon at all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of the partitioning of aerosol particles within cirrus clouds were used to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions in ice clouds. The number density of interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals was compared to the number density of cirrus crystal residuals. The data was obtained during the two INCA (Interhemispheric Differences in Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions campaigns, performed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH and Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes. Different aerosol-cirrus interactions can be linked to the different stages of the cirrus lifecycle. Cloud formation is linked to positive correlations between the number density of interstitial aerosol (Nint and crystal residuals (Ncvi, whereas the correlations are smaller or even negative in a dissolving cloud. Unlike warm clouds, where the number density of cloud droplets is positively related to the aerosol number density, we observed a rather complex relationship when expressing Ncvi as a function of Nint for forming clouds. The data sets are similar in that they both show local maxima in the Nint range 100 to 200cm, where the SH- maximum is shifted towards the higher value. For lower number densities Nint and Ncvi are positively related. The slopes emerging from the data suggest that a tenfold increase in the aerosol number density corresponds to a 3 to 4 times increase in the crystal number density. As Nint increases beyond the ca. 100 to 200cm, the mean crystal number density decreases at about the same rate for both data sets. For much higher aerosol number densities, only present in the NH data set, the mean Ncvi remains low. The situation for dissolving clouds allows us to offer two possible, but at this point only speculative, alternative interactions between aerosols and cirrus: evaporating clouds might be associated with a source of aerosol particles, or air pollution (high aerosol number density might

  14. Addressing an I/O Bottleneck in a Web-Based CERES QC Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, E.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Chu, C.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this poster, we explore the technologies we have used to overcome the problem of transmitting and analyzing large datasets in our web-based CERES Quality Control tool and consider four technologies to potentially adopt for future performance improvements. The CERES team uses this tool to validate pixel-level data from Terra, Aqua, SNPP, MSG, MTSAT, and many geostationary GOES satellites, as well as to develop cloud retrieval algorithms. The tool includes a histogram feature that allows the user to aggregate data from many different timestamps and different scenes globally or locally selected by the user by drawing bounding boxes. In order to provide a better user experience, the tool passes a large amount of data to the user's browser. The browser then processes the data in order to present it to users in various formats, for example as a histogram. In addition to using multiple servers to subset data and pass a smaller set of data to the browser, the tool also makes use of a compression technology, Gzip, to reduce the size of the data. However, sometimes the application in the browser is still slow when dealing with these large sets of data due to the delay in the browser receiving the server's response. To address this I/O bottleneck, we will investigate four alternatives and present the results in this poster: 1) sending uncompressed data, 2) ESRI's Limited Error Raster Compression (LERC), 3) Gzip, and 4) WebSocket protocol. These approaches are compared to each other and to the uncompressed control to determine the optimal solution.

  15. A telemonitoring tool based on serious games addressing money management skills for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Basterretxea, Asier; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-02-25

    This article presents a telemonitoring tool based on computer games, aimed at money management skill improvement for people with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). The presented tool is divided into two parts: on one hand, some training activities related to payments and currency discrimination based on Serious Games are proposed to the user using a multitouch device. On the other hand, the psychologists and specialist who work with them, can access to the Serious Games results using an online application in order to evaluate their evolution. The results are measured according to the number of errors they have during the proposed activities, the time they need to complete them and the score. The article show the results of an experiment made with a clinical sample of 12 users with ID between 12 and 15 years, taking into account that all of them are capable of correct oral communication and they do not have severe physical coordination problems. Only two users completed all the games without errors. Males obtained a mean of 28.25 errors, whereas females obtained a mean of 17.75. The results show significant difference between the selection of games 1, 2 or 3, because all of them prefer the game 1 related with "Payments" probably because it permits more interaction using the multitouch device. The authors also made a qualitative evaluation and the results have been very promising and satisfactory.

  16. A Telemonitoring Tool based on Serious Games Addressing Money Management Skills for People with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Lopez-Basterretxea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a telemonitoring tool based on computer games, aimed at money management skill improvement for people with Intellectual Disabilities (ID. The presented tool is divided into two parts: on one hand, some training activities related to payments and currency discrimination based on Serious Games are proposed to the user using a multitouch device. On the other hand, the psychologists and specialist who work with them, can access to the Serious Games results using an online application in order to evaluate their evolution. The results are measured according to the number of errors they have during the proposed activities, the time they need to complete them and the score. The article show the results of an experiment made with a clinical sample of 12 users with ID between 12 and 15 years, taking into account that all of them are capable of correct oral communication and they do not have severe physical coordination problems. Only two users completed all the games without errors. Males obtained a mean of 28.25 errors, whereas females obtained a mean of 17.75. The results show significant difference between the selection of games 1, 2 or 3, because all of them prefer the game 1 related with “Payments” probably because it permits more interaction using the multitouch device. The authors also made a qualitative evaluation and the results have been very promising and satisfactory.

  17. Expert judgment based multi-criteria decision model to address uncertainties in risk assessment of nanotechnology-enabled food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flari, Villie; Chaudhry, Qasim; Neslo, Rabin; Cooke, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Currently, risk assessment of nanotechnology-enabled food products is considered difficult due to the large number of uncertainties involved. We developed an approach which could address some of the main uncertainties through the use of expert judgment. Our approach employs a multi-criteria decision model, based on probabilistic inversion that enables capturing experts’ preferences in regard to safety of nanotechnology-enabled food products, and identifying their opinions in regard to the significance of key criteria that are important in determining the safety of such products. An advantage of these sample-based techniques is that they provide out-of-sample validation and therefore a robust scientific basis. This validation in turn adds predictive power to the model developed. We achieved out-of-sample validation in two ways: (1) a portion of the expert preference data was excluded from the model’s fitting and was then predicted by the model fitted on the remaining rankings and (2) a (partially) different set of experts generated new scenarios, using the same criteria employed in the model, and ranked them; their ranks were compared with ranks predicted by the model. The degree of validation in each method was less than perfect but reasonably substantial. The validated model we applied captured and modelled experts’ preferences regarding safety of hypothetical nanotechnology-enabled food products. It appears therefore that such an approach can provide a promising route to explore further for assessing the risk of nanotechnology-enabled food products.

  18. Bio-electrospraying and droplet-based microfluidics: control of cell numbers within living residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Jongin; DeMello, Andrew J [Nanostructured Materials and Devices Group, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jayasinghe, Suwan N, E-mail: a.demello@imperial.ac.u, E-mail: s.jayasinghe@ucl.ac.u [BioPhysics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Bio-electrospraying (BES) has demonstrated great promise as a rapidly evolving strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative biology/medicine. Since its discovery in 2005, many studies have confirmed that cells (immortalized, primary and stem cells) and whole organisms (Danio rerio, Xenopus tropicalis, Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophila) remain viable post-bio-electrospraying. Although this bio-protocol has achieved much, it suffers from one crucial problem, namely the ability to precisely control the number of cells within droplets and or encapsulations. If overcome, BES has the potential to become a high-efficiency biotechnique for controlled cell encapsulation, a technique most useful for a wide range of applications in biology and medicine ranging from the forming of three-dimensional cultures to an approach for treating diseases such as type I diabetes. In this communication, we address this issue by demonstrating the coupling of BES with droplet-based microfluidics for controlling live cell numbers within droplets and residues. (communication)

  19. Bio-electrospraying and droplet-based microfluidics: control of cell numbers within living residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Jongin; DeMello, Andrew J; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2010-01-01

    Bio-electrospraying (BES) has demonstrated great promise as a rapidly evolving strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative biology/medicine. Since its discovery in 2005, many studies have confirmed that cells (immortalized, primary and stem cells) and whole organisms (Danio rerio, Xenopus tropicalis, Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophila) remain viable post-bio-electrospraying. Although this bio-protocol has achieved much, it suffers from one crucial problem, namely the ability to precisely control the number of cells within droplets and or encapsulations. If overcome, BES has the potential to become a high-efficiency biotechnique for controlled cell encapsulation, a technique most useful for a wide range of applications in biology and medicine ranging from the forming of three-dimensional cultures to an approach for treating diseases such as type I diabetes. In this communication, we address this issue by demonstrating the coupling of BES with droplet-based microfluidics for controlling live cell numbers within droplets and residues. (communication)

  20. Addressing land use change and uncertainty in the life-cycle assessment of wheat-based bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malça, João; Freire, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Despite the significant growth in the number of published life-cycle assessments of biofuels, important aspects have not captured sufficient attention, namely soil carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) and uncertainty analysis. The main goal of this article is to evaluate the implications of different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the life-cycle energy renewability efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gases) intensity of wheat-based bioethanol replacing gasoline. A comprehensive assessment of different LUC scenarios (grassland or cropland converted to wheat cultivation) and agricultural practices is conducted, which results in different carbon stock change values. The types of uncertainty addressed include parameter uncertainty (propagated into LC (life-cycle) results using Monte-Carlo simulation) and uncertainty concerning how bioethanol co-product credits are accounted for. Results show that GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values, mainly due to soil carbon emissions from direct LUC and N 2 O release from cultivated soil. Moreover, LUC dominates the GHG intensity of bioethanol. Very different GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario considered. Conversion of full- or low-tillage croplands to wheat cultivation results in bioethanol GHG emissions lower than gasoline emissions, whereas conversion of grassland does not contribute to bioethanol GHG savings over gasoline in the short- to mid-term. -- Highlights: ► We address different LUC scenarios and uncertainty in the LCA of wheat bioethanol. ► GHG emissions have considerably higher uncertainty than energy efficiency values. ► Bioethanol contributes to primary energy savings over gasoline. ► Very different life-cycle GHG emissions are calculated depending on the LUC scenario. ► GHG savings over gasoline are only achieved if cropland is the reference land use.

  1. Addressing Parent-Child Conflict: Attachment-Based Interventions with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Desmond, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of attachment theory to address parent-child conflict. The authors propose that parent-child conflict is attributable to the unmet attachment needs of both children and parents and that attachment insecurity results in problematic patterns of attachment in parent-child relationships. Three conversational frames are…

  2. Addressing Special Education Inequity through Systemic Change: Contributions of Ecologically Based Organizational Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Hernandez-Saca, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of special education, scholars and practitioners have been concerned about the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds among students identified with disabilities. Professional efforts to address this disproportionality have encompassed a range of targets, but scholars…

  3. Applying Software Patterns to Address Interoperability in Blockchain-based Healthcare Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; White, Jules; Schmidt, Douglas C.; Lenz, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Since the inception of the Bitcoin technology, its underlying data structure--the blockchain--has garnered much attention due to properties such as decentralization, transparency, and immutability. These properties make blockchains suitable for apps that require disintermediation through trustless exchange, consistent and incorruptible transaction records, and operational models beyond cryptocurrency. In particular, blockchain and its smart contract capabilities have the potential to address ...

  4. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  5. Clinical effect of fuzzy numbers based on center of gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a model called “fuzzy reasoning model” was proposed for the case when the explanatory variables were crisp and the value of the binary response variable was reported as a number between zero and one. In this regard, the concept of possibilistic odds is also introduced. Then, the methodology and ...

  6. Combining large number of weak biomarkers based on AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Tian, Lili; Liu, Song

    2015-12-20

    Combining multiple biomarkers to improve diagnosis and/or prognosis accuracy is a common practice in clinical medicine. Both parametric and non-parametric methods have been developed for finding the optimal linear combination of biomarkers to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), primarily focusing on the setting with a small number of well-defined biomarkers. This problem becomes more challenging when the number of observations is not order of magnitude greater than the number of variables, especially when the involved biomarkers are relatively weak. Such settings are not uncommon in certain applied fields. The first aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate the performance of existing linear combination methods under such settings. The second aim is to propose a new combination method, namely, the pairwise approach, to maximize AUC. Our simulation studies demonstrated that the performance of several existing methods can become unsatisfactory as the number of markers becomes large, while the newly proposed pairwise method performs reasonably well. Furthermore, we apply all the combination methods to real datasets used for the development and validation of MammaPrint. The implication of our study for the design of optimal linear combination methods is discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  8. Addressing refugee health through evidence-based policies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Ingleby, J David; Pottie, Kevin; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Allen, Sophia I; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hidalgo, Bertha

    2017-05-12

    The cumulative total of persons forced to leave their country for fear of persecution or organized violence reached an unprecedented 24.5 million by the end of 2015. Providing equitable access to appropriate health services for these highly diverse newcomers poses challenges for receiving countries. In this case study, we illustrate the importance of translating epidemiology into policy to address the health needs of refugees by highlighting examples of what works as well as identifying important policy-relevant gaps in knowledge. First, we formed an international working group of epidemiologists and health services researchers to identify available literature on the intersection of epidemiology, policy, and refugee health. Second, we created a synopsis of findings to inform a recommendation for integration of policy and epidemiology to support refugee health in the United States and other high-income receiving countries. Third, we identified eight key areas to guide the involvement of epidemiologists in addressing refugee health concerns. The complexity and uniqueness of refugee health issues, and the need to develop sustainable management information systems, require epidemiologists to expand their repertoire of skills to identify health patterns among arriving refugees, monitor access to appropriately designed health services, address inequities, and communicate with policy makers and multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Predicting number of hospitalization days based on health insurance claims data using bagged regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Schreier, Günter; Chang, David C W; Neubauer, Sandra; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare administrators worldwide are striving to both lower the cost of care whilst improving the quality of care given. Therefore, better clinical and administrative decision making is needed to improve these issues. Anticipating outcomes such as number of hospitalization days could contribute to addressing this problem. In this paper, a method was developed, using large-scale health insurance claims data, to predict the number of hospitalization days in a population. We utilized a regression decision tree algorithm, along with insurance claim data from 300,000 individuals over three years, to provide predictions of number of days in hospital in the third year, based on medical admissions and claims data from the first two years. Our method performs well in the general population. For the population aged 65 years and over, the predictive model significantly improves predictions over a baseline method (predicting a constant number of days for each patient), and achieved a specificity of 70.20% and sensitivity of 75.69% in classifying these subjects into two categories of 'no hospitalization' and 'at least one day in hospital'.

  10. Quantum random number generator based on quantum tunneling effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haihan; Li, Junlin; Pan, Dong; Zhang, Weixing; Long, Guilu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator(QRNG) with inherent randomness of quantum tunneling effect of electrons. We exploited InGaAs/InP diodes, whose valance band and conduction band shared a quasi-constant energy barrier. We applied a bias voltage on the InGaAs/InP avalanche diode, which made the diode works under Geiger mode, and triggered the tunneling events with a periodic pulse. Finally, after data collection and post-processing, our...

  11. Reconstruction of Building Outlines in Dense Urban Areas Based on LIDAR Data and Address Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzabek-Rychard, M.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive method for automated extraction and delineation of building outlines in densely built-up areas. A novel approach to outline reconstruction is the use of geocoded building address points. They give information about building location thus highly reduce task complexity. Reconstruction process is executed on 3D point clouds acquired by airborne laser scanner. The method consists of three steps: building detection, delineation and contours refinement. The algorithm is tested against a data set that presents the old market town and its surroundings. The results are discussed and evaluated by comparison to reference cadastral data.

  12. A Knowledge-based Recommendation Framework using SVN Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roddy Cabezas Padilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge based recommender systems, despite proven useful and having a high impact, persist with some shortcomings. Among its limitations are the lack of more flexible models and the inclusion of indeterminacy of the factors involved for computing a global similarity.

  13. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  14. Distance-Based Functional Diversity Measures and Their Decomposition: A Framework Based on Hill Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Huo; Chao, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Hill numbers (or the “effective number of species”) are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify “the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally) equally distinct species” in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species), which quantifies the effective sum of functional distances between a fixed species to all other species. The product of the functional Hill number and the mean functional diversity thus quantifies the (total) functional diversity, i.e., the effective total distance between species of the assemblage. The three measures (functional Hill numbers, mean functional diversity and total functional diversity) quantify different aspects of species trait space, and all are based on species abundance and species pairwise functional distances. When all species are equally distinct, our functional Hill numbers reduce to ordinary Hill numbers. When species abundances are not considered or species are equally abundant, our total functional diversity reduces to the sum of all pairwise distances between species of an assemblage. The functional Hill numbers and the mean functional diversity both satisfy a replication principle, implying the total functional diversity satisfies a quadratic replication principle. When there are multiple assemblages defined by the investigator, each of the three measures of the pooled assemblage (gamma) can be multiplicatively decomposed into alpha and beta components, and the two components are independent. The resulting beta component measures pure functional differentiation among assemblages and can be further transformed to obtain several classes of normalized functional similarity (or differentiation) measures, including N-assemblage functional generalizations of

  15. Distance-based functional diversity measures and their decomposition: a framework based on Hill numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Huo Chiu

    Full Text Available Hill numbers (or the "effective number of species" are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify "the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally equally distinct species" in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species, which quantifies the effective sum of functional distances between a fixed species to all other species. The product of the functional Hill number and the mean functional diversity thus quantifies the (total functional diversity, i.e., the effective total distance between species of the assemblage. The three measures (functional Hill numbers, mean functional diversity and total functional diversity quantify different aspects of species trait space, and all are based on species abundance and species pairwise functional distances. When all species are equally distinct, our functional Hill numbers reduce to ordinary Hill numbers. When species abundances are not considered or species are equally abundant, our total functional diversity reduces to the sum of all pairwise distances between species of an assemblage. The functional Hill numbers and the mean functional diversity both satisfy a replication principle, implying the total functional diversity satisfies a quadratic replication principle. When there are multiple assemblages defined by the investigator, each of the three measures of the pooled assemblage (gamma can be multiplicatively decomposed into alpha and beta components, and the two components are independent. The resulting beta component measures pure functional differentiation among assemblages and can be further transformed to obtain several classes of normalized functional similarity (or differentiation measures, including N-assemblage functional

  16. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  17. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Xia, Haishan; Cheung, Yiu-ming

    2008-06-01

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.

  18. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan; Cheung Yiuming

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks

  19. Efficient Information Hiding Based on Theory of Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding is an efficient technique that conceals secret data into a digital medium. In 2006, Zhang and Wang proposed a data hiding scheme called exploiting modification direction (EMD which has become a milestone in the field of data hiding. In recent years, many EMD-type data hiding schemes have been developed, but their embedding capacity remains restricted. In this paper, a novel data hiding scheme based on the combination of Chinese remainder theorem (CRT and a new extraction function is proposed. By the proposed scheme, the cover image is divided into non-overlapping pixel groups for embedding to increase the embedding capacity. Experimental results show that the embedding capacity of the proposed scheme is significantly higher (greater than 2.5 bpp than previously proposed schemes while ensuring very good visual quality of the stego image. In addition, security analysis is given to show that the proposed scheme can resist visual attack.

  20. A Telemonitoring Tool based on Serious Games Addressing Money Management Skills for People with Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Basterretxea, Asier; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a telemonitoring tool based on computer games, aimed at money management skill improvement for people with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). The presented tool is divided into two parts: on one hand, some training activities related to payments and currency discrimination based on Serious Games are proposed to the user using a multitouch device. On the other hand, the psychologists and specialist who work with them, can access to the Serious Games results using an online...

  1. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  2. Rights-based approaches to addressing food poverty and food insecurity in Ireland and UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, Elizabeth A; O'Connor, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Food poverty is an important contributing factor to health inequalities in industrialised countries; it refers to the inability to acquire or eat an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (or the uncertainty of being able to do so). Synonymous with household food insecurity, the issue needs to be located within a social justice framework. Recognising the clear interdependence between the right to food and the right to health, this paper explores how international human rights obligations could inform approaches to addressing food poverty and insecurity with specific reference to Ireland and the UK. Little attention has been paid to how countries should meet their obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to food in developed countries. The paper contributes by examining the social and policy circumstances which inhibit poor households from obtaining sufficient food to eat healthily, along with strategies and interventions from State and civil society actors in the two countries. In practice, problems and potential solutions have largely been directed towards the individual rather than at social determinants, particularly as research on environmental factors such as distance to shops has produced equivocal results. Other key structural aspects such as income sufficiency for food are broadly ignored by the State, and anti-poverty strategies are often implemented without monitoring for effects on food outcomes. Thus scant evidence exists for either Ireland or the UK meeting its rights to food obligations to date, in terms of roles and responsibilities in ensuring access to affordable, available and appropriate food for all. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender-based generalisations in school nurses' appraisals of and interventions addressing students' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Per-Åke; Nilsson, Stefan

    2016-08-30

    There has been an increase of reports describing mental health problems in adolescents, especially girls. School nurses play an important role in supporting young people with health problems. Few studies have considered how the nurses' gender norms may influence their discussions. To investigate this issue, semi-structured interviews focusing on school nurses' work with students who have mental health problems were conducted. Transcripts of interviews with Swedish school nurses (n = 15) from the Help overcoming pain early project (HOPE) were analysed using theories on gender as a theoretical framework and then organised into themes related to the school nurses' provision of contact and intervention. The interviewees were all women, aged between 42-63 years, who had worked as nurses for 13-45 years, and as school nurses for 2-28 years. Five worked in upper secondary schools (for students aged 16-19) and 10 in secondary schools (for students aged 12-16). The results show that school nurses more commonly associated mental health problems with girls. When the school nurses discussed students that were difficult to reach, boys in particular were mentioned. However, very few nurses mentioned specific intervention to address students' mental health problems, and all of the mentioned interventions were focused on girls. Some of the school nurses reported that it was more difficult to initiate a health dialogue with boys, yet none of the nurses had organized interventions for the boys. We conclude that generalisations can sometimes be analytically helpful, facilitating, for instance, the identification of problems in school nurses' work methods and interventions. However, the most important conclusion from our research, which applied a design that is not commonly used, is that more varied approaches, as well as a greater awareness of potential gender stereotype pitfalls, are necessary to meet the needs of diverse student groups.

  4. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  5. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  6. Workplace-Based Assessment: A Review of User Perceptions and Strategies to Address the Identified Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Jonathan; Ali, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace based assessments (WBAs) are now commonplace in postgraduate medical training. User acceptability and engagement is essential to the success of any medical education innovation. To this end, possessing an insight into trainee and trainer perceptions towards WBAs will help identify the major problems, permitting strategies to be…

  7. A URI-based approach for addressing fragments of media resources on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mannens; D. van Deursen; R. Troncy (Raphael); S. Pfeiffer; C. Parker (Conrad); Y. Lafon; A.J. Jansen (Jack); M. Hausenblas; R. van de Walle

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractTo make media resources a prime citizen on the Web, we have to go beyond simply replicating digital media files. The Web is based on hyperlinks between Web resources, and that includes hyperlinking out of resources (e.g., from a word or an image within a Web page) as well as hyperlinking

  8. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  9. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  10. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  11. Healthy options: a community-based program to address food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Hess, Audrey; Horton, Camille; Constantian, Emily; Monani, Salma; Wargo, Betsy; Davidson, Kim; Gaskin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to better understand the lived experience of food insecurity in our community and to examine the impact of a community-based program developed to increase access to local, healthy foods. Participants were given monthly vouchers to spend at local farmers' markets and invited to engage in a variety of community activities. Using a community-based participatory research framework, mixed methods were employed. Survey results suggest that most respondents were satisfied with the program and many increased their fruit and vegetable consumption. However, over 40% of respondents reported a higher level of stress over having enough money to buy nutritious meals at the end of the program. Photovoice results suggest that the program fostered cross-cultural exchanges, and offered opportunities for social networking. Building on the many positive outcomes of the program, community partners are committed to using this research to further develop policy-level solutions to food insecurity.

  12. Applying Place-Based Social-Ecological Research to Address Water Scarcity: Insights for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Castro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, environmental and social change in water-scarce regions challenge the sustainability of social-ecological systems. WaterSES, a sponsored working group within the Program for Ecosystem Change and Society, explores and compares the social-ecological dynamics related to water scarcity across placed-based international research sites with contrasting local and regional water needs and governance, including research sites in Spain and Sweden in Europe, South Africa, China, and Alabama, Idaho, Oklahoma, and Texas in the USA. This paper aims to provide a commentary on insights into conducting future solutions-oriented research on water scarcity based on the understanding of the social-ecological dynamics of water scarce regions.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Proposed Coyote Control Across Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    bases, such as fetid meat, urine, or musk to attract the animal . In some situations, a draw station such as a carcass , animal parts, or a large piece...areas of the installation, the presence of coyotes in these areas has increased. This has resulted in coyotes hunting domestic animals and a fearless...considered predatory animals . However, by statute, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF) has the responsibility to manage predator damage

  14. Addressing Early Life Sensitivity Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Miyoung; Clewell, Harvey J

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can provide an effective way to utilize in vitro and in silico based information in modern risk assessment for children and other potentially sensitive populations. In this review, we describe the process of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) to develop PBPK models for a chemical in different ages in order to predict the target tissue exposure at the age of concern in humans. We present our on-going studies on pyrethroids as a proof of concept to guide the readers through the IVIVE steps using the metabolism data collected either from age-specific liver donors or expressed enzymes in conjunction with enzyme ontogeny information to provide age-appropriate metabolism parameters in the PBPK model in the rat and human, respectively. The approach we present here is readily applicable to not just to other pyrethroids, but also to other environmental chemicals and drugs. Establishment of an in vitro and in silico-based evaluation strategy in conjunction with relevant exposure information in humans is of great importance in risk assessment for potentially vulnerable populations like early ages where the necessary information for decision making is limited.

  15. Food-based interventions to modify diet quality and diversity to address multiple micronutrient deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan K Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global data indicates a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability and outdoor physical activity/ life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behaviour change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  16. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  17. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Workplace-based assessment of communication skills: A pilot project addressing feasibility, acceptance and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student’s performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and

  19. Workplace-based assessment of communication skills: A pilot project addressing feasibility, acceptance and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyers, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method.Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student’s performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR. Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation.Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low.Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample

  20. Workplace-based assessment of communication skills: A pilot project addressing feasibility, acceptance and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student's performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and

  1. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  2. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Light-addressable amperometric electrodes for enzyme sensors based on direct quantum dot-electrode contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Göbel, G.; Parak, W. J.; Lisdat, F.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots allow the generation of charge carriers upon illumination. When these particles are attached to an electrode a photocurrent can be generated. This allows their use as a light-switchable layer on the surface. The QDs can not only exchange electronics with the electrode, but can also interact with donor or acceptor compounds in solution providing access to the construction of signal chains starting from an analytic molecule. The magnitude and the direction of the photocurrent depend on several factors such as electrode polarization, solution pH and composition. These defined dependencies have been evaluated with respect to the combination of QD-electrodes with enzyme reactions for sensorial purpose. CdSe/ZnS-QD-modified electrodes can be used to follow enzymatic reactions in solution based on the oxygen sensitivity. In order to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor, e.g. glucose oxidase is immobilized on the CdSe/ZnS-electrode. One immobilization strategy applies the layer-by-layer-technique of GOD and a polyelectrolyte. Photocurrent measurements of such a sensor show a clear concentration dependent behavior. The principle of combing QD oxidase. The sensitivity of quantum dot electrodes can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be demonstrated that direct electron transfer from excited quantum dots can be achieved with the redox protein cytochrome c. This allows the detection of the protein, but also interaction partners such as a enzymes or superoxide.

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  5. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  6. Lay Health Worker Involvement in Evidence-Based Treatment Delivery: A Conceptual Model to Address Disparities in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Lau, Anna S; Miranda, Jeanne

    2018-05-07

    Mobilizing lay health workers (LHWs) to deliver evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is a workforce strategy to address mental health disparities in underserved communities. LHWs can be leveraged to support access to EBTs in a variety of ways, from conducting outreach for EBTs delivered by professional providers to serving as the primary treatment providers. This critical review provides an overview of how LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs have been leveraged in low-, middle-, and high-income countries (HICs). We propose a conceptual model for LHWs to address drivers of service disparities, which relate to the overall supply of the EBTs provided and the demand for these treatments. The review provides illustrative case examples that demonstrate how LHWs have been leveraged globally and domestically to increase access to mental health services. It also discusses challenges and recommendations regarding implementing LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs.

  7. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  8. Field-programmable gate array based controller for multi spot light-addressable potentiometric sensors with integrated signal correction mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Carl Frederik; Schusser, Sebastian; Spelthahn, Heiko [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Wagner, Torsten; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo [Tohoku University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 6-6-05 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Schoening, Michael J., E-mail: schoening@fh-aachen.de [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Flexible up-scalable design of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor set-up. > Utilisation of a field-programmable gate array to address LAPS measurement spots. > Measurements in amplitude-mode and phase-mode for different pH solutions. > Amplitude, phase and frequency behaviour of LAPS for single and multiple light stimulus. > Signal calibration method by brightness control to compensated systematic errors. - Abstract: A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) can measure the concentration of one or several analytes at the sensor surface simultaneously in a spatially resolved manner. A modulated light pointer stimulates the semiconductor structure at the area of interest and a responding photocurrent can be read out. By simultaneous stimulation of several areas with light pointers of different modulation frequencies, the read out can be performed at the same time. With the new proposed controller electronic based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), it is possible to control the modulation frequencies, phase shifts, and light brightness of multiple light pointers independently and simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to investigate the frequency response of the sensor, and to examine the analyte concentration by the determination of the surface potential with the help of current/voltage curves and phase/voltage curves. Additionally, the ability to individually change the light intensities of each light pointer is used to perform signal correction.

  9. Trends in Addressing Social Needs: A Longitudinal Study of Congregation-Based Service Provision and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Fulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When congregations seek to address social needs, they often pursue this goal through acts of service and political engagement. Over the past three decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing congregation-based service provision and political participation. However, little is known about how congregations’ involvement in these arenas has changed during this period. To help fill this gap, this study analyzes three waves of data from a national survey of congregations to assess how congregations’ participation patterns in service-related and political activities have been changing since the 1990s. It also examines trends among subpopulations of congregations grouped by their religious tradition, ethnoracial composition, and ideological orientation. Overall, this study finds that among most types of congregations, the percentage participating in service-related activities is substantial and increasing, while the percentage participating in political activities is less substantial and decreasing. This decline in political participation has implications for the role congregations play in addressing social needs. Relieving immediate needs through service provision without also pursuing long-term solutions through political participation can limit congregations’ ability to comprehensively address social needs. Among the few types of congregations that have high and/or increasing participation rates in both service-related and political activities are Catholic, predominantly Hispanic, and politically liberal congregations.

  10. Addressing Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Katrina; Riddley, Diana; Williams, Kiesha; Sampson, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The law of conservation of mass can be counterintuitive for most students because they often think the mass of a substance is related to its physical state. As a result, students may hold a number of alternative conceptions related to this concept, including, for example, the believe that gas has no mass, that solids have greater mass than fluids,…

  11. A novel ternary content addressable memory design based on resistive random access memory with high intensity and low search energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runze; Shen, Wensheng; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jinfeng

    2018-04-01

    A novel ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) design based on resistive random access memory (RRAM) is presented. Each TCAM cell consists of two parallel RRAM to both store and search for ternary data. The cell size of the proposed design is 8F2, enable a ∼60× cell area reduction compared with the conventional static random access memory (SRAM) based implementation. Simulation results also show that the search delay and energy consumption of the proposed design at the 64-bit word search are 2 ps and 0.18 fJ/bit/search respectively at 22 nm technology node, where significant improvements are achieved compared to previous works. The desired characteristics of RRAM for implementation of the high performance TCAM search chip are also discussed.

  12. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  13. Stirring up the Mud: Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach to Address Health Disparities through a Faith-Based Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sue A.; Ruddock, Charmaine; Golub, Maxine; Davis, Joyce; Foley, Robert; Devia, Carlos; Rosen, Rosa; Berry, Carolyn; Barretto, Brenda; Carter, Toni; Irish-Spencer, Evalina; Marchena, Maria; Purcaro, Ellenrita; Calman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This case study provides a mid-course assessment of the Bronx Health REACH faith-based initiative four years into its implementation. The study uses qualitative methods to identify lessons learned and to reflect on the benefits and challenges of using a community-based participatory approach for the development and evaluation of a faith-based program designed to address health disparities. Key findings concern the role of pastoral leadership, the importance of providing a religious context for health promotion and health equality messages, the challenges of creating a bilingual/bi-cultural program, and the need to provide management support to the lay program coordinators. The study also identifies lessons learned about community-based evaluation and the importance of addressing community concern about the balance between evaluation and program. Finally, the study identifies the challenges that lie ahead, including issues of program institution-alization and sustainability. PMID:20168022

  14. Reducing Refugee Mental Health Disparities: A Community-Based Intervention to Address Post-Migration Stressors With African Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Hess, Julia M.; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P.

    2014-01-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of post-migration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multi-method, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address post-migration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants’ psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally-appropriate, and replicable model for doing so. PMID:24364594

  15. Frequency of GP communication addressing the patient's resources and coping strategies in medical interviews: a video-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finset Arnstein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing focus on patient-centred communicative approaches in medical consultations, but few studies have shown the extent to which patients' positive coping strategies and psychological assets are addressed by general practitioners (GPs on a regular day at the office. This study measures the frequency of GPs' use of questions and comments addressing their patients' coping strategies or resources. Methods Twenty-four GPs were video-recorded in 145 consultations. The consultations were coded using a modified version of the Roter Interaction Analysis System. In this study, we also developed four additional coding categories based on cognitive therapy and solution-focused therapy: attribution, resources, coping, and solution-focused techniques. The reliability between coders was established, a factor analysis was applied to test the relationship between the communication categories, and a tentative validating exercise was performed by reversed coding. Results Cohen's kappa was 0.52 between coders. Only 2% of the utterances could be categorized as resource or coping oriented. Six GPs contributed 59% of these utterances. The factor analysis identified two factors, one task oriented and one patient oriented. Conclusion The frequency of communication about coping and resources was very low. Communication skills training for GPs in this field is required. Further validating studies of this kind of measurement tool are warranted.

  16. Reducing refugee mental health disparities: a community-based intervention to address postmigration stressors with African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia M; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P

    2014-08-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of postmigration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multimethod, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address postmigration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants' psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally appropriate, and replicable model for doing so.

  17. Presidential address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, Norman.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews events of the past year in the nuclear power, uranium mining, reactor manufacturing and heavy water segments of the Canadian nuclear industry. The industry has a very strong base in uranium production and electricity generation. The issue of greatest concern is the lack of manufacturing opportunities

  18. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, Series Information for the Address Range-Feature County-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Address Ranges Feature Shapefile (ADDRFEAT.dbf) contains the geospatial edge geometry and attributes of all unsuppressed address ranges for a county or county...

  20. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, M S

    1997-07-01

    In India, data from the decennial censuses have been the catalyst that has led researchers to identify social policy needs and craft programs to lower overall mortality rates, infant mortality rates, and fertility rates. A new demographic phenomenon that is being exposed by the data is the increase in life expectancy that will see large numbers of individuals surviving 15-20 years beyond age 60. This increased life expectancy will lead to an increased old age dependency ratio and will require reexamination of the issue of resources to meet the needs of the elderly. These needs are social and psychological as well as physical. Research is needed to predict the initial consequences of population aging within different states. International comparisons within the Asian region will also foster identification of effective policies. Research is also needed to identify whether longevity is tied to higher educational and socioeconomic status in order to improve life expectancy among low-income groups. Another aspect that requires consideration is that most elderly women will likely survive their husbands. This means that they will be available to care for their husbands but will have to depend upon their children to care for them. The possible demographic diversity in the experience of aging among various states and classes and between the genders may be of special interest to researchers.

  1. Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nicolas; Fritz, Marco; Freitas, Tiago; de Boissezon, Birgit; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy. Nature-Based Solutions can be an opportunity for innovation, and are here promoted by both policymakers and practitioners as a cost-effective way of creating a greener, more sustainable, and more competitive economy. Since 2013, the European Commission has devoted particular attention to Nature-Based Solutions through consultations and dialogues that sought to make the concept of these solutions more concrete and to define the concept's place within the spectrum of ecosystem-based approaches. In 2014, the Commission launched an expert group, which conducted further analysis, and made recommendations to help increase the use of Nature-Based Solutions and bring nature back into cities. In 2015, a survey was conducted on citizens' views and perceptions of 'Nature in Cities' to provide further insight for future work. Based on these elements and on results from running EU projects, the Commission has developed an R&I agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and has published targeted calls for proposals for large-scale demonstration projects in this field in 2016 and 2017. Additional R&I actions at EU level that promote systemic Nature-Based Solutions and their benefits to cities and territories are planned with the aim to improve the implementation capacity and evidence base for deploying Nature-Based Solutions and developing corresponding future markets. They are also expected to foster an interdisciplinary R

  2. Competencies evaluation based on single valued neutrosophic numbers and decision analysis schema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Jazmín Henríquez Antepara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, neutrosophic sets and its application to decision making have become a topic of significant importance for researchers and practitioners. The present work addresses one of the most complex aspects of the formative process based on competencies: evaluation. In this paper, a new method for competencies evaluation is developed in a multicriteria framework.

  3. An Agent-Based Model for Addressing the Impact of a Disaster on Access to Primary Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Hasan; Kumar, Supriya; Galloway, David; Krauland, Mary; Sood, Rishi; Bocour, Angelica; Hershey, Tina Batra; van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy in the Rockaways, Queens, forced residents to evacuate and primary care providers to close or curtail operations. A large deficit in primary care access was apparent in the immediate aftermath of the storm. Our objective was to build a computational model to aid responders in planning to situate primary care services in a disaster-affected area. Using an agent-based modeling platform, HAZEL, we simulated the Rockaways population, its evacuation behavior, and primary care providers' availability in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Data sources for this model included post-storm and community health surveys from New York City, a survey of the Rockaways primary care providers, and research literature. The model then tested geospatially specific interventions to address storm-related access deficits. The model revealed that areas of high primary care access deficit were concentrated in the eastern part of the Rockaways. Placing mobile health clinics in the most populous census tracts reduced the access deficit significantly, whereas increasing providers' capacity by 50% reduced the deficit to a lesser degree. An agent-based model may be a useful tool to have in place so that policy makers can conduct scenario-based analyses to plan interventions optimally in the event of a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:386-393).

  4. Addressing the Clinical Burden of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect in a Large Metropolitan Region: Improving the Evidence-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.

  5. Number sense or working memory? The effect of two computer-based trainings on mathematical skills in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Holling, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Research on the improvement of elementary school mathematics has shown that computer-based training of number sense (e.g., processing magnitudes or locating numbers on the number line) can lead to substantial achievement gains in arithmetic skills. Recent studies, however, have highlighted that training domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory [WM]) may also improve mathematical achievement. This study addressed the question of whether a training of domain-specific number sense skills or domain-general WM abilities is more appropriate for improving mathematical abilities in elementary school. Fifty-nine children (M age = 9 years, 32 girls and 27 boys) received either a computer-based, adaptive training of number sense (n = 20), WM skills (n = 19), or served as a control group (n = 20). The training duration was 20 min per day for 15 days. Before and after training, we measured mathematical ability using a curriculum-based math test, as well as spatial WM. For both training groups, we observed substantial increases in the math posttest compared to the control group (d = .54 for number sense skills training, d = .57 for WM training, respectively). Whereas the number sense group showed significant gains in arithmetical skills, the WM training group exhibited marginally significant gains in word problem solving. However, no training group showed significant posttest gains on the spatial WM task. Results indicate that a short training of either domain-specific or domain-general skills may result in reliable short-term training gains in math performance, although no stable training effects were found in the spatial WM task.

  6. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  8. Comparison of address-based sampling and random-digit dialing methods for recruiting young men as controls in a case-control study of testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ciosek, Stephanie L; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18-55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS.

  9. Photometry-based estimation of the total number of stars in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović, Lazo M

    2015-07-20

    A novel photometry-based estimation of the total number of stars in the Universe is presented. The estimation method is based on the energy conservation law and actual measurements of the extragalactic background light levels. By assuming that every radiated photon is kept within the Universe volume, i.e., by approximating the Universe as an integrating cavity without losses, the total number of stars in the Universe of about 6×1022 has been obtained.

  10. Reference Frame Fields based on Quantum Theory Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Benioff, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A quantum theory representations of real (R) and complex (C) numbers is given that is based on states of single, finite strings of qukits for any base k > 1. Both unary representations and the possibility that qukits with k a prime number are elementary and the rest composite are discussed. Cauchy sequences of qukit string states are defined from the arithmetic properties. The representations of R and C, as equivalence classes of these sequences, differ from classical kit string state represe...

  11. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.

    2010-01-01

    the purity of a continuous-variable quantum vacuum state to generate unique random numbers. We use the intrinsic randomness in measuring the quadratures of a mode in the lowest energy vacuum state, which cannot be correlated to any other state. The simplicity of our source, combined with its verifiably......Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations(1) over gambling to cryptography(2,3). The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational...... unpredictability of quantum mechanics(4-11). However, most approaches do not consider that a potential adversary could have knowledge about the generated numbers, so the numbers are not verifiably random and unique(12-15). Here we present a simple experimental setup based on homodyne measurements that uses...

  12. School‐based brief psycho‐educational intervention to raise adolescent cancer awareness and address barriers to medical help‐seeking about cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D.; O'Carroll, Ronan E.; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help‐seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho‐educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help‐seeking barriers. Methods This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50‐min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help‐seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self‐efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Results Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6‐month follow‐up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2‐week follow‐up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help‐seeking were observed. Conclusions School‐based brief psycho‐educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho‐Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26502987

  13. School-based brief psycho-educational intervention to raise adolescent cancer awareness and address barriers to medical help-seeking about cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gill; Stoddart, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Rauchhaus, Petra; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-07-01

    Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help-seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho-educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help-seeking barriers. This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. The intervention was a 50-min presentation delivered by a member of Teenage Cancer Trust's (UK charity) education team. Schools were stratified by deprivation and roll size and randomly allocated to intervention/control conditions within these strata. Outcome measures were the number of cancer warning signs and cancer risk factors recognised, help-seeking barriers endorsed and cancer communication. Communication self-efficacy and intervention fidelity were also assessed. Regression models showed significant differences in the number of cancer warning signs and risk factors recognised between intervention and control groups. In intervention schools, the greatest increases in recognition of cancer warning signs at 6-month follow-up were for unexplained weight loss (from 44.2% to 62.0%) and change in the appearance of a mole (from 46.3% to 70.7%), up by 17.8% and 24.4%, respectively. Greatest increases in recognition of cancer risk factors were for getting sunburnt more than once as a child (from 41.0% to 57.6%) and being overweight (from 42.7% to 55.5%), up by 16.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Regression models showed that adolescents in intervention schools were 2.7 times more likely to discuss cancer at 2-week follow-up compared with the control group. No differences in endorsement of barriers to help-seeking were observed. School-based brief psycho-educational interventions are easy to deliver, require little resource and improve cancer awareness. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Human Rights-Based Approach to Farmworker Health: An Overarching Framework to Address the Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Athena K

    2018-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal workers have a right to the highest attainable standard of health. Unfortunately, these farmworkers face a multitude of challenges. They are employed in one of the most dangerous industries and face serious occupational health risks, while positioned at the bottom of the social hierarchy. They often lack formal education and training, English language proficiency, legal status, access to information, and equitable opportunities to health and healthcare. This article will explore the international human rights conventions that support farmworkers' right to health and healthcare in the United States. International human rights may provide a valuable legal framework that could be used to advocate on behalf of farmworkers and address the social determinants of health. Therefore, a Human Rights-Based Approach to Farmworker health will be presented along with recommendations for how to advance health and access to healthcare among this population. Fostering the health and well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers is critical to advancing equity, social justice, and maintaining the workforce required to meet production needs and safeguard the economic competitiveness of the industry.

  15. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) based architecture to address connectivity, interoperability and manageability challenges in Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Shariq; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Faris Ismail, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    IoT aims to interconnect sensors and actuators built into devices (also known as Things) in order for them to share data and control each other to improve existing processes for making people’s life better. IoT aims to connect between all physical devices like fridges, cars, utilities, buildings and cities so that they can take advantage of small pieces of information collected by each one of these devices and derive more complex decisions. However, these devices are heterogeneous in nature because of various vendor support, connectivity options and protocol suit. Heterogeneity of such devices makes it difficult for them to leverage on each other’s capabilities in the traditional IoT architecture. This paper highlights the effects of heterogeneity challenges on connectivity, interoperability, management in greater details. It also surveys some of the existing solutions adopted in the core network to solve the challenges of massive IoT deployments. Finally, the paper proposes a new architecture based on NFV to address the problems.

  16. Two-bit trinary full adder design based on restricted signed-digit numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J. U.; Awwal, A. A. S.; Karim, M. A.

    1994-08-01

    A 2-bit trinary full adder using a restricted set of a modified signed-digit trinary numeric system is designed. When cascaded together to design a multi-bit adder machine, the resulting system is able to operate at a speed independent of the size of the operands. An optical non-holographic content addressable memory based on binary coded arithmetic is considered for implementing the proposed adder.

  17. 47 CFR 64.613 - Numbering directory for internet-based TRS users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). (2) For each record associated with a VRS user, the URI shall contain.... (3) Only the TRS Numbering Administrator and Internet-based TRS providers may access the TRS...-governmental entity that is impartial and not an affiliate of any Internet-based TRS provider. (ii) Neither the...

  18. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Brian; Datta, Parikkhit; Wu, Ying; Chan, Alan; Al Armour, John

    2006-06-30

    Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH) we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  19. Design-based stereological estimation of the total number of cardiac myocytes in histological sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    in LM sections using design-based stereology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From formalin-fixed left rat ventricles (LV) isotropic uniformly random sections were cut. The total number of myocyte nuclei per LV was estimated using the optical disector. Two-microm-thick serial paraffin sections were stained......BACKGROUND: Counting the total number of cardiac myocytes has not previously been possible in ordinary histological sections using light microscopy (LM) due to difficulties in defining the myocyte borders properly. AIM: To describe a method by which the total number of cardiac myocytes is estimated...... with antibodies against cadherin and type IV collagen to visualise the intercalated discs and the myocyte membranes, respectively. Using the physical disector in "local vertical windows" of the serial sections, the average number of nuclei per myocyte was estimated.RESULTS: The total number of myocyte nuclei...

  20. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes’ susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond ∼90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below ∼90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies

  1. Estimating recreational harvest using interview-based recall survey: Implication of recalling in weight or numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2013-01-01

    on interviewed-based surveys where fishers are asked to recall harvest within a given timeframe. However, the importance of whether fishers are requested to provide figures in weight or number is unresolved. Therefore, a recall survey aiming at estimating recreational harvest was designed, such that respondents...... could report harvest using either weight or numbers. It was found that: (1) a preference for reporting in numbers dominated; (2) reported mean individual weight of fish caught, differed between units preferences; and (3) when an estimate of total harvest in weight are calculated, these difference could...

  2. Integers in number systems with positive and negative quadratic Pisot base

    OpenAIRE

    Masáková, Zuzana; Vávra, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    We consider numeration systems with base $\\beta$ and $-\\beta$, for quadratic Pisot numbers $\\beta$ and focus on comparing the combinatorial structure of the sets $\\Z_\\beta$ and $\\Z_{-\\beta}$ of numbers with integer expansion in base $\\beta$, resp. $-\\beta$. Our main result is the comparison of languages of infinite words $u_\\beta$ and $u_{-\\beta}$ coding the ordering of distances between consecutive $\\beta$- and $(-\\beta)$-integers. It turns out that for a class of roots $\\beta$ of $x^2-mx-m$...

  3. A hybrid configuration interaction treatment based on seniority number and excitation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Capuzzi, Pablo; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Oña, Ofelia B.; Van Raemdonck, Mario; Bultinck, Patrick; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2014-01-01

    We present a configuration interaction method in which the Hamiltonian of an N-electron system is projected on Slater determinants selected according to the seniority-number criterion along with the traditional excitation-based procedure. This proposed method is especially useful to describe systems which exhibit dynamic (weak) correlation at determined geometric arrangements (where the excitation-based procedure is more suitable) but show static (strong) correlation at other arrangements (where the seniority-number technique is preferred). The hybrid method amends the shortcomings of both individual determinant selection procedures, yielding correct shapes of potential energy curves with results closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction method

  4. A hybrid configuration interaction treatment based on seniority number and excitation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Capuzzi, Pablo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis, E-mail: qfplapel@lg.ehu.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644 E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Oña, Ofelia B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, CC 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Van Raemdonck, Mario; Bultinck, Patrick [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3), 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Neck, Dimitri [Center for Molecular Modelling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2014-12-28

    We present a configuration interaction method in which the Hamiltonian of an N-electron system is projected on Slater determinants selected according to the seniority-number criterion along with the traditional excitation-based procedure. This proposed method is especially useful to describe systems which exhibit dynamic (weak) correlation at determined geometric arrangements (where the excitation-based procedure is more suitable) but show static (strong) correlation at other arrangements (where the seniority-number technique is preferred). The hybrid method amends the shortcomings of both individual determinant selection procedures, yielding correct shapes of potential energy curves with results closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction method.

  5. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  6. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-04

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  7. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study of UV-addressable phenylalanine sensing based on a self-assembled spirooxazine derivative monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Shinae; Suh, Hee-Jung; Gun An, Won; Kim, Jae-Ho; Jin, Sung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Koh, Kwangnak

    2004-01-01

    Light-addressable compounds are very interesting due to the possibilities of their practical use such as optical switches and memories or variable transmission materials. For example, transportation of phenylalanine across liposomal bilayers mediated by a photoresponsive carrier like spirooxazine through electrostatic interaction between phenylalanine and spirooxazine derivative. Thus, the spirooxazine is expected to form a UV-addressable phenylalanine sensing interface. In this study, we prepared phenylalanine sensing interface of a spirooxazine derivative by self-assembly technique and evaluated interaction between a spirooxazine moiety and phenylalanine with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The refractive index change of monolayer caused by interaction between a spirooxazine derivative and phenylalanine led to the SPR angle shifts upon UV irradiation. The SPR angle shift increased with increasing the concentration of phenylalanine solution. These results indicated that the spirooxazine derivative self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has an application potential for UV-addressable phenylalanine sensing

  8. Study on recognition algorithm for paper currency numbers based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Yuanyao; Zhang, Zhongchuan; Deng, Shichao

    2008-12-01

    Based on the unique characteristic, the paper currency numbers can be put into record and the automatic identification equipment for paper currency numbers is supplied to currency circulation market in order to provide convenience for financial sectors to trace the fiduciary circulation socially and provide effective supervision on paper currency. Simultaneously it is favorable for identifying forged notes, blacklisting the forged notes numbers and solving the major social problems, such as armor cash carrier robbery, money laundering. For the purpose of recognizing the paper currency numbers, a recognition algorithm based on neural network is presented in the paper. Number lines in original paper currency images can be draw out through image processing, such as image de-noising, skew correction, segmentation, and image normalization. According to the different characteristics between digits and letters in serial number, two kinds of classifiers are designed. With the characteristics of associative memory, optimization-compute and rapid convergence, the Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) is utilized to recognize the letters; with the characteristics of simple structure, quick learning and global optimum, the Radial-Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) is adopted to identify the digits. Then the final recognition results are obtained by combining the two kinds of recognition results in regular sequence. Through the simulation tests, it is confirmed by simulation results that the recognition algorithm of combination of two kinds of recognition methods has such advantages as high recognition rate and faster recognition simultaneously, which is worthy of broad application prospect.

  9. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yue; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, Kwok-wo; Zhou Qing

    2009-01-01

    True random number generators are in general more secure than pseudo random number generators. In this paper, we propose a novel true random number generator which generates a 256-bit random number by computer mouse movement. It is cheap, convenient and universal for personal computers. To eliminate the effect of similar movement patterns generated by the same user, three chaos-based approaches, namely, discretized 2D chaotic map permutation, spatiotemporal chaos and 'MASK' algorithm, are adopted to post-process the captured mouse movements. Random bits generated by three users are tested using NIST statistical tests. Both the spatiotemporal chaos approach and the 'MASK' algorithm pass the tests successfully. However, the latter has a better performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness and so is more practical for common personal computer applications.

  10. High-speed true random number generation based on paired memristors for security electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yin, Minghui; Xu, Changmin; Lu, Xiayan; Sun, Xinhao; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2017-11-01

    True random number generator (TRNG) is a critical component in hardware security that is increasingly important in the era of mobile computing and internet of things. Here we demonstrate a TRNG using intrinsic variation of memristors as a natural source of entropy that is otherwise undesirable in most applications. The random bits were produced by cyclically switching a pair of tantalum oxide based memristors and comparing their resistance values in the off state, taking advantage of the more pronounced resistance variation compared with that in the on state. Using an alternating read scheme in the designed TRNG circuit, the unbiasedness of the random numbers was significantly improved, and the bitstream passed standard randomness tests. The Pt/TaO x /Ta memristors fabricated in this work have fast programming/erasing speeds of ˜30 ns, suggesting a high random number throughput. The approach proposed here thus holds great promise for physically-implemented random number generation.

  11. Convolutional Code Based PAPR Reduction Scheme for Multicarrier Transmission with Higher Number of Subcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJJAD ALIMEMON

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multicarrier transmission technique has become a prominent transmission technique in high-speed wireless communication systems. It is due to its frequency diversity,small inter-symbol interference in the multipath fading channel, simple equalizer structure, and high bandwidth efficiency. Nevertheless, in thetime domain, multicarrier transmission signal has high PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio thatinterprets to low power amplifier efficiencies. To decrease the PAPR, a CCSLM (Convolutional Code Selective Mapping scheme for multicarrier transmission with a high number of subcarriers is proposed in this paper. Proposed scheme is based on SLM method and employs interleaver and convolutional coding. Related works on the PAPR reduction have considered either 128 or 256 number of subcarriers. However, PAPR of multicarrier transmission signal will increase as a number of subcarriers increases. The proposed method achieves significant PAPR reduction for ahigher number of subcarriers as well as better power amplifier efficiency. Simulation outcomes validate the usefulness of projected scheme.

  12. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  13. Addressing Escape-Maintained Behavior for Students with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review of School-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H.; Radley, Keith C.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Allen, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities have been found to exhibit higher rates of problem behavior in the classroom than their typically developing peers. Effectively addressing these students' behavior concerns requires the identification of interventions that can be implemented in an educational setting. Furthermore, matching intervention…

  14. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  15. Addressing Gender-Based Violence at Schools for Learners with Intellectual Disability in Gauteng, South Africa: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…

  16. Living with Contradictions: Complementing Activity Theory with the Notion of "Installed Base" to Address the Historical Dimension of Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igira, Faraja; Aanestad, Margunn

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the historical dimension of the relation between information systems innovation and organizational transformation. We analyse findings from a study of ongoing transformations in the healthcare sector in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The process is described with a particular focus on instances where some contradictions in the old…

  17. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. Results In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. Conclusion Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  18. Blink Number Forecasting Based on Improved Bayesian Fusion Algorithm for Fatigue Driving Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved Bayesian fusion algorithm (BFA is proposed for forecasting the blink number in a continuous video. It assumes that, at one prediction interval, the blink number is correlated with the blink numbers of only a few previous intervals. With this assumption, the weights of the component predictors in the improved BFA are calculated according to their prediction performance only from a few intervals rather than from all intervals. Therefore, compared with the conventional BFA, the improved BFA is more sensitive to the disturbed condition of the component predictors for adjusting their weights more rapidly. To determine the most relevant intervals, the grey relation entropy-based analysis (GREBA method is proposed, which can be used analyze the relevancy between the historical data flows of blink number and the data flow at the current interval. Three single predictors, that is, the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, and Kalman filter (KF, are designed and incorporated linearly into the BFA. Experimental results demonstrate that the improved BFA obviously outperforms the conventional BFA in both accuracy and stability; also fatigue driving can be accurately warned against in advance based on the blink number forecasted by the improved BFA.

  19. Reexamining the language account of cross-national differences in base-10 number representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy

    2015-01-01

    East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. True random number generation from mobile telephone photo based on chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiao Di; Xiang Tao; Zhou Qing; Duan Shukai

    2009-01-01

    A cheap, convenient and universal TRNG based on mobile telephone photo for producing random bit sequence is proposed. To settle the problem of sequential pixels and comparability, three chaos-based approaches are applied to post-process the generated binary image. The random numbers produced by three users are tested using US NIST RNG statistical test software. The experimental results indicate that the Arnold cat map is the fastest way to generate a random bit sequence and can be accepted on general PC. The 'MASK' algorithm also performs well. Finally, comparing with the TRNG of Hu et al. [Hu Y, Liao X, Wong KW, Zhou Q. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.10.022] which is presented by Hu et al., many merits of the proposed TRNG in this paper has been found.

  1. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  2. On the design of henon and logistic map-based random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magfirawaty; Suryadi, M. T.; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-10-01

    The key sequence is one of the main elements in the cryptosystem. True Random Number Generators (TRNG) method is one of the approaches to generating the key sequence. The randomness source of the TRNG divided into three main groups, i.e. electrical noise based, jitter based and chaos based. The chaos based utilizes a non-linear dynamic system (continuous time or discrete time) as an entropy source. In this study, a new design of TRNG based on discrete time chaotic system is proposed, which is then simulated in LabVIEW. The principle of the design consists of combining 2D and 1D chaotic systems. A mathematical model is implemented for numerical simulations. We used comparator process as a harvester method to obtain the series of random bits. Without any post processing, the proposed design generated random bit sequence with high entropy value and passed all NIST 800.22 statistical tests.

  3. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Liao Sheng-Kai; Liang Fu-Tian; Shen Qi; Liang Hao; Peng Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators adopting single photon detection have been restricted due to the non-negligible dead time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We propose a new approach based on an APD array to improve the generation rate of random numbers significantly. This method compares the detectors' responses to consecutive optical pulses and generates the random sequence. We implement a demonstration experiment to show its simplicity, compactness and scalability. The generated numbers are proved to be unbiased, post-processing free, ready to use, and their randomness is verified by using the national institute of standard technology statistical test suite. The random bit generation efficiency is as high as 32.8% and the potential generation rate adopting the 32 × 32 APD array is up to tens of Gbits/s. (paper)

  4. Dynamic mesh adaptation for front evolution using discontinuous Galerkin based weighted condition number relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Patrick T.; Schofield, Samuel P.; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A new mesh smoothing method designed to cluster cells near a dynamically evolving interface is presented. The method is based on weighted condition number mesh relaxation with the weight function computed from a level set representation of the interface. The weight function is expressed as a Taylor series based discontinuous Galerkin projection, which makes the computation of the derivatives of the weight function needed during the condition number optimization process a trivial matter. For cases when a level set is not available, a fast method for generating a low-order level set from discrete cell-centered fields, such as a volume fraction or index function, is provided. Results show that the low-order level set works equally well as the actual level set for mesh smoothing. Meshes generated for a number of interface geometries are presented, including cases with multiple level sets. Lastly, dynamic cases with moving interfaces show the new method is capable of maintaining a desired resolution near the interface with an acceptable number of relaxation iterations per time step, which demonstrates the method's potential to be used as a mesh relaxer for arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methods.

  5. A sparse autoencoder-based deep neural network for protein solvent accessibility and contact number prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Fan, Chao; Zeng, Zhiwen

    2017-12-28

    Direct prediction of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins from one-dimensional (1D) sequences is a challenging problem. Significant structural characteristics such as solvent accessibility and contact number are essential for deriving restrains in modeling protein folding and protein 3D structure. Thus, accurately predicting these features is a critical step for 3D protein structure building. In this study, we present DeepSacon, a computational method that can effectively predict protein solvent accessibility and contact number by using a deep neural network, which is built based on stacked autoencoder and a dropout method. The results demonstrate that our proposed DeepSacon achieves a significant improvement in the prediction quality compared with the state-of-the-art methods. We obtain 0.70 three-state accuracy for solvent accessibility, 0.33 15-state accuracy and 0.74 Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) for the contact number on the 5729 monomeric soluble globular protein dataset. We also evaluate the performance on the CASP11 benchmark dataset, DeepSacon achieves 0.68 three-state accuracy and 0.69 PCC for solvent accessibility and contact number, respectively. We have shown that DeepSacon can reliably predict solvent accessibility and contact number with stacked sparse autoencoder and a dropout approach.

  6. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.

  7. A Bidirectional Generalized Synchronization Theorem-Based Chaotic Pseudo-random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuangshuang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bidirectional generalized synchronization theorem for discrete chaos system, this paper introduces a new 5-dimensional bidirectional generalized chaos synchronization system (BGCSDS, whose prototype is a novel chaotic system introduced in [12]. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the BGCSDS achieve generalized chaos synchronization via a transform H.A chaos-based pseudo-random number generator (CPNG was designed by the new BGCSDS. Using the FIPS-140-2 tests issued by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST verified the randomness of the 1000 binary number sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm respectively. The results showed that all the tested sequences passed the FIPS-140-2 tests. The confidence interval analysis showed the statistical properties of the randomness of the sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm do not have significant differences.

  8. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  9. Dependence of the modulation response of quantum dot based nanocavity devices on the number of emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, Michael; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    A microscopic theory is used to study the dynamical properties of semiconductor quantum dot based nanocavity laser systems. The carrier kinetics and photon populations are determined using a fully quantum mechanical treatment of the light‐matter coupling. In this work, we investigate the dependency...... of the modulation response in such devices on the number of emitters coupled to the cavity mode. (© 2011 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  10. Commercial insurance vs community-based health plans: time for a policy option with clinical emphasis to address the cost spiral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The nation continues its ceaseless struggle with the spiraling cost of health care. Previous efforts (regulation, competition, voluntary action) have included almost every strategy except clinical. Insurers have largely failed in their cost-containment efforts. There is a strong emerging body of literature that demonstrates the relationship between various clinical strategies and reductions in utilization and costs. This article describes the organization of health services, including integration of delivery and financing systems, at the community level as a model that effectively addresses the critical structural flaws that have frustrated control of costs. Community-based health plans (CHPs) have been developed and have demonstrated viability. The key elements of CHPs are a legal organizational structure, a full provider network, advanced care-management systems, and the ability to assume financial risk. Common misconceptions regarding obstacles to CHP development are the complexity of the undertaking, difficulty assuming the insurance function, and insured pools that are too small to be viable. The characteristics of successful CHPs and 2 case studies are described, including the types of advanced care-management systems that have resulted in strong financial performance. The demonstrated ability of CHPs to establish financial viability with small numbers of enrollees challenges the common assumption that there is a fixed relationship between health plan enrollment size and financial performance. Organizing the health system at the community/regional level provides an attractive alternative model in the health-reform debate. There is an opportunity for clinical systems and state and federal leaders to support the development of community-based integrated delivery and financing system models that, among other advantages, have significant potential to modulate the pernicious cost spiral.

  11. Long-term hydrological simulation based on the Soil Conservation Service curve number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Singh, Vijay P.

    2004-05-01

    Presenting a critical review of daily flow simulation models based on the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN), this paper introduces a more versatile model based on the modified SCS-CN method, which specializes into seven cases. The proposed model was applied to the Hemavati watershed (area = 600 km2) in India and was found to yield satisfactory results in both calibration and validation. The model conserved monthly and annual runoff volumes satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, including the effect of variation in storm duration. Finally, to investigate the model components, all seven variants of the modified version were tested for their suitability.

  12. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford KR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kevin R Ford,1 Anh-Dung Nguyen,2 Steven L Dischiavi,1 Eric J Hegedus,1 Emma F Zuk,2 Jeffrey B Taylor11Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA; 2Department of Athletic Training, School of Health Sciences, High Point University, High Point, NC, USAAbstract: Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions.Keywords: dynamic lower extremity valgus, hip neuromuscular control, ACL injury rehabilitation, patellofemoral pain, hip muscular activation

  13. Classification of human cancers based on DNA copy number amplification modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutila Sakari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA amplifications alter gene dosage in cancer genomes by multiplying the gene copy number. Amplifications are quintessential in a considerable number of advanced cancers of various anatomical locations. The aims of this study were to classify human cancers based on their amplification patterns, explore the biological and clinical fundamentals behind their amplification-pattern based classification, and understand the characteristics in human genomic architecture that associate with amplification mechanisms. Methods We applied a machine learning approach to model DNA copy number amplifications using a data set of binary amplification records at chromosome sub-band resolution from 4400 cases that represent 82 cancer types. Amplification data was fused with background data: clinical, histological and biological classifications, and cytogenetic annotations. Statistical hypothesis testing was used to mine associations between the data sets. Results Probabilistic clustering of each chromosome identified 111 amplification models and divided the cancer cases into clusters. The distribution of classification terms in the amplification-model based clustering of cancer cases revealed cancer classes that were associated with specific DNA copy number amplification models. Amplification patterns – finite or bounded descriptions of the ranges of the amplifications in the chromosome – were extracted from the clustered data and expressed according to the original cytogenetic nomenclature. This was achieved by maximal frequent itemset mining using the cluster-specific data sets. The boundaries of amplification patterns were shown to be enriched with fragile sites, telomeres, centromeres, and light chromosome bands. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that amplifications are non-random chromosomal changes and specifically selected in tumor tissue microenvironment. Furthermore, statistical evidence showed that specific chromosomal features

  14. Maximization of the Supportable Number of Sensors in QoS-Aware Cluster-Based Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Tham Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a practical low-complexity MAC (medium access control scheme for quality of service (QoS-aware and cluster-based underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN, in which the provision of differentiated QoS is required. In such a network, underwater sensors (U-sensor in a cluster are divided into several classes, each of which has a different QoS requirement. The major problem considered in this paper is the maximization of the number of nodes that a cluster can accommodate while still providing the required QoS for each class in terms of the PDR (packet delivery ratio. In order to address the problem, we first estimate the packet delivery probability (PDP and use it to formulate an optimization problem to determine the optimal value of the maximum packet retransmissions for each QoS class. The custom greedy and interior-point algorithms are used to find the optimal solutions, which are verified by extensive simulations. The simulation results show that, by solving the proposed optimization problem, the supportable number of underwater sensor nodes can be maximized while satisfying the QoS requirements for each class.

  15. How Dynamic is the ISPs Address Space? Towards Internet-Wide DHCP Churn Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Ganan, C.H.G.; Lone, Q.B.; Poursaied, P.; Asghari, H.; Van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    IP address counts are typically used as a surrogate metric for the number of hosts in a network, as in the case of ISP rankings based on botnet infected addresses. However, due to effects of dynamic IP address allocation, such counts tend to overestimate the number of hosts, sometimes by an order of

  16. Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedak Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

  17. Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedak, Waldemar; Anweiler, Stanisław; Gancarski, Wojciech; Ulbrich, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

  18. A New Method Based on TOPSIS and Response Surface Method for MCDM Problems with Interval Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the preference of design maker (DM is always ambiguous, we have to face many multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problems with interval numbers in our daily life. Though there have been some methods applied to solve this sort of problem, it is always complex to comprehend and sometimes difficult to implement. The calculation processes are always ineffective when a new alternative is added or removed. In view of the weakness like this, this paper presents a new method based on TOPSIS and response surface method (RSM for MCDM problems with interval numbers, RSM-TOPSIS-IN for short. The key point of this approach is the application of deviation degree matrix, which ensures that the DM can get a simple response surface (RS model to rank the alternatives. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, three illustrative MCMD problems with interval numbers are analysed, including (a selection of investment program, (b selection of a right partner, and (c assessment of road transport technologies. The contrast of ranking results shows that the RSM-TOPSIS-IN method is in good agreement with those derived by earlier researchers, indicating it is suitable to solve MCDM problems with interval numbers.

  19. Dynamic Mesh Adaptation for Front Evolution Using Discontinuous Galerkin Based Weighted Condition Number Mesh Relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Patrick T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schofield, Samuel P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nourgaliev, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-21

    A new mesh smoothing method designed to cluster mesh cells near a dynamically evolving interface is presented. The method is based on weighted condition number mesh relaxation with the weight function being computed from a level set representation of the interface. The weight function is expressed as a Taylor series based discontinuous Galerkin projection, which makes the computation of the derivatives of the weight function needed during the condition number optimization process a trivial matter. For cases when a level set is not available, a fast method for generating a low-order level set from discrete cell-centered elds, such as a volume fraction or index function, is provided. Results show that the low-order level set works equally well for the weight function as the actual level set. Meshes generated for a number of interface geometries are presented, including cases with multiple level sets. Dynamic cases for moving interfaces are presented to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness to arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methods.

  20. Sensitivity of boundary-layer stability to base-state distortions at high Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junho; Zaki, Tamer

    2017-11-01

    The stability diagram of high-speed boundary layers has been established by evaluating the linear instability modes of the similarity profile, over wide ranges of Reynolds and Mach numbers. In real flows, however, the base state can deviate from the similarity profile. Both the base velocity and temperature can be distorted, for example due to roughness and thermal wall treatments. We review the stability problem of high-speed boundary layer, and derive a new formulation of the sensitivity to base-state distortion using forward and adjoint parabolized stability equations. The new formulation provides qualitative and quantitative interpretations on change in growth rate due to modifications of mean-flow and mean-temperature in heated high-speed boundary layers, and establishes the foundation for future control strategies. This work has been funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Grant: FA9550-16-1-0103.

  1. A robust random number generator based on differential comparison of chaotic laser signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Liu, Ming; Xue, Lugang; Li, Pu; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-03-26

    We experimentally realize a robust real-time random number generator by differentially comparing the signal from a chaotic semiconductor laser and its delayed signal through a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter. The probability density distribution of the output chaotic signal based on the differential comparison method possesses an extremely small coefficient of Pearson's median skewness (1.5 × 10⁻⁶), which can yield a balanced random sequence much easily than the previously reported method that compares the signal from the chaotic laser with a certain threshold value. Moveover, we experimently demonstrate that our method can stably generate good random numbers at rates of 1.44 Gbit/s with excellent immunity from external perturbations while the previously reported method fails.

  2. Experimental study of a quantum random-number generator based on two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu

    2017-12-01

    A quantum random-number generator (QRNG) can produce true randomness by utilizing the inherent probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. Recently, the spontaneous-emission quantum phase noise of the laser has been widely deployed for quantum random-number generation, due to its high rate, its low cost, and the feasibility of chip-scale integration. Here, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of a phase-noise-based QRNG with two independent lasers, each of which operates in either continuous-wave (CW) or pulsed mode. We implement the QRNG by operating the two lasers in three configurations, namely, CW + CW, CW + pulsed, and pulsed + pulsed, and demonstrate their trade-offs, strengths, and weaknesses.

  3. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  4. A data based random number generator for a multivariate distribution (using stochastic interpolation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Taylor, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Let X be a K-dimensional random variable serving as input for a system with output Y (not necessarily of dimension k). given X, an outcome Y or a distribution of outcomes G(Y/X) may be obtained either explicitly or implicity. The situation is considered in which there is a real world data set X sub j sub = 1 (n) and a means of simulating an outcome Y. A method for empirical random number generation based on the sample of observations of the random variable X without estimating the underlying density is discussed.

  5. Detection of beamsplitting attack in a quantum cryptographic channel based on photon number statistics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cryptography in theory allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source. In order to overcome this possibility, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. We present an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. This method can therefore be used with any existing protocol

  6. Measuring party nationalisation: A new Gini-based indicator that corrects for the number of units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The study of the territorial distribution of votes in elections has become an important field of the political party research in recent years. Quantitative studies on the homogeneity of votes and turnout employ different indicators of territorial variance, but despite important progresses...... in measurement, many of them are sensitive to size and number of political parties or electoral districts. This article proposes a new 'standardised party nationalisation score', which is based on the Gini coefficient of inequalities in distribution. Different from previous indicators, the standardised party...

  7. Individual addressing of trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ion qubits using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J., E-mail: jungsang@duke.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)

  8. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu-Lai, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0–1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator. (general)

  9. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Lai

    2010-09-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0-1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator.

  10. Optimization of Control Points Number at Coordinate Measurements based on the Monte-Carlo Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A. A.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the quality of products causes an increase in the requirements for the accuracy of the dimensions and shape of the surfaces of the workpieces. This, in turn, raises the requirements for accuracy and productivity of measuring of the workpieces. The use of coordinate measuring machines is currently the most effective measuring tool for solving similar problems. The article proposes a method for optimizing the number of control points using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the measurement of a small sample from batches of workpieces, statistical modeling is performed, which allows one to obtain interval estimates of the measurement error. This approach is demonstrated by examples of applications for flatness, cylindricity and sphericity. Four options of uniform and uneven arrangement of control points are considered and their comparison is given. It is revealed that when the number of control points decreases, the arithmetic mean decreases, the standard deviation of the measurement error increases and the probability of the measurement α-error increases. In general, it has been established that it is possible to repeatedly reduce the number of control points while maintaining the required measurement accuracy.

  11. Addressing the mischaracterization of extreme rainfall in regional climate model simulations - A synoptic pattern based bias correction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwan; Sharma, Ashish; Evans, Jason; Johnson, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    Addressing systematic biases in regional climate model simulations of extreme rainfall is a necessary first step before assessing changes in future rainfall extremes. Commonly used bias correction methods are designed to match statistics of the overall simulated rainfall with observations. This assumes that change in the mix of different types of extreme rainfall events (i.e. convective and non-convective) in a warmer climate is of little relevance in the estimation of overall change, an assumption that is not supported by empirical or physical evidence. This study proposes an alternative approach to account for the potential change of alternate rainfall types, characterized here by synoptic weather patterns (SPs) using self-organizing maps classification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the added influence of SPs on the bias correction, which is achieved by comparing the corrected distribution of future extreme rainfall with that using conventional quantile mapping. A comprehensive synthetic experiment is first defined to investigate the conditions under which the additional information of SPs makes a significant difference to the bias correction. Using over 600,000 synthetic cases, statistically significant differences are found to be present in 46% cases. This is followed by a case study over the Sydney region using a high-resolution run of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model, which indicates a small change in the proportions of the SPs and a statistically significant change in the extreme rainfall over the region, although the differences between the changes obtained from the two bias correction methods are not statistically significant.

  12. Synthesis of Polystyrene-Based Random Copolymers with Balanced Number of Basic or Acidic Functional Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    for the functionalization were applied. The first one involved direct functionalization of the template backbone through alkylation of the phenolic groups with suitable reagents. The second modification approach was based on "click" chemistry, where the introduction of alkyne groups onto the template backbone was followed......Pairs of polystyrene-based random copolymers with balanced number of pendant basic or acidic groups were synthesized utilizing the template strategy. The same poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-ran-styrene] was used as a template backbone for modification. Two different synthetic approaches...... by copper-catalyzed 1,3 cycloaddition of aliphatic sulfonate- or amine-contaning azides. Both synthetic approaches proved to be highly efficient as evidenced by H-1-NMR analyses. The thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses and were influenced...

  13. Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Christou, Nicolas; Gould, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Modern approaches for technology-based blended education utilize a variety of recently developed novel pedagogical, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically-linked, interactive-content and heterogeneous learning environments, which may improve student comprehension and information retention. In this paper, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools to expose students in probability and statistics courses to the theory, practice and usability of the Law of Large Numbers (LLN). We base our approach on integrating pedagogical instruments with the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). To achieve this merger we designed a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the concept and the applications of the LLN. The LLN applet and activity have common goals - to provide graphical representation of the LLN principle, build lasting student intuition and present the common misconceptions about the law of large numbers. Both the SOCR LLN applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://socr.ucla.edu/htmls/exp/Coin_Toss_LLN_Experiment.html, and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_LLN).

  14. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  15. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  16. A Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment Procedure: Addressing the School-to-Work Transition Needs of Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Mahlone E.; Stodden, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Curriculum-based vocational assessment procedures as implemented in the United States Department of Defense Dependents Schools in Germany are assessing a match of handicapped students' interests and strengths in terms of career and vocational instructional options. The model is described, with emphasis on project planning and design and…

  17. Addressing the Right to Self-Determination: The Okinawans’ Claims from the Group-Based Rights Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, Momoka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the Japanese society from the group-based rights perspective. International human rights law provides the rights mostly in an individualistic form. But there is also a development of the international standards of rights with group-dimensions. The right to self-determination under the common article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) provide a collective right to...

  18. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Aerial Application of Herbicides at Joint Base Charleston-Weapons Station Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    a degree that interferes with or interrupts normal breeding, feeding , or sheltering habits , and causes injury, death, or nest abandonment. Pursuant...disrupts the natural shoreline, and impedes drainage of storm water. Fish, mollusks, crustaceans , and other aquatic organisms are also negatively...JB CHS-WS Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina February 2013 3-8 food, feed , forage, fiber, and oilseed crops, and is also available for these

  19. Rapid enumeration of low numbers of moulds in tea based drinks using an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Amano, Norihide; Nasu, Masao

    2011-01-31

    Aseptically prepared cold drinks based on tea have become popular worldwide. Contamination of these drinks with harmful microbes is a potential health problem because such drinks are kept free from preservatives to maximize aroma and flavour. Heat-tolerant conidia and ascospores of fungi can survive pasteurization, and need to be detected as quickly as possible. We were able to rapidly and accurately detect low numbers of conidia and ascospores in tea-based drinks using fluorescent staining followed by an automated counting system. Conidia or ascospores were inoculated into green tea and oolong tea, and samples were immediately filtered through nitrocellulose membranes (pore size: 0.8 μm) to concentrate fungal propagules. These were transferred onto potato dextrose agar and incubated for 23 h at 28 °C. Fungi germinating on the membranes were fluorescently stained for 30 min. The stained mycelia were counted selectively within 90s using an automated counting system (MGS-10LD; Chuo Electric Works, Osaka, Japan). Very low numbers (1 CFU/100ml) of conidia or ascospores could be rapidly counted, in contrast to traditional labour intensive techniques. All tested mould strains were detected within 24h while conventional plate counting required 72 h for colony enumeration. Counts of slow-growing fungi (Cladosporium cladosporioides) obtained by automated counting and by conventional plate counting were close (r(2) = 0.986). Our combination of methods enables counting of both fast- and slow-growing fungi, and should be useful for microbiological quality control of tea-based and also other drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and the resulting CO 2 -eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N 2 O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO 2 -eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  2. In Silico target fishing: addressing a "Big Data" problem by ligand-based similarity rankings with data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Xu, Yuan; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Yulan; Peng, Jianlong; Luo, Cheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2014-01-01

    Ligand-based in silico target fishing can be used to identify the potential interacting target of bioactive ligands, which is useful for understanding the polypharmacology and safety profile of existing drugs. The underlying principle of the approach is that known bioactive ligands can be used as reference to predict the targets for a new compound. We tested a pipeline enabling large-scale target fishing and drug repositioning, based on simple fingerprint similarity rankings with data fusion. A large library containing 533 drug relevant targets with 179,807 active ligands was compiled, where each target was defined by its ligand set. For a given query molecule, its target profile is generated by similarity searching against the ligand sets assigned to each target, for which individual searches utilizing multiple reference structures are then fused into a single ranking list representing the potential target interaction profile of the query compound. The proposed approach was validated by 10-fold cross validation and two external tests using data from DrugBank and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). The use of the approach was further demonstrated with some examples concerning the drug repositioning and drug side-effects prediction. The promising results suggest that the proposed method is useful for not only finding promiscuous drugs for their new usages, but also predicting some important toxic liabilities. With the rapid increasing volume and diversity of data concerning drug related targets and their ligands, the simple ligand-based target fishing approach would play an important role in assisting future drug design and discovery.

  3. The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

  4. Review the number of accidents in Tehran over a two-year period and prediction of the number of events based on a time-series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405

  5. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Development of a community-based participatory colorectal cancer screening intervention to address disparities, Arkansas, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen; Flowers, Eric; Ford, Gemessia; Burroughs, Desiree; Burton, Jackie; Woods, Delores; Stewart, Chara; Mehta, Paulette; Greene, Paul; Henry-Tillman, Ronda

    2011-03-01

    The death rate from colorectal cancer is high and affects poor and medically underserved populations disproportionately. In the United States, health disparities are particularly acute in the Lower Mississippi River Delta region. Because many in the region have limited access to basic health care resources, they are not screened for cancer, even though screening is one of the most effective strategies to prevent colorectal cancer. Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in this population. The Empowering Communities for Life program was implemented in 2 underserved counties in the Arkansas Lower Mississippi River Delta. The program arose from a 9-year partnership between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and 9 cancer councils across Arkansas. Empowering Communities for Life is a community-based participatory intervention designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in rural, underserved communities through fecal occult blood testing. Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. Lessons learned in working collaboratively with diverse groups include the importance of meeting face to face and listening.

  7. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  8. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  9. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  10. Effective atomic numbers (Z_e_f_f) of based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Zenobio, Madelon Aparecida; Gonçalves Zenobio, Elton; Silva, Teógenes Augusto da; Socorro Nogueira, Maria do

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the interaction of radiation parameters of four biomaterials as attenuators to measure the transmitted X-rays spectra, the mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number by spectrometric system comprising the CdTe detector. The biomaterial BioOss"® presented smaller mean energy than the other biomaterials. The μ/ρ and Z_e_f_f of the biomaterials showed their dependence on photon energy. The data obtained from analytical methods of x-ray spectra, µ/ρ and Z_e_f_f_, using biomaterials as attenuators, demonstrated that these materials could be used as substitutes for dentin, enamel and bone. Further, they are determinants for the characterization of the radiation in tissues or equivalent materials. - Highlights: • Measure of the transmitted x-rays spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials as attenuators. • Determination effective atomic number using four dental biomaterials. • Determination of the mass attenuation coefficient (µ/ρ) of the biomaterials samples calculated by the WinXCOM software. • Determination of the chemical composition of calcium phosphate biomaterials.

  11. Permutation entropy analysis of financial time series based on Hill's diversity number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the permutation entropy based on Hill's diversity number (Nn,r) is introduced as a new way to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. We test the performance of this method with simulated data. Results show that Nn,r with appropriate parameters is more sensitive to the change of system and describes the trends of complex systems clearly. In addition, we research the stock closing price series from different data that consist of six indices: three US stock indices and three Chinese stock indices during different periods, Nn,r can quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Moreover, we get richer information from Nn,r, and obtain some properties about the differences between the US and Chinese stock indices.

  12. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  13. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  14. Breakingtheice: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial of an internet-based intervention addressing amphetamine-type stimulant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Robert J; McKetin, Rebecca; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Bennett, Kylie; Tam, Ada; Bennett, Anthony; Geddes, Jenny; Garrick, Adam; Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2012-06-25

    The prevalence of amphetamine-type stimulant use is greater than that of opioids and cocaine combined. Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapy treatments for amphetamine-type stimulant problems, but some face-to-face psychotherapies are of demonstrated effectiveness. However, most treatment services focus on alcohol or opioid disorders, have limited reach and may not appeal to users of amphetamine-type stimulants. Internet interventions have proven to be effective for some substance use problems but none has specifically targeted users of amphetamine-type stimulants. The study will use a randomized controlled trial design to evaluate the effect of an internet intervention for amphetamine-type stimulant problems compared with a waitlist control group. The primary outcome will be assessed as amphetamine-type stimulant use (baseline, 3 and 6 months). Other outcomes measures will include 'readiness to change', quality of life, psychological distress (K-10 score), days out of role, poly-drug use, help-seeking intention and help-seeking behavior. The intervention consists of three modules requiring an estimated total completion time of 90 minutes. The content of the modules was adapted from face-to-face clinical techniques based on cognitive behavior therapy and motivation enhancement. The target sample is 160 men and women aged 18 and over who have used amphetamine-type stimulants in the last 3 months. To our knowledge this will be the first randomized controlled trial of an internet intervention specifically developed for users of amphetamine-type stimulants. If successful, the intervention will offer greater reach than conventional therapies and may engage clients who do not generally seek treatment from existing service providers. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/) ACTRN12611000947909.

  15. Breakingtheice: A protocol for a randomised controlled trial of an internet-based intervention addressing amphetamine-type stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of amphetamine-type stimulant use is greater than that of opioids and cocaine combined. Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapy treatments for amphetamine-type stimulant problems, but some face-to-face psychotherapies are of demonstrated effectiveness. However, most treatment services focus on alcohol or opioid disorders, have limited reach and may not appeal to users of amphetamine-type stimulants. Internet interventions have proven to be effective for some substance use problems but none has specifically targeted users of amphetamine-type stimulants. Design/method The study will use a randomized controlled trial design to evaluate the effect of an internet intervention for amphetamine-type stimulant problems compared with a waitlist control group. The primary outcome will be assessed as amphetamine-type stimulant use (baseline, 3 and 6 months. Other outcomes measures will include ‘readiness to change’, quality of life, psychological distress (K-10 score, days out of role, poly-drug use, help-seeking intention and help-seeking behavior. The intervention consists of three modules requiring an estimated total completion time of 90 minutes. The content of the modules was adapted from face-to-face clinical techniques based on cognitive behavior therapy and motivation enhancement. The target sample is 160 men and women aged 18 and over who have used amphetamine-type stimulants in the last 3 months. Discussion To our knowledge this will be the first randomized controlled trial of an internet intervention specifically developed for users of amphetamine-type stimulants. If successful, the intervention will offer greater reach than conventional therapies and may engage clients who do not generally seek treatment from existing service providers. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/ ACTRN12611000947909

  16. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  17. GIS Based Distributed Runoff Predictions in Variable Source Area Watersheds Employing the SCS-Curve Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.

    2003-04-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.

  18. Hardware random number generator base on monostable multivibrators dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Pawel

    2013-10-01

    The hardware random number generator based on the 74121 monostable multivibrators for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources was presented. This device was implemented on the basis of the physical electronic vibration generator in which the circuit is composed of two "loop" 74121 monostable multivibrators, D flip-flop and external clock signal source. The clock signal, witch control D flip-flop was generated by a computer on one of the parallel port pins. There was presented programmed the author's acquisition process of random data from the measuring system to a computer. The presented system was designed, builded and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. Real cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results was here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

  19. Estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements with the application of perturbation numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoświat, Artur; Skrzypczyk, Jerzy; Krause, Paweł; Steidl, Tomasz; Winkler-Skalna, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    Fast estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements is uncertain, and the obtained results can be burdened with a large error. Nevertheless, such attempts should be undertaken merely due to the fact that a precise measurement by means of heat flux measurements is not always possible in field conditions (resentment of the residents during the measurements carried out inside their living quarters), and the calculation methods do not allow for the nonlinearity of thermal insulation, heat bridges or other fragments of building envelope of diversified thermal conductivity. The present paper offers the estimation of thermal transmittance and internal surface resistance with the use of temperature measurements (in particular with the use of thermovision). The proposed method has been verified through tests carried out on a laboratory test stand built in the open space, subjected to the influence of real meteorological conditions. The present elaboration involves the estimation of thermal transmittance by means of temperature measurements. Basing on the mentioned estimation, the authors present correction coefficients which have impact on the estimation accuracy. Furthermore, in the final part of the paper, various types of disturbance were allowed for using perturbation numbers, and the introduced by the authors "credibility area of thermal transmittance estimation" was determined.

  20. 24 CFR 290.21 - Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or alternative uses. 290.21 Section 290.21 Housing and... Multifamily Projects § 290.21 Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based...

  1. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  2. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  3. Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

    2014-12-01

    The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. [Measurement of atomic number of alkali vapor and pressure of buffer gas based on atomic absorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui-jie; Quan, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Yao; Lu, Ji-xi

    2015-02-01

    High sensitivitymagnetic measurementscanbe achieved by utilizing atomic spinmanipulation in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) regime, which uses an alkali cell as a sensing element. The atomic number density of the alkali vapor and the pressure of the buffer gasare among the most important parameters of the cell andrequire accurate measurement. A method has been proposed and developedto measure the atomic number density and the pressure based on absorption spectroscopy, by sweeping the absorption line and fittingthe experiment data with a Lorentzian profile to obtainboth parameters. Due to Doppler broadening and pressure broadening, which is mainly dominated by the temperature of the cell and the pressure of buffer gas respectively, this work demonstrates a simulation of the errorbetween the peaks of the Lorentzian profile and the Voigt profile caused by bothfactors. The results indicates that the Doppler broadening contribution is insignificant with an error less than 0.015% at 313-513 K for a 4He density of 2 amg, and an error of 0.1% in the presence of 0.6-5 amg at 393 K. We conclude that the Doppler broadening could be ignored under above conditions, and that the Lorentzianprofile is suitably applied to fit the absorption spectrumobtainingboth parameters simultaneously. In addition we discuss the resolution and the instability due to thelight source, wavelength and the temperature of the cell. We find that the cell temperature, whose uncertainty is two orders of magnitude larger than the instability of the light source and the wavelength, is one of the main factors which contributes to the error.

  5. Addressing Dual Patient and Staff Safety Through A Team-Based Standardized Patient Simulation for Agitation Management in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ambrose H; Auerbach, Marc A; Ruppel, Halley; Crispino, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Alana; Iennaco, Joanne D; Vaca, Federico E

    2018-06-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) have seen harm rise for both patients and health workers from an increasing rate of agitation events. Team effectiveness during care of this population is particularly challenging because fear of physical harm leads to competing interests. Simulation is frequently employed to improve teamwork in medical resuscitations but has not yet been reported to address team-based behavioral emergency care. As part of a larger investigation of agitated patient care, we designed this secondary study to examine the impact of an interprofessional standardized patient simulation for ED agitation management. We used a mixed-methods approach with emergency medicine resident and attending physicians, Physician Assistants (PAs) and Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs), ED nurses, technicians, and security officers at two hospital sites. After a simulated agitated patient encounter, we conducted uniprofessional and interprofessional focus groups. We undertook structured thematic analysis using a grounded theory approach. Quantitative data consisted of responses to the KidSIM Questionnaire addressing teamwork and simulation-based learning attitudes before and after each session. We reached data saturation with 57 participants. KidSIM scores revealed significant improvements in attitudes toward relevance of simulation, opportunities for interprofessional education, and situation awareness, as well as four of six questions for roles/responsibilities. Two broad themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) a team-based agitated patient simulation addressed dual safety of staff and patients simultaneously and (2) the experience fostered interprofessional discovery and cooperation in agitation management. A team-based simulated agitated patient encounter highlighted the need to consider the dual safety of staff and patients while facilitating interprofessional dialog and learning. Our findings suggest that simulation may be effective to enhance teamwork in

  6. A Test Data Compression Scheme Based on Irrational Numbers Stored Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Test question has already become an important factor to restrict the development of integrated circuit industry. A new test data compression scheme, namely irrational numbers stored (INS, is presented. To achieve the goal of compress test data efficiently, test data is converted into floating-point numbers, stored in the form of irrational numbers. The algorithm of converting floating-point number to irrational number precisely is given. Experimental results for some ISCAS 89 benchmarks show that the compression effect of proposed scheme is better than the coding methods such as FDR, AARLC, INDC, FAVLC, and VRL.

  7. A test data compression scheme based on irrational numbers stored coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-feng; Cheng, Yu-sheng; Zhan, Wen-fa; Cheng, Yi-fei; Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Shi-juan

    2014-01-01

    Test question has already become an important factor to restrict the development of integrated circuit industry. A new test data compression scheme, namely irrational numbers stored (INS), is presented. To achieve the goal of compress test data efficiently, test data is converted into floating-point numbers, stored in the form of irrational numbers. The algorithm of converting floating-point number to irrational number precisely is given. Experimental results for some ISCAS 89 benchmarks show that the compression effect of proposed scheme is better than the coding methods such as FDR, AARLC, INDC, FAVLC, and VRL.

  8. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeevan Ratnasingham

    Full Text Available Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs, these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.

  9. Population clustering based on copy number variations detected from next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junbo; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Wan, Mingxi; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) can be used as significant bio-markers and next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a high resolution detection of these CNVs. But how to extract features from CNVs and further apply them to genomic studies such as population clustering have become a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel method for population clustering based on CNVs from NGS. First, CNVs are extracted from each sample to form a feature matrix. Then, this feature matrix is decomposed into the source matrix and weight matrix with non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The source matrix consists of common CNVs that are shared by all the samples from the same group, and the weight matrix indicates the corresponding level of CNVs from each sample. Therefore, using NMF of CNVs one can differentiate samples from different ethnic groups, i.e. population clustering. To validate the approach, we applied it to the analysis of both simulation data and two real data set from the 1000 Genomes Project. The results on simulation data demonstrate that the proposed method can recover the true common CNVs with high quality. The results on the first real data analysis show that the proposed method can cluster two family trio with different ancestries into two ethnic groups and the results on the second real data analysis show that the proposed method can be applied to the whole-genome with large sample size consisting of multiple groups. Both results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for population clustering.

  10. Implementation of Minutiae Based Fingerprint Identification System Using Crossing Number Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S. CHAUDHARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which recognizes a person by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological (e.g., fingerprints, face, retina, iris or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature characteristic possessed by that person. Among all the presently employed biometric techniques, fingerprint identification systems have received the most attention due to the long history of fingerprints and its extensive use in forensics. Fingerprint is reliable biometric characteristic as it is unique and persistence. Fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys on the surface of fingertip. However, recognizing fingerprints in poor quality images is still a very complex job, so the fingerprint image must be preprocessed before matching. It is very difficult to extract fingerprint features directly from gray scale fingerprint image. In this paper we have proposed the system which uses minutiae based matching algorithm for fingerprint identification. There are three main phases in proposed algorithm. First phase enhance the input fingerprint image by preprocessing it. The enhanced fingerprint image is converted into thinned binary image and then minutiae are extracted by using Crossing Number Concept in second phase. Third stage compares input fingerprint image (after preprocessing and minutiae extraction with fingerprint images enrolled in database and makes decision whether the input fingerprint is matched with the fingerprint stored in database or not.

  11. A new method for determining the acid number of biodiesel based on coulometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri Gonzaga, Fabiano; Pereira Sobral, Sidney

    2012-08-15

    A new method is proposed for determining the acid number (AN) of biodiesel using coulometric titration with potentiometric detection, basically employing a potentiostat/galvanostat and an electrochemical cell containing a platinum electrode, a silver electrode, and a combination pH electrode. The method involves a sequential application of a constant current between the platinum (cathode) and silver (anode) electrodes, followed by measuring the potential of the combination pH electrode, using an isopropanol/water mixture as solvent and LiCl as the supporting electrolyte. A preliminary evaluation of the new method, using acetic acid for doping a biodiesel sample, showed an average recovery of 100.1%. Compared to a volumetric titration-based method for determining the AN of several biodiesel samples (ranging from about 0.18 to 0.95 mg g(-1)), the new method produced statistically similar results with better repeatability. Compared to other works reported in the literature, the new method presented an average repeatability up to 3.2 times better and employed a sample size up to 20 times smaller. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. HYSOGs250m, global gridded hydrologic soil groups for curve-number-based runoff modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C Wade; Prihodko, Lara; Anchang, Julius; Kumar, Sanath; Ji, Wenjie; Hanan, Niall P

    2018-05-15

    Hydrologic soil groups (HSGs) are a fundamental component of the USDA curve-number (CN) method for estimation of rainfall runoff; yet these data are not readily available in a format or spatial-resolution suitable for regional- and global-scale modeling applications. We developed a globally consistent, gridded dataset defining HSGs from soil texture, bedrock depth, and groundwater. The resulting data product-HYSOGs250m-represents runoff potential at 250 m spatial resolution. Our analysis indicates that the global distribution of soil is dominated by moderately high runoff potential, followed by moderately low, high, and low runoff potential. Low runoff potential, sandy soils are found primarily in parts of the Sahara and Arabian Deserts. High runoff potential soils occur predominantly within tropical and sub-tropical regions. No clear pattern could be discerned for moderately low runoff potential soils, as they occur in arid and humid environments and at both high and low elevations. Potential applications of this data include CN-based runoff modeling, flood risk assessment, and as a covariate for biogeographical analysis of vegetation distributions.

  13. DEEPre: sequence-based enzyme EC number prediction by deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2017-10-20

    Annotation of enzyme function has a broad range of applications, such as metagenomics, industrial biotechnology, and diagnosis of enzyme deficiency-caused diseases. However, the time and resource required make it prohibitively expensive to experimentally determine the function of every enzyme. Therefore, computational enzyme function prediction has become increasingly important. In this paper, we develop such an approach, determining the enzyme function by predicting the Enzyme Commission number.We propose an end-to-end feature selection and classification model training approach, as well as an automatic and robust feature dimensionality uniformization method, DEEPre, in the field of enzyme function prediction. Instead of extracting manuallycrafted features from enzyme sequences, our model takes the raw sequence encoding as inputs, extracting convolutional and sequential features from the raw encoding based on the classification result to directly improve the prediction performance. The thorough cross-fold validation experiments conducted on two large-scale datasets show that DEEPre improves the prediction performance over the previous state-of-the-art methods. In addition, our server outperforms five other servers in determining the main class of enzymes on a separate low-homology dataset. Two case studies demonstrate DEEPre\\'s ability to capture the functional difference of enzyme isoforms.The server could be accessed freely at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/DEEPre.

  14. Copy Number Variations in a Population-Based Study of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Høyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs are important in relation to diversity and evolution but can sometimes cause disease. The most common genetic cause of the inherited peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the PMP22 duplication; otherwise, CNVs have been considered rare. We investigated CNVs in a population-based sample of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT families. The 81 CMT families had previously been screened for the PMP22 duplication and point mutations in 51 peripheral neuropathy genes, and a genetic cause was identified in 37 CMT families (46%. Index patients from the 44 CMT families with an unknown genetic diagnosis were analysed by whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization to investigate the entire genome for larger CNVs and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect smaller intragenomic CNVs in MFN2 and MPZ. One patient had the pathogenic PMP22 duplication not detected by previous methods. Three patients had potentially pathogenic CNVs in the CNTNAP2, LAMA2, or SEMA5A, that is, genes related to neuromuscular or neurodevelopmental disease. Genotype and phenotype correlation indicated likely pathogenicity for the LAMA2 CNV, whereas the CNTNAP2 and SEMA5A CNVs remained potentially pathogenic. Except the PMP22 duplication, disease causing CNVs are rare but may cause CMT in about 1% (95% CI 0–7% of the Norwegian CMT families.

  15. DEEPre: sequence-based enzyme EC number prediction by deep learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu; Wang, Sheng; Umarov, Ramzan; Xie, Bingqing; Fan, Ming; Li, Lihua; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Annotation of enzyme function has a broad range of applications, such as metagenomics, industrial biotechnology, and diagnosis of enzyme deficiency-caused diseases. However, the time and resource required make it prohibitively expensive to experimentally determine the function of every enzyme. Therefore, computational enzyme function prediction has become increasingly important. In this paper, we develop such an approach, determining the enzyme function by predicting the Enzyme Commission number.We propose an end-to-end feature selection and classification model training approach, as well as an automatic and robust feature dimensionality uniformization method, DEEPre, in the field of enzyme function prediction. Instead of extracting manuallycrafted features from enzyme sequences, our model takes the raw sequence encoding as inputs, extracting convolutional and sequential features from the raw encoding based on the classification result to directly improve the prediction performance. The thorough cross-fold validation experiments conducted on two large-scale datasets show that DEEPre improves the prediction performance over the previous state-of-the-art methods. In addition, our server outperforms five other servers in determining the main class of enzymes on a separate low-homology dataset. Two case studies demonstrate DEEPre's ability to capture the functional difference of enzyme isoforms.The server could be accessed freely at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/DEEPre.

  16. Are Macro variables good predictors? A prediction based on the number of total medals acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shafiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of effort is spent on forecasting the outcome of sporting events. Moreover, there are large quantities of data regarding the outcomes of sporting events and the factors which are assumed to contribute to those outcomes. In this paper we tried to predict the success of nations at the Asian Games through macro-economic, political, social and cultural variables. we used the information of variables include urban population, Education Expenditures, Age Structure, GDP Real Growth Rate, GDP Per Capita, Unemployment Rate, Population, Inflation Average, current account balance, life expectancy at birth and Merchandise Trade for all of the participating countries in Asian Games from 1970 to 2006 in order to build the model and then this model was tested by the information of variables in 2010. The prediction is based on the number of total medals acquired each country. In this research we used WEKA software that is a popular suite of machine learning software written in Java. The value of correlation coefficient between the predicted and original ranks is 90.42%. Neural Network Model, between 28 countries mentioned, predicts their ranks according to the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 19 countries (67.85% is 3, the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 8 countries (28.57% is between 4 to 6 and the difference between predicted and original ranks of 1 countries (3.57% is more than 6.

  17. Generalized hardware post-processing technique for chaos-based pseudorandom number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized post-processing technique for enhancing the pseudorandomness of digital chaotic oscillators through a nonlinear XOR-based operation with rotation and feedback. The technique allows full utilization of the chaotic output as pseudorandom number generators and improves throughput without a significant area penalty. Digital design of a third-order chaotic system with maximum function nonlinearity is presented with verified chaotic dynamics. The proposed post-processing technique eliminates statistical degradation in all output bits, thus maximizing throughput compared to other processing techniques. Furthermore, the technique is applied to several fully digital chaotic oscillators with performance surpassing previously reported systems in the literature. The enhancement in the randomness is further examined in a simple image encryption application resulting in a better security performance. The system is verified through experiment on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput up to 15.44 Gbit/s and logic utilization less than 0.84% for 32-bit implementations. © 2013 ETRI.

  18. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  19. Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Human-Centered Design to Address Violence-Related Health Disparities Among Latino/a Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica

    High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.

  20. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  1. Embodied Numerosity: Implicit Hand-Based Representations Influence Symbolic Number Processing across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domahs, Frank; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a strong functional relationship between finger counting and number processing has been suggested. Developmental studies have shown specific effects of the structure of the individual finger counting system on arithmetic abilities. Moreover, the orientation of the mental quantity representation ("number line") seems to be…

  2. Exploring Effect of Location Number on Map-Based Graphical Password Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Lee, Wang; Au, Man Ho

    2017-01-01

    select their secrets (geographical points) on a world map. In particular, PassMap allows users to select two locations on a map, while GeoPass reduces the number of locations to only one. At first glance, selecting one location is more vulnerable to attacks, while increasing the location number may add...

  3. Comparison of CT number calibration techniques for CBCT-based dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, Alex; McQuaid, Dualta; Nill, Simeon; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Oelfke, Uwe; Murray, Julia; Bhide, Shreerang; Harrington, Kevin; Poludniowski, Gavin; Nutting, Christopher; Newbold, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare and validate various computed tomography (CT) number calibration techniques with respect to cone beam CT (CBCT) dose calculation accuracy. CBCT dose calculation accuracy was assessed for pelvic, lung, and head and neck (H and N) treatment sites for two approaches: (1) physics-based scatter correction methods (CBCT r ); (2) density override approaches including assigning water density to the entire CBCT (W), assignment of either water or bone density (WB), and assignment of either water or lung density (WL). Methods for CBCT density assignment within a commercially available treatment planning system (RS auto ), where CBCT voxels are binned into six density levels, were assessed and validated. Dose-difference maps and dose-volume statistics were used to compare the CBCT dose distributions with the ground truth of a planning CT acquired the same day as the CBCT. For pelvic cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume deviations below 1.5 %. RS auto provided larger than average errors for pelvic treatments for patients with large amounts of adipose tissue. For H and N cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume differences below 1.0 % with CBCT r (0.5 %) and RS auto (0.6 %) performing best. For lung cases, WL and RS auto methods generated dose distributions most similar to the ground truth. The RS auto density override approach is an attractive option for CTN adjustments for a variety of anatomical sites. RS auto methods were validated, resulting in dose calculations that were consistent with those calculated on diagnostic-quality CT images, for CBCT images acquired of the lung, for patients receiving pelvic RT in cases without excess adipose tissue, and for H and N cases. (orig.) [de

  4. Place Based STEM: Leveraging Local Resources to Engage K-12 Teachers in Teaching Integrated STEM and for Addressing the Local STEM Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Louis Nadelson; Anne Louise Seifert; Meagan McKinney

    2014-06-01

    Business, industry, parks, nature settings, government infrastructure, and people, can be invaluable resources for connecting STEM curriculum within context which results in conditions ideal for promoting purposeful learning of authentic STEM content. Thus, community-based STEM resources offer ideal context for teaching STEM content. A benefit of focusing teacher attention on these contextual, content aligned resources is that they are in every community; making place-based STEM education a possibility, regardless of the location of STEM teaching and learning. Further, associating STEM teaching and learning with local resources addresses workforce development and the STEM pipeline by exposing students to STEM careers and applications in their local communities. The desire to align STEM teaching and learning with local STEM related resources guided the design of our week-long integrated STEM K-12 teacher professional development (PD) program, i-STEM. We have completed four years of our i-STEM PD program and have made place-based STEM a major emphasis of our curriculum. This report focuses on the data collected in the fourth year of our program. Our week-long i-STEM PD served over 425 educators last summer (2013), providing them with in depth theme-based integrated STEM short courses which were limited to an average of 15 participants and whole group plenary sessions focused around placed based integrated STEM, inquiry, engineering design, standards and practices of Common Core and 21st Century skills. This state wide PD was distributed in five Idaho community colleges and took place over two weeks. The STEM short courses included topics on engineering for sustainability, using engineering to spark interest in STEM, municipal water systems, health, agriculture, food safety, mining, forestry, energy, and others. Integral to these short courses were field trips designed to connect the K-12 educators to the resources in their local communities that could be leveraged

  5. Survey and analysis of satellite-based telemedicine projects involving Japan and developing nations: investigation of transmission rates, channel numbers, and node numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Natori, M; Takizawa, M; Kaihara, S

    2001-01-01

    We surveyed interactive telemedicine projects via telecommunications satellite (AMINE-PARTNERS, Post-PARTNERS, and Shinshu University Project using Inmarsat satellites) offered by Japan as assistance to developing countries. The survey helped clarify channel occupation time and data transfer rates. Using our survey results, we proposed an optimized satellite model with VSATs simulating the number of required channels and bandwidth magnitude. For future implementation of VSATs for medical use in developing nations, design of telecommunication channels should take into consideration TCP/IP-based operations. We calculated that one hub station with 30-76 VSATs in developing nation can be operated on bandwidth 6 Mbps using with 128 Kbps videoconferencing system for teleconsultation and teleconference, and linking with Internet.

  6. Light-Addressed Electrodeposition of Enzyme-Entrapped Chitosan Membranes for Multiplexed Enzyme-Based Bioassays Using a Digital Micromirror Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Long Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a light-addressed electrolytic system used to perform an electrodeposition of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes for multiplexed enzyme-based bioassays using a digital micromirror device (DMD. In this system, a patterned light illumination is projected onto a photoconductive substrate serving as a photo-cathode to electrolytically produce hydroxide ions, which leads to an increased pH gradient. The high pH generated at the cathode can cause a local gelation of chitosan through sol-gel transition. By controlling the illumination pattern on the DMD, a light-addressed electrodeposition of chitosan membranes with different shapes and sizes, as well as multiplexed micropatterning, was performed. The effect of the illumination time of the light pattern on the dimensional resolution of chitosan membrane formation was examined experimentally. Moreover, multiplexed enzyme-based bioassay of enzyme-entrapped chitosan membranes was also successfully demonstrated through the electrodeposition of the chitosan membranes with various shapes/sizes and entrapping different enzymes. As a model experiment, glucose and ethanol were simultaneously detected in a single detection chamber without cross-talk using shape-coded chitosan membranes entrapped with glucose oxidase (GOX, peroxidase (POD, and Amplex Red (AmR or alcohol oxidase (AOX, POD, and AmR by using same fluorescence indicator (AmR.

  7. Information hiding technology and application analysis based on decimal expansion of irrational numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyong; Lu, Pei; Shao, Jianxin; Cao, Haibin; Zhu, Zhenmin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an information hiding method using decimal expansion of irrational numbers to generate random phase mask is proposed. Firstly, the decimal expansion parts of irrational numbers generate pseudo-random sequences using a new coding schemed, the irrational number and start and end bit numbers were used as keys in image information hiding. Secondly, we apply the coding schemed to the double phase encoding system, the pseudo-random sequences are taken to generate random phase masks. The mean square error is used to calculate the quality of the recovered image information. Finally, two tests had been carried out to verify the security of our method; the experimental results demonstrate that the cipher image has such features, strong robustness, key sensitivity, and resistance to brute force attack.

  8. Evaluation of bispectrum in the wave number domain based on multi-point measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an estimator of the bispectrum, a measure of three-wave couplings. It is evaluated directly in the wave number domain using a limited number of detectors. The ability of the bispectrum estimator is examined numerically and then it is applied to fluctuations of magnetic field and electron density in the terrestrial foreshock region observed by the four Cluster spacecraft, which indicates the presence of a three-wave coupling in space plasma.

  9. Self-Powered Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Triboelectric and Electrostatic Induction Effects at the Liquid-Dielectric Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Chen, Xiangyu; Cui, Haotian; Chen, Libo; Luo, Jianjun; Tang, Wei; Peng, Mingzeng; Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-27

    Modern cryptography increasingly employs random numbers generated from physical sources in lieu of conventional software-based pseudorandom numbers, primarily owing to the great demand of unpredictable, indecipherable cryptographic keys from true random numbers for information security. Thus, far, the sole demonstration of true random numbers has been generated through thermal noise and/or quantum effects, which suffers from expensive and complex equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for self-powered creation of true random numbers by using triboelectric technology to collect random signals from nature. This random number generator based on coupled triboelectric and electrostatic induction effects at the liquid-dielectric interface includes an elaborately designed triboelectric generator (TENG) with an irregular grating structure, an electronic-optical device, and an optical-electronic device. The random characteristics of raindrops are harvested through TENG and consequently transformed and converted by electronic-optical device and an optical-electronic device with a nonlinear characteristic. The cooperation of the mechanical, electrical, and optical signals ensures that the generator possesses complex nonlinear input-output behavior and contributes to increased randomness. The random number sequences are deduced from final electrical signals received by an optical-electronic device using a familiar algorithm. These obtained random number sequences exhibit good statistical characteristics, unpredictability, and unrepeatability. Our study supplies a simple, practical, and effective method to generate true random numbers, which can be widely used in cryptographic protocols, digital signatures, authentication, identification, and other information security fields.

  10. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-...

  11. Unfolding the values of work - therapists´ experience of addressing the return to work process in occupational rehabilitation based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevanger, Nina E; Fimland, Marius S; Johnsen, Roar; Rise, Marit B

    2018-04-27

    Facilitating return to work can be challenging due to the complexity of work disability. Few studies have examined rehabilitation programs based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy that intend to support return to work, and none have investigated therapists' experience with providing such programs. The aim of this study was therefore to explore therapists' experience of addressing the return to work process in an inpatient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. This was a qualitative interview study supported by participant observation. Therapists were interviewed regarding their experiences with addressing return to work in an inpatient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. In addition, the rehabilitation program was investigated through participant observation. The interviews were analysed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and informed by an analysis of field notes from the participant observation. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was experienced as a meaningful approach to facilitate return to work, as it allowed therapists to address all relevant aspects of the individual participant's life that might influence work participation. The therapists' twofold goal was to support participants in building both a meaningful life and sustainable work participation. To do so, they attempted to instil long-term and interrelated processes concerning ownership, causes of sick leave, relation to expectations, the values of work, and the scope of agency. Unfolding values connected to work participation might reconcile the tension between work and family life by integrating work with other areas of life. Providing work participation with personal meaning also seems especially commensurable with a context where economy presents a poor incentive for return to work. Therapists should, however, be attentive to the need to secure the prominence of return to work by relating

  12. A Shot Number Based Approach to Performance Analysis in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Sho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a novel approach that improves the conventional performance analysis in table tennis by introducing the concept of frequency, or the number of shots, of each shot number. The improvements over the conventional method are as follows: better accuracy of the evaluation of skills and tactics of players, additional insights into scoring and returning skills and ease of understanding the results with a single criterion. The performance analysis of matches played at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was conducted using the proposed method. The results showed some effects of the shot number and gender differences in table tennis. Furthermore, comparisons were made between Chinese players and players from other countries, what threw light on the skills and tactics of the Chinese players. The present findings demonstrate that the proposed method provides useful information and has some advantages over the conventional method.

  13. Blind estimation of the number of speech source in reverberant multisource scenarios based on binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...... on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A systematic analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is able to blindly determine the number and the corresponding spatial positions of speech sources in multisource scenarios and generalizes well to unknown acoustic conditions...

  14. Design-based estimation of neuronal number and individual neuronal volume in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini-Sharifabad, Mohammad; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2007-01-01

    Tools recently developed in stereology were employed for unbiased estimation of the neuronal number and volume in three major subdivisions of rat hippocampus (dentate granular, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layers). The optical fractionator is used extensively in quantitative studies of the hippocampus; ...

  15. CoNVaQ: a web tool for copy number variation-based association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Jonas; do Canto, Luisa Matos; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are large segments of the genome that are duplicated or deleted. Structural variations in the genome have been linked to many complex diseases. Similar to how genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have helped discover single-nucleotide polymorphisms linked to diseas...

  16. NN-Harmonic Mean Aggregation Operators-Based MCGDM Strategy in a Neutrosophic Number Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A neutrosophic number (a + bI is a significant mathematical tool to deal with indeterminate and incomplete information which exists generally in real-world problems, where a and bI denote the determinate component and indeterminate component, respectively. We define score functions and accuracy functions for ranking neutrosophic numbers. We then define a cosine function to determine the unknown weight of the criteria. We define the neutrosophic number harmonic mean operators and prove their basic properties. Then, we develop two novel multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM strategies using the proposed aggregation operators. We solve a numerical example to demonstrate the feasibility, applicability, and effectiveness of the two proposed strategies. Sensitivity analysis with the variation of “I” on neutrosophic numbers is performed to demonstrate how the preference ranking order of alternatives is sensitive to the change of “I”. The efficiency of the developed strategies is ascertained by comparing the results obtained from the proposed strategies with the results obtained from the existing strategies in the literature.

  17. Kinetically based NMR method of measuring blending octane number of olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, J.; Morley, C.

    1995-01-01

    Olefins are highly nonlinear octane blenders so that standard GC analyses are poor predictors of blend quality. Engine rating is the only way of measuring olefin octane number nonlinearity. It is thus not possible to rapidly assess the quality of the product obtained from an olefin-producing

  18. Comparison of CT number calibration techniques for CBCT-based dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Alex [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, Downs Road (United Kingdom); McQuaid, Dualta; Nill, Simeon; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Oelfke, Uwe [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Murray, Julia; Bhide, Shreerang; Harrington, Kevin [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, Downs Road (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Poludniowski, Gavin [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Nutting, Christopher [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Newbold, Kate [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, Downs Road (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work was to compare and validate various computed tomography (CT) number calibration techniques with respect to cone beam CT (CBCT) dose calculation accuracy. CBCT dose calculation accuracy was assessed for pelvic, lung, and head and neck (H and N) treatment sites for two approaches: (1) physics-based scatter correction methods (CBCT{sub r}); (2) density override approaches including assigning water density to the entire CBCT (W), assignment of either water or bone density (WB), and assignment of either water or lung density (WL). Methods for CBCT density assignment within a commercially available treatment planning system (RS{sub auto}), where CBCT voxels are binned into six density levels, were assessed and validated. Dose-difference maps and dose-volume statistics were used to compare the CBCT dose distributions with the ground truth of a planning CT acquired the same day as the CBCT. For pelvic cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume deviations below 1.5 %. RS{sub auto} provided larger than average errors for pelvic treatments for patients with large amounts of adipose tissue. For H and N cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume differences below 1.0 % with CBCT{sub r} (0.5 %) and RS{sub auto} (0.6 %) performing best. For lung cases, WL and RS{sub auto} methods generated dose distributions most similar to the ground truth. The RS{sub auto} density override approach is an attractive option for CTN adjustments for a variety of anatomical sites. RS{sub auto} methods were validated, resulting in dose calculations that were consistent with those calculated on diagnostic-quality CT images, for CBCT images acquired of the lung, for patients receiving pelvic RT in cases without excess adipose tissue, and for H and N cases. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist der Vergleich und die Validierung mehrerer CT-Kalibrierungsmethoden zur Dosisberechnung auf der Grundlage von Kegelstrahlcomputertomographie

  19. Copy number variation in salivary amylase: A participant-based study on genetic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Amylase (AMY1 is an enzyme found in the mouth that is used to help digest carbohydrates. It has been found that the copy number of AMY1 has been positively associated with protein levels within an individual and also that individual’s population. This information can correspond to the positive ancestral linkage of high starch consumption within agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies. A high starch consumption means that the AMY1 enzyme will be more prevalent within their bodies, and the presence of AMY1 could both help bodies process starches better and prevent future conditions or intestinal diseases. The amylase gene is conclusively connected to the AMY1 copy number production. I hypothesized that individuals within a population will have a similar copy number of the AMY1 gene to each other. Twenty-five high school students located in Norman, Oklahoma were asked to retrieve buccal swabs from the inside of their cheek. DNA then was abstracted from these samples, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, a machine used to detect the amount of genetic material found in the DNA, was completed in order to determine the copy number within each salivary sample. The qPCR was completed two different times in order to ensure correct results when the data was presented. Results indicated that the copy number within the population were similar to each other, and ranged from 1-12. This means that individuals located in this population have a lower production of amylase, and this provides indication that they are more likely to become obese than in previous research papers located in Arizona. Research shows that a smaller production of AMY1 may contribute to the chances of obesity in the future.

  20. An Innovative Approach to Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Knowledge-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Decision-Making in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nii Antiaye Addy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed

  1. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  2. Discrete Fourier transformation processor based on complex radix (−1 + j number system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anidaphi Shadap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex radix (−1 + j allows the arithmetic operations of complex numbers to be done without treating the divide and conquer rules, which offers the significant speed improvement of complex numbers computation circuitry. Design and hardware implementation of complex radix (−1 + j converter has been introduced in this paper. Extensive simulation results have been incorporated and an application of this converter towards the implementation of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT processor has been presented. The functionality of the DFT processor have been verified in Xilinx ISE design suite version 14.7 and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption have been calculated by Virtuoso platform in Cadence. The proposed DFT processor has been implemented through conversion, multiplication and addition. The performance parameter matrix in terms of delay and power consumption offered a significant improvement over other traditional implementation of DFT processor.

  3. Subscriber Number Forecasting Tool Based on Subscriber Attribute Distribution for Evaluating Improvement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramatsu, Ayako; Shono, Yuji; Oiso, Hiroaki; Komoda, Norihisa

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subscriber number forecasting tool that evaluates quiz game mobile content improvement strategies is developed. Unsubscription rates depend on such subscriber attributes such as consecutive months, stages, rankings, and so on. In addition, content providers can anticipate change in unsubscription rates for each content improvement strategy. However, subscriber attributes change dynamically. Therefore, a method that deals with dynamic subscriber attribute changes is proposed. ...

  4. Pseudo-random number generator based on mixing of three chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, M.; Grosges, T.; Barchiesi, D.; Erra, R.

    2014-04-01

    A secure pseudo-random number generator three-mixer is proposed. The principle of the method consists in mixing three chaotic maps produced from an input initial vector. The algorithm uses permutations whose positions are computed and indexed by a standard chaotic function and a linear congruence. The performance of that scheme is evaluated through statistical analysis. Such a cryptosystem lets appear significant cryptographic qualities for a high security level.

  5. Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN): A reliable factor-analysis based synaesthesia questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Rothen Nicolas; Tsakanikos Elias; Meier Beat; Ward Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a heterogeneous phenomenon even when considering one particular sub type. The purpose of this study was to design a reliable and valid questionnaire for grapheme colour synaesthesia that captures this heterogeneity. By the means of a large sample of 628 synaesthetes and a factor analysis we created the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire with 16 items loading on 4 different factors (i.e. localisation automaticity/attention deliberate use and longitudinal changes)...

  6. Blind identification of the number of sub-carriers for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based elastic optical networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Xu, Hengying; Bai, Chenglin

    2018-03-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based elastic optical networking (EON), it is imperative to identify unknown parameters of OFDM-based EON signals quickly, intelligently and robustly. Because the number of sub-carriers determines the size of the sub-carriers spacing and then affects the symbol period of the OFDM and the anti-dispersion capability of the system, the identification of the number of sub-carriers has a profound effect on the identification of other key parameters of the system. In this paper, we proposed a method of number identification for sub-carriers of OFDM-based EON signals with help of high-order cyclic cumulant. The specific fourth-order cyclic cumulant exists only at the location of its sub-carriers frequencies. So the identification of the number of sub-carriers can be implemented by detecting the cyclic-frequencies. The proposed scheme in our study can be divided into three sub-stages, i.e. estimating the spectral range, calculating the high-order cyclic cumulant and identifying the number of sub-carriers. When the optical signal-to-noise ratios (OSNR) varied from 16dB to 22dB, the number of sub-carriers (64-512) was successfully identified in the experiment, and from the statistical point of view, the average identification absolute accuracy (IAAs) exceeded 94%.

  7. Evidence-based optimal number of radiotherapy fractions for cancer: A useful tool to estimate radiotherapy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen; Delaney, Geoff P; Barton, Michael B

    2016-04-01

    The recently updated optimal radiotherapy utilisation model estimated that 48.3% of all cancer patients should receive external beam radiotherapy at least once during their disease course. Adapting this model, we constructed an evidence-based model to estimate the optimal number of fractions for notifiable cancers in Australia to determine equipment and workload implications. The optimal number of fractions was calculated based on the frequency of specific clinical conditions where radiotherapy is indicated and the evidence-based recommended number of fractions for each condition. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impact of variables on the model. Of the 27 cancer sites, the optimal number of fractions for the first course of radiotherapy ranged from 0 to 23.3 per cancer patient, and 1.5 to 29.1 per treatment course. Brain, prostate and head and neck cancers had the highest average number of fractions per course. Overall, the optimal number of fractions was 9.4 per cancer patient (range 8.7-10.0) and 19.4 per course (range 18.0-20.7). These results provide valuable data for radiotherapy services planning and comparison with actual practice. The model can be easily adapted by inserting population-specific epidemiological data thus making it applicable to other jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  9. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  10. Stream cipher based on pseudorandom number generation using optical affine transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toru; Togo, Hiroyuki; Tanida, Jun; Ichioka, Yoshiki

    2000-07-01

    We propose a new stream cipher technique for 2D image data which can be implemented by iterative optical transformation. The stream cipher uses a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate pseudo-random bit sequence. The proposed method for the PRNG is composed of iterative operation of 2D affine transformation achieved by optical components, and modulo-n addition of the transformed images. The method is expected to be executed efficiently by optical parallel processing. We verify performance of the proposed method in terms of security strength and clarify problems on optical implementation by the optical fractal synthesizer.

  11. The Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Supervision Risk in Electricity Transaction Based on Unascertained Rational Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haining, Wang; Lei, Wang; Qian, Zhang; Zongqiang, Zheng; Hongyu, Zhou; Chuncheng, Gao

    2018-03-01

    For the uncertain problems in the comprehensive evaluation of supervision risk in electricity transaction, this paper uses the unidentified rational numbers to evaluation the supervision risk, to obtain the possible result and corresponding credibility of evaluation and realize the quantification of risk indexes. The model can draw the risk degree of various indexes, which makes it easier for the electricity transaction supervisors to identify the transaction risk and determine the risk level, assisting the decision-making and realizing the effective supervision of the risk. The results of the case analysis verify the effectiveness of the model.

  12. A new hybrid nonlinear congruential number generator based on higher functional power of logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecen, Songul; Demirer, R. Murat; Bayrak, Coskun

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear congruential pseudorandom number generator consisting of summation of higher order composition of random logistic maps under certain congruential mappings. We change both bifurcation parameters of logistic maps in the interval of U=[3.5599,4) and coefficients of the polynomials in each higher order composition of terms up to degree d. This helped us to obtain a perfect random decorrelated generator which is infinite and aperiodic. It is observed from the simulation results that our new PRNG has good uniformity and power spectrum properties with very flat white noise characteristics. The results are interesting, new and may have applications in cryptography and in Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Technical Note: Impact of the geometry dependence of the ion chamber detector response function on a convolution-based method to address the volume averaging effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Lebron, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608 and J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Li, Jonathan G.; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua, E-mail: yangua@shands.ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the geometry dependence of the detector response function (DRF) of three commonly used scanning ionization chambers and its impact on a convolution-based method to address the volume averaging effect (VAE). Methods: A convolution-based approach has been proposed recently to address the ionization chamber VAE. It simulates the VAE in the treatment planning system (TPS) by iteratively convolving the calculated beam profiles with the DRF while optimizing the beam model. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to the same VAE, the calculated profiles match the implicit “real” ones when the optimization converges. Three DRFs (Gaussian, Lorentzian, and parabolic function) were used for three ionization chambers (CC04, CC13, and SNC125c) in this study. Geometry dependent/independent DRFs were obtained by minimizing the difference between the ionization chamber-measured profiles and the diode-measured profiles convolved with the DRFs. These DRFs were used to obtain eighteen beam models for a commercial TPS. Accuracy of the beam models were evaluated by assessing the 20%–80% penumbra width difference (PWD) between the computed and diode-measured beam profiles. Results: The convolution-based approach was found to be effective for all three ionization chambers with significant improvement for all beam models. Up to 17% geometry dependence of the three DRFs was observed for the studied ionization chambers. With geometry dependent DRFs, the PWD was within 0.80 mm for the parabolic function and CC04 combination and within 0.50 mm for other combinations; with geometry independent DRFs, the PWD was within 1.00 mm for all cases. When using the Gaussian function as the DRF, accounting for geometry dependence led to marginal improvement (PWD < 0.20 mm) for CC04; the improvement ranged from 0.38 to 0.65 mm for CC13; for SNC125c, the improvement was slightly above 0.50 mm. Conclusions: Although all three DRFs were found adequate to

  14. Telegerontology as a Novel Approach to Address Health and Safety by Supporting Community-Based Rural Dementia Care Triads: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Elizabeth M; Harris, Chelsea; Ploughman, Michelle; Butler, Roger

    2018-02-22

    Telegerontology is an approach using videoconferencing to connect an interdisciplinary team in a regional specialty center to patients in rural communities, which is becoming increasingly practical for addressing current limitations in rural community-based dementia care. Using the remotely-delivered expertise of the Telegerontology dementia care team, we aim to enhance the caregiver/patient/physician triad and thereby provide the necessary support for the person with dementia to "age in place." This is a cluster randomized feasibility trial with four rural regions in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (2 regions randomly assigned to "intervention" and 2 to "control"). The study population includes 22 "dementia triads" that consist of a community-dwelling older Canadian with moderate to late dementia, their family caregivers, and their Primary Care Physician (PCP). Over the 6-month active study period, all participants will be provided an iPad. The intervention is intended as an adjunct to existing PCP care, consisting of weekly Skype-based videoconferencing calls with the Telegerontology physician, and other team members as needed (occupational therapist, physical therapist etc). Control participants receive usual community-based dementia care with their PCP. A baseline (pre-) assessment will be performed during a home visit with the study team. Post intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments will be collected remotely using specialized dementia monitoring applications and Skype calls. Primary outcomes include admission to long-term care, falls, emergency room visits, hospital stays, and caregiver burden. Results will be available in March of 2018. Results from this study will demonstrate a novel approach to dementia care that has the potential to impact both rural PCPs, family caregivers, and people with dementia, as well as provide evidence for the utility of Telegerontology in models of eHealth-based care. ©Elizabeth M. Wallack, Chelsea

  15. Building technology services that address student needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  16. A faith-based community partnership to address HIV/AIDS in the southern United States: implementation, challenges, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Coleman, Jason D; Fairchild, Amanda; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Though race and region are not by themselves risk factors for HIV infection, regional and racial disparities exist in the burden of HIV/AIDS in the US. Specifically, African Americans in the southern US appear to bear the brunt of this burden due to a complex set of upstream factors like structural and cultural influences that do not facilitate HIV/AIDS awareness, HIV testing, or sexual risk-reduction techniques while perpetuating HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Strategies proposed to mitigate the burden among this population have included establishing partnerships and collaborations with non-traditional entities like African American churches and other faith-based organizations. Though efforts to partner with the African American church are not necessarily novel, most of these efforts do not present a model that focuses on building the capacity of the African American church to address these upstream factors and sustain these interventions. This article will describe Project Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal (F.A.I.T.H), a faith-based model for successfully developing, implementing, and sustaining locally developed HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in African American churches in South Carolina. This was achieved by engaging the faith community and the provision of technical assistance, grant funding and training for project personnel. Elements of success, challenges, and lessons learned during this process will also be discussed.

  17. Identifying Copy Number Variants under Selection in Geographically Structured Populations Based on -statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Hiang Song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale copy number variants (CNVs in the human provide the raw material for delineating population differences, as natural selection may have affected at least some of the CNVs thus far discovered. Although the examination of relatively large numbers of specific ethnic groups has recently started in regard to inter-ethnic group differences in CNVs, identifying and understanding particular instances of natural selection have not been performed. The traditional FST measure, obtained from differences in allele frequencies between populations, has been used to identify CNVs loci subject to geographically varying selection. Here, we review advances and the application of multinomial-Dirichlet likelihood methods of inference for identifying genome regions that have been subject to natural selection with the FST estimates. The contents of presentation are not new; however, this review clarifies how the application of the methods to CNV data, which remains largely unexplored, is possible. A hierarchical Bayesian method, which is implemented via Markov Chain Monte Carlo, estimates locus-specific FST and can identify outlying CNVs loci with large values of FST. By applying this Bayesian method to the publicly available CNV data, we identified the CNV loci that show signals of natural selection, which may elucidate the genetic basis of human disease and diversity.

  18. Pulse number control of electrical resistance for multi-level storage based on phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K; Takata, M; Kasai, T; Kitagawa, A; Akita, J

    2007-01-01

    Phase change nonvolatile memory devices composed of SeSbTe chalcogenide semiconductor thin film were fabricated. The resistivity of the SeSbTe system was investigated to apply to multi-level data storage. The chalcogenide semiconductor acts as a programmable resistor that has a large dynamic range. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor can be set to intermediate resistances between the amorphous and crystalline states using electric pulses of a specified power, and it can be controlled by repetition of the electric pulses. The size of the memory cell used in this work is 200 nm thick with a contact area of 1 μm diameter. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor gradually varies from 41 kΩ to 840 Ω within octal steps. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor decreases with increasing number of applied pulses. The step-down characteristic of the resistance can be explained as the crystalline region of the active phase change region increases with increasing number of applied pulses. The extent of crystallization was also estimated by the overall resistivity of the active region of the memory cell

  19. Scale-up of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator-Based Photomicroreactor via Numbering-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Cambié, Dario; Janse, Jeroen; Wieland, Eric W; Kuijpers, Koen P L; Hessel, Volker; Debije, Michael G; Noël, Timothy

    2018-01-02

    The use of solar energy to power chemical reactions is a long-standing dream of the chemical community. Recently, visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis has been recognized as the ideal catalytic transformation to convert solar energy into chemical bonds. However, scaling photochemical transformations has been extremely challenging due to Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law. Recently, we have pioneered the development of luminescent solar concentrator photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs), which display an excellent energy efficiency. These devices harvest solar energy, convert the broad solar energy spectrum to a narrow-wavelength region, and subsequently waveguide the re-emitted photons to the reaction channels. Herein, we report on the scalability of such LSC-PMs via a numbering-up strategy. Paramount in our work was the use of molds that were fabricated via 3D printing. This allowed us to rapidly produce many different prototypes and to optimize experimentally key design aspects in a time-efficient fashion. Reactors up to 32 parallel channels have been fabricated that display an excellent flow distribution using a bifurcated flow distributor (standard deviations below 10%). This excellent flow distribution was crucial to scale up a model reaction efficiently, displaying yields comparable to those obtained in a single-channel device. We also found that interchannel spacing is an important and unique design parameter for numbered-up LSC-PMs, which influences greatly the photon flux experienced within the reaction channels.

  20. Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-08-12

    By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs.

  1. Prediction of myotonic dystrophy clinical severity based on the number of intragenic [CTG]{sub n} trinucleotide repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennarelli, M.; Dallapiccola, B. [Universita Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Novelli, G. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1996-11-11

    We carried out a genotype-phenotype correlation study, based on clinical findings in 465 patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM), in order to assess [CTG] repeat number as a predictive test of disease severity. Our analysis showed that the DM subtypes defined by strict clinical criteria fall into three different classes with a log-normal distribution. This distribution is useful in predicting the probability of specific DM phenotypes based on triplet [CTG] number. This study demonstrates that measurement of triplet expansions in patients` lymphocyte DNA is highly valuable and accurate for prognostic assessment. 45 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. 41 CFR 105-53.120 - Address and telephone numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ethics and Civil Rights; Office of the Executive Secretariat; Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business... Federal Supply Service is located at Crystal Mall Building 4, 1941 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA...

  3. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  4. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  5. 78 FR 56266 - Consent Based Social Security Number Verification (CBSV) Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... developed CBSV as a user- friendly, internet-based application with safeguards that protect the public's information. In addition to the benefit of providing high volume, centralized SSN verification services to users in a secure manner, CBSV provides us with cost and workload management benefits. New Information...

  6. Evaluation of the number of ionogenic groups of inulinase by acid-base titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, T A; Holyavka, M G; Rezvan, S G; Kozhedub, S V

    2008-06-01

    Acid base titration showed that Aspergillus awamori inulinase includes 178 asparaginic and glutamic acid residues, 20 histidine, 10 serine, and 34 lysine and tyrosine residues. Denaturation temperature for this enzyme was calculated using analysis of the proportion of stabilizing and destabilizing amino acids in the molecule.

  7. Scale and the Evolutionarily Based Approximate Number System: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar; Jones, M. Gail; You, Hye Sun; Robertson, Laura; Chesnutt, Katherine; Halberda, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts such as "scale, proportion, and quantity" are recognised by U.S. science standards as a potential vehicle for students to integrate their scientific and mathematical knowledge; yet, U.S. students and adults trail their international peers in scale and measurement estimation. Culturally based knowledge of scale such…

  8. Improving Student Achievement and Teacher Effectiveness through Scientifically Based Practices. NCREL Viewpoints, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Linda, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on using scientifically based practices to improve student achievement and teacher effectiveness. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who have worked closely…

  9. Performance-based incentives may be appropriate to address challenges to delivery of prevention of vertical transmission of HIV services in rural Mozambique: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L

    2016-10-07

    in record and referral systems and better integrating community-based health workers into the health system. Concerns about the implementation of incentives included neglect of non-incentivized tasks and distorted motivation among colleagues. We found that highly motivated health workers encountered severe opportunity challenges in their PVT mandate. PBIs have the potential to address key barriers that facility- and community-based health workers encounter when delivering PVT services, specifically by building upon existing intrinsic motivation and leveraging highly valued social recognition. We recommend a controlled intervention to monitor incentives' effects on worker motivation and non-incentivized tasks to generate insights about the feasibility of PBIs to improve the delivery of PVT services.

  10. ATLes: the strategic application of Web-based technology to address learning objectives and enhance classroom discussion in a veterinary pathology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Stephen A; Collins, Peggy L; Quitadamo, Ian J; Brahler, C Jayne; Knudson, Cameron D; Crouch, Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    A case-based program called ATLes (Adaptive Teaching and Learning Environments) was designed for use in a systemic pathology course and implemented over a four-year period. Second-year veterinary students working in small collaborative learning groups used the program prior to their weekly pathology laboratory. The goals of ATLes were to better address specific learning objectives in the course (notably the appreciation of pathophysiology), to solve previously identified problems associated with information overload and information sorting that commonly occur as part of discovery-based processes, and to enhance classroom discussion. The program was also designed to model and allow students to practice the problem-oriented approach to clinical cases, thereby enabling them to study pathology in a relevant clinical context. Features included opportunities for students to obtain additional information on the case by requesting specific laboratory tests and/or diagnostic procedures. However, students were also required to justify their diagnostic plans and to provide mechanistic analyses. The use of ATLes met most of these objectives. Student acceptance was high, and students favorably reviewed the online ''Content Links'' that made useful information more readily accessible and level appropriate. Students came to the lab better prepared to engage in an in-depth and high-quality discussion and were better able to connect clinical problems to underlying changes in tissue (lesions). However, many students indicated that the required time on task prior to lab might have been excessive relative to what they thought they learned. The classroom discussion, although improved, was not elevated to the expected level-most likely reflecting other missing elements of the learning environment, including the existing student culture and the students' current discussion skills. This article briefly discusses the lessons learned from ATLes and how similar case-based exercises might be

  11. [High-level expression of heterologous protein based on increased copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjie; He, Peng; Tao, Yong; Yang, Yi

    2013-11-04

    High-level expression system of heterologous protein mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed, which could be used for other applications of S. cerevisiae in metabolic engineering. We constructed co-expression cassette (promoter-mCherry-TIF4631 IRES-URA3) containing promoters Pilv5, Padh2 and Ptdh3 and recombined the co-expression cassette into the genome of W303-1B-A. The URA3+ transformants were selected. By comparing the difference in the mean florescence value of mCherry in transformants, the effect of three promoters was detected in the co-expression cassette. The copy numbers of the interested genes in the genome were determined by Real-Time PCR. We analyzed genetic stability by continuous subculturing transformants in the absence of selection pressure. To verify the application of co-expression cassette, the ORF of mCherry was replaced by beta-galactosidase (LACZ) and xylose reductase (XYL1). The enzyme activities and production of beta-galactosidase and xylose reductase were detected. mCherry has been expressed in the highest-level in transformants with co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter. The highest copy number of DNA fragment integrating in the genome was 47 in transformants containing Pilv5. The engineering strains showed good genetic stability. Xylose reductase was successfully expressed in the co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES. The highest enzyme activity was 0. 209 U/mg crude protein in the transformants WIX-10. Beta-galactosidase was also expressed successfully. The transformants that had the highest enzyme activity was WIL-1 and the enzyme activity was 12.58 U/mg crude protein. The system mediated by Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES could express heterologous protein efficiently in S. cerevisiae. This study offered a new strategy for expression of heterologous protein in S. cerevisiae and provided sufficient experimental evidence for metabolic engineering

  12. Socioeconophysics:. Opinion Dynamics for Number of Transactions and Price, a Trader Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Çağlar

    Involving effects of media, opinion leader and other agents on the opinion of individuals of market society, a trader based model is developed and utilized to simulate price via supply and demand. Pronounced effects are considered with several weights and some personal differences between traders are taken into account. Resulting time series and probabilty distribution function involving a power law for price come out similar to the real ones.

  13. Society by Numbers : Studies on Model-Based Explanations in the Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to provide conceptual tools for the social scientist for clarifying, evaluating and comparing explanations of social phenomena based on formal mathematical models. The focus is on relatively simple theoretical models and simulations, not statistical models. These studies apply a theory of explanation according to which explanation is about tracing objective relations of dependence, knowledge of which enables answers to contrastive why and how-questions. This th...

  14. A Compartmental Model for Computing Cell Numbers in CFSE-based Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    the case (e.g., there is no containment relationship between B2 and B3). 21 A more general approach, based upon the premises of information theory...various experimental conditions, with an eye toward additional constitutive relationships linking molecular and/or subcellular functions to population...correlation between collaterally consanguineous cells on lymphocyte population dynamics, J. Math. Biol., 59 (2009), 255–285. [34] D.A. Fulcher and S.W.J

  15. The Influence of an Internet-Based Formative Assessment Tool on Primary Grades Students' Number Sense Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Martin, Christie; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.; Middleton, Catharina Win

    2017-01-01

    This study examined primary grades students' achievement on number sense tasks administered through an Internet-based formative assessment tool, Assessing Math Concepts Anywhere. Data were analyzed from 2,357 students in teachers' classrooms who had participated in a year-long professional development program on mathematics formative assessment,…

  16. GIS-based multi-criteria site selection for zebra mussel cultivation: Addressing end-of-pipe remediation of a eutrophic coastal lagoon ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdanavičiūtė, Ingrida; Umgiesser, Georg; Vaičiūtė, Diana; Bresciani, Mariano; Kozlov, Igor; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2018-04-11

    Farming of shellfish and seaweeds is a tested tool for mitigating eutrophication consequences in coastal environments, however as many other marine economic activities it should be a subject of marine spatial planning for designating suitable sites. The present study proposes site selection framework for provisional zebra mussel farming in a eutrophic lagoon ecosystem, aimed primarily at remediation purposes. GIS-based multi-criteria approach was applied, combining data from empirical maps, numerical models and remote sensing to estimate suitability parameters. Site selection and prioritisation of suitable areas considered 15 environmental and socio-economic criteria, which contributed to 4 optimisation models (settlement, growth and survival of mussels, environmental and socio-economic) and 3 predefined scenarios representing provisional goals of mussel cultivation: spat production, biomass production and bioremediation. The relative importance of each criterion was assessed utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Site suitability index was calculated and the final result of the site selection analysis was summarized for 3 scenarios and overall suitability map. Four suitability classes (unsuitable, least, moderately and most suitable) were applied, and 3 most suitable zones for provisional zebra mussel cultivation with 12 candidate sites were selected accordingly. The integrated approach presented in this study can be adjusted for designating zebra mussel farming sites in other estuarine lagoon ecosystems, or cultivation of other mussel species for bioremediation purposes. The analytical framework and the workflow designed in this study are also adoptable for addressing other aquaculture-related spatial planning issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing post-stroke care in rural areas with Peru as a case study. Placing emphasis on evidence-based pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Moscoso, Miguel G; Yan, Lijing L; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Garcia, Hector H; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-04-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, with most of its burden now affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). People in rural areas of LMIC who have a stroke receive very little acute stroke care and local healthcare workers and family caregivers in these regions lack the necessary knowledge to assist them. Intriguingly, a recent rapid growth in cell-phone use and digital technology in rural areas has not yet been appropriately exploited for health care training and delivery purposes. What should be done in rural areas, at the community setting-level, where access to healthcare is limited remains a challenge. We review the evidence on improving post-stroke outcomes including lowering the risks of functional disability, stroke recurrence, and mortality, and propose some approaches, to target post-stroke care and rehabilitation, noting key challenges in designing suitable interventions and emphasizing the advantages mHealth and communication technologies can offer. In the article, we present the prevailing stroke care situation and technological opportunities in rural Peru as a case study. As such, by addressing major limitations in rural healthcare systems, we investigate the potential of task-shifting complemented with technology to utilize and strengthen both community-based informal caregivers and community healthcare workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence-based editing: factors influencing the number of citations in a national journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Citations received by papers published within a journal serve to increase its bibliometric impact. The objective of this paper was to assess the influence of publication language, article type, number of authors, and year of publication on the citations received by papers published in Gaceta Sanitaria, a Spanish-language journal of public health. The information sources were the journal website and the Web of Knowledge, of the Institute of Scientific Information. The period analyzed was from 2007 to 2010. We included original articles, brief original articles, and reviews published within that period. We extracted manually information regarding the variables analyzed and we also differentiated among total citations and self-citations. We constructed logistic regression models to analyze the probability of a Gaceta Sanitaria paper to be cited or not, taking into account the aforementioned independent variables. We also analyzed the probability of receiving citations from non-Spanish authors. Two hundred forty papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included papers received a total of 287 citations, which became 202 when excluding self-citations. The only variable influencing the probability of being cited was the publication year. After excluding never cited papers, time since publication and review papers had the highest probabilities of being cited. Papers in English and review articles had a higher probability of citation from non-Spanish authors. Publication language has no influence on the citations received by a national, non-English journal. Reviews in English have the highest probability of citation from abroad. Editors should decide how to manage this information when deciding policies to raise the bibliometric impact factor of their journals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rare Copy Number Variants in a Population Based Investigation of Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Aggeliki; Sicko, Robert J.; Kay, Denise M.; Rigler, Shannon L.; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Caggana, Michele; Browne, Marilyn L.; Fan, Ruzong; Romitti, Paul A.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoplastic right heart syndrome (HRHS) is a rare congenital defect characterized by underdevelopment of the right heart structures commonly accompanied by an atrial septal defect. Familial HRHS reports suggest genetic factor involvement. We examined the role of copy number variants (CNVs) in HRHS. Methods We genotyped 32 HRHS cases identified from all New York State live births (1998–2005) using Illumina HumanOmni2.5 microarrays. CNVs were called with PennCNV and prioritized if they were ≥20Kb, contained ≥10 SNPs and had minimal overlap with CNVs from in-house controls, the Database of Genomic Variants, HapMap3 and CHOP database. Results We identified 28 CNVs in 17 cases; several encompassed genes important for right heart development. One case had a 2p16–2p23 duplication spanning LBH, a limb and heart development transcription factor. Lbh mis-expression results in right ventricular hypoplasia and pulmonary valve defects. This duplication also encompassed SOS1, a factor associated with pulmonary valve stenosis in Noonan syndrome. Sos1−/− mice display thin and poorly trabeculated ventricles. In another case, we identified a 1.5Mb deletion associated with Williams Beuren syndrome, a disorder that includes valvular malformations. A third case had a 24Kb deletion upstream of the TGFβ ligand ITGB8. Embryos genetically null for Itgb8, and its intracellular interactant Band 4.1B, display lethal cardiac phenotypes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study of CNVs in HRHS. We identified several rare CNVs that overlap genes related to right ventricular wall and valve development, suggesting that genetics plays a role in HRHS and providing clues for further investigation. PMID:28009100

  20. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    OpenAIRE

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing spa...

  1. A Case-based Reasoning Approach to Validate Grammatical Gender and Number Agreement in Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Across Latin America 420 indigenous languages are spoken. Spanish is considered a second language in indigenous communities and is progressively introduced in education. However, most of the tools to support teaching processes of a second language have been developed for the most common languages such as English, French, German, Italian, etc. As a result, only a small amount of learning objects and authoring tools have been developed for indigenous people considering the specific needs of their population. This paper introduces Multilingual–Tiny as a web authoring tool to support the virtual experience of indigenous students and teachers when they are creating learning objects in indigenous languages or in Spanish language, in particular, when they have to deal with the grammatical structures of Spanish. Multilingual–Tiny has a module based on the Case-based Reasoning technique to provide recommendations in real time when teachers and students write texts in Spanish. An experiment was performed in order to compare some local similarity functions to retrieve cases from the case library taking into account the grammatical structures. As a result we found the similarity function with the best performance

  2. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  3. A Scientific Calculator for Exact Real Number Computation Based on LRT, GMP and FC++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Language for Redundant Test (LRT is a programming language for exact real number computation. Its lazy evaluation mechanism (also called call-by-need and its infinite list requirement, make the language appropriate to be implemented in a functional programming language such as Haskell. However, a direction translation of the operational semantics of LRT into Haskell as well as the algorithms to implement basic operations (addition subtraction, multiplication, division and trigonometric functions (sin, cosine, tangent, etc. makes the resulting scientific calculator time consuming and so inefficient. In this paper, we present an alternative implementation of the scientific calculator using FC++ and GMP. FC++ is a functional C++ library while GMP is a GNU multiple presicion library. We show that a direct translation of LRT in FC++ results in a faster scientific calculator than the one presented in Haskell.El lenguaje de verificación redundante (LRT, por sus siglas en inglés es un lenguaje de programación para el cómputo con números reales exactos. Su método de evaluación lazy (o mejor conocido como llamada por necesidad y el manejo de listas infinitas requerido, hace que el lenguaje sea apropiado para su implementación en un lenguaje funcional como Haskell. Sin embargo, la implementación directa de la semántica operacional de LRT en Haskell así como los algoritmos para funciones básicas (suma, resta, multiplicación y división y funciones trigonométricas (seno, coseno, tangente, etc hace que la calculadora científica resultante sea ineficiente. En este artículo, presentamos una implementación alternativa de la calculadora científica usando FC++ y GMP. FC++ es una librería que utiliza el paradigma Funcional en C++ mientras que GMP es una librería GNU de múltiple precisión. En el artículo mostramos que la implementación directa de LRT en FC++ resulta en una librería más eficiente que la implementada en Haskell.

  4. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George

    1990-07-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  5. Active measurement-based quantum feedback for preparing and stabilizing superpositions of two cavity photon number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube-Lauziere, Yves

    The measurement-based quantum feedback scheme developed and implemented by Haroche and collaborators to actively prepare and stabilize specific photon number states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) is a milestone achievement in the active protection of quantum states from decoherence. This feat was achieved by injecting, after each weak dispersive measurement of the cavity state via Rydberg atoms serving as cavity sensors, a low average number classical field (coherent state) to steer the cavity towards the targeted number state. This talk will present the generalization of the theory developed for targeting number states in order to prepare and stabilize desired superpositions of two cavity photon number states. Results from realistic simulations taking into account decoherence and imperfections in a CQED set-up will be presented. These demonstrate the validity of the generalized theory and points to the experimental feasibility of preparing and stabilizing such superpositions. This is a further step towards the active protection of more complex quantum states than number states. This work, cast in the context of CQED, is also almost readily applicable to circuit QED. YBL acknowledges financial support from the Institut Quantique through a Canada First Research Excellence Fund.

  6. Analysis of optimal Reynolds number for developing laminar forced convection in double sine ducts based on entropy generation minimization principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, the entropy generation and optimal Reynolds number for developing forced convection in a double sine duct with various wall heat fluxes, which frequently occurs in plate heat exchangers, are studied based on the entropy generation minimization principle by analytical thermodynamic analysis as well as numerical investigation. According to the thermodynamic analysis, a very simple expression for the optimal Reynolds number for the double sine duct as a function of mass flow rate, wall heat flux, working fluid and geometric dimensions is proposed. In the numerical simulations, the investigated Reynolds number (Re) covers the range from 86 to 2000 and the wall heat flux (q'') varies as 160, 320 and 640 W/m 2 . From the numerical simulation of the developing laminar forced convection in the double sine duct, the effect of Reynolds number on entropy generation in the duct has been examined, through which the optimal Reynolds number with minimal entropy generation is detected. The optimal Reynolds number obtained from the analytical thermodynamic analysis is compared with the one from the numerical solutions and is verified to have a similar magnitude of entropy generation as the minimal entropy generation predicted by the numerical simulations. The optimal analysis provided in the present paper gives worthy information for heat exchanger design, since the thermal system could have the least irreversibility and best exergy utilization if the optimal Re can be used according to practical design conditions

  7. Verbal and action-based measures of kindergartners' SFON and their associations with number-related utterances during picture book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathé, Sanne; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2017-11-20

    Young children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as measured by experimental tasks is related to their mathematics achievement. This association is hypothetically explained by children's self-initiated practice in number recognition during everyday activities. As such, experimentally measured SFON should be associated with SFON exhibited during everyday activities and play. However, prior studies investigating this assumed association provided inconsistent findings. We aimed to address this issue by investigating the association between kindergartners' SFON as measured by two different experimental tasks and the frequency of their number-related utterances during a typical picture book reading activity. Participants were 65 4- to 6-year-olds in kindergarten (before the start of formal education). Kindergartners individually participated in two sessions. First, they completed an action-based SFON Imitation task and a verbal SFON Picture task, with a short visuo-motor task in between. Next, children were invited to spontaneously comment on the pictures of a picture book during a typical picture book reading activity. Results revealed a positive association between children's SFON as measured by the Picture task and the frequency of their number-related utterances during typical picture book reading, but no such association for the Imitation task. Our findings indicate that children with higher SFON as measured by a verbal experimental task also tend to focus more frequently on number during verbal everyday activities, such as picture book reading. In view of the divergent associations between our SFON measures under study with everyday number activities, the current data suggest that SFON may not be a unitary construct and/or might be task-dependent. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  9. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kirstein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT. IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB, Controller Area Network (CAN and radio frequency ID (RFID from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  10. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  11. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-05-17

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  12. New Atrophic Acne Scar Classification: Reliability of Assessments Based on Size, Shape, and Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sewon; Lozada, Vicente Torres; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Tan, Jerry; Rueda, Maria Jose; Layton, Alison; Petit, Lauren; Dréno, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Post-acne atrophic scarring is a major concern for which standardized outcome measures are needed. Traditionally, this type of scar has been classified based on shape; but survey of practicing dermatologists has shown that atrophic scar morphology has not been well enough defined to allow good agreement in clinical classification. Reliance on clinical assessment is still needed at the current time, since objective tools are not yet available in routine practice. Evaluate classification for atrophic acne scars by shape, size, and facial location and establish reliability in assessments. We conducted a non-interventional study with dermatologists performing live clinical assessments of atrophic acne scars. To objectively compare identification of lesions, individual lesions were marked on a high-resolution photo of the patient that was displayed on a computer during the clinical evaluation. The Jacob clinical classification system was used to define three primary shapes of scars 1) icepick, 2) boxcar, and 3) rolling. To determine agreement for classification by size, independent technicians assessed the investigators' markings on digital images. Identical localization of scars was denoted if the maximal distance between their centers was ≤ 60 pixels (approximately 3 mm). Raters assessed scars on the same patients twice (morning/afternoon). Aggregate models of rater assessments were created and analyzed for agreement. Raters counted a mean scar count per subject ranging from 15.75 to 40.25 scars. Approximately 50% of scars were identified by all raters and ~75% of scars were identified by at least 2 of 3 raters (weak agreement, Kappa pairwise agreement 0.30). Agreement between consecutive counts was moderate, with Kappa index ranging from 0.26 to 0.47 (after exclusion of one outlier investigator who had significantly higher counts than all others). Shape classifications of icepick, boxcar, and rolling differed significantly between raters and even for same raters at

  13. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-09-11

    Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these

  14. Hybrid Structural Reliability Analysis under Multisource Uncertainties Based on Universal Grey Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfa Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondeterministic parameters of certain distribution are employed to model structural uncertainties, which are usually assumed as stochastic factors. However, model parameters may not be precisely represented due to some factors in engineering practices, such as lack of sufficient data, data with fuzziness, and unknown-but-bounded conditions. To this end, interval and fuzzy parameters are implemented and an efficient approach to structural reliability analysis with random-interval-fuzzy hybrid parameters is proposed in this study. Fuzzy parameters are first converted to equivalent random ones based on the equal entropy principle. 3σ criterion is then employed to transform the equivalent random and the original random parameters to interval variables. In doing this, the hybrid reliability problem is transformed into the one only with interval variables, in other words, nonprobabilistic reliability analysis problem. Nevertheless, the problem of interval extension existed in interval arithmetic, especially for the nonlinear systems. Therefore, universal grey mathematics, which can tackle the issue of interval extension, is employed to solve the nonprobabilistic reliability analysis problem. The results show that the proposed method can obtain more conservative results of the hybrid structural reliability.

  15. Study on the medical meteorological forecast of the number of hypertension inpatient based on SVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Guangyu; Chai, Guorong; Zhang, Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to build a hypertension prediction model by discussing the meteorological factors for hypertension incidence. The research method is selecting the standard data of relative humidity, air temperature, visibility, wind speed and air pressure of Lanzhou from 2010 to 2012(calculating the maximum, minimum and average value with 5 days as a unit ) as the input variables of Support Vector Regression(SVR) and the standard data of hypertension incidence of the same period as the output dependent variables to obtain the optimal prediction parameters by cross validation algorithm, then by SVR algorithm learning and training, a SVR forecast model for hypertension incidence is built. The result shows that the hypertension prediction model is composed of 15 input independent variables, the training accuracy is 0.005, the final error is 0.0026389. The forecast accuracy based on SVR model is 97.1429%, which is higher than statistical forecast equation and neural network prediction method. It is concluded that SVR model provides a new method for hypertension prediction with its simple calculation, small error as well as higher historical sample fitting and Independent sample forecast capability.

  16. Implementation of a Network Address Translation Mechanism Over IPv6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    ...; however, NAT provides several other benefits. NAT can be used to mask the internal IP addresses of an Intranet - IPv6, the emerging standard for Internet addressing, provides three times the number of bits for IP addressing...

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  18. Design of a cluster-randomized trial of electronic health record-based tools to address overweight and obesity in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Heather J; Wee, Christina C; DeVito, Katerina; Orav, E John; Frolkis, Joseph P; Williams, Deborah H; Wright, Adam; Bates, David W

    2015-08-01

    a follow-up appointment about their weight or were prescribed weight loss medication. We encountered challenges in our development of an intervention within the existing structure of an electronic health record. For example, although we decided to randomize clinics within primary care practices, this decision may have introduced contamination and led to some imbalance of patient characteristics between the intervention and control practices. Using the electronic health record as the primary data source reduced the cost of the study, but not all desired data were recorded for every participant. Despite the challenges, this study should provide valuable information about the effectiveness of electronic health record-based tools for addressing overweight and obesity in primary care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Accuracy of Dual-Energy Virtual Monochromatic CT Numbers: Comparison between the Single-Source Projection-Based and Dual-Source Image-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueguchi, Takashi; Ogihara, Ryota; Yamada, Sachiko

    2018-03-21

    To investigate the accuracy of dual-energy virtual monochromatic computed tomography (CT) numbers obtained by two typical hardware and software implementations: the single-source projection-based method and the dual-source image-based method. A phantom with different tissue equivalent inserts was scanned with both single-source and dual-source scanners. A fast kVp-switching feature was used on the single-source scanner, whereas a tin filter was used on the dual-source scanner. Virtual monochromatic CT images of the phantom at energy levels of 60, 100, and 140 keV were obtained by both projection-based (on the single-source scanner) and image-based (on the dual-source scanner) methods. The accuracy of virtual monochromatic CT numbers for all inserts was assessed by comparing measured values to their corresponding true values. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the dependency of measured CT numbers on tissue attenuation, method, and their interaction. Root mean square values of systematic error over all inserts at 60, 100, and 140 keV were approximately 53, 21, and 29 Hounsfield unit (HU) with the single-source projection-based method, and 46, 7, and 6 HU with the dual-source image-based method, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed that the interaction between the attenuation and the method had a statistically significant effect on the measured CT numbers at 100 and 140 keV. There were attenuation-, method-, and energy level-dependent systematic errors in the measured virtual monochromatic CT numbers. CT number reproducibility was comparable between the two scanners, and CT numbers had better accuracy with the dual-source image-based method at 100 and 140 keV. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Addressing unmet mental health and substance abuse needs: a partnered planning effort between grassroots community agencies, faith-based organizations, service providers, and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Chung, Bowen; Stover, Gabriel; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Felica; Litt, Paula; Klap, Ruth S; Patel, Kavita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2011-01-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Restoration Center Los Angeles, a community-academic partnered planning effort aimed at holistically addressing the unmet mental health and substance abuse needs of the Los Angeles African American community. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions on key domains of partnership effectiveness were conducted with a random stratified sample of participants varying by level of involvement. Eleven partners representing grassroots community agencies, faith-based organizations, service providers, and academic institutions. Common themes identified by an evaluation consultant and partners relating to partnership effectiveness, perceived benefits and costs, and future expectations. Findings underscore the importance of considering the potential issues that may arise with the increasing diversity of partners and perspectives. Many of the challenges and facilitating factors that arise within academic-community partnerships were similarly experienced between the diverse set of community partners. Challenges that affected partnership development between community-to-community partners included differences in expectations regarding the final goal of the project, trust-building, and the distribution of funds. Despite such challenges, partners were able to jointly develop a final set of recommendations for the creation of restoration centers, which was viewed as a major accomplishment. Limited guidance exists on how to navigate differences that arise between community members who have shared identities on some dimensions (eg, African American ethnicity, Los Angeles residence) but divergent identities on other dimensions (eg, formal church affiliation). With increasing diversity of community representation, careful attention needs to be dedicated to not only the development of academic-community partnerships but also community-community partnerships.

  1. Self-Guided Web-Based Interventions: Scoping Review on User Needs and the Potential of Embodied Conversational Agents to Address Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Mark R; Kelders, Saskia M; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2017-11-16

    user needs on the ECAs' capabilities suggests that different kinds of ECAs may provide different solutions for improving the adherence levels. Autonomous ECAs that do not respond to a user's expressed emotion in real time but take on empathic roles may be sufficient to motivate users to some extent. It is unclear whether those types of ECAs are competent enough and create sufficient believability among users to address the user's deeper needs for support and empathy. Responsive ECAs may offer a better solution. However, at present, most of these ECAs have difficulties to assess a user's emotional state in real time during an open dialogue. By conducting future research with relationship theory-based ECAs, the added value of ECAs toward user needs can be better understood. ©Mark R Scholten, Saskia M Kelders, Julia EWC Van Gemert-Pijnen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 16.11.2017.

  2. Web-Based Water Accounting Scenario Platform to Address Uncertainties in Water Resources Management in the Mekong : A Case Study in Ca River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apirumanekul, C.; Purkey, D. R.; Pudashine, J.; Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, S.; Wang, D.; Ate, P.; Meechaiya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid economic development in the Mekong Region is placing pressure on environmental resources. Uncertain changes in land-use, increasing urbanization, infrastructure development, migration patterns and climate risks s combined with scarce water resources are increasing water demand in various sectors. More appropriate policies, strategies and planning for sustainable water resource management are urgently needed. Over the last five years, Vietnam has experienced more frequent and intense droughts affecting agricultural and domestic water use during the dry season. The Ca River Basin is the third largest river basin in Vietnam with 35% of its area located in Lao PDR. The delta landscape comprises natural vegetation, forest, paddy fields, farming and urban areas. The Ca River Basin is experiencing ongoing water scarcity that impacts on crop production, farming livelihoods and household water consumption. Water scarcity is exacerbated by uncertainties in policy changes (e.g. changes in land-use, crop types), basin development (e.g. reservoir construction, urban expansion), and climate change (e.g. changes in rainfall patterns and onset of monsoon). The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model, with inputs from satellite-based information and institutional data, is used to estimate water supply, water use and water allocation in various sectors (e.g. household, crops, irrigation and flood control) under a wide range of plausible future scenarios in the Ca River Basin. Web-Based Water Allocation Scenario Platform is an online implementation of WEAP model structured in terms of a gaming experience. The online game, as an educational tool, helps key agencies relevant to water resources management understand and explore the complexity of integrated system of river basin under a wide range of scenarios. Performance of the different water resources strategies in Ca River Basin (e.g. change of dam operation to address needs in various sectors, construction of dams, changes

  3. Addressing adolescents’ risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furzana Timol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and

  4. Addressing adolescents' risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene

    2016-12-01

    Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships

  5. ARMA-Based SEM When the Number of Time Points T Exceeds the Number of Cases N: Raw Data Maximum Likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrated, through simulation, that stationary autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models may be fitted readily when T>N, using normal theory raw maximum likelihood structural equation modeling. Also provides some illustrations based on real data. (SLD)

  6. Implementation of a RANLUX Based Pseudo-Random Number Generator in FPGA Using VHDL and Impulse C

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska-Boruch; Grzegorz Gancarczyk; Kazimierz Wiatr

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used e.g. in the field of physics and molecular modelling. The main role played in these is by the high performance random number generators, such as RANLUX or MERSSENE TWISTER. In this paper the authors introduce the world's first implementation of the RANLUX algorithm on an FPGA platform for high performance computing purposes. A significant speed-up of one generator instance over 60 times, compared with a graphic card based solution, can be noticed. Compa...

  7. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1996-03-01

    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  8. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend  Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.

  9. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  10. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  11. Absolute symbolic addressing, a structure making time-sharing easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debraine, P.

    1968-08-01

    Time-sharing of computers asks for a certain number of conditions, particularly, an efficient dynamic loading of programs and data. This paper indicates a paging method making linkages with a minimum of table-looking operations. The principle is to use associative memory registers for calling blocks of physical memory, the block address being given by the concatenation of a file number (located in a base register) and a page number (located in the instruction proper). The position within the block is given by a displacement located in the instruction. A second associated base register contains the local part (page number + displacement) of the base address. This extended base register system allows executing programs in a very large programming complex without loss of time. The addresses are fixed at assembly time and the blocks can be loaded anywhere without modification for execution. The various problems associated with the execution of complex programs are presented in this context and shown to be easily solved by the proposed system, the realization of which would be very easy starting from the computer structures existing now. (author) [fr

  12. 75 FR 41790 - Address Management Services-Elimination of the Manual Card Option for Address Sequencing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    .... The authority citation for 39 CFR Part 111 continues to read as follows: Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552(a... addresses (including rural address conversions to city-style addressing). For each 5-digit ZIP Code grouping... customer includes a rural-style address (RR/box number) in an address file submitted for sequencing, and a...

  13. Type, Number or Both? A Population-Based Matched Case-Control Study on the Risk of Fall Injuries among Older People and Number of Medications beyond Fall-Inducing Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Laflamme, Lucie; Mon?rrez-Espino, Joel; Johnell, Kristina; Elling, Berty; M?ller, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization. Design National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study. Setting Community dwellers ...

  14. An induction-based magnetohydrodynamic 3D code for finite magnetic Reynolds number liquid-metal flows in fusion blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawczynski, Charlie; Smolentsev, Sergey; Abdou, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new induction-based magnetohydrodynamic code was developed using a finite difference method. • The code was benchmarked against purely hydrodynamic and MHD flows for low and finite magnetic Reynolds number. • Possible applications of the new code include liquid-metal MHD flows in the breeder blanket during unsteady events in the plasma. - Abstract: Most numerical analysis performed in the past for MHD flows in liquid-metal blankets were based on the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number and involved numerical codes that utilized electric potential as the main electromagnetic variable. One limitation of this approach is that such codes cannot be applied to truly unsteady processes, for example, MHD flows of liquid-metal breeder/coolant during unsteady events in plasma, such as major plasma disruptions, edge-localized modes and vertical displacements, when changes in plasmas occur at millisecond timescales. Our newly developed code MOONS (Magnetohydrodynamic Object-Oriented Numerical Solver) uses the magnetic field as the main electromagnetic variable to relax the limitations of the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation for more realistic fusion reactor environments. The new code, written in Fortran, implements a 3D finite-difference method and is capable of simulating multi-material domains. The constrained transport method was implemented to evolve the magnetic field in time and assure that the magnetic field remains solenoidal within machine accuracy at every time step. Various verification tests have been performed including purely hydrodynamic flows and MHD flows at low and finite magnetic Reynolds numbers. Test results have demonstrated very good accuracy against known analytic solutions and other numerical data.

  15. An induction-based magnetohydrodynamic 3D code for finite magnetic Reynolds number liquid-metal flows in fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawczynski, Charlie; Smolentsev, Sergey, E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu; Abdou, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A new induction-based magnetohydrodynamic code was developed using a finite difference method. • The code was benchmarked against purely hydrodynamic and MHD flows for low and finite magnetic Reynolds number. • Possible applications of the new code include liquid-metal MHD flows in the breeder blanket during unsteady events in the plasma. - Abstract: Most numerical analysis performed in the past for MHD flows in liquid-metal blankets were based on the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number and involved numerical codes that utilized electric potential as the main electromagnetic variable. One limitation of this approach is that such codes cannot be applied to truly unsteady processes, for example, MHD flows of liquid-metal breeder/coolant during unsteady events in plasma, such as major plasma disruptions, edge-localized modes and vertical displacements, when changes in plasmas occur at millisecond timescales. Our newly developed code MOONS (Magnetohydrodynamic Object-Oriented Numerical Solver) uses the magnetic field as the main electromagnetic variable to relax the limitations of the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation for more realistic fusion reactor environments. The new code, written in Fortran, implements a 3D finite-difference method and is capable of simulating multi-material domains. The constrained transport method was implemented to evolve the magnetic field in time and assure that the magnetic field remains solenoidal within machine accuracy at every time step. Various verification tests have been performed including purely hydrodynamic flows and MHD flows at low and finite magnetic Reynolds numbers. Test results have demonstrated very good accuracy against known analytic solutions and other numerical data.

  16. The number of preproghrelin mRNA expressing cells is increased in mice with activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Marie; Barde, Swapnali; Achamrah, Najate; Breton, Jonathan; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Coëffier, Moïse; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-01

    Plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, are increased during conditions of chronic starvation, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, it is not known whether such increase can be related to the number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach, and if chronic starvation may activate a tentative central ghrelin production. In this work, in situ hybridization technique was used to analyze the presence and number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach and the hypothalamus of mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by the combination of running wheel activity with progressive, during 10 days, feeding-time restriction (FTR) and compared with sedentary FTR, ABA pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum-fed control mice. All food-restricted mice lost more than 20% of body weight. Body weight loss was similar in ABA and PF mice, but it was more pronounced than in FTR mice. Food intake was also lower in ABA than in FTR mice. Preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach were increased proportionally to the body weight loss in all food-restricted groups with the highest number in ABA mice. No preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells were detectable in the hypothalamus of either control or food-restricted mice. Thus, the increased number of gastric preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells during chronic starvation proportionally to the body weight loss and reduced food intake may underlie increased plasma ghrelin. Hyperactivity-induced anorexia appears to further increase the number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells in the stomach. No evidence was found for ghrelin expression in the hypothalamus, not even in any of the present experimental models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in size classified particle number concentration in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, based on a 5 year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, J. F.; Wraith, D.; Mengersen, K.; Morawska, L.

    Particle number size distribution data in the range from 0.015 to 0.630 μm were collected over a 5-year period in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia. Particle size distribution was summarised by total number concentration and number median diameter (NMD) as well as the number concentration of the 0.015-0.030 ( N15-30), 0.030-0.050 ( N30-50), 0.050-0.100 ( N50-100), 0.100-0.300 ( N100-300) and 0.300-0.630 ( N300-630) μm size classes. Morning (6:00-10:00) and afternoon (16:00-19:00) measurements, the former representing fresh traffic emissions (based on the local meteorological conditions) and the latter well-mixed emissions from the CBD, during weekdays were extracted and the respective monthly mean values were estimated for time series analysis. For all size fractions, average morning concentrations were about 1.5 higher than in the afternoon whereas NMD did not vary between the morning and afternoon. The trend and seasonal components were extracted through weighted linear regression models, using the monthly variance as weights. Only the morning measurements exhibited significant trends. During this time of the day, total particle number increased by 105.7% and the increase was greater for larger particles, resulting in a shift in NMD by 7.9%. Although no seasonal component was detected the evidence against it remained weak due to the limitations of the database.

  18. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  19. Tethered balloon-based particle number concentration, and size distribution vertical profiles within the lower troposphere of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dongfang; Bian, Qinggen; Duan, Yusen; Zhao, Mengfei; Fei, Dongnian; Xiu, Guangli; Fu, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    A tethered balloon-based measurement campaign of particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the size range of 15.7-661.2 nm was conducted within the lower troposphere of 1000 m in Shanghai, a Chinese megacity, during December of 2015. The meteorological conditions, PNC, and PNSD were synchronously measured at the ground-based station as well as by the tethered balloon. On ground level, the 88.2 nm particles were found to have the highest PNC. The Pearson correlation analysis based on the ground level data showed NO2 had a strong correlation with PNC. The synchronous measurement of PNC and PNSD at the ground station and on the tethered balloon showed that the 15.7-200 nm particles had higher PNC on ground level, but the PNC of 200-661.2 nm particles was higher at 400 m. One haze event (Dec 22nd-Dec 23rd) was selected for detailed discussion on the variation of vertical profiles of PNSD and PNC. The vertical distribution of characteristics of PNC and PNSD were observed and compared. Results indicated that the highest MaxDm (the diameter with the highest PNC) during those three launches all appeared at a high altitude, usually above 300 m. Compared to the clean days, the relatively bigger MaxDm at each height in the haze days also indicated regional transport of pollutants might contribute to more to that haze event.

  20. Relationship between superconducting transition temperature and number of CuO2 layers in mercury-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaojia; Xu Zhuan; Jiao Zhengkuan; Zhang Qirui

    1997-01-01

    The nonmonotonic dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the number of CuO 2 layers (n) per unit cell for mercury-based cuprate systems is investigated with the framework of the electrostatic model and the Ginsburg-Landau theory. It is found that the largest value of the normalized density of states is 1.8 when n=3, which corresponds to the highest T c in this series. Using reasonable parameters we predict an upper limit of T c of 160 K. (orig.)

  1. DEFINING THE "COMMUNITY" FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance abuse, violence and sex risk among Latino immigrant youth and young adults. Research staff and community partners knew that the intervention community had grown beyond its Census-designated place (CDP) boundaries, and that connection and attachment to community were relevant to an intervention. Thus, in order to understand current geographic and social boundaries of the community for sampling, data collection, intervention design and implementation, the research team conducted an ethnographic study to identify self-defined community boundaries, both geographic and social. Beginning with preliminary data from a pilot intervention and the original CDP map, the research included: geo-mapping de-identified addresses of service clients from a major community organization; key informant interviews; and observation and intercept interviews in the community. The results provided an expanded community boundary profile and important information about community identity.

  2. Fuzzy Risk Evaluation in Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Using a D Numbers Based Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-09-12

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool to define, identify, and eliminate potential failures or errors so as to improve the reliability of systems, designs, and products. Risk evaluation is an important issue in FMEA to determine the risk priorities of failure modes. There are some shortcomings in the traditional risk priority number (RPN) approach for risk evaluation in FMEA, and fuzzy risk evaluation has become an important research direction that attracts increasing attention. In this paper, the fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA is studied from a perspective of multi-sensor information fusion. By considering the non-exclusiveness between the evaluations of fuzzy linguistic variables to failure modes, a novel model called D numbers is used to model the non-exclusive fuzzy evaluations. A D numbers based multi-sensor information fusion method is proposed to establish a new model for fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA. An illustrative example is provided and examined using the proposed model and other existing method to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  3. CNV-RF Is a Random Forest-Based Copy Number Variation Detection Method Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsongo, Getiria; Baughn, Linda B; Bower, Matthew; Henzler, Christine; Schomaker, Matthew; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Thyagarajan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous detection of small copy number variations (CNVs) (<0.5 kb) and single-nucleotide variants in clinically significant genes is of great interest for clinical laboratories. The analytical variability in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and artifacts in coverage data because of issues with mappability along with lack of robust bioinformatics tools for CNV detection have limited the utility of targeted NGS data to identify CNVs. We describe the development and implementation of a bioinformatics algorithm, copy number variation-random forest (CNV-RF), that incorporates a machine learning component to identify CNVs from targeted NGS data. Using CNV-RF, we identified 12 of 13 deletions in samples with known CNVs, two cases with duplications, and identified novel deletions in 22 additional cases. Furthermore, no CNVs were identified among 60 genes in 14 cases with normal copy number and no CNVs were identified in another 104 patients with clinical suspicion of CNVs. All positive deletions and duplications were confirmed using a quantitative PCR method. CNV-RF also detected heterozygous deletions and duplications with a specificity of 50% across 4813 genes. The ability of CNV-RF to detect clinically relevant CNVs with a high degree of sensitivity along with confirmation using a low-cost quantitative PCR method provides a framework for providing comprehensive NGS-based CNV/single-nucleotide variant detection in a clinical molecular diagnostics laboratory. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammation-based prognostic score and number of lymph node metastases are independent prognostic factors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Teruya, Masanori; Kishiki, Tomokazu; Kaneko, Susumu; Endo, Daisuke; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Miki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Morita, Koji

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have investigated whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is useful for postoperative prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein level (>10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0. A new scoring system was constructed using independent prognostic variables and was evaluated on whether it could be used to dictate the choice of clinical options. 65 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. GPS and the number of lymph node metastases were found to be independent prognostic variables. The scoring system comprising GPS and the number of lymph node metastases was found to be effective in the prediction of a long-term outcome (p GPS may be useful for postoperative prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. GPS and the number of lymph node metastases could be used to identify a subgroup of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who are eligible for radical resection but show poor prognosis.

  5. Individualised dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer based on external dose-rate. Optimisation of the number of measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ballesteros, J A; Torres-Espallardo, I; Borrelli, P; Rivas-Sanchez, A; Bello, P; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the results of individual dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with (131)I at our centre with the established limits and dosimetry results of published studies. Analysis of the optimal number of measurements necessary to reduce the impact of dosimetry for the comfort of the patient and, secondly, on the workload of health workers. Dosimetry was performed in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, on 29 patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer and treated with activities between 1.02 and 5.51 GBq (mean 2.68 GBq) of (131)I. The Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) protocol was used, based on measurements of external dose rate adjusted to a bi-exponential curve according to a two compartment model. Different dosimetries were performed on each patient, taking different selections of the available measurements in order to find the optimal number. Results are well below the dosimetry limits, and are consistent with those obtained in other centres. The number of measurements can be reduced from 5, as proposed in the SEFM protocol, to 4 without significant loss of accuracy. Further reducing measures may be justified in individual cases. The values obtained for the dosimetry quantities are significantly below the established limits. A reduction in measurements can be assumed at the cost of a moderate increase in uncertainty, benefiting the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E

    2015-08-01

    Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. In this community-based, cluster randomised trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a manualised, parenting intervention in Lira, Uganda. We selected and randomly assigned 12 parishes (1:1) to either parenting intervention or control (inclusion on a waitlist with a brief message on nutrition) groups using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Within each parish, we selected two to three eligible communities that had a parish office or a primary school in which a preschool could be established, more than 75 households with children younger than 6 years, and at least 15 socially disadvantaged families (ie, maternal education of primary school level or lower) with at least one child younger than 36 months. Participants within communities were mother-child dyads, where the child was 12-36 months of age at enrollment, and the mother had low maternal education. In the parenting intervention group, participants attended 12 fortnightly peer-led group sessions focusing on child care and maternal wellbeing. The primary outcomes were cognitive and receptive language development, as measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edn. Secondary outcomes included self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and child growth. Theoretically-relevant parenting practices, including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, and mother-care variables, such as perceived spousal

  7. MATCHING ALTERNATIVE ADDRESSES: A SEMANTIC WEB APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariannamazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature’s literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  8. Single-Cell-Based Platform for Copy Number Variation Profiling through Digital Counting of Amplified Genomic DNA Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Yu, Zhilong; Fu, Yusi; Pang, Yuhong; Huang, Yanyi

    2017-04-26

    We develop a novel single-cell-based platform through digital counting of amplified genomic DNA fragments, named multifraction amplification (mfA), to detect the copy number variations (CNVs) in a single cell. Amplification is required to acquire genomic information from a single cell, while introducing unavoidable bias. Unlike prevalent methods that directly infer CNV profiles from the pattern of sequencing depth, our mfA platform denatures and separates the DNA molecules from a single cell into multiple fractions of a reaction mix before amplification. By examining the sequencing result of each fraction for a specific fragment and applying a segment-merge maximum likelihood algorithm to the calculation of copy number, we digitize the sequencing-depth-based CNV identification and thus provide a method that is less sensitive to the amplification bias. In this paper, we demonstrate a mfA platform through multiple displacement amplification (MDA) chemistry. When performing the mfA platform, the noise of MDA is reduced; therefore, the resolution of single-cell CNV identification can be improved to 100 kb. We can also determine the genomic region free of allelic drop-out with mfA platform, which is impossible for conventional single-cell amplification methods.

  9. Addressing the technical capacity constraints on community-based labour intensive road projects - a case study of the Amadiba road project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lachman, A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available effect. 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER The main aim of this paper is to discuss the technical capacity constraints experienced on the Amadiba Road Project and to outline the measures taken to address them. Some of the objectives of this paper... are to: � Highlight the socioeconomic status of the community � Highlight the capacity needed on the project � Discuss some of the capacity building issues � Highlight the current state of the community 4. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF THE AMADIBA...

  10. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relations......According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious...... to a number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  11. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  12. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  13. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  14. Women Exiting Street-Based Sex Work: Correlations between Ethno-Racial Identity, Number of Children, and Violent Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankel, Jennifer; Dewey, Susan; Martinez, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Through this article the authors examine data collected from 126 women seeking services at a transitional housing facility, primarily for women leaving street-based prostitution. Descriptive statistics on the women's ethno-racial identity, numbers of children, and experiences with violence are presented and analyzed to determine correlations and implications for social service providers working with this unique population of women. Nearly half of respondents are women of color, a majority have given birth to at least one child, and more than half are in a non-commercial intimate partnership, with a significant number reporting extensive experiences with violent trauma and abuse. Results indicate statistically significant differences in women's ethno-racial self-identification and their experiences of sex work and violence, as well as their marital status. Most notably, African-American and Hispanic women face the greatest and most diverse forms of intimate partner violence and negative sex industry experiences, with African-Americans more likely to engage in sex work as minors, be sexually abused as children, work for a pimp, and face physical assault and instances of sex trafficking. Results also support existing research showing correlations between traumatic childhood events and adult substance abuse, sexual assault, and other negative outcomes.

  15. A questionnaire based assessment of numbers, motivation and medical care of UK patients undergoing liver transplant abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr Winter, Ben; Odedra, Anand; Green, Steve

    Medical tourism, where patients travel abroad intentionally to access medical treatment, is a growing trend. Some of these patients travel to undergo organ transplantation. This study aims to quantify the number of UK patients who undergo liver transplantation abroad, assessing their motivations and management. Questionnaires were sent to all seven UK liver transplant units enquiring about liver patients receiving transplant abroad. Included were questions on destination, motivation, and pre and post-transplant care. Responses were received from six of the seven transplant centres (86%). A total of 12 patients were identified as having undergone liver transplantation overseas. The top destinations were India, China and Egypt. Four units responded to questions regarding pre-transplant screening. One unit reported Hepatitis B and C screening not taking place. Four units responded to questions regarding post-transplant antimicrobial therapy. This revealed examples of patients inappropriately not receiving valganciclovir, co-trimoxazole, anti-fungal treatment and Hepatitis B immunoglobulins. UK patients are undergoing liver transplant abroad, albeit in small numbers. Pre and post-transplant management of these patients is of a lower standard than that provided to those undergoing transplantation in the UK. Information transfer between overseas and UK based transplant teams is poor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer Attitudes Toward Advertisement and Brand, Based on the Number of Endorsers and Product Involvement: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanti Handriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing endorsers in the advertising industry to promote products is currently on the rise, and employing celebrities as the endorsers is still the marketers’ favorite method. This study aims to analyze the influence of the number of endorsers and the product’s involvement on the consumers’ attitude towards the advertisement and the brand. The research’s approach used a 2x2 factorial experimental design. A total of 120 undergraduate students, who were further divided into 4 groups, were selected as the respondents of this study. The results show the differences in consumer attitudes towards advertisements and the brand, based on the number of endorsers and the product’s involvement. The study also reveals that if there is low involvement with the product, multiple celebrity endorsements will generate a better consumers’ attitude towards it than a single celebrity endorsement. Multiple celebrity endorsements will also generate a better attitude among the consumers towards the brand than a single celebrity endorsement will produce.

  17. Formulation of Low Peclet Number Based Grid Expansion Factor for the Solution of the Convection Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Convection-diffusion problems, due to its fundamental nature, are found in various science and engineering applications. In this research, the importance of the relationship between grid structure and flow parameters in such problems is emphasized. In particular, we propose a systematic technique in the selection of the grid expansion factor based on its logarithmic relationship with low Peclet number. Such linear mathematical connection between the two non-dimensional parameters serves as a guideline for more structured decision-making and improves the heuristic process in the determination of the computational domain grid for the numerical solution of convection-diffusion equations especially in the prediction of the concentration of the scalar. Results confirm the effectiveness of the new approach.

  18. Analysis of the physical properties of trehalose-water-lithium iodide based on the bond strength coordination number fluctuation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahara; Jean L Ndeugueu; Masaru Aniya

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of trehalose-water-lithium iodide system has been investigated by the mean of the Bond Strength Coordination Number Fluctuation (BSCNF) model. The result indicates that by increasing the trehalose content, maintaining the content of LiI constant, the fragility decreases due to the increase of the connectivity between the structural units. Our analysis suggests also that the fragility of the system is controlled by the amount of water in the composition. By increasing the water content, the total bond strength decreases and its fluctuation increases, resulting in the increase of the fragility. Based on the analysis of the obtained parameters of the BSCNF model, a physical interpretation of the VFT parameters reported in a previous study has been given. (author)

  19. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, J.R., E-mail: jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States); Baalousha, M., E-mail: mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery. The current work presents a validated, fully quantitative sampling technique for TEM that overcomes conventional sample preparation shortcomings, and thus enables the use of TEM for measurement of particle number concentration and their detection in complex media at environmentally realistic concentrations. This sampling method is based on ultracentrifugation of NMs from suspension onto a poly-L-lysine (PLL) functionalized TEM grid, using active deposition (by ultracentrifugation) and retention (by PLL interactions with NM surface) of NMs on the substrate, enabling fully quantitative analysis. Similar analysis with AFM was satisfactory in simple media but the lack of chemical-selectivity of AFM limits its applicability for the detection of NMs in complex environmental samples. The sampling approach was validated using both citrate- and PVP-coated AuNMs in pure water, which demonstrated an even distribution of NM on the TEM grid and high NM recovery (80–100%) at environmentally relevant NM concentrations (ca. 0.20–100 μg L{sup −1}). The applicability of the sampling method to complex environmental samples was demonstrated by the quantification of particle number concentration of AuNMs in EPA soft water (with and without Suwannee River fulvic acid) and lake water. This sample preparation approach is also applicable to other types of NMs with some modifications (e.g. centrifugation

  20. A TURBO-GENERATOR DESIGN SYNTHESIS BASED ON THE NUMERICAL-FIELD CALCULATIONS AT VARYING THE NUMBER OF STATOR SLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Milykh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is dedicated to the presentation of the principle of construction and implementation of an automated synthesis system of the turbo-generator (TG electromagnetic system in the case of its modernization. This is done on the example of changing the number of the stator core slots. Methodology. The basis of the synthesis is a TG basic construction. Its structure includes the mathematical and physical-geometrical models, as well as the calculation model for the FEMM software environment, providing the numerical calculations of the magnetic fields and electromagnetic parameters of TG. The mathematical model links the changing and basic dimensions and parameters of the electromagnetic system, provided that the TG power parameters are ensured. The physical-geometrical model is the geometric mapping of the electromagnetic system with the specified physical properties of its elements. This model converts the TG electromagnetic system in a calculation model for the FEMM program. Results. Testing of the created synthesis system is carried out on the example of the 340 MW TG. The geometric, electromagnetic and power parameters of its basic construction and its new variants at the different numbers of the stator slots are compared. The harmonic analysis of the temporal function of the stator winding EMF is also made for the variants being compared. Originality. The mathematical model, relating the new and base parameters of TG at the changing of the number of the stator slots is created. A Lua script, providing the numerical-field calculations of the TG electromagnetic parameters in the FEMM software environment is worked out. Construction of the constructive and calculation models, the numerical-field calculations and delivery of results are performed by a computer automatically, that ensures high efficiency of the TG design process. Practical value. The considered version of the TG modernization on the example of changing the number of the

  1. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.; Lead, J.R.; Baalousha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery. The current work presents a validated, fully quantitative sampling technique for TEM that overcomes conventional sample preparation shortcomings, and thus enables the use of TEM for measurement of particle number concentration and their detection in complex media at environmentally realistic concentrations. This sampling method is based on ultracentrifugation of NMs from suspension onto a poly-L-lysine (PLL) functionalized TEM grid, using active deposition (by ultracentrifugation) and retention (by PLL interactions with NM surface) of NMs on the substrate, enabling fully quantitative analysis. Similar analysis with AFM was satisfactory in simple media but the lack of chemical-selectivity of AFM limits its applicability for the detection of NMs in complex environmental samples. The sampling approach was validated using both citrate- and PVP-coated AuNMs in pure water, which demonstrated an even distribution of NM on the TEM grid and high NM recovery (80–100%) at environmentally relevant NM concentrations (ca. 0.20–100 μg L"−"1). The applicability of the sampling method to complex environmental samples was demonstrated by the quantification of particle number concentration of AuNMs in EPA soft water (with and without Suwannee River fulvic acid) and lake water. This sample preparation approach is also applicable to other types of NMs with some modifications (e.g. centrifugation

  2. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Puccini Street, Constantia Park 546 Puccini Street, Glenstantia, 0181 A recent study in Denmark analysed the qualitative and quantitative impact of address ambiguities. The qualitative analysis confirmed that the ambiguities affect people every day... description consists of a land parcel number together with a registered name and registration division, and is recorded at a Surveyor-General’s office. An address complements a land parcel description with information such as the street name and the street...

  3. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—is to investigate a shift sequence-based approach efficiency then problem consisting of a high number of shifts.Research objectives:• Solve health care workers rostering problem using a shift sequence based method.• Measure its efficiency then number of shifts increases.Design/methodology/approach—Usually rostering problems are highly constrained. Constraints are classified to soft and hard constraints. Soft and hard constraints of the problem are additionally classified to: sequence constraints, schedule constraints and roster constraints. Sequence constraints are considered when constructing shift sequences. Schedule constraints are considered when constructing a schedule. Roster constraints are applied, then constructing overall solution, i.e. combining all schedules.Shift sequence based approach consists of two stages:• Shift sequences construction,• The construction of schedules.In the shift sequences construction stage, the shift sequences are constructed for each set of health care workers of different skill, considering sequence constraints. Shifts sequences are ranked by their penalties for easier retrieval in later stage.In schedules construction stage, schedules for each health care worker are constructed iteratively, using the shift sequences produced in stage 1.Shift sequence based method is an adaptive iterative method where health care workers who received the highest schedule penalties in the last iteration are scheduled first at the current iteration.During the roster construction, and after a schedule has been generated for the current health care worker, an improvement method based on an efficient greedy local search is carried out on the partial roster. It simply swaps any pair of shifts between two health care workers in the (partial roster, as long as the swaps satisfy hard constraints and decrease the roster penalty.Findings—Using shift sequence method for solving health care workers rostering problem

  4. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—is to investigate a shift sequence-based approach efficiency then problem consisting of a high number of shifts. Research objectives:• Solve health care workers rostering problem using a shift sequence based method.• Measure its efficiency then number of shifts increases. Design/methodology/approach—Usually rostering problems are highly constrained.Constraints are classified to soft and hard constraints. Soft and hard constraints of the problem are additionally classified to: sequence constraints, schedule constraints and roster constraints. Sequence constraints are considered when constructing shift sequences. Schedule constraints are considered when constructing a schedule. Roster constraints are applied, then constructing overall solution, i.e. combining all schedules.Shift sequence based approach consists of two stages:• Shift sequences construction,• The construction of schedules.In the shift sequences construction stage, the shift sequences are constructed for each set of health care workers of different skill, considering sequence constraints. Shifts sequences are ranked by their penalties for easier retrieval in later stage.In schedules construction stage, schedules for each health care worker are constructed iteratively, using the shift sequences produced in stage 1. Shift sequence based method is an adaptive iterative method where health care workers who received the highest schedule penalties in the last iteration are scheduled first at the current iteration. During the roster construction, and after a schedule has been generated for the current health care worker, an improvement method based on an efficient greedy local search is carried out on the partial roster. It simply swaps any pair of shifts between two health care workers in the (partial roster, as long as the swaps satisfy hard constraints and decrease the roster penalty.Findings—Using shift sequence method for solving health care workers rostering

  5. ADDRESSING THE GAP:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène

    students’ intellectual, professional and academic competences as well as in the development of competencies relevant for nursing practice. Working with posters forces students to organize, evaluate and reflect upon information and develops their abilities to communicate health promotion knowledge...... as conveyors of health promotion knowledge. The pedagogical advantages of poster based presentations have been evaluated in a Nordic educational developmental project and have been found useful by both educators and students. Pedagogical posters support the teacher’s role as a facilitator of learning, which...

  6. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  7. Addressing mental health disparities through clinical competence not just cultural competence: the need for assessment of sociocultural issues in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial rehabilitation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Brekke, John S

    2008-12-01

    Recognition of ethnic/racial disparities in mental health services has not directly resulted in the development of culturally responsive psychosocial interventions. There remains a fundamental need for assessment of sociocultural issues that have been linked with the expectations, needs, and goals of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness. The authors posit that embedding the assessment of sociocultural issues into psychosocial rehabilitation practice is one step in designing culturally relevant empirically supported practices. It becomes a foundation on which practitioners can examine the relevance of their interventions to the diversity encountered in everyday practice. This paper provides an overview of the need for culturally and clinically relevant assessment practices and asserts that by improving the assessment of sociocultural issues the clinical competence of service providers is enhanced. The authors offer a conceptual framework for linking clinical assessment of sociocultural issues to consumer outcomes and introduce an assessment tool adapted to facilitate the process in psychosocial rehabilitation settings. Emphasizing competent clinical assessment skills will ultimately offer a strategy to address disparities in treatment outcomes for understudied populations of culturally diverse consumers with severe and persistent mental illness.

  8. Word and Number Reading in the Brain: Evidence from a Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Fabrizio; Marangolo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of number transcoding deficits in aphasic subjects suggests there is a strong similarity between language and number domains. However, recent single case studies of subjects who showed a dissociation between word and number word transcoding led us to hypothesize that the two types of stimuli are represented independently in the…

  9. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  10. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  11. Technical session keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many impacting challenges. First among them is staying competitive with non-nuclear generating options. In the last couple of years, we have seen early shutdowns of plants that could not produce our product cheaply or reliably enough to compete with the other options. Although there have been substantial variations in both the volume of waste disposed and its curie content, the volume has generally been decreasing. This decrease is likely due to economic factors which encourage volume reduction by decontamination and recycle, compaction, better administrative controls, and incineration. It appears that the threat of having to pay the surcharge may have affected the trends between 1985 and 1990. Even accounting for the dramatic 70-75% reduction in disposal volume that had occurred over the last 10 years, base disposal cost have nearly quadrupled. Most of this increase has been attributable to rising federal and state surcharges. The rising cost associated with low-level waste disposal site development threaten economic competitiveness. Successfully responding to competition in the nuclear power industry is a serious and important issue that is being confronted by all

  12. Forms of address in Isizulu

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...

  13. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  14. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  15. A pilot controlled trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a PAPA-based online intervention to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication adherence in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chapman

    2015-11-01

    The intervention was effective in addressing perceptual barriers to adherence, as well as having a positive impact on IBD-related illness perceptions: increasing treatment control beliefs, and reducing concerns and emotional response. Fewer episodes of non-adherence were reported in the Intervention Group compared to the Control Group. Satisfaction with information about IBD medication improved following the intervention. However, the number of reported practical barriers was similar between the Intervention and Control groups, suggesting that other support might need to be incorporated into the intervention. Limitations of this study include potential bias due to drop-out, potential lack of generalisability to patient populations not recruited online and a reliance on self-report rather than objective outcome measures. However, this controlled trial suggests that the IBD-Helper intervention may be an effective, feasible and acceptable method of addressing perceptual barriers to adherence.

  16. Addressing Circuitous Currents MVDC Power Systems Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-31

    Addressing Circuitous Currents MVDC Power Systems Protection 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-16-1-3113 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR($) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER...efficiency. A challenge with DC distribution is electrical protection . Z-source DC breakers alt! an pti n b&i g cvr.sidcrcd and this w rk ~xplores...zonal distribution, electric ship 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT u u u uu 18. NUMBER

  17. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  18. Type, number or both? A population-based matched case-control study on the risk of fall injuries among older people and number of medications beyond fall-inducing drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    Full Text Available Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization.National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study.Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009.Cases (n = 64,399 were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status.The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs. Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88. When stratified by use (or not of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67 and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77.In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs or high numbers of them.

  19. Type, number or both? A population-based matched case-control study on the risk of fall injuries among older people and number of medications beyond fall-inducing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Johnell, Kristina; Elling, Berty; Möller, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization. National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study. Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009. Cases (n = 64,399) were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status. The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs). Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88). When stratified by use (or not) of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67) and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77). In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs) or high numbers of them.

  20. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  1. Undiagnosed hypertensive participants demonstrate the largest blood pressure improvements from a community based lifestyle intervention: implications for addressing the silent hypertension epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: It is important to understand effective strategies to reach and treat individuals who lack awareness of or have uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). The objectives of this secondary analysis from a community-based participatory research initiative, HUB City Steps, were to quantify the pre...

  2. Teacher Position in Spurring Value Based Education in Early Learning in Nairobi County, Kenya: Addressing Support of Values in School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amollo, Odundo P.; Lilian, Ganira K.

    2017-01-01

    Value Based Education (VBE) is an essential element that impacts moral, ethical, cultural, social and spiritual ideals necessary for holistic development of children. Providing an education on values at an early age ensures that children are directed by these ideologies throughout life. Research indicates that children who adopt values at an early…

  3. Innovation Need Survey: Implementing a Technology Tool to Improve Early Data-Based Decisions to Address and Prevent Learning Disabilities. Technical Report #1602

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Pilger, Marissa; Sáez, Leilani; Alonzo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and measuring indicators of learning difficulties among young children and implementing effective instructional approaches are complicated, particularly during the transition to kindergarten. Purposeful school-based transition policies and practices support teacher and school decision-making and, thus, can ease the…

  4. A cubic map chaos criterion theorem with applications in generalized synchronization based pseudorandom number generator and image encryption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiuping, E-mail: yangxiuping-1990@163.com; Min, Lequan, E-mail: minlequan@sina.com; Wang, Xue, E-mail: wangxue-20130818@163.com [Schools of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-15

    This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 2{sup 1345}. As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.

  5. A cubic map chaos criterion theorem with applications in generalized synchronization based pseudorandom number generator and image encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuping; Min, Lequan; Wang, Xue

    2015-05-01

    This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 2(1345). As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.

  6. Estimation of expected number of accidents and workforce unavailability through Bayesian population variability analysis and Markov-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas Moura, Márcio das; Azevedo, Rafael Valença; Droguett, Enrique López; Chaves, Leandro Rego; Lins, Isis Didier

    2016-01-01

    Occupational accidents pose several negative consequences to employees, employers, environment and people surrounding the locale where the accident takes place. Some types of accidents correspond to low frequency-high consequence (long sick leaves) events, and then classical statistical approaches are ineffective in these cases because the available dataset is generally sparse and contain censored recordings. In this context, we propose a Bayesian population variability method for the estimation of the distributions of the rates of accident and recovery. Given these distributions, a Markov-based model will be used to estimate the uncertainty over the expected number of accidents and the work time loss. Thus, the use of Bayesian analysis along with the Markov approach aims at investigating future trends regarding occupational accidents in a workplace as well as enabling a better management of the labor force and prevention efforts. One application example is presented in order to validate the proposed approach; this case uses available data gathered from a hydropower company in Brazil. - Highlights: • This paper proposes a Bayesian method to estimate rates of accident and recovery. • The model requires simple data likely to be available in the company database. • These results show the proposed model is not too sensitive to the prior estimates.

  7. A Difference-Index Based Ranking Bilinear Programming Approach to Solving Bimatrix Games with Payoffs of Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a bilinear programming method for solving bimatrix games in which the payoffs are expressed with trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TrIFNs, which are called TrIFN bimatrix games for short. In this method, we define the value index and ambiguity index for a TrIFN and propose a new order relation of TrIFNs based on the difference index of value index to ambiguity index, which is proven to be a total order relation. Hereby, we introduce the concepts of solutions of TrIFN bimatrix games and parametric bimatrix games. It is proven that any TrIFN bimatrix game has at least one satisfying Nash equilibrium solution, which is equivalent to the Nash equilibrium solution of corresponding parametric bimatrix game. The latter can be obtained through solving the auxiliary parametric bilinear programming model. The method proposed in this paper is demonstrated with a real example of the commerce retailers’ strategy choice problem.

  8. Flow visualization over a thick blunt trailing-edge airfoil with base cavity at low Reynolds numbers using PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Gholamhossein; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahdi; Karimi, Mohammad Hassan; Tavakoli, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cutting the end of a thick airfoil and adding a cavity on its flow pattern is studied experimentally using PIV technique. First, by cutting 30% chord length of the Riso airfoil, a thick blunt trialing-edge airfoil is generated. The velocity field around the original airfoil and the new airfoil is measured by PIV technique and compared with each other. Then, adding two parallel plates to the end of the new airfoil forms the desired cavity. Continuous measurement of unsteady flow velocity over the Riso airfoil with thick blunt trailing edge and base cavity is the most important innovation of this research. The results show that cutting off the end of the airfoil decreases the wake region behind the airfoil, when separation occurs. Moreover, adding a cavity to the end of the thickened airfoil causes an increase in momentum and a further decrease in the wake behind the trailing edge that leads to a drag reduction in comparison with the thickened airfoil without cavity. Furthermore, using cavity decreases the Strouhal number and vortex shedding frequency.

  9. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  10. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  11. A method for co-creation of an evidence-based patient workbook to address alcohol use when quitting smoking in primary care: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Noormohamed, Aliya; Zawertailo, Laurie; Baliunas, Dolly; Giesbrecht, Norman; Le Foll, Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen; Samokhvalov, Andriy; Selby, Peter L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team. Participants provided their opinions and ideas to create an outline for the workbook, including activities, images, and titles. The workbook - called Self-Awareness - is currently being offered in a smoking cessation program in 221 primary care clinics across Ontario to help smokers quit or reduce their harmful alcohol use. The patient engagement event was a useful way to co-create educational materials that incorporate both scientific research and patient needs. Background Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. There are few methodologies on how to design evidence-based programs and resources to include patient values. The latter is an important aspect of patient-centered care, and is essential for patients to trust the recommendations and empower them as consumers to make informed choices. This manuscript describes a participatory research approach to design patient-facing educational materials that incorporate both evidence-based and community-sensitive principles. These materials are intended to support smokers to reduce or stop harmful alcohol consumption. Methods Adult smokers who report consuming alcohol were invited to a co-creation meeting at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's Nicotine Dependence Service to guide the adaptation of evidence-based materials. The four-hour event consisted of individual reflections, group discussions, and consensus-building interactions. Detailed notes were taken and then

  12. Tyramine Hydrochloride Based Label-Free System for Operating Various DNA Logic Gates and a DNA Caliper for Base Number Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2017-07-05

    DNA is believed to be a promising candidate for molecular logic computation, and the fluorogenic/colorimetric substrates of G-quadruplex DNAzyme (G4zyme) are broadly used as label-free output reporters of DNA logic circuits. Herein, for the first time, tyramine-HCl (a fluorogenic substrate of G4zyme) is applied to DNA logic computation and a series of label-free DNA-input logic gates, including elementary AND, OR, and INHIBIT logic gates, as well as a two to one encoder, are constructed. Furthermore, a DNA caliper that can measure the base number of target DNA as low as three bases is also fabricated. This DNA caliper can also perform concatenated AND-AND logic computation to fulfil the requirements of sophisticated logic computing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Daisy R Singla, PhD; Elias Kumbakumba, MMed; Prof. Frances E Aboud, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal...

  14. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  15. Colour by Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This is an edited extract from the keynote address given by Dr. Chris Wetherell at the 26th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc. The author investigates the surprisingly rich structure that exists within a simple arrangement of numbers: the times tables.

  16. Text messaging as a strategy to address the limits of audio-based communication during mass-gathering events with high ambient noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Wong, Daniel; Lewis, Kerrie; Turris, Sheila A; Vaisler, Sean; Gutman, Samuel

    2013-02-01

    The provision of medical care in environments with high levels of ambient noise (HLAN), such as concerts or sporting events, presents unique communication challenges. Audio transmissions can be incomprehensible to the receivers. Text-based communications may be a valuable primary and/or secondary means of communication in this type of setting. To evaluate the usability of text-based communications in parallel with standard two-way radio communications during mass-gathering (MG) events in the context of HLAN. This Canadian study used outcome survey methods to evaluate the performance of communication devices during MG events. Ten standard commercially available handheld smart phones loaded with basic voice and data plans were assigned to health care providers (HCPs) for use as an adjunct to the medical team's typical radio-based communication. Common text messaging and chat platforms were trialed. Both efficacy and provider satisfaction were evaluated. During a 23-month period, the smart phones were deployed at 17 events with HLAN for a total of 40 event days or approximately 460 hours of active use. Survey responses from health care providers (177) and dispatchers (26) were analyzed. The response rate was unknown due to the method of recruitment. Of the 155 HCP responses to the question measuring difficulty of communication in environments with HLAN, 68.4% agreed that they "occasionally" or "frequently" found it difficult to clearly understand voice communications via two-way radio. Similarly, of the 23 dispatcher responses to the same item, 65.2% of the responses indicated that "occasionally" or "frequently" HLAN negatively affected the ability to communicate clearly with team members. Of the 168 HCP responses to the item assessing whether text-based communication improved the ability to understand and respond to calls when compared to radio alone, 86.3% "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that this was the case. The dispatcher responses (n = 21) to the same item also

  17. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  18. Mass number dependence of total neutron cross section; a discussion based on the semi-classical optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Istvan

    1990-01-01

    The dependence of total neutron cross section on mass number can be calculated by the black nucleus formula, according to the optical model. The fine structure of mass number dependence is studied, and a correction factor formula is given on the basis of a semi-classical optical model. Yielding results in good agreement with experimental data. In addition to the mass number dependence, the neutron-energy dependence can also be calculated using this model. (K.A.)

  19. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  20. Creating a strategy for science-based national policy: Addressing conflicting views on the health risk of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, Wingspread Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.; Apple, Martin A.

    1998-01-01

    Significant cancer risk for adults exposed to more than 100 millisieverts (10 REM) of ionizing radiation. More research on low-level ionizing radiation is needed in molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury and ongoing exposed populations. Implementation costs should be considered in regulating low-level ionizing radiation. Comparative risk assessment is a powerful tool for risk-based policy formation, and conflicting legal statutes should become harmonized for radiation regulation. More public dialog on low-level radiation is needed. A high level commission should evaluate radiation hazard control practices

  1. Addressing the deficiencies in the evidence-base for primary practice in regional Australia - sentinel practices data sourcing (SPDS) project: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Girdo, Lisa; Batterham, Marijka J; McDonald, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Chronic disease risk on a population level can be quantified through health surveys, either continuous or periodic. To date, information gathered from primary care interactions, using sentinel sites, has not been investigated as a potentially valuable surveillance system in Australia. A pilot study was conducted in a single General Practice in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia to assess the feasibility of accessing data obtained through a computerised chronic disease management program that has been designed for desktop application (Pen Computer Systems (PCS) Clinical Audit Tool: ™ PCS CAT). Collated patient data included information on chronic disease management and prevention, prevalence of overweight and obesity, mental health indicators, medication profiling and home medicine reviews, as well as uptake of preventive health services (immunisation and cervical cancer screening). Higher than national average estimates were found for the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic diseases such as hypertension (14.3% for sample vs 10.4%, nationally), anxiety disorders (4.4% vs 3.8%) and obesity/overweight (67.1 vs 63.4%). Preventive health assessment items were undersubscribed, ranging from 6-20% in eligible patients. This pilot study has demonstrated that the scope of data collected by patient visits to their General Practitioners, facilitated through the Medicare-funded primary health care system in Australia, offers a feasible opportunity for monitoring of chronic disease prevalence and its associated risk factors. The inclusion of a larger number of sentinel sites that are generalizable to the population being served would provide an accurate and region-specific system for the purposes of population health planning at the primary care level in order to improve the overall health of the community.

  2. The Ground Rules for Effective OBAs: Principles for Addressing Carbon-Pricing Competitiveness Concerns through the Use of Output-Based Allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The federal government’s decision to impose a minimum national price on carbon emissions has the potential to make certain businesses in the country less competitive. Specifically, there are emissions-intensive and trade-exposed industries across Canada that compete against producers from other jurisdictions where governments do not put a price on carbon. For these industries, the obligation to pay a carbon price creates a competitive disadvantage. Specifically, these businesses will face higher costs and may encounter a loss of market share to international competitors from jurisdictions that lack the same emission-control measures. That not only hurts Canadian businesses, it could also negate any emissions reductions that carbon pricing in Canada achieves on a global scale. The federal government has opted to protect such emissions-intensive, tradeexposed businesses using subsidies called output-based allocations (OBAs. This is the same system that Alberta is introducing through its forthcoming Carbon Competiveness Regulation. It also shares certain similarities with cap-and-trade programs, such as those in Ontario and Quebec, which provide free allocations of emissions permits to certain firms. OBAs are a desirable complementary policy to a carbon price as they maintain the incentive for producers to invest in production methods and facilities that are less emissions intensive. So while producers are still, nevertheless, subsidized to offset the tax burden of the carbon price, they will, under an OBA system, see greater benefits the more they work to reduce their emissions intensity. Still, to function most effectively and most efficiently, an OBA policy should follow certain key principles. The most critical principle in the design of an OBA policy is ensuring that OBAs are allocated to facilities independent of their individual emission levels, and allocated equally (on a per unit basis to facilities producing the same product. One of the

  3. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Suh, M; Proctor, D M; Hays, S M

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Addressing Social Anxiety Concurrently With Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment: A Case of Individual Needs in an Era of Manualized Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Michael P; Webb, Jon R; Stinson, Jill D; Cantrell, Peggy J

    2017-07-01

    Emotional regulation may be an underaddressed therapeutic target in sex offender treatment. This article presents a case report of "Adam," a Caucasian male referred to a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Adam's social anxiety was recognized as an antecendent to his sexual offending, and treatment of such, as a critical adjunct to sex offender treatment, is discussed herein. Adam's individualized treatment included aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy and time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. Adam showed an increased understanding of his anxiety and improvement in his social interactions, both in the context of treatment groups and with female staff, and was willing to continue follow-up care in the community. This case provides support for the individualized treatment of incarcerated offenders as opposed to exclusively utilizing manualized psychoeducational interventions.

  5. A preliminary RCT of a mind body skills based intervention addressing mood and coping strategies in patients with acute orthopaedic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Hageman, Michiel; Strooker, Joost; ter Meulen, Dirk; Vrahas, Mark; Ring, David

    2015-04-01

    To test the acceptability and feasibility of a mind body skills-based intervention (RRCB) and estimate its preliminary effect in reducing disability and pain intensity as compared to standard care (SC) in patients with acute musculoskeletal trauma. Randomised controlled trial. Level I trauma centre. Adult patients with acute fractures at risk for chronic pain and disability based on scores on two coping with pain measures who presented to an orthopedic trauma center and met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Participants were randomied to either RRCB with SC or SC alone. Disability (short musculoskeletal functional assessment, SMFA) and pain (Numerical Analogue Scale). coping strategies (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS and Pain Anxiety Scale, PAS) and mood (CESD Depression and PTSD checklist). Among the 50 patients consented, two did not complete the initial assessment. Of these, the first four received the intervention as part of an open pilot and the next 44 were randomised (24 RRCBT and 20 UC) and completed initial assessment. We combined the patients who received RRCB into one group, N=28. Of the entire sample, 34 completed time two assessments (24 RRCBT and 10 SC). The RRCB proved to be feasible and accepted (86% retention, 28 out of 24 completers). Analyses of covariance ANCOVA showed a significant (pstudy variables (.2-.5) except pain with activity where the effect size was medium (.08). Improvement for pain at rest was not significantly higher in the RRCB as compared to the control, for a small effect size (.03). The RRCB is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious. Level 1 prognostic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A cross-bridge based model of force depression: Can a single modification address both transient and steady-state behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, David T; Herzog, Walter

    2016-03-21

    Force depression (FD), the reduction of isometric force following active shortening, is a phenomenon of skeletal muscle that has received significant attention in biomechanical and physiological literature, yet the mechanisms underlying FD remain unknown. Recent experiments identified a slower rate of force redevelopment with increasing amounts of steady-state FD, suggesting that FD may be caused, at least in part, by a decrease in cross-bridge binding rate (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Koppes et al., 2014). Herein, we develop a cross-bridge based model of FD in which the binding rate function, f, decreases with the mechanical work performed during shortening. This modification incorporates a direct relationship between steady-state FD and muscle mechanical work (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008), and is consistent with a proposed mechanism attributing FD to stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments (Herzog, 1998; Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979). Thus, for an increase in mechanical work, the model should predict a slower force redevelopment (decreased attachment rate) to a more depressed steady-state force (fewer attached cross-bridges), and a reduction in contractile element stiffness (Ford et al., 1981). We hypothesized that since this modification affects the cross-bridge kinetics, a corresponding model would be able to account for both transient and steady-state FD behaviors. Comparisons to prior experiments (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008) show that both steady-state and transient aspects of FD, as well as the relationship of FD with respect to speed and amplitude of shortening, are well captured by this model. Thus, this relatively simple cross-bridge based model of FD lends support to a mechanism involving the inhibition of cross-bridge binding, and indicates that cross-bridge kinetics may play a critical role in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Home-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP services for gay and bisexual men: An opportunity to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A John

    Full Text Available Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Despite the promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV transmission risk, barriers for uptake and persistence exist. We sought to identify whether GBM in a nationwide cohort who have not yet initiated PrEP (n = 906 would prefer to get PrEP-related care from a primary care provider (PCP compared to a specialist clinic or provider. We then sought to identify their level of interest and factors associated with preference for using home-based PrEP services (i.e., HB-PrEP, defined to participants as conducting HIV/STI self-testing from home with PrEP prescription mailing after an initial in-person clinic visit. We examined the associations of demographics, sexual HIV transmission risk, concern about frequent medical checkups associated with PrEP, health care access, and PrEP intentions with preferences for healthcare provider type and HB-PrEP. Concern about frequent medical checkups were associated with preferring a PCP for PrEP-related care, but men who perceived a barrier to bringing up the topic of PrEP with a doctor preferred a specialist clinic or provider more than a PCP. HB-PrEP was more appealing for younger men and those engaged in sexual HIV transmission risk, suggesting HB-PrEP could help reach GBM most vulnerable to HIV and in need of PrEP. HB-PrEP expansion has potential to increase PrEP uptake and persistence among GBM, particularly for men with barriers to clinic-based care and higher intentions to initiate PrEP. Clinical guidelines regarding HB-PrEP are needed to expand its use.

  8. If you build it will they come? Addressing social isolation within a technology-based HIV intervention for young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Baltierra, Nina; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2014-01-01

    The rate of HIV infections among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. YBMSM are particularly vulnerable to social isolation and a lack of social support due to experiences with racism and homophobia, which may have implications for sexual risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of social isolation and sense of community among YBMSM, the need for and receptivity to social networking features designed to reduce social isolation and build community within an Internet- and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for YBMSM and to identify strategies to develop these features. Focus groups were conducted with 22 YBMSM aged 20-30 years at three sites in North Carolina. Data from the focus groups were thematically analyzed using NVivo. Feelings of social isolation and lack of a sense of community were strongly endorsed by participants with homophobia, lack of opportunities for social engagement, and a focus on sex rather than friendship in interpersonal relationships with other YBMSM cited as contributing factors. Participants were receptive to a social networking intervention designed to reduce social isolation and build community. Recommendations offered by participants to increase acceptability and usability of such features included: availability of information about healthy relationships, the ability to connect with other YBMSM and health care providers, and ensuring the site had ongoing facilitation by the study team as well as monitoring for inappropriate content. The development of a social networking feature of an HIV prevention intervention may present an opportunity to reduce social isolation, build community, and reduce risky sexual behaviors among YBMSM. The findings from this study are being used to inform the development of a social networking feature for an existing Internet- and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for

  9. Addressing On-Chip Power Converstion and Dissipation Issues in Many-Core System-on-a-Chip Based on Conventional Silicon and Emerging Nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenafi, Emeshaw

    Integrated circuits (ICs) are moving towards system-on-a-chip (SOC) designs. SOC allows various small and large electronic systems to be implemented in a single chip. This approach enables the miniaturization of design blocks that leads to high density transistor integration, faster response time, and lower fabrication costs. To reap the benefits of SOC and uphold the miniaturization of transistors, innovative power delivery and power dissipation management schemes are paramount. This dissertation focuses on on-chip integration of power delivery systems and managing power dissipation to increase the lifetime of energy storage elements. We explore this problem from two different angels: On-chip voltage regulators and power gating techniques. On-chip voltage regulators reduce parasitic effects, and allow faster and efficient power delivery for microprocessors. Power gating techniques, on the other hand, reduce the power loss incurred by circuit blocks during standby mode. Power dissipation (Ptotal = Pstatic and Pdynamic) in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit comes from two sources: static and dynamic. A quadratic dependency on the dynamic switching power and a more than linear dependency on static power as a form of gate leakage (subthreshold current) exist. To reduce dynamic power loss, the supply power should be reduced. A significant reduction in power dissipation occurs when portions of a microprocessor operate at a lower voltage level. This reduction in supply voltage is achieved via voltage regulators or converters. Voltage regulators are used to provide a stable power supply to the microprocessor. The conventional off-chip switching voltage regulator contains a passive floating inductor, which is difficult to be implemented inside the chip due to excessive power dissipation and parasitic effects. Additionally, the inductor takes a very large chip area while hampering the scaling process. These limitations make passive inductor based on

  10. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  11. Predicting the required number of training samples. [for remotely sensed image data based on covariance matrix estimate quality criterion of normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109

  12. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirman, C.R., E-mail: ckirman@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, PO Box 3209, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Suh, M.; Proctor, D.M. [ToxStrategies, Mission Viejo, CA (United States); Hays, S.M. [Summit Toxicology, PO Box 3209, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. - Highlights: • An improved version of the PBPK model for Cr(VI) toxicokinetics was developed. • The model incorporates data collected to fill important data gaps. • Model predictions for specific age groups and sensitive subpopulations are provided. • Implications to human health risk assessment are discussed.

  13. Developmental Changes in the Profiles of Dyscalculia: An Explanation Based on a Double Exact-and-Approximate Number Representation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Studies on developmental dyscalculia (DD) have tried to identify a basic numerical deficit that could account for this specific learning disability. The first proposition was that the number magnitude representation of these children was impaired. However, Rousselle and Noël (2007) brought data showing that this was not the case but rather that these children were impaired when processing the magnitude of symbolic numbers only. Since then, incongruent results have been published. In this paper, we will propose a developmental perspective on this issue. We will argue that the first deficit shown in DD regards the building of an exact representation of numerical value, thanks to the learning of symbolic numbers, and that the reduced acuity of the approximate number magnitude system appears only later and is secondary to the first deficit.

  14. Development of a Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Distress in Caregivers of Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplants: Formative Evaluation With Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensak, Nicole Amoyal; Joshi, Tanisha; Simoneau, Teresa; Kilbourn, Kristin; Carr, Alaina; Kutner, Jean; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-06-22

    Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need. We used an established approach for development of a mhealth intervention, completing the first two research and evaluation steps: Step One: Formative Research (eg, expert and stakeholder review from patients, caregivers, and palliative care experts) and Step Two: Pretesting (eg, Focus Groups and Individual Interviews with caregivers of patients with autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT). Step one included feedback elicited for a mock-up version of Pep-Pal session one from caregiver, patients and clinician stakeholders from a multidisciplinary palliative care team (N=9 caregivers and patient stakeholders and N=20 palliative care experts). Step two included two focus groups (N=6 caregivers) and individual interviews (N=9 caregivers) regarding Pep-Pal's look and feel, content, acceptability, and potential usability/feasibility. Focus groups and individual interviews were audio-recorded. In addition, individual interviews were transcribed, and applied thematic analysis was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding to inform the development and refinement of the mobilized caregiver stress management intervention, Pep-Pal (PsychoEducation and skills for Patient caregivers). Overall, results were favorable. Pep-Pal was deemed acceptable for caregivers of patients receiving an auto-HSCT. The refined Pep-Pal program consisted of 9 sessions (Introduction to Stress, Stress and the

  15. Temperatura base, plastocrono e número final de nós no malmequer-do-campo Base temperature, plastochron and final node number in yellow calendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O malmequer-do-campo (Aspilia montevidensis é uma planta herbácea perene, nativa do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, cuja biologia tem sido pouco estudada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a temperatura base, o plastocrono e o número final de nós de A. montevidensis. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento em Santa Maria, RS, com seis épocas de cultivo (20/12/2005, 14/02/2006, 06/03/2006, 04/04/2006, 05/05/2006 e 08/06/2006 no delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A unidade experimental foi uma planta cultivada em vasos preenchidos com substrato comercial. O número de nós visíveis foi registrado na haste principal e nas hastes laterais de primeira e segunda ordem. A temperatura base de emissão de nós foi estimada pela metodologia do menor Quadrado Médio do Erro. A soma térmica diária foi calculada a partir do transplante e o plastocrono foi estimado para cada haste. A temperatura base estimada para emissão de nós de A. montevidensis foi de 0°C. O plastocrono e o número final de nós variam entre hastes e épocas de cultivo, com os menores valores de plastocrono e maiores valores de número final de nós observados na haste principal.Yellow calendula (Aspilia montevidensis is a perenium herbaceous plant native of South and Southeast Brazil that has been little studied about its biology. The objective of this study was to determine the base temperature, the plastochron and the final node number in A. montevidensis. An experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, RS, with six planting dates (12/20/2005, 02/14/2006, 03/06/2006, 04/04/2006, 05/05/2006 and 06/08/2006. The experimental design was completely randomized and the experimental unit was one plant grown in pots filled with commercial substratum. The number of visible nodes were measured on the maim stem and on first and second order lateral branches. The base temperature for node appearance was estimated with the mean square error approach. The daily thermal unit was calculated

  16. Nanoparticle filtration performance of NIOSH-certified particulate air-purifying filtering facepiece respirators: evaluation by light scattering photometric and particle number-based test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin C

    2012-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether a particle number (count)-based detector or a photometric detector was used. The purpose of this study was to better understand the influence of key test parameters, including filter media type, challenge aerosol size range, and detector system. Initial penetration levels for 17 models of NIOSH-approved N-, R-, and P-series filtering facepiece respirators were measured using the TSI 8130 photometric method and compared with the particle number-based penetration (obtained using two ultrafine condensation particle counters) for the same challenge aerosols generated by the TSI 8130. In general, the penetration obtained by the photometric method was less than the penetration obtained with the number-based method. Filter penetration was also measured for ambient room aerosols. Penetration measured by the TSI 8130 photometric method was lower than the number-based ambient aerosol penetration values. Number-based monodisperse NaCl aerosol penetration measurements showed that the most penetrating particle size was in the 50 nm range for all respirator models tested, with the exception of one model at ~200 nm size. Respirator models containing electrostatic filter media also showed lower penetration values with the TSI 8130 photometric method than the number-based penetration obtained for the most penetrating monodisperse particles. Results suggest that to provide a more challenging respirator filter test method than what is currently used for respirators containing electrostatic media, the test method should utilize a sufficient number

  17. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  18. An innovative method for offshore wind farm site selection based on the interval number with probability distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunna; Chen, Kaifeng; Xu, Hu; Xu, Chuanbo; Zhang, Haobo; Yang, Meng

    2017-12-01

    There is insufficient research relating to offshore wind farm site selection in China. The current methods for site selection have some defects. First, information loss is caused by two aspects: the implicit assumption that the probability distribution on the interval number is uniform; and ignoring the value of decision makers' (DMs') common opinion on the criteria information evaluation. Secondly, the difference in DMs' utility function has failed to receive attention. An innovative method is proposed in this article to solve these drawbacks. First, a new form of interval number and its weighted operator are proposed to reflect the uncertainty and reduce information loss. Secondly, a new stochastic dominance degree is proposed to quantify the interval number with a probability distribution. Thirdly, a two-stage method integrating the weighted operator with stochastic dominance degree is proposed to evaluate the alternatives. Finally, a case from China proves the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Straight flavor of Binary Number in Decimal Number System

    OpenAIRE

    MD. Abdul Awal Ansary; Sushanta Acharjee

    2012-01-01

    Different number systems are available on the basis of their base numbers. For instance, decimal number system is of base 10, hexadecimal number system which base is 16 and, Binary number system which base is 2 etc. Some numbers systems are easy to understand by the human being and some are easy to understand by electronics machine for instance digital computers. Computers only can understand data and instructions that are stored in binary form, though we input the data and instruction in dec...

  20. PACE: Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimation- A machine learning-based assessment of the number of contributors in DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Michael A; Adelman, Jonathan D

    2017-03-01

    The deconvolution of DNA mixtures remains one of the most critical challenges in the field of forensic DNA analysis. In addition, of all the data features required to perform such deconvolution, the number of contributors in the sample is widely considered the most important, and, if incorrectly chosen, the most likely to negatively influence the mixture interpretation of a DNA profile. Unfortunately, most current approaches to mixture deconvolution require the assumption that the number of contributors is known by the analyst, an assumption that can prove to be especially faulty when faced with increasingly complex mixtures of 3 or more contributors. In this study, we propose a probabilistic approach for estimating the number of contributors in a DNA mixture that leverages the strengths of machine learning. To assess this approach, we compare classification performances of six machine learning algorithms and evaluate the model from the top-performing algorithm against the current state of the art in the field of contributor number classification. Overall results show over 98% accuracy in identifying the number of contributors in a DNA mixture of up to 4 contributors. Comparative results showed 3-person mixtures had a classification accuracy improvement of over 6% compared to the current best-in-field methodology, and that 4-person mixtures had a classification accuracy improvement of over 20%. The Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimation (PACE) also accomplishes classification of mixtures of up to 4 contributors in less than 1s using a standard laptop or desktop computer. Considering the high classification accuracy rates, as well as the significant time commitment required by the current state of the art model versus seconds required by a machine learning-derived model, the approach described herein provides a promising means of estimating the number of contributors and, subsequently, will lead to improved DNA mixture interpretation. Copyright © 2016

  1. Clonal composition of human ovarian cancer based on copy number analysis reveals a reciprocal relation with oncogenic mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuko; Ukita, Masayo; Schmidt, Jeanette; Wu, Longyang; De Velasco, Marco A; Roter, Alan; Jevons, Luis; Nishio, Kazuto; Mandai, Masaki

    2017-10-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of cancer cells remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the composition of ovarian cancer and its biological relevance. A whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array was applied to detect the clonal composition of 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of human ovarian cancer. Genome-wide segmentation data consisting of the log2 ratio (log2R) and B allele frequency (BAF) were used to calculate an estimate of the clonal composition number (CC number) for each tumor. Somatic mutation profiles of cancer-related genes were also determined for the same 24 samples by next-generation sequencing. The CC number was estimated successfully for 23 of the 24 cancer samples. The mean ± SD value for the CC number was 1.7 ± 1.1 (range of 0-4). A somatic mutation in at least one gene was identified in 22 of the 24 ovarian cancer samples, with the mutations including those in the oncogenes KRAS (29.2%), PIK3CA (12.5%), BRAF (8.3%), FGFR2 (4.2%), and JAK2 (4.2%) as well as those in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 (54.2%), FBXW7 (8.3%), PTEN (4.2%), and RB1 (4.2%). Tumors with one or more oncogenic mutations had a significantly lower CC number than did those without such a mutation (1.0 ± 0.8 versus 2.3 ± 0.9, P = 0.0027), suggesting that cancers with driver oncogene mutations are less heterogeneous than those with other mutations. Our results thus reveal a reciprocal relation between oncogenic mutation status and clonal composition in ovarian cancer using the established method for the estimation of the CC number. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calculating the number of shock waves, expulsion time, and optimum stone parameters based on noncontrast computerized tomography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Khaled; Abdeldaeim, Hussein; Youssif, Mohamed; Assem, Akram

    2013-11-01

    To define the parameters that accompanied a successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), namely the number of shock waves (SWs), expulsion time (ET), mean stone density (MSD), and the skin-to-stone distance (SSD). A total of 368 patients diagnosed with renal calculi using noncontrast computerized tomography had their MSD, diameter, and SSD recorded. All patients were treated using a Siemens lithotripter. ESWL success meant a stone-free status or presence of residual fragments 934 HUs and SSD >99 mm. The required number of SWs and the expected ET can be anticipated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  4. A Simulation Based Analysis of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Technique Using Motoneuron Pool and Surface Electromyogram Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Motor unit number index (MUNIX) measurement has recently achieved increasing attention as a tool to evaluate the progression of motoneuron diseases. In our current study, the sensitivity of the MUNIX technique to changes in motoneuron and muscle properties was explored by a simulation approach utilizing variations on published motoneuron pool and surface electromyogram (EMG) models. Our simulation results indicate that, when keeping motoneuron pool and muscle parameters unchanged and varying the input motor unit numbers to the model, then MUNIX estimates can appropriately characterize changes in motor unit numbers. Such MUNIX estimates are not sensitive to different motor unit recruitment and rate coding strategies used in the model. Furthermore, alterations in motor unit control properties do not have a significant effect on the MUNIX estimates. Neither adjustment of the motor unit recruitment range nor reduction of the motor unit firing rates jeopardizes the MUNIX estimates. The MUNIX estimates closely correlate with the maximum M wave amplitude. However, if we reduce the amplitude of each motor unit action potential rather than simply reduce motor unit number, then MUNIX estimates substantially underestimate the motor unit numbers in the muscle. These findings suggest that the current MUNIX definition is most suitable for motoneuron diseases that demonstrate secondary evidence of muscle fiber reinnervation. In this regard, when MUNIX is applied, it is of much importance to examine a parallel measurement of motor unit size index (MUSIX), defined as the ratio of the maximum M wave amplitude to the MUNIX. However, there are potential limitations in the application of the MUNIX methods in atrophied muscle, where it is unclear whether the atrophy is accompanied by loss of motor units or loss of muscle fiber size. PMID:22514208

  5. Discovery of IPV6 Router Interface Addresses via Heuristic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS by Matthew D. Gray September...AND SUBTITLE DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CNS-1111445 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew D. Gray 7...Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude

  6. A scalable lock-free hash table with open addressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Puge; Karlsson, Sven

    2016-01-01

    and concurrent operations without any locks. In this paper, we present a new fully lock-free open addressed hash table with a simpler design than prior published work. We split hash table insertions into two atomic phases: first inserting a value ignoring other concurrent operations, then in the second phase......Concurrent data structures synchronized with locks do not scale well with the number of threads. As more scalable alternatives, concurrent data structures and algorithms based on widely available, however advanced, atomic operations have been proposed. These data structures allow for correct...

  7. Number of Patients Eligible for PCSK9 Inhibitors Based on Real-world Data From 2.5 Million Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Alberto; Masana, Luís; Comas-Cufi, Marc; Plana, Núria; Vila, Àlex; García-Gil, Maria; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2018-03-29

    PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are safe and effective lipid-lowering drugs. Their main limitation is their high cost. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of patients eligible for treatment with PCSK9i according to distinct published criteria. Data were obtained from the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care. Included patients were equal to or older than 18 years and had at least 1 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol measurement recorded between 2006 and 2014 (n = 2 500 907). An indication for treatment with PCSK9i was assigned according to the following guidelines: National Health System, Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Cardiology, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society Task Force. Lipid-lowering treatment was defined as optimized if it reduced low-density lipoprotein levels by ≥ 50% and adherence was > 80%. Among the Spanish population aged 18 years or older, the number of possible candidates to receive PCSK9i in an optimal lipid-lowering treatment scenario ranged from 0.1% to 1.7%, depending on the guideline considered. The subgroup of patients with the highest proportion of potential candidates consisted of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, and the subgroup with the highest absolute number consisted of patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. The number of candidates to receive PCSK9i in conditions of real-world clinical practice is high and varies widely depending on the recommendations of distinct scientific societies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.

    2018-04-01

    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  9. Activities to Address Challenges in Digital Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund , Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Part 3: Structures and Networks; International audience; Based on a literature review, this paper identifies four socio-technical challenges relating to innovation actor’s interactions in digital innovation. Furthermore, the paper explores how these challenges can be addressed. The challenges are investigated in a case study of digital innovation. The study is based on a two year long research and development project where an e-newspaper concept and a demonstrator based on e-paper technology ...

  10. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  11. Variability and relationship among Mixolab and Falling Number evaluation based on influence of fungal α-amylase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia; Mironeasa, Costel

    2012-08-15

    In bread-making technology, α-amylase activity is routinely measured with a Falling Number device to predict wheat flour quality. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using Mixolab parameters to assess the Falling Number (FN) index. The effects of different doses of fungal α-amylase addition on the Mixolab characteristics and FN index values were investigated. Principal component analysis was performed in order to illustrate the relationships between the Mixolab parameters and the FN index. To highlight the linear combination between the FN index values and the Mixolab parameters used to evaluate starch pasting properties (C3, C4, C5 and point differences C34 and C54), a multivariate prediction model was developed. Greatest precision (R = 0.728) was obtained for the linear regression FN = f(C4, C54) model. This model was tested on a different sample set than the one on which it was built. A high correlation was obtained between predictive model and measured FN index values (r = 0.896, P = 0.01). The model provides a framework to predict the evolution of the FN index, which is predicted by the torque for cooking stability (C4) and the difference between points C5 and C4 (C54). The obtained results suggested that the Mixolab device could be a reliable instrument for evaluation of the FN index values. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  13. THE ROLE OF NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION IN ADDRESSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the role of nutritional information for addressing under-five child malnutrition in Tanzania. The paper is based on a master's dissertation whose objective was to determine the sources of nutritional information used to provide nutritional information to mothers in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics, ...

  14. A Theory of Evolving Natural Constants Based on the Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huanwu

    2005-01-01

    Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h-bar as well as Boltzmann's k B by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.

  15. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. 10. Reevaluation of atomic number density of JOYO Mk-II core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kazuyuki; Sato, Wakaei [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arii, Yoshio [Nuclear Energy System Incorporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The material composition of JOYO Mk-II core components in its initial core was reevaluated as a part of the effort for developing a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. The special feature of the reevaluation is to treat the decay of Pu-241 isotope, so that the atomic number densities of Pu-241 and Am-241 in fuel assemblies can be exactly evaluated on the initial critical date, Nov. 22nd, 1982. Further, the atomic number densities of other core components were also evaluated to improve the analytical accuracy. Those include the control rods which were not so strictly evaluated in the past, and the dummy fuels and the neutron sources which were not treated in the analytical model so far. The results of the present reevaluation were as follows: (1) The changes of atomic number densities of the major nuclides such as Pu-239, U-235 and U-238 were about {+-}0.2 to 0.3%. On the other hand, the number density of Pu-241, which was the motivation of the present work, was reduced by 12%. From the fact, the number densities in the past analysis might be based on the isotope measurement of the manufacturing point of time without considering the decay of Pu-241. (2) As the other core components, the number densities of control rods and outer reflector-type A were largely improved. (author)

  16. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Tt; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  17. Mathematical Critical Thinking and Curiosity Attitude in Problem Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy: A Study in Number Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetriuslita; Wahyudin; Jarnawi

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe and analyze result of applying Problem-Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy (PBLCCS) in increasing students' Mathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA). Adopting a quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design and using mixed method with…

  18. The Zero-Base Budget: A New Management Tool. Information Series, Volume 6, Number 4. Bulletin No. 7430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, Archie A.

    All indicators appear to point to a continuing and increased public interest in zero-based budgeting (ZBB). Despite its present popularity, ZBB is not new. The theory has been around for more than a decade and it draws heavily on existing systems, particularly on planning, programming, and budgeting systems. ZBB has two phases. The first is the…

  19. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information.

  20. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)

  1. Analysis of a photon number resolving detector based on fluorescence readout of an ion Coulomb crystal quantum memory inside an optical cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christoph; Sangouard, N.; Drewsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect single photons with a high efficiency is a crucial requirement for various quantum information applications. By combining the storage process of a quantum memory for photons with fluorescence-based quantum state measurement, it is, in principle, possible to achieve high......-efficiency photon counting in large ensembles of atoms. The large number of atoms can, however, pose significant problems in terms of noise stemming from imperfect initial state preparation and off-resonant fluorescence. We identify and analyse a concrete implementation of a photon number resolving detector based...... larger than 93%. Moderate experimental parameters allow for repetition rates of about 3 kHz, limited by the time needed for fluorescence collection and re-cooling of the ions between trials. Our analysis may lead to the first implementation of a photon number resolving detector in atomic ensembles....

  2. Some basic theorems on the cross-sums of certain class of numbers (M-1) when the operations are done with different bases M of the arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozoemena, P.C.; Onwumechili, C.A.

    1988-11-01

    Some new theorems have been propounded for the numbers (M-1), as they relate to other numerals, through the basic arithmetical operations, at different bases M. For some reason, we give the proof of the theorems for the case M=10 using mathematical induction, and by Peano's fifth axiom make our generalizations. Comments are made in respect of the numbers (M-1), (in this case 9). Apart from our theorems facilitating mathematical operations, evidences have also been given, from different sources of the interesting properties of this class of numbers, represented in our own case by the numeral 9. The theorems neither violate the divisibility rule for 9 nor are they a consequence of it. From symmetry, a suggestion is made in respect of the possible origin of the numeration in base 10, and the case of a ten dimensional Universe reconsidered. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Yevseyeva; James Turland; Charles Morisset; Lynne Coventry; Thomas Groß

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT) consumerisation that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behaviour influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabil...

  4. CBO and JCT's Estimates of the Effects of the Affordable Care Act on the Number of People Obtaining Employment-Based Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2012-01-01

    CBO and the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) continue to expect that the Affordable Care Act (ACA)—the health care legislation enacted in March 2010—will lead to a small reduction in the number of people receiving employment-based health insurance.

  5. Content addressable memories in scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotto, I. de; Golinelli, S.

    1975-01-01

    The content-addressable-memory feature of a new system designed in these laboratories for non-destructive testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels based on acoustic emission analysis is presented. The content addressable memory is divided into two parts: the first selects the most frequent events among incoming ones (FES: Frequent Event Selection memory), the second stores the frequent events singled out (FEM: Frequent Event Memory). The statistical behaviour of FES is analyzed, and experimental results are compared with theoretical ones; the model presented proved to be a useful tool in dimensioning the instrument store capacity. (Auth.)

  6. Narrowing the Early Mathematics Gap: A Play-Based Intervention to Promote Low-Income Preschoolers’ Number Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R. Scalise

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschoolers from low-income households lag behind preschoolers from middle-income households on numerical skills that underlie later mathematics achievement. However, it is unknown whether these gaps exist on parallel measures of symbolic and non-symbolic numerical skills. Experiment 1 indicated preschoolers from low-income backgrounds were less accurate than peers from middle-income backgrounds on a measure of symbolic magnitude comparison, but they performed equivalently on a measure of non-symbolic magnitude comparison. This suggests activities linking non-symbolic and symbolic number representations may be used to support children’s numerical knowledge. Experiment 2 randomly assigned low-income preschoolers (Mean Age = 4.7 years to play either a numerical magnitude comparison or a numerical matching card game across four 15 min sessions over a 3-week period. The magnitude comparison card game led to significant improvements in participants’ symbolic magnitude comparison skills in an immediate posttest assessment. Following the intervention, low-income participants performed equivalently to an age- and gender-matched sample of middle-income preschoolers in symbolic magnitude comparison. These results suggest a brief intervention that combines non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations can support low-income preschoolers’ early numerical knowledge.

  7. Wide-area measurement system-based supervision of protection schemes with minimum number of phasor measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajare, Swaroop; Rao, J Ganeswara; Naidu, O D; Pradhan, Ashok Kumar

    2017-08-13

    Cascade tripping of power lines triggered by maloperation of zone-3 relays during stressed system conditions, such as load encroachment, power swing and voltage instability, has led to many catastrophic power failures worldwide, including Indian blackouts in 2012. With the introduction of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) into the grids, real-time monitoring of transmission network condition is possible. A phasor measurement unit (PMU) sends time-synchronized data to a phasor data concentrator, which can provide a control signal to substation devices. The latency associated with the communication system makes WAMS suitable for a slower form of protection. In this work, a method to identify the faulted line using synchronized data from strategic PMU locations is proposed. Subsequently, a supervisory signal is generated for specific relays in the system for any disturbance or stressed condition. For a given system, an approach to decide the strategic locations for PMU placement is developed, which can be used for determining the minimum number of PMUs required for application of the method. The accuracy of the scheme is tested for faults during normal and stressed conditions in a New England 39-bus system simulated using EMTDC/PSCAD software. With such a strategy, maloperation of relays can be averted in many situations and thereby blackouts/large-scale disturbances can be prevented.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Improvement of the Gravitational Search Algorithm by means of Low-Discrepancy Sobol Quasi Random-Number Sequence Based Initialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTINOZ, O. T.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature-inspired optimization algorithms can obtain the optima by updating the position of each member in the population. At the beginning of the algorithm, the particles of the population are spread into the search space. The initial distribution of particles corresponds to the beginning points of the search process. Hence, the aim is to alter the position for each particle beginning with this initial position until the optimum solution will be found with respect to the pre-determined conditions like maximum iteration, and specific error value for the fitness function. Therefore, initial positions of the population have a direct effect on both accuracy of the optima and the computational cost. If any member in the population is close enough to the optima, this eases the achievement of the exact solution. On the contrary, individuals grouped far away from the optima might yield pointless efforts. In this study, low-discrepancy quasi-random number sequence is preferred for the localization of the population at the initialization phase. By this way, the population is distributed into the search space in a more uniform manner at the initialization phase. The technique is applied to the Gravitational Search Algorithm and compared via the performance on benchmark function solutions.

  9. Dystocia in numbers - evidence-based parameters for intervention in the dog: causes for dystocia and treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, Andrea; Küchenmeister, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    Dystocia is a frequent problem in the dog, with regard to breed-specific factors, litter size, duration of expulsion, various intervals between puppies and various causes of maternal, foetal or combined origin. In the present study, results were obtained from management of 530 dogs of 54 breeds, between 1 and 13 years of age, presented with dystocia over a period of 8 years in an obstetrical clinic with mostly identical diagnostic and therapeutic schedules. Data on age of the dam, parturition number, breed size, causes of dystocia, duration of expulsion time, kind of obstetrical aid, and last but not least, the influence of all therapeutic aspects on survival of the puppies were analysed. Dams of miniature and small breeds (59.4%) had a high incidence for dystocia in this population. Uterine forces (inertia and spasm), malpresentation of the foetus and litter size (single pup pregnancies, hyperfoetation) were the most common causes for dystocia. Duration of expulsion stage had the highest influence on puppy survival (p 6 years of age) had a significantly higher risk to have special obstetric conditions and stillbirths compared with young primiparous bitches. The scope of this study was to analyse the parameters that were most useful for a rapid diagnosis to maximize puppy survival, to avoid false diagnosis and to choose the best therapeutic strategy. The present data show that in addition to the established criteria for management of dystocia in the dog, new diagnostic approaches are necessary to improve obstetrical care.

  10. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  11. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  12. Fully digital jerk-based chaotic oscillators for high throughput pseudo-random number generators up to 8.77Gbits/s

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2014-06-18

    This paper introduces fully digital implementations of four di erent systems in the 3rd order jerk-equation based chaotic family using the Euler approximation. The digitization approach enables controllable chaotic systems that reliably provide sinusoidal or chaotic output based on a selection input. New systems are introduced, derived using logical and arithmetic operations between two system implementations of different bus widths, with up to 100x higher maximum Lyapunov exponent than the original jerkequation based chaotic systems. The resulting chaotic output is shown to pass the NIST sp. 800-22 statistical test suite for pseudorandom number generators without post-processing by only eliminating the statistically defective bits. The systems are designed in Verilog HDL and experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA for a maximum throughput of 15.59 Gbits/s for the native chaotic output and 8.77 Gbits/s for the resulting pseudo-random number generators.

  13. Email-Based Informed Consent: Innovative Method for Reaching Large Numbers of Subjects for Data Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP

  14. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  15. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA(sub g)) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA(sub c)) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA(sub G) based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were and lt;10(sup -6) and and lt;10(sup -4), respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were and gt;10(sup -5) and and gt;10(sup -4), respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action

  16. Addressing inadequate compensation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... The issue LSLAs raise a number of concerns regarding compensation, including ... at a meeting with traders in Lamu, Kenya, where a new port is planned. ... compensation and a fair share of benefits and risks in land deals.

  17. Time-resolved study of the electron temperature and number density of argon metastable atoms in argon-based dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, E.; Laurent, M.; Durocher-Jean, A.; Laroche, G.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Stafford, L.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of optical emission spectroscopy and collisional-radiative modelling is used to determine the time-resolved electron temperature (assuming Maxwellian electron energy distribution function) and number density of Ar 1s states in atmospheric pressure Ar-based dielectric barrier discharges in presence of either NH3 or ethyl lactate. In both cases, T e values were higher early in the discharge cycle (around 0.8 eV), decreased down to about 0.35 eV with the rise of the discharge current, and then remained fairly constant during discharge extinction. The opposite behaviour was observed for Ar 1s states, with cycle-averaged values in the 1017 m-3 range. Based on these findings, a link was established between the discharge ionization kinetics (and thus the electron temperature) and the number density of Ar 1s state.

  18. A simple screening method for detection of Klinefelter syndrome and other X-chromosome aneuploidies based on copy number of the androgen receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, A M; Garn, I D; Aksglaede, L

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence and variable phenotype of patients with Klinefelter syndrome, there is a need for a robust and rapid screening method allowing early diagnosis. Here, we report on the development and detailed clinical validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based method...... of the copy number assessment of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located to Xq11.2-q12. We analysed samples from 50 individuals, including a healthy male and female controls and patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY; 48,XXXY) (n = 28), mosaicisms (46,XX/47,XXY/48XXYY; 45,X/46,XY) (n = 3), other sex......-gene expression. The XIST-expression based assay was correct in only 29/36 samples (81%). Our findings demonstrated that the AR-qPCR technique is a simple and reliable screening method for diagnosis of patients with Klinefelter syndrome or other chromosomal disorders involving an aberrant number of X-chromosomes....

  19. Number & operations task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  20. ASSOCIATION AMONG MATHEMATICAL CRITICAL THINKING SKILL, COMMUNICATION, AND CURIOSITY ATTITUDE AS THE IMPACT OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND COGNITIVE CONFLICT STRATEGY (PBLCCS) IN NUMBER THEORY COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zetriuslita Zetriuslita; Wahyudin Wahyudin; Jarnawi Afgani Dahlan

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to find out the association amongMathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability, Mathematical Communication, and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA) as the impact of applying Problem-Based Learning Cognitive Conflict Strategy(PBLCCS) in Number Theory course. The research method is correlative study. The instruments include a test for mathematical critical thinking skill and communication, and questionnaire to obtain the scores of mathematical curiosity attitude. The finding...