WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear system cost

  1. Dynamic cost control information system for nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongqing; Liu Wei

    1998-01-01

    The authors first introduce the cost control functions of some overseas popular project management software at present and the specific ways of cost control of nuclear power plant construction in China. Then the authors stress the necessity of cost and schedule control integration and present the concept of dynamic cost control, the design scheme of dynamic cost control information system and the data structure modeling. Based on the above, the authors can develop the system which has the functions of dynamic estimate, cash flow management and cost optimization for nuclear engineering

  2. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  3. A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model

  4. Nuclear power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    A report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat and presented to the seventh session of the Agency's General Conference says that information on nuclear power costs is now rapidly moving from the domain of uncertain estimates to that of tested factual data. As more and more nuclear power stations are being built and put into operation, more information on the actual costs incurred is becoming available. This is the fourth report on nuclear power costs to be submitted to the IAEA General Conference. The report last year gave cost information on 38 nuclear power projects, 17 of which have already gone into operation. Certain significant changes in the data given last year are included-in the present report; besides, information is given on seven new plants. The report is divided into two parts, the first on recent developments and current trends in nuclear power costs and the second on the use of the cost data for economic comparisons. Both stress the fact that the margin of uncertainty in the basic data has lately been drastically reduced. At the same time, it is pointed out, some degree of uncertainty is inherent in the assumptions made in arriving at over-all generating cost figures, especially when - as is usually the case - a nuclear plant is part of an integrated power system

  5. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  6. Cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts and radwaste system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, K.N.; Yook, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    During operation of nuclear power plant, radioactive material is inevitably formed. This radioactive material must be safely processed by radwaste system so that essentially zero activity is released to the environment. However zero released activity is not really practicable and population doses resulted from released activity are proportional to total annual cost for the radwaste system. In this study, cost-benefit analysis for the radwaste system of the Korean Nuclear Units 5 and 6 is performed to evaluate the optimization between the total annual cost for the radwaste system and population doses within 80 km from the plants. From the analysis, the following results are obtained; 1. the total population dose is estimated 4.04 x 10 3 man-rem/year, 2. total annual cost for the radwaste system is required $ 1.74 x 10 6 , 3. cost-benefit ratio is estimated $ 429/man-rem. (Author)

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of multi-regional nuclear energy systems deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, L.G.G.; Wade, D.C.; Yacout, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results of a cost/benefit-analysis of multi-regional nuclear energy system approaches with a focus on how multi-regional approaches may benefit a growing nuclear energy system in various world regions also being able to limit, or even reduce, the costs associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and facilitating the introduction of nuclear energy in various regions in the world. The paper highlights the trade-off one might envisage in deploying such multi-regional approaches but also the pay backs possible and concludes on the economical benefits one may associate to regional fuel cycle centres serving a world-fleet of STAR (small fast reactors of long refueling interval) where these STARs may be competitive compared to the LWRs (Light Water Reactors) as a base-case nuclear reactor option. (authors)

  8. Potential of remote multiplexing systems in reducing cabling cost and complexity in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.J.; L'Archeveque, J.V.R.

    1977-03-01

    Control and instrumentation cabling accounts for nearly 1% of the capital cost of a CANDU generating station. This study of cabling requirements, methods and costs for nuclear reactors, shows that efficient design and scale economies make CANDU wiring costs (per field point) among the lowest for comparable applications. Although attractive in other reactors, commercially available remote multiplexing systems are not, as yet, cost effective for general use in CANDU stations. The report, with its comprehensive tabulation of remote multiplexing equipment, and analysis of cabling procedures describes an approach for re-evaluating the tradeoff between remote multiplexing and conventional wiring as conditions change. (author)

  9. A fast, flexible and low cost real time data acquisition system for nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassool, R.P.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Thompson, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    A system has been developed to permit fast, efficient data collection from a relatively complex nuclear experiment. Incorporated into this system is the communication framework for on-line analysis of the incoming data. The system makes extensive use of readily available low cost Intel based microprocessors. Results from recent measurements of the 16 O(γ,n) cross section made using tagged photons, performed at previously unachievable collection rates are presented. 6 refs., 6 figs

  10. Controlling nuclear retrofit costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    Increased safety regulations that required modifications to nuclear power plants have had an impact on the capital and expense budgets of utilities. The author addresses the budgeting and control of project-related expenditures, and notes the importance of total cost management throughout the project's life cycle. That total includes the systems, procedures, personnel, expertise, and organization involved in the process. A rational and structured evaluation process at the beginning, realistic targets, and an organizational framework are key components. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  11. Impact of digital information and control system platform selection on nuclear power generating plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, T.; Radomski, S.; Sterdis, B.; Marta, H.; Bond, V.; Richardson, J.; Ramon, G.; Edvinsson, H.

    1998-01-01

    Information is presented on the benefits of a well-planned information and control systems (I and CS) replacement approach for aging nuclear power generating plants' I and CS. Replacement of an aging I and CS is accompanied by increases in plant profitability. Implementing a structured I and CS replacement with current technology allows improved plant electrical production in parallel with reduced I and CS operations and maintenance cost. Qualitative, quantitative, and enterprise management methods for cost benefit justification are shown to justify a comprehensive approach to I and CS replacement. In addition to the advantages of standard I and CS technologies, examples of new I and CS technologies are shown to add substantial cost benefit justification for I and CS replacements. Focus is upon I and CS replacements at nuclear power plants, however the information is applicable to other types of power generating facilities. (author)

  12. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  13. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  14. Least cost analysis of Belarus electricity generation system with focus on nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Yakushau, A.

    2004-01-01

    A basic feature of the Belarus electricity system is that about 50% of the installed power capacity is used to produce heat for the central heating supply system. The Republic has one of the most developed districts heating system in Europe. The installation started in 1930, and developed very fast after 1945. Co-generation of electricity and thermal energy in central power plants has played a fundamental role in the local economy. Presently, Belarus electricity generation system includes: Total installed capacities of condensing turbines 3665 MW; Total installed capacities of co-generation turbines 3889 MW. It is expected that in 2020 in accordance with electricity demand forecast peak load demand will be equaled approximately 9500 MW. Taking into account that operation time of 60 % existent co-generation turbine and 70 % of condensing turbine can be extended up to 2020 during the period 2005 - 2020 it is necessity to install about 1500 MW of new co-generation units and about 2000 MW of condensing turbines. To select the least cost scenario for electricity generation system expansion improved computer code WASP-IV for Windows had been used. As far code WASP-IV do not allow finding out optimal solution for electricity generation system with high share of co-generation directly the methodology of application of this program for this case had been developed. Methodology is based on utilization of code WASP-IV for simulation condensing turbines and module BALANCE for modeling co-generation part of the system. The scenarios for the electricity system expansion plan included only conventional technologies. Presently, the works connected with the preparedness for NPP construction in the Republic including site survey for NPP are being carried out. The first stage of siting process according to the IAEA classification has been completed. It was based on a set of criteria answered to A Safety Guide of the IAEA Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants and requirements to be

  15. Nuclear energy and social costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellens, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The author introduces a new concept under the name 'social costs', defining it more or less as that which society is prepared to pay to solve the risks taken when a new technological system is introduced into that society. Social costs are the result of a complex of advantages and disadvantages inherent to a system. Applying this principle, a comparison is given of the health hazards involved in power generation by nuclear power plants and plants working on natural gas, oil or coal

  16. Cost comparison of dry-type and conventional cooling systems for representative nuclear generating plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, J.P.; Cecil, E.A.; Young, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of studies comparing the use of dry-type cooling towers with conventional cooling methods for representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants. The studies were based on the hypothetical use of dry-type cooling towers for three nuclear power plants now under construction which were designed and are being built to use conventional cooling methods. One of the plants is located in the northeastern United States, one in the Southeast and one in the West. The report also presents the results of comparisons based on a hypothetical plant at a typical eastern United States site. The three electric utilities which participated in these studies have furnished actual construction cost information for the conventional cooling systems being constructed, and the authors have made construction estimates for economically optimum dry cooling systems which might have been built in place of the conventional cooling systems being constructed. The report compares the physical and operating characteristics of dry-type and conventional cooling systems as well as the relative economics of the different cooling methods. The effect of dry cooling on the bus-bar cost of power has been computed for the three selected plants and for the typical eastern plant

  17. The Nuclear Waste Fund Inquiry. Financing of nuclear waste management in Sweden and Finland and the cost control system in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report describes the Finnish system for financing nuclear waste management, and compares it to the swedish one. It gives an analysis of the economic effects for the waste management financing of an early shut-down of a nuclear power plant, and of a change to a new system for financing the waste management, more like the Finnish one. Finally the cost for the Swedish nuclear waste management, as estimated by SKB, is scrutinized. 25 refs

  18. Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Leveraging Strategic Advantages to Owners and EPC Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the owners expect that the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction would decrease with new entrants into the market, there will be severer competition in the nuclear industry. In order to achieve performance improvement and to attain competitive advantages under the globalized competition, practitioners and researchers in the nuclear industry have recently exerted efforts to develop an advanced and efficient management methodology for the nuclear mega-projects. Among several candidates, integrated cost and schedule control system is of great concern because it can effectively manage the three most important project performances including cost, time, and quality. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop a project numbering system (PNS of integrated cost and schedule control system for nuclear power plant construction. Distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were investigated first in order to identify influencing variables that characterize real-world implementation of advanced cost and schedule controls. A scenario was then developed and analysed to simulate a case-project. By using this case-project, proposed management requirements, management methods, measurement techniques, data structure, and data collection methods for integrated cost and schedule PNS were illustrated. Finally, findings and implications are outlined, and recommendations for further research are presented.

  19. Design of management information system for nuclear industry architectural project costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingzhi; Li Wei

    1996-01-01

    Management Information System (MIS) for nuclear industry architectural project is analysed and designed in detail base on quota management and engineering budget management of nuclear industry in respect of the practice of Qinshan Second Phase 2 x 600 MW Project

  20. Nuclear energy: the real cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.; Marshall, R.; Sweet, C.; Prior, M.; Welsh, I.; Bunyard, P.; Goldsmith, E.; Hildyard, N.; Jeffery, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report on the discussions within a small group of academics falls under the headings: chairman's foreword; summary and recommendations; the government's nuclear power programme and its implications; the CEGB's planning record; the past performance of Britain's nuclear power stations - a guide for the future (query); nuclear power -early uncertainties; historic costs - 'the fraud inherent in all inflationary finance'; current cost accounting; fuel costs - coal stays steady, nuclear rises; net effective cost and the rationale for nuclear power; reinterpreting net effective costs; other considerations; conclusions and recommendations; references. (U.K.)

  1. 400-MWe consolidated nuclear steam system (CNSS). 1255 MWt CNSS design/cost update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Since 1976 Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has been extensively involved in the development of a medium-sized (1255 MWt/400 MWe) reactor. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and through a contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), B and W investigated the feasibility of the concept for utility power generation and cogenerated process heat. The potential benefits of the design, called the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS), were also identified. This study provides an update of the CNSS design and cost reflecting current regulatory requirements and operating reactor experience. The study was funded by DOE through ORNL and was performed by B and W and UE and C

  2. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  3. Nuclear costs: indicators and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify whether it is better to build a gas plant, a nuclear plant or a wind farm, to identify the technology leading to the lowest KWh cost, to identify under which conditions nuclear production is profitable for a private investor, and to identify whether taking the dismantling cost and the waste storage cost into account modifies the nuclear competitiveness with respect to general interest, the author first discusses the different costs of the nuclear sector, their sensitivity to different factors. In a second part, he proposes a retrospective discussion of cost dynamics. Then, as nuclear technology seems characterized by always increasing costs, and as this trend may last, notably because of safety concerns, the author proposes an analysis of the poor competitiveness of nuclear with respect to its cost

  4. Nuclear electric capacity expansion in Mexico: system effects of reactor size and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Abbey, D.S.; Hardie, R.W.; Enriquez, R.P.; Uria, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Mexico's electrical generation capacity could more than double over the next ten years - from about 15 GWe currently to as much as 35 GWe in 1990. While new capacity additions will be predominantly oil-fired in the 1980's, nuclear power will become increasingly important in the 1990's. This study investigated the appropriate size of new, nuclear capacity additions by assessing the implications of installing different size reactors into Mexico's electrical grid. Included in the assessments of reactor sizes are estimates of electrical generation costs and comparisons of the effective load-carrying capability of a 10 GWe nuclear capacity expansion

  5. A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Roo, Guillaume; Parsons, John E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

  6. A simulation of 'schedule-cost' progress monitoring system in nuclear power project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haitao; Huang Zhongping; Zhang Zemin; Wang Zikai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of project management is to find the optimal balance between progress and cost according to the project requirements. Traditional method always manages progress and cost separately. However, domestic and international experience indicated that the interactions between these two factors are crucial in the project implementation. Modern project managers have to manage and maintain a 'Progress - Cost' joint control framework. Such a model is applied into a sub-project of a nuclear power project using Simulink in this paper. It helps to identify and correct the deviations of the project. Earned Value Management is used by the project manager to quantify the cost of the project and progress of implementation. The budget plan value, actual value, earned value are three important parameters to measure cost and progress of the project. The experimental results illustrated that the method gives a more comprehensive performance evaluation of the project. (authors)

  7. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  8. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project

  9. Cost benefit analysis of instrumentation, supervision and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.

    1973-08-01

    A cost benefit analysis is carried out on a BWR type reactor power plant in which an on-line computer performs plant supervision, reporting, logging, calibration and control functions, using display devices and plotters, while an off-line computer is available for bigger jobs such as fuel management calculations. All on-line functions are briefly described and specified. Three types of computer system are considered, a simplex system, a dual computer system and a multi-processor system. These systems are analysed with respect to reliability, back-up instrumentation requirements and costs. While the multiprocessor system gave in all cases the lowest annual failure costs, the margin to the duplex system was so small that hardware, maintenance and software costs would play an important role in making a decision. (JIW)

  10. The preliminary analysis of establishing the cost control system of AP1000 for the Haiyang nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Li Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    The AP1000 technology has been first applied to Nuclear Power Plant construction in China. Haiyang Project is the second plant which applies the new technology, and it is the key to the success of the project, that how to control the cost. The cost control of AP1000 is to manage and monitor all the cost of the project, including the cost of project management, design, procurement, construction, and startup/commissioning. For the Haiyang Project, the cost control system should be established to ensure that the evaluation of the procurement order should be covered in the original budget, and all potential commitments are evaluated and approved within the confinement of cost control, and reduce the risk of the first reactor and get the most profit. (authors)

  11. The costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestenhaug, O.; Sauar, T.O.; Nielsen, P.O.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made by Scandpower A/S of the costs of nuclear power in Sweden. It is based on the known costs of existing Swedish nuclear power plants and forecasts of the expected costs of the Swedish nuclear power programme. special emphasis has been put on the fuel cycle costs and future costs of spent fuel processing, waste disposal and decommissioning. Costs are calculated in 1978 Swedish crowns, using the retail price index. An actual interest rate of 4% is used, with depreciation period of 25 years and a plant lifetime of 30 years. Power production costs are estimated to be about 7.7 oere/kWh in 1978, rising to 10.5 oere/kWh in 2000. The cost is distributed with one third each to capital costs, operating costs and fuel costs, the last rising to 40% of the total at the end of the century. The main single factor in future costs is the price of uranium. If desired, Sweden can probably be self-sufficient in uranium in 2000 at a lower cost than assumed here. National research costs which, in Scandpower's opinion, can be debited to the commercial nuclear power programme are about 0.3 oere/kWh. (JIW)

  12. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system. Joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2003-09-01

    Research of hydrogen energy has been performed in order to spread use of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in all of countries. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-either (DME) has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced by steam reforming hydrogen generation system by the use of nuclear heat. Therefore, the system would be one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. In the present study, we focused on the production of hydrogen and DME. Economic evaluation was estimated for hydrogen and DME production in commercial and nuclear heat utilization plant. At first, heat and mass balance of each process in commercial plant of hydrogen production was estimated and commercial prices of each process were derived. Then, price was estimated when nuclear heat was used instead of required heat of commercial plant. Results showed that the production prices produced by nuclear heat were cheaper by 10% for hydrogen and 3% for DME. With the consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release, utilization of nuclear heat would be more effective. (author)

  13. Low cost nuclear data printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachiya, S.; Aungkultewaraksa, S.; Pengphol, S.

    1988-01-01

    The data printer is essential for nuclear radiation measuring system. A low cost nuclear data printer is developed from an electronic printing calculator. It can transfer the counting data from scaler and printout. The basic concept is that the BCD data is transferred and converted to decimal data sequentially by the interfacing circuit. After the counting time is ended, each digit is transferred to the printing calculator by data bus, digit by digit, until all the data are transferred and printed out. The low cost nuclear data printer consists of a CASIO model HR-8 electronic printing calculator and a printer interface model either NT 2602 or NT 2603 which are designed for printing out 6 digit data from the counter/timer CANBERRA model 1772. In this research the NT 2602 interface is designed only to transfer and printing out data. While the NT 2603 interface is designed to transfer, print out and average data. The NT 2603 can average from 2 to 9 sets of counting data. This data interfacing technique can be applied to work with all scientific instruments having readout as digital display and all kinds of electronic printing calculator

  14. Economic potential of fuel recycling options: A lifecycle cost analysis of future nuclear system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ruxing; Choi, Sungyeol; Il Ko, Won; Kim, Sungki

    2017-01-01

    In today's profit-driven market, how best to pursue advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies while maintaining the cost competitiveness of nuclear electricity is of crucial importance to determine the implementation of spent fuel reprocessing and recycling in China. In this study, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of ongoing national projects and the technical compatibility with China's future fuel cycle transition. We investigated the dynamic impacts of technical and economic uncertainties in the lifecycle of a nuclear system. The electricity generation costs associated with four potential fuel cycle transition scenarios were simulated by probabilistic and deterministic approaches and then compared in detail. The results showed that the total cost of a once-through system is lowest compared those of other advanced systems involving reprocessing and recycling. However, thanks to the consequential uncertainties caused by the further progress toward technology maturity, the economic potential of fuel recycling options was proven through a probabilistic uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, it is recommended that a compulsory executive of closed fuel cycle policy would pose some investment risk in the near term, though the execution of a series of R&D initiatives with a flexible roadmap would be valuable in the long run. - Highlights: • Real-time economic performance of the four scenarios of China's nuclear fuel cycle system transition until 2100. • Systematic assessments of techno-economic feasibility for ongoing national reprocessing projects. • Investigation the cost impact on nuclear electricity generation caused by uncertainties through probabilistic analysis. • Recommendation for sustainable implementation of fuel cycle R&D initiative ingrate with flexible roadmap in the long run.

  15. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1980-08-01

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  16. A review of scope and costs for the swedish system for management of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    From a financial analysis of the swedish nuclear waste management program it is deduced that a 25 year long operation of the swedish reactors will not create funds large enough to finance the program at the present fee level (0.019 SEK/kWh). The real interest rate is of great importance for the return from the fees. The cost estimates for decommissioning are much lower than that for comparable reactors in other countries (e.g. Trojan, USA vs Ringhals 2), possibly totaling up to 20 GSEK for all twelve swedish reactors. 3 figs., 12 tabs

  17. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  18. Cost estimation of hydrogen and DME produced by nuclear heat utilization system II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Utilization and production of hydrogen has been studied in order to spread utilization of the hydrogen energy in 2020 or 2030. It will take, however, many years for the hydrogen energy to be used very easily like gasoline, diesel oil and city gas in the world. During the periods, low CO 2 release liquid fuels would be used together with hydrogen. Recently, di-methyl-ether (DME). has been noticed as one of the substitute liquid fuels of petroleum. Such liquid fuels can be produced from the mixed gas such as hydrogen and carbon oxide which are produced from natural gas by steam reforming. Therefore, the system would become one of the candidates of future system of nuclear heat utilization. Following the study in 2002, we performed economic evaluation of the hydrogen and DME production by nuclear heat utilization plant where heat generated by HTGR is completely consumed for the production. The results show that hydrogen price produced by nuclear was about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by increase in recovery rate of high purity hydrogen with increased in PSA process. Price of DME in indirect method produced by nuclear heat was also about 17% cheaper than the commercial price by producing high purity hydrogen in the DME producing process. As for the DME, since price of DME produced near oil land in petroleum exporting countries is cheaper than production in Japan, production of DME by nuclear heat in Japan has disadvantage economically in this time. Trial study to estimate DME price produced by direct method was performed. From the present estimation, utilization of nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen would be more effective with coupled consideration of reduction effect of CO 2 release. (author)

  19. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  20. Renewables, nuclear, or fossil fuels? Scenarios for Great Britain’s power system considering costs, emissions and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Keirstead, James

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare a large number of cost-optimal future power systems for Great Britain. • Scenarios are assessed on cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. • Up to 60% of variable renewable capacity is possible with little cost increase. • Higher shares require storage, imports or dispatchable renewables such as tidal range. - Abstract: Mitigating climate change is driving the need to decarbonize the electricity sector, for which various possible technological options exist, alongside uncertainty over which options are preferable in terms of cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. To reduce this uncertainty, we here quantify two questions for the power system of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland): First, when compared within the same high-resolution modeling framework, how much do different combinations of technologies differ in these three respects? Second, how strongly does the cost and availability of grid-scale storage affect overall system cost, and would it favor some technology combinations above others? We compare three main possible generation technologies: (1) renewables, (2) nuclear, and (3) fossil fuels (with/without carbon capture and storage). Our results show that across a wide range of these combinations, the overall costs remain similar, implying that different configurations are equally feasible both technically and economically. However, the most economically favorable scenarios are not necessarily favorable in terms of emissions or energy security. The availability of grid-scale storage in scenarios with little dispatchable generation can reduce overall levelized electricity cost by up to 50%, depending on storage capacity costs. The UK can rely on its domestic wind and solar PV generation at lower renewable shares, with levelized costs only rising more than 10% above the mean of 0.084 GBP/kWh for shares of 50% and below at a 70% share, which is 35% higher. However, for more than an 80% renewable

  1. Capital investment costs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to summarize capital cost experience and estimates in industrialized and developing Member States of the IAEA, and to provide some guidance for cost extrapolation. The relative merits of different types and sizes of nuclear and conventional power plants for an expanding electricity generation system are compared over an adequate planning period

  2. Cost escalation in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montomery, W.D.; Quirk, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    This report is concerned with the escalation of capital costs of nuclear central station power plants between the early 1960s and the present. The report presents an historical overview of the development of the nuclear power industry and cost escalation in the industry, using existing data on orders and capital costs. New data are presented on regulatory delays in the licensing process, derived from a concurrent study being carried on in the Social Science group at Caltech. The conclusions of the study are that nuclear capital costs have escalated more rapidly than the GNP deflator or the construction industry price index. Prior to 1970, cost increases are related to bottleneck problems in the nuclear construction and supplying industries and the regulatory process; intervenors play only a minor role in cost escalation. After 1970, generic changes introduced into the licensing process by intervenors (including environmental impact reviews, antitrust reviews, more stringent safety standards) dominate the cost escalation picture, with bottlenecks of secondary importance. Recent increases in the time from application for a construction permit to commercial operation are related not only to intervenor actions, but also to suspensions, cancellations or postponements of construction by utilities due to unfavorable demand or financing conditions

  3. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    External costs of nuclear power include: future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impacts of radioactivity releases in routine operation, radioactive waste disposal and effects of severe accidents. The nuclear energy industry operates under regulations that impose stringent limits to atmospheric emissions and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities as well as requiring the containment and confinement of solid radioactive waste to ensure its isolation from the biosphere as long as it may be harmful for human health and the environment. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The externality related to potential health and environmental impacts of radioactive releases during routine operations have been assessed in a large number of comprehensive studies, in particular the ExternE project that was created in the framework of the European Commission. With regard to effects of severe nuclear accidents, a special legal regime, the third-party liability system, has been implemented to provide limited third party liability coverage in the event of a nuclear accident. The nuclear plant owners are held liable for some specified first substantial part of damages to third parties, and must secure insurance coverage adequate to cover this part. The Government provides coverage for some specified substantial second part of the damages, with any remaining damages to be considered by the national legislation. Thus, the costs of an incident or accident are fully internalized in the costs borne by the nuclear plant owners. Externalities of energy are not limited to environmental and health related impacts, but may result also from macro-economic, policy or strategic factors not reflected

  4. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  5. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  6. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  7. The cost of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Proposed by a technical section of the SFEN, and based on a meeting with representatives of different organisations (OECD-NEA, IRSN, EDF, and European Nuclear Energy Forum), this publication addresses the economic consequences of a severe accident (level 6 or 7) within an electricity producing nuclear power plant. Such an assessment essentially relies on three pillars: release of radio-elements outside the reactor, the scenario of induced consequences, and the method of economic quantification. After a recall and a comment of safety arrangements, and of the generally admitted probability of such an accident, this document notices that several actors are concerned by nuclear energy and are trying to assess accident costs. The issue of how to assess a cost (or costs) of a nuclear accident is discussed: there are in fact several types of costs and consequences. Thus, some costs can be rather precisely quantified when some others can be difficult to assess or with uncertainty. The relevance of some cost categories appears to be a matter of discussion and one must not forget that consequences can occur on a long term. The need for methodological advances is outlined and three categories of technical objectives are identified for the assessment (efficiency of safety measures to be put forward to mitigate the risk via a better accident management, compensation of victims and nuclear civil responsibility, and comparison of electricity production sectors and assessment of externalisation to guide public choices). It is outlined that the impact of accidents depend on several factors, that the most efficient mean to limit consequences of accidents is of course to limit radioactive emissions

  8. Costs and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Woite, G.

    1995-01-01

    The experienced and projected future construction costs and electricity generation costs of nuclear and fossil fired power plants are reviewed and compared. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitiveness position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budget, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors are identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climatic impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard also, mitigation of emissions from fossil fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  10. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  11. Hidden costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mr. England contends that these hidden costs add up to a figure much higher than those that appear in the electric utilities' profit and loss account - costs that are borne by Federal taxpayers, by nuclear industry workers, and by all those people who must share their environment with nuclear facilities. Costs he details are additional deaths and illnesses resulting from exposure to radiation, and the use of tax dollars to clean up the lethal garbage produced by those activities. He asserts that careless handling of uranium ore and mill tailings in past years has apparently resulted in serious public health problems in those mining communities. In another example, Mr. England states that the failure to isolate uranium tailings physically from their environment has probably contributed to an acute leukemia rate in Mesa County, Colorado. He mentions much of the technology development for power reactors being done by the Federal government, not by private reactor manufacturers - thus, again, hidden costs that do not show up in electric bills of customers. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a place for Federally subsidized research and development is discussed briefly. 1 figure, 2 tables

  12. The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

  13. Costing methods for nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The question of the methods used for costing desalination plants has been recognized as very important in the economic choice of a plant and its optimization. The fifth meeting of the Panel on the Use of Nuclear Energy in Saline Water Conversion, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency in April 1965, noted this fact and recommended the preparation of a report on suitable methods for costing and evaluating nuclear desalination schemes. The Agency has therefore prepared this document, which was reviewed by an international panel of experts that met in Vienna from 18 to 22 April, 1966. The report contains a review of the underlying principles for costing desalination plants and of the various methods that have been proposed for allocating costs in dual-purpose plants. The effect of the different allocation methods on the water and power costs is shown at the end of the report. No attempt is made to recommend any particular method, but the possible limitations of each are indicated. It is hoped that this report will help those involved in the various phases of desalination projects

  14. A review of the scope and the cost of the Swedish nuclear waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    A Swedish translation of this report appears as an appendix in SOU 1004:108 (ISBN 91-38-13755-0). The report is prepared for the Nuclear Fond Commission and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  16. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  17. More reliable financing of future nuclear waste costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This appendix contains seven reports written by consultants to the Commission. The report titles are: Basic document regarding the inquiry on fund management; Scenarios for growth and real interest rates in a long perspective; Stability of the Swedish financing system; Report concerning the financing of nuclear waste management in Sweden and Finland and the cost control system in Sweden; Evaluation of the cost estimates and calculation methods of SKB; A study of the costs for nuclear waste - The basis for cost estimation; A review of scope and costs for the Swedish system for management of nuclear waste. The four last reports are separately indexed

  18. Reversing nuclear power cost trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.; Peoples, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power production expenses rose steadily during the 5-year period 1979 through 1984 at rates ranging from 15 to 25% per year for nonfuel expenses. During that period, fuel costs rose about 14% per year. Experience of the past few years demonstrates that significant economies-of-scale do exist in plant operation and maintenance. A regional operating company could exploit such economies-of-scale and would also be expected to attract and retain a more-experienced and stable staff. Over the years, that combination should significantly improve plant operating performance and safety. The net effect would be a combination of reduced operating expenses; improved availability; higher capacity factors; and, possibly, lower heat rates. In an era of increasing competition within energy business, all options should be considered carefully. Bold innovation will be the key to a nuclear future. 5 references, 8 figures

  19. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  20. Cost management in a nuclear operating environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckel, J.K.; Gruber, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated philosophy and program for managing costs in a nuclear operating environment. The ideas presented here are being used by Pennsyvania Power and Light Company (PPandL) at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. Three basic ideas necessary to successful cost management are listed and include: recognize the framework that is needed to ''manage'': treat cost as part of an integrated plan; and apply different techniques to different types of work activities. It is the author's opinion that the technical framework of a successful cost management system must include all work activities but recognize types. Project activities should be managed to a defined scope and authorized cost using a well communicated estimating program, aggressive trending and forecasting, and a change identification process

  1. The cost of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: What would be the cost of fresh water obtained by desalination of sea or brackish water with the help of a nuclear reactor? What methods are being employed for such costing and evaluation? These are basic questions for the increasing number of countries which are considering water desalination for the production of drinking water or for industrial or agricultural purposes. Following the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the IAEA in Vienna, Austria, in April 1965, the Agency is now preparing a report on the desalination methods used or developed in various countries. Another panel met in Vienna in April of the current year, to help the Agency with the final draft of this report which is due to be published this autumn. The panel, 20 experts from 7 countries, was chaired consecutively by Mr. N. Carrillo (Mexico) and Mr. V.N. Meckoni (India). (author)

  2. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-01-01

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  5. Nuclear generation cost and nuclear research development fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Song, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the effects of nuclear R and D fund to nuclear generation cost and to assess the adaptability of fund size through the comparison with the nuclear research fund in Japan. It was estimated that nuclear R and D fund increased the average annual unit cost of nuclear power generation by 1.14 won/kWh. When the size of nuclear R and D fund is compared with that in Japan, this study suggests that the current nuclear R and D fund should be largely increased taking into consideration the ratio of R and D fund to nuclear generation

  6. Nuclear energy: the real costs; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.; Jones, P.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a review by Jones (Atom. 306 April 1982) of 'Nuclear Energy: the Real Costs' - a special report by the Committee for the Study of the Economics of Nuclear Electricity, and criticisms contained in the review of the analysis of nuclear costs presented in the report are discussed. Dr Jones replies. (U.K.)

  7. Cost benefit analysis of recycling nuclear fuel cycle in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jewhan; Chang, Soonheung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has become an essential part of electricity generation to meet the continuous growth of electricity demand. The importance if nuclear waste management has been the main issue since the beginning of nuclear history. The recycling nuclear fuel cycle includes the fast reactor, which can burn the nuclear wastes, and the pyro-processing technology, which can reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. In this study, a methodology using Linear Programming (LP) is employed to evaluate the cost and benefits of introducing the recycling strategy and thus, to see the competitiveness of recycling fuel cycle. The LP optimization involves tradeoffs between the fast reactor capital cost with pyro-processing cost premiums and the total system uranium price with spent nuclear fuel management cost premiums. With the help of LP and sensitivity analysis, the effect of important parameters is presented as well as the target values for each cost and price of key factors

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, P.; Schricker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB) [de

  9. Nuclear power costs in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, C [Polytechnic of the South Bank, London (UK)

    1978-06-01

    An attempt is made to assess the available evidence on nuclear power costs, to evaluate the adequacy of published statistics, and to determine where the balance of advantage lies. The case rests on four factors - the load factor, calculations of fuel and capital costs, research and development costs, and most importantly, whether there is net benefit over costs. It is felt that if the flow of information concerning the difficult and confusing position in which the nuclear power industry finds itself could be increased then the quality of research in the field of costing nuclear programmes and evaluating their social overhead costs could be improved.

  10. A Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. W.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Although integrated assessments of climate change policy have frequently identified nuclear energy as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, these studies have often treated nuclear waste disposal very simply. Simple assumptions about nuclear waste are problematic because they may not be adequate to capture relevant costs and uncertainties, which could result in suboptimal policy choices. Modeling nuclear waste management costs is a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale problem that involves economic, geologic and environmental processes that operate at vastly different temporal scales. Similarly, the climate-related costs and benefits of nuclear energy are dependent on environmental sensitivity to CO2 emissions and radiation, nuclear energy's ability to offset carbon emissions, and the risk of nuclear accidents, factors which are all deeply uncertain. Alternative value systems further complicate the problem by suggesting different approaches to valuing intergenerational impacts. Effective policy assessment of nuclear energy requires an integrated approach to modeling nuclear waste management that (1) bridges disciplinary and temporal gaps, (2) supports an iterative, adaptive process that responds to evolving understandings of uncertainties, and (3) supports a broad range of value systems. This work develops the Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model (NWMCM). NWMCM provides a flexible framework for evaluating the cost of nuclear waste management across a range of technology pathways and value systems. We illustrate how NWMCM can support policy analysis by estimating how different nuclear waste disposal scenarios developed using the NWMCM framework affect the results of a recent integrated assessment study of alternative energy futures and their effects on the cost of achieving carbon abatement targets. Results suggest that the optimism reflected in previous works is fragile: Plausible nuclear waste management costs and discount rates appropriate for intergenerational cost

  11. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-01-01

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups

  12. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  13. Cost estimating for large nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, A.; Hunt, M.

    2004-01-01

    In today's market, the generation of electricity is a very competitive business, which is constantly under the watchful eye of the media and public. Nuclear power faces a lot of competition from other sources such as hydro, coal and gas. Controlling costs, monitoring costs, feedback, industry knowledge and up to date cost estimating tools are essential for a nuclear company to compete on a long term basis. This paper reviews the terminology and estimating principles used for the construction of new nuclear plants, lifetime operating costs, and the costs associated with refurbishment work. (author)

  14. Nuclear utilities must cut costs: ANS meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This article looks at cost factors in the nuclear industry, and concludes that the nuclear industry must be very careful with its operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in particular to stay competitive in the energy marketplace. These costs have been rising at 5% per year lately, and are becoming a major cost for the nuclear industry. Analysts feel that a major reason for these increases is the responsibility of management. The article highlights the need to tighten the cost factors or face the loss of market share

  15. Capital-cost behavior: is nuclear different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotze, C.D.; Riordan, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The capital costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants are found to be comparable when costs for pollution control are included. Trends in capital costs reveal a similar rate gain that retains the same economic balance. Graphs of selected cost indices are used to show that the rapid increase in direct construction costs is not unique to nuclear plants, those of hydroelectric plants as well as coal-fired having the same pattern. Comparisons of indirect capital costs, based on analyses of direct capital and total capital costs, show estimated average growth rates of total costs to be 14% for coal and 13.6% for nuclear, while direct cost growth rates are 10.2% and 10.4%. The economics of market competition can be expected to push alternative energy source projects into balance

  16. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  17. Nuclear costs: why do they keep rising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power has performed badly in recent years as a new investment everywhere except Japan and Korea. This has mainly been for orthodox financial and economic reasons. Among the factors contributing to this loss of competitiveness, persistently rising real capital costs have been particularly important. While the nuclear industry has believed it could control and reduce capital costs, increasing regulatory stringency has made designs more complex and correspondingly more costly. These cost increasing factors have far outweighed traditional cost reducing factors (like learning). The only lasting way to meet increasing stringency in safety at acceptably low cost is likely to be the development of new and simpler reactor designs. (author)

  18. Nuclear generation cost management and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, E.P.; Sepa, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The CANDU-Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report discusses the cost management principles used for Ontario Hydro's CANDU-PHW program, current cost management initiatives, and the economic benefits of nuclear power to the provinces of Ontario and New Brunswick, in Canada

  19. The hidden costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keough, C.

    1981-01-01

    The two basic hidden costs of nuclear power are public money and public health. Nuclear power appears to be economical because many of the costs of producins electricity in these plants are paid by the federal government. So, like it or not, the citizens are footing the bill with their taxes. Design and development of plants have been paid for with public money, and disposal and cleanup costs will also be paid in this manner. The economic and health costs associated with nuclear accidents are staggering

  20. Nuclear vs coal: comparing cost trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrer, B.; Nieves, L.

    1981-01-01

    The leading competitors in the new-capacity-addition options, from now to 1990, will be nuclear and coal-fired units. As an alternative viewpoint to the coal vs nuclear economic comparison presented in the October 1981 issue of Electrical World, this study represents an analysis of cost data for generating electricity from the two fuel sources. The economic impacts on nuclear and coal units of varying the levels of several key cost parameters are examined and analyzed. 13 figures

  1. The cost of decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report sets out the results of a National Audit Office investigation to determine the extent of the potential Government liability for nuclear decommissioning, how this is to be financed and the possible implications for the taxpayer. Further effort are needed to improve the nuclear industry's estimates, improve efficiency and face up to the costs of decommissioning. This should also ensure that the full cost of nuclear energy is identified. (author)

  2. A new look at nuclear power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymm, R.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluation compares estimates for capital costs and fuel cycle costs so as to deduce from estimates of earlier years and from a cost situation which has altered in the meantime, trends for the future. Despite a continuing upward movement of costs, nuclear energy still has a marked advantage over other energy carriers as far as the costs are concerned. However, this alone is not enough anymore to drive nuclear development on, because, in the meantime other, non-economic, factors influence the development. (UA) [de

  3. Nuclear Systems Kilopower Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Don; Gibson, Marc; Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael; McClure, Patrick; Robinson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project was initiated by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program in fiscal year 2015 to demonstrate subsystem-level technology readiness of small space fission power in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level 5) for space science and human exploration power needs. The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project consists of two elements. The primary element is the Kilopower Prototype Test, also called the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology(KRUSTY) Test. This element consists of the development and testing of a fission ground technology demonstrator of a 1 kWe fission power system. A 1 kWe system matches requirements for some robotic precursor exploration systems and future potential deep space science missions, and also allows a nuclear ground technology demonstration in existing nuclear test facilities at low cost. The second element, the Mars Kilopower Scalability Study, consists of the analysis and design of a scaled-up version of the 1 kWe reference concept to 10 kWe for Mars surface power projected requirements, and validation of the applicability of the KRUSTY experiment to key technology challenges for a 10 kWe system. If successful, these two elements will lead to initiation of planning for a technology demonstration of a 10 kWe fission power capability for Mars surface outpost power.

  4. Classification of nuclear plant cost to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to understand why the fixed-cost/variable-cost method of classifying nuclear plant costs can lead to rate discontinuities, the author must examine the factors which lead to the decision to build a nuclear power plant and the interrelationship between demand (KW) and energy (KWH). The problems and inequities associated with the nuclear plants can be avoided by recognizing that fixed costs are related to both demand and energy and by using a costing methodology which closely relates to the functional purpose of the plant. Generally, this leads to classifying fixed costs of nuclear plants primarily to the energy function in an embedded cost-of-service study and through either implicit or explicit recognition of fuel savings in a marginal cost study. The large rate discontinuities which occurred in the scenario can be resolved. Costs associated with demand or energy charges remain relatively stable compared to actual capacity costs and customers would not experience large changes in their bills due solely to a particular costing convention

  5. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  6. Systems/cost: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgments on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying high-leverage subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion. The systems considered as examples are: (1) injection system; (2) Wideroe linac; (3) Alvarez linac; (4) induction linac; (5) superconducting accumulator ring; (6) synchrotron; (7) final rf bunching; and (8) final beam transport to target

  7. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-01-01

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies

  8. Social costs and benefits of nuclear futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    1979-01-01

    The conceptual framework for evaluating which energy path is chosen is one of trading-off costs and benefits in a world of technological, economic and social uncertainty. The translation of this conceptual framework into an analytical format with empirical relevance is dealt with. Some salient features of cost benefit analysis are discussed. Actual costs and benefits of nuclear futures are then considered. Subjects discussed are: routine and non-routine radiation, waste management, proliferation, and civil liberties. A 'regret' matrix is presented showing the cost to any future generation if a decision on nuclear power is made now. (U.K.)

  9. What will abandonment of nuclear energy cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany holds position five on the list of the world's biggest energy consumers. This alone is a fact that puts special emphasis on the public discussion about the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in addition to the current events such as incidents and accidents in nuclear installations. A sober review of the pros and cons of nuclear energy for power generation has to take into account the economic effects and the costs to be borne by the national economy as a result of immediate abandonment of nuclear energy. The article in hand discusses chances, problems, and alternatives to nuclear energy (solar energy and wind power). (orig.) [de

  10. Long-term cost targets for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) began the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) to help guide nuclear R and D strategies targeted on anticipated mid-century energy system needs. One part of INPRO seeks to develop cost targets for new designs to be competitive in mid-century markets. The starting point was the 40 scenarios of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This paper summarizes four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families. It discusses their implications for nuclear energy, including cost targets, and develops for each an 'aggressive nuclear' variant. The aggressive nuclear variants estimate the potential market for nuclear energy if, by improving faster than assumed by the SRES authors, nuclear energy can make inroads into vulnerable market shares projected for its competitors. In addition to projected demands for nuclear generated electricity, hydrogen and heat, the aggressive variants include prospective demand for nuclear desalination and use in upgrading fossil fuels. The paper then presents learning rates and implied cost targets consistent with the aggressive nuclear variants of the SRES scenarios. One provocative initial result is that many of the scenarios with substantial nuclear expansion do not seem to require big reductions in nuclear investment costs. One interpretation discussed at the end of the paper highlights the difference between cost reductions consistent with long-term energy system optimization based on perfect foresight, and cost reductions necessary to attract private investment in today's 'deregulating' and uncertain energy markets. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear operating costs are rising exponentially - official

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Information Agency of the United States Department of Energy has collected data on the operations of nuclear power plants in the United States. A statistical regression analysis was made of this data base. This shows that the escalation in annual, real non-fuel operating costs is such that the operating cost savings made by closing down an old nuclear plant would be sufficient to pay the capital and operating costs of replacing it with a brand new coal-fired plant. The main reason for the increasing operating and maintenance costs is the cost of replacement power i.e. the higher the economic penalty of plant breakdown the more the utility has to spend on maintenance. Another reason is time -not the age of the plant - but the year the data was collected. The economic case for nuclear power is seriously challenged. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested

  13. Systems/cost summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Spiro, J.; Sutter, D.; Cole, F.; Hoyer, E.; Freytag, K.; Burke, R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop cost-estimating methods for heavy-ion fusion accelerator systems. The group did not consider that its purpose was to make technical judgements on proposed systems, but to develop methods for making reasonable cost estimates of these systems. Such estimates will, it is hoped, provide material for systems studies, will help in guiding research and development efforts by identifying ''high-leverage'' subsystems (areas that account for a significant part of total system cost and that might be reduced in cost by further technical development) and to begin to provide data to aid in an eventual decision on the optimum type of accelerator for heavy-ion fusion

  14. Projected cost comparison of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.; Hu, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of electricity generation costs has been done in the late years through a large co-operation between several organisations. The studies are aiming to provide reliable comparison of electricity generating costs of nuclear and conventional base load power plants. This paper includes the result of the joint IAEA/OECD study published in 1997. (author)

  15. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  16. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  17. On the Costs of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    In considering the use of nuclear energy as a primary source of electricity the important thing is not that it should be ''cheap'' in absolute terms but that it should be competitive, that is to say that the cost of nuclear electricity should be produced at a cost comparable with or less than that of electricity generated by conventional sources - hydroelectric plants or thermo-plants based on coal, natural gas or oil. If energy is vital to a country's development one must be prepared to pay what it is worth; the problem is to obtain the energy at the lowest possible cost

  18. The hidden costs of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1978-01-01

    A lynch pin of the pro-nuclear argument is that atomic energy provides cheap electricity. Many are sceptical of such claims, realising that a lot of figures have been omitted from the accounting - the cost of R and D, of dismantling the obsolete stations and of waste management - but having no access to all the figures, such scepticism has remained little more than a hunch. Using conventional economic accounting it is shown that nuclear power must be considerably more costly than has ever been admitted by any of the authorities. The CEGB claims that reprocessing amounts to no more than 8 per cent of the total costs of nuclear generated electricity. According to the present author the costs are 20 per cent - and that 20 per cent is of a much higher figure. (author)

  19. Nuclear power plant decommissioning costs in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Geoffrey; Deffrennes, Marc; Weber, Inge

    2016-01-01

    At the international level, actual experience is limited in the completion of nuclear power plant decommissioning projects. Cost data for decommissioning projects are thus largely unavailable, with few examples of analyses or comparisons between estimates and actual costs at the project level. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) initiated a project to address this knowledge gap and in early 2016 published the outcomes in the report on Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants. The study reviews decommissioning costs and funding practices adopted by NEA member countries, based on the collection and analysis of survey data via a questionnaire. The work was carried out in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC). (authors)

  20. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  1. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  2. Construction costs of nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandel, H

    1976-03-01

    It is assumed that the demand for electrical energy will continue to rise and that nuclear power will increasingly supply the base-load of electricity generation in the industrialized world. The author identifies areas where techniques and practices to control costs can be improved. Nuclear power offers an alternative to liquid and gaseous fossil fuels and contributes to a relative stability in the price of electric energy. Nuclear power plants can now generate power more cheaply than other thermal power plants down into the upper middle load sector, as indicated in calculations based on a construction time of six years for nuclear plants and four years for others. Special legal provisions, different conditions of financing and taxation, varying methods of power generation cost accounting, and the nonuniform layout of the plant in the various countries make it difficult to compare power generation costs. The author uses mostly experiences gained in the Federal Republic of Germany for some calculations for comparison; he cites lack of standardization and over-long licensing times as major factors in the recent rapid escalation of nuclear power costs and suggests that adoption of standard reactor designs, encouragement of a vigorous and competitive European nuclear industry, and streamlining of licensing procedures to improve the situation. (MCW)

  3. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emilio; French, Amanda; Urso, Maria Elena; Deffrennes, Marc; Rothwell, Geoffrey; ); Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Carroll, Simon; Daniska, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  4. Trends in nuclear power costs in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterhaugh, O.; Blomsnes, B.

    1979-01-01

    At the request of the Swedish Ministry of Industry, a study of the costs of nuclear power in Sweden was performed early this year. The main purpose of the study was to determine the real and projected costs of electricity produced by nuclear stations. The basis for the calculations of the study was the currently planned Swedish nuclear power programme consisting of 11 reactors of which six are operating, two waiting for start-up permission and the remainder are under construction. All cost components, relevant to the commercial programme were covered, with particular emphasis on future costs for handling of spent fuel, waste disposal and plant decommissioning. A capital depreciation time of 25 years and a 4 per cent effective annual interest rate (ie interest after correction for inflation) were assumed in the calculations given in December 1978 currency. The main result of the study is the average cost per kWh for the reactors. The results are in close agreement with the cost estimate given by the Swedish Energy Commission and now that the nuclear plants produce electricity considerably cheaper than other plants with the exception of some hydroelectric ones. (author)

  5. The true costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Mraz, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, many nuclear power plants will be reaching the end of their lifetimes over the next few years. States must therefore decide now on the direction they intend to steer their energy policies. Possible options are the construction of new nuclear power plants, extending the lifetime of existing ones, or changing direction towards a sustainable energy future. Arguments put forward by the nuclear power lobby in favour of new builds are, on the one hand, the claim that nuclear power is low in CO2 emissions,1and on the other, that it is low cost. This paper examines the second claim and identifies the “true costs of nuclear power”. This paper provides an overview for the general reader and presents the most important aspects of “costs of nuclear power”, as well as sound information to contribute to discussions of this complex issue. The first part of this paper focuses on the costs of nuclear new-build: Approximately two thirds of electricity generation costs consist of fixed costs, the largest part of which covers the construction of the nuclear power plant (NPP) itself, including the interest rates (capital costs). Consequently, construction costs are a crucial factor in the overall cost of nuclear power. The issue of nuclear new build is currently under discussion in many states in Europe which are considering replacing their aged nuclear power plant fleet, e.g. UK (Hinkley Point and further plans for new builds), Finland (Olkiluoto 3), France (Flamanville 3), the Czech Republic (Temelin 3/4), Slovakia (Mochovce 3/4) and Romania (Cernavoda 3/4). Those projects have one crucial point in common: problems with costs or financing. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has calculated that construction costs rose 15% per annum from 2003 to 2009; construction costs rose from 2,000 to 4,000 USD, amounting to total construction costs of US$ 4 billion for a 1,000 MW NPP. A current example of cost and construction time overrun is the Finnish reactor

  6. Nuclear and conventional baseload electricity generation cost experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The experienced costs of electricity generation by nuclear and conventional plants and the expected costs of future plants are important for evaluating the economic attractiveness of various power projects and for planning the expansion of electrical generating systems. The main objective of this report is to shed some light on recent cost experience, based on well authenticated information made available by the IAEA Member States participating in this study. Cost information was provided by Canada (Ontario Hydro), Czechoslovakia, Hungary, India, the Republic of Korea and Spain. Reference is also made to information received from Brazil, China, France, Russia and the United States of America. The part of the report that deals with cost experience is Section 2, where the costs of both nuclear and fossil fired plants are reviewed. Other sections give emphasis to the analysis of the major issues and relevant cost elements influencing the costs of nuclear power plants and to a discussion of cost projections. Many of the conclusions can also be applied to conventional plants, although they are usually less important than in the case of nuclear plants. 1 ref., figs and tabs

  7. Total generating costs: coal and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal- and nuclear-fueled electric-generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200-MWe PWRs; 1200-MWe BWRs; 800-and 1200-MWe High-Sulfur Coal units, and 800- and 1200-MWe Low-Sulfur Coal units. The total generating cost estimates were developed for commercial operation dates of 1985 and 1990; for 5 and 8% escalation rates, for 10 and 12% discount rates; and, for capacity factors of 50, 60, 70, and 80%. The report describes the methodology for obtaining annualized capital costs, levelized coal and nuclear fuel costs, levelized operation and maintenance costs, and the resulting total generating costs for each type of station. The costs are applicable to a hypothetical Middletwon site in the Northeastern United States. Plant descriptions with general design parameters are included. The report also reprints for convenience, summaries of capital cost by account type developed in the previous commercial electric-power cost studies. Appropriate references are given for additional detailed information. Sufficient detail is given to allow the reader to develop total generating costs for other cases or conditions

  8. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  9. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO [de

  10. Optimal inspection and replacement periods of the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 with an optimized cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinil Mok; Poong Hyun Seong

    1996-01-01

    In this work, a model for determining the optimal inspection and replacement periods of the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 is developed, which is to minimize economic loss caused by inadvertent trip and the system failure. This model uses cost benefit analysis method and the part for optimal inspection period considers the human error. The model is based on three factors as follows: (i) The cumulative failure distribution function of the safety system, (ii) The probability that the safety system does not operate due to failure of the system or human error when the safety system is needed at an emergency condition and (iii) The average probability that the reactor is tripped due to the failure of system components or human error. The model then is applied to evaluate the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1. The optimal replacement periods which are calculated with proposed model differ from those used in Wolsung NPP Unit 1 by about a few days or months, whereas the optimal inspection periods are in about the same range. (author)

  11. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  12. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, Andrey V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  13. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Andrey V.; Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  14. An evaluation of the 'phasing out nuclear' cost in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of an assessment of additional investments which would be needed when phasing out nuclear, as well as a study of impacts in terms of increase of electricity production cost, energy transmission and energy bill. It also addresses questions raised by a massive use of renewable energies. Two scenarios are compared to assess the cost of replacement of the nuclear fleet, at constant consumption: keeping a high level of nuclear energy with the development of photovoltaic and wind energy, or phasing out nuclear with a carbon constraint (progressive closing down of nuclear reactors by 2025). The study is based on an economic modelling of the electric system according to some principles and hypotheses which are presented in appendix

  15. Concepts for reducing nuclear utility inventory carrying costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, R.E.; DiCola, F.E.; Solanas, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are under pressure to reduce their operating and maintenance expenses such that the total cost of generating electricity through nuclear power remains an economically attractive option. One area in which expenses may be reduced is total inventory carrying cost. The total inventory carrying cost consists of financing an inventory, managing the inventory, assuring quality, engineering of acceptable parts specifications, and procuring initial and replenishment stock. Concepts and methodology must be developed to reduce the remaining expenses of a utility's total inventory carrying cost. Currently, two concepts exist: pooled inventory management system (PIMS), originally established by General Electric Company and a group of boiling water reactor owners, and Nuclear Parts Associates' (NUPA) shared inventory management program (SIMP). Both concepts share or pool parts and components among utilities. The SIMP program objectives and technical activities are summarized

  16. Analysis of nuclear-power construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, G.L.; Borcherding, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of regression analysis for estimating construction costs. The estimate is based on an historical data base and quantification of key factors considered external to project management. This technique is not intended as a replacement for detailed cost estimates but can provide information useful to the cost-estimating process and to top management interested in evaluating project management. The focus of this paper is the nuclear-power construction industry but the technique is applicable beyond this example. The approach and critical assumptions are also useful in a public-policy situation where utility commissions are evaluating construction in prudence reviews and making comparisons to other nuclear projects. 13 references, 2 figures

  17. Costs related to radioactive residues from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The nuclear power enterprises are responsible for proper actions for safe handling and final storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from Swedish nuclear power facilities. The most important actions are to plan, build and operate necessary plants and systems. The nuclear power enterprises have designated Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., (SKB), to perform these tasks. In this report calculations concerning costs to carry out these tasks are presented. The calculations are based upon a plan prepared by SKB. The plan is described in the report. As final storage of the long lived and highly radioactive waste is planned to take place in the 21st century continuing research and development may indicate new methods which may affect system design as well as costs in a simplifying way. Plants and systems already operational are: Transport systems for radioactive waste products; A central temporary storage for spent nuclear fuel, 'CLAB'; A final storage for radioactive waste from operating nuclear facilities, 'SFR 1'. (L.F.)

  18. High cost of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, C.

    1978-01-01

    Retroactive safety standards were found to account for over half the costs of a nuclear power plant and point up the need for an effective cost-benefit analysis of changes made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission after construction has started. The author compared the Davis-Besse Unit No. 1 construction-cost estimates with the final-cost increases during a rate-case investigation in Ohio. He presents data furnished for ten of the largest construction contracts to illustrate the cost increases involving fixed hardware and intensive labor. The situation was found to repeat with other utilities across the country even though safeguards against irresponsible low bidding were introduced. Low bidding was found to continue, encouraged by the need for retrofitting to meet regulation changes. The average cost per kilowatt of major light-water reactors is shown to have increased from $171 in 1970 to $555 in 1977, while construction duration increased from 43.4 to 95.6 months during the same period

  19. Nuclear information access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C. H.; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.

    1998-01-01

    The energy supply in the countries, which have abundant energy resources, may not be affected by accepting the assertion of anti-nuclear and environment groups. Anti-nuclear movements in the countries which have little energy resources may cause serious problem in securing energy supply. Especially, it is distinct in Korea because she heavily depends on nuclear energy in electricity supply(nuclear share in total electricity supply is about 40%).The cause of social trouble surrounding nuclear energy is being involved with various circumstances. However, it is very important that we are not aware of the importance of information access and prepared for such a situation from the early stage of nuclear energy's development. In those matter, this paper analyzes the contents of nuclear information access system in France and Japan which have dynamic nuclear development program and presents the direction of the nuclear access regime through comparing Korean status and referring to progresses of the regime

  20. Cost analysis of the US spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.A.; Deinert, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin TX (United States); Cady, K.B. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The US Department of Energy is actively seeking ways in which to delay or obviate the need for additional nuclear waste repositories beyond Yucca Mountain. All of the realistic approaches require the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. However, the US currently lacks the infrastructure to do this and the costs of building and operating the required facilities are poorly established. Recent studies have also suggested that there is a financial advantage to delaying the deployment of such facilities. We consider a system of government owned reprocessing plants, each with a 40 year service life, that would reprocess spent nuclear fuel generated between 2010 and 2100. Using published data for the component costs, and a social discount rate appropriate for intergenerational analyses, we establish the unit cost for reprocessing and show that it increases slightly if deployment of infrastructure is delayed by a decade. The analysis indicates that achieving higher spent fuel discharge burnup is the most important pathway to reducing the overall cost of reprocessing. The analysis also suggests that a nuclear power production fee would be a way for the US government to recover the costs in a manner that is relatively insensitive to discount and nuclear power growth rates. (author)

  1. Development costs for a nuclear electric propulsion stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Development costs are presented for an unmanned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage based upon a liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic reactor. A total of 120 kWe are delivered to the thrust subsystem which employs mercury ion engines for electric propulsion. This study represents the most recent cost evaluation of the development of a reactor power system for a wide range of nuclear space power applications. These include geocentric, and outer planet and other deep space missions. The development program is described for the total NEP stage, based upon specific development programs for key NEP stage components and subsystems.

  2. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen C. Burton, Region III, telephone: 301-415-7000; email: Stephen[email protected] , U... at Rockville, Maryland, this 7th day of October 2013. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Thomas H...

  3. Impacts of nuclear fuel cycle costs on nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Naudet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel cycle costs are one of the main parameters to evaluate the competitiveness of various nuclear strategies. The historical analysis based on the French case shows the good performances yet achieved in mastering elementary costs in order to limit global fuel cycle cost escalation. Two contrasted theoretical scenarios of costs evolution in the middle and long term have been determined, based upon market analysis and technological improvements expected. They are used to calculate the global fuel cycle costs for various fuel management options and for three strategies of nuclear deployment. The results illustrate the stability of the expected fuel cycle costs over the long term, to be compared to the high incertainty prevailing for fossil fueled plants. The economic advantages of advanced technologies such as MOX fueled PWRs are underlined

  4. Cost benefit justification of nuclear plant reliability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.A.H.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the secondary steam loop of the nuclear power plant has a significant effect on the reliability of the plant. Moreover, the necessity to cool a reactor safely has increased the reliability demanded from the system. The rapidly rising construction costs and fuel prices in recent years have stimulated a great deal in optimizing the productivity of a nuclear power plant through reliability improvement of the secondary steamloop and the reactor cooling system. A method for evaluating the reliability of steam loop and cooling system of a nuclear power plant is presented. The method utilizes the cut-set technique. The developed method can be easily used to show to what extent the overall reliability of the nuclear plant is affected by the possible failures in the steam and cooling subsystem. A model for calculating the increase in the nuclear plant productivity resulting from a proposed improvement in the two subsystems reliability is discussed. The model takes into account the capital cost of spare parts for several components, replacement energy, operating and maintenance costs

  5. Future nuclear systems technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, H.

    1979-01-01

    Five directions can be identified for evolution of nuclear systems, possibly a sixth. These are, first, and perhaps most important, toward a means of extending fissile resources through improvement of the efficiency of their use; second, improvements in nuclear safety; third, reduction in the environmental impacts of nuclear electric power generation, particularly water requirements; fourth, improvements in proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle; and fifth, improvements in economics. And added in a sixth, and somewhat more speculative direction, the use of nuclear power for purposes other than the direct generation of electricity

  6. Solutions for cost effective assessment of software based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The introduction of software based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for use in nuclear power plants, mainly due to I and C modernization activities, has raised many issues of safety and economics. Many of these issues have been raised in the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) meetings and by other organizations, such as the OECD and the European Commission. One increasingly important issue is the need for engineering solutions to justify them for the cost effective assessment and deployment of software based I and C systems. To address this important issue, the IAEA put together the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Solutions for Cost Effective Assessments of Software based I and C Systems. The overall objective of the project is to facilitate the cost effective assessment of software based I and C systems in nuclear power plants. This is necessary to address obsolescence issues, to introduce new beneficial functionality, and to improve overall performance. The engineering solutions developed in this CRP will contribute to this overall objective. The objective of the CRP was reached through co-ordinated research and collected experience in the areas of project management; requirements specifications; use of software explicitly designed for nuclear applications, use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products, generic pre-qualification of systems and components; safety and reliability enhancements; verification and validation; and licensing impact. This TECDOC is the result of the research and collected experience put together under this CRP. The CRP participants gave presentations on their work performed as part of this CRP at the various meetings of the group. The first meeting of the CRP was held in Vienna on 8-12 November 1999 in which the participants developed the objectives, scope, and outline of this report. The second meeting was held in Halden, Norway on 4-8 December 2000 and the

  7. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  8. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Calculating the Unit Cost Factors for Decommissioning Cost Estimation of the Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo

    2006-01-01

    The estimated decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is calculated by applying a unit cost factor-based engineering cost calculation method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Labor cost of decommissioning costs in decommissioning works are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects. In this paper, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors which are needed to calculate the labor cost in estimating decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor are derived and figured out.

  10. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '96. Technical session: Energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The two papers of this session deal with the costs of two different energy generation systems, one is based on photovoltaic energy conversion, and the other is the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy generation. The author shows that the costs of these two energy systems in Germany are much more governed by decisions taken in the political domain than is the case in other countries. Although German science and technology in these two engineering fields hold a top rank worldwide, the high costs that seem inevitable in Germany are expected to be a major reason why the photovoltaic industry will have to leave the country and go abroad to exploit the better chances there. (DG) [de

  11. Cost effective nuclear commercial grade dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletz, J.J.; Marston, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new computerized database method to create/edit/view specification technical data sheets (mini-specifications) for procurement of spare parts for nuclear facility maintenance and to develop information that could support possible future facility life extension efforts. This method may reduce cost when compared with current manual methods. The use of standardized technical data sheets (mini-specifications) for items of the same category improves efficiency. This method can be used for a variety of tasks, including: Nuclear safety-related procurement; Non-safety related procurement; Commercial grade item procurement/dedication; Evaluation of replacement items. This program will assist the nuclear facility in upgrading its procurement activities consistent with the recent NUMARC Procurement Initiative. Proper utilization of the program will assist the user in assuring that the procured items are correct for the applications, provide data to assist in detecting fraudulent materials, minimize human error in withdrawing database information, improve data retrievability, improve traceability, and reduce long-term procurement costs

  12. Probabilistic cost estimating of nuclear power plant construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.C.; Perry, L.W.; Postula, F.D.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows how to identify and isolate cost accounts by developing probability trees down to component levels as justified by value and cost uncertainty. Examples are given of the procedure for assessing uncertainty in all areas contributing to cost: design, factory equipment pricing, and field labor and materials. The method of combining these individual uncertainties is presented so that the cost risk can be developed for components, systems and the total plant construction project. Formats which enable management to use the probabilistic cost estimate information for business planning and risk control are illustrated. Topics considered include code estimate performance, cost allocation, uncertainty encoding, probabilistic cost distributions, and interpretation. Effective cost control of nuclear power plant construction projects requires insight into areas of greatest cost uncertainty and a knowledge of the factors which can cause costs to vary from the single value estimates. It is concluded that probabilistic cost estimating can provide the necessary assessment of uncertainties both as to the cause and the consequences

  13. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  14. Nuclear energy: the real cost. A special report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, K.; Marshall, R.; Sweet, C.; Prior, M.; Welsh, I.; Bunyard, P.; Goldsmith, E.; Hildyard, N.; Jeffery, J.W. (Committee for the Study of the Economics of Nuclear Electricity, Camelford (UK))

    1981-12-01

    This report on the discussions within a small group of academics falls under the headings: chairman's foreword; summary and recommendations; the government's nuclear power programme and its implications; the CEGB's planning record; the past performance of Britain's nuclear power stations - a guide for the future (query); nuclear power -early uncertainties; historic costs - 'the fraud inherent in all inflationary finance'; current cost accounting; fuel costs - coal stays steady, nuclear rises; net effective cost and the rationale for nuclear power; reinterpreting net effective costs; other considerations; conclusions and recommendations; references.

  15. Cost of the radioactive residues of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The calculation of cost for the management and final storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste is presented. The continuing Research and Development activities are judged to render simplified designs. The existing and planned systems and and plans are as follows: - transport system for radioactive residues - central intermediate storage of spent fuel, CLAB - processing of spent fuel - final storing of long-lived waste - final storing of reactor waste and decommissioning waste, SFR. The total future cost of the Swedish waste management is calculated to be 39 billion SEK from 1987 and 60 years onwards. 5.3 billion SEK have been spent up to the year 1986. (G.B.)

  16. Quality cost system in electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denzer, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a formal cost of quality system used in an electronic manufacturing facility. The system elements and reports are illustrated. Examples of the use of a quality cost system to measure quality performance and to improve product quality are included. A comparison to industry averages for quality costs is made. The paper attempts to show that the collection and use of quality costs are an aid to management and can be accompanied by improved product quality

  17. Cost and availability of nuclear fuel in the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.J.; Baldwin, J.S.; Martin, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Due to the decrease in expected nuclear reactor capacity growth, all portions of the fuel cycle can fulfill reactor needs throughout the 1980's with no expansion required except for fuel fabrication, where such expansion is already in the permit and regulatory system. As a result, fuel cycle costs should not increase faster than the rate of inflation with the possible exception of enrichment costs. It is likely that uranium will remain very competitive with coal as a fuel on a dollars per million Btu basis. However, increasing capital costs for reactors may change this scenario. It is unlikely that any new reactor orders will be placed before the mid 1980's as forecast by Electrical World owing to a directive by Congress to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to rewrite the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50, 51 and 100 to better define siting regulations

  18. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  19. Cost and risk tradeoff for routing nuclear spent fuel movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the transportation industry, much effort has been devoted to finding the least cost routes for shipping goods from their production sites to the market areas. In addition to cost, the decision maker must take the risk of an incident into consideration for transportation routing involving hazardous materials. The transportation of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites to repositories is an example. Given suitable network information, existing routing methods can readily determine least cost or least risk routes for any shipment. These two solutions, however, represent the extremes of a large number of alternatives with different combinations of risk and cost. In the selection of routes and also in the evaluation of alternative storage sites it is not enough to know which is the lease cost or lowest risk. Intelligent decision-marking requires knowledge of how much it will cost to lower risk by a certain amount. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system to evaluate the tradeoff between transportation cost and potential population at risk under different nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies

  20. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  1. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO 2 induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig

  2. Assessments of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, R.

    1978-01-01

    Assessments of competing energy systems are gaining increased importance as a means for an optimal choice of energy source for each specific major application considering the growing energy needs and the shortage of supply. However it is important to make sure that the assessments reflect scientific facts rather than private interests. If this is not achieved, scientists will lose credibility and one will lose the basis for political decisions. It is concluded that to accomplish the globally justified needs for thousands of nuclear reactors soon after the year 2000 and to save a maximum of lives with a minimum of environmental impact, emphasis must be put on low energy costs and on a good fuel and capital resource utilization. This goal can be best accomplished by expendient introduction of the fast breeders and of promising advanced reactors. The gas cooled breeder and the high temperature reactor have outstanding short and long terms merits on this respect, but are not enjoying the financial support that they deserve. (UK)

  3. Cost analysis of spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.L.M.; Ford, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) is chartered to develop a waste management system for the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the 131 nuclear power reactors in the United States and a certain amount of high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing operations. The current schedule is to begin accepting SNF in 1998 for storage at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Subsequently, beginning in 2010, the system is scheduled to begin accepting SNF at a permanent geologic repository in 2010 and HLW in 2015. At this time, a MRS site has not been selected. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as the candidate site for the repository for permanent geologic disposal of SNF. All SNF, with the possible exception of the SNF from the western reactors, is currently planned to be shipped to or through the MRS site en route to the repository. The repository will operate in an acceptance and performance confirmation phase for a 50 year period beginning in 2010 with an additional nine year closure and five year decontamination and decommissioning period. The MRS has a statutory maximum capacity of 15,000 Metric Tons Uranium (MTU), with a further restriction that it may not store more than 10,000 MTU until the repository begins accepting waste. The repository is currently scheduled to store 63,000 MTU of SNF and an additional 7,000 MTU equivalent of HLW for a total capacity of 70,000 MTU. The amended act specified the MRS storage limits and identified Yucca Mountain as the only site to be characterized. Also, an Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was established to secure a voluntary host site for the MRS. The MRS, the repository, and all waste containers/casks will go through a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process much like the licensing process for a nuclear power plant. Environmental assessments and impact statements will be prepared for both the MRS and repository

  4. Nuclear imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.; Horrigan, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear imaging system for mapping the source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound by spatially coding the energy from the source in a Fresnel pattern on a detector and decoding the detector output to prouce an image of the source. The coding is produced by a Fresnel zone plate interposed between the nuclear energy source and the detector whose position is adjustable with respect to the detector to focus the slices of the nuclear source on the detector. By adjusting the zone plate to a plurality of positions, data from a plurality of cross-sectional slices are produced from which a three-dimensional image of the nuclear source may be obtained. (Patent Office Record)

  5. Reduction of capital costs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The competitiveness of nuclear power plants depends largely on their capital costs represent some 60 per cent of their total generation costs. Reviewing and analysing ways and means to reduce capital costs of nuclear power plants are essential to enhance the economic viability of the nuclear option. The report is based upon cost information and data provided by experts from NEA Member countries. It investigates the efficiency of alternative methods for reducing capital costs of nuclear units. It will provide stakeholders from the industry and governmental agencies with relevant elements in support of policy making. (author)

  6. Underwater coating repair cuts nuclear maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the cleaning and recoating/repair of condensate tanks or other vessels in a nuclear power plant. The topics of the article include the safety and regulatory need for this system of repair, a description of the work done on the Brown's Ferry MK-1 suppression chamber, coating failure mechanisms, qualitative inspection, quantitative inspection, quantitative inspection results, spot repairs, and economic considerations

  7. Japanese Cost Accounting Systems - analysis of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Winter

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight into Japanese cost accounting. Firstly, the development of cost accounting in Japan is delineated. Subsequently, the cost accounting systems codified in the Japanese cost accounting standard are analysed based on the classification according to Hoitsch/Schmitz. Lastly, a critical appraisal of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard as well as a comparison to German and American cost accounting systems are conducted.

  8. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-11-01

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs.

  9. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs

  10. The future of nuclear power in France: an analysis of the costs of phasing-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund; Trüby, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important pillar in electricity generation in France. However, the French nuclear power plant fleet is ageing, and the possibility of reducing the technology's share in power generation or even a complete phase-out has been increasingly discussed. This paper focuses on three inter-related questions: First, what are the costs of phasing-out nuclear power in France? Second, who has to bear these costs, i.e., how much of the costs will be passed on to the rest of the European power system? And third, what effect does the uncertainty regarding future nuclear policy in France have on system costs? Applying a stochastic optimization model for the European electricity system, the analysis showed that additional system costs in France of a nuclear phase-out amount up to 76 billion €_2_0_1_0. Additional costs are mostly borne by the French power system. Surprisingly, the analysis found that the costs of uncertainty are rather limited. Based on the results, it can be concluded that a commitment regarding nuclear policy reform is only mildly beneficial in terms of system cost savings. - Highlights: • Analysis of different nuclear policy and phase-out scenarios in France. • Nuclear policy uncertainty in France is treated using stochastic programming. • Costs of a nuclear phase-out in France are significant, amounting up to 76 bill €. • Costs of a phase-out are hardly passed on to the rest of the European power system. • Costs of uncertainty are low, implying little benefit of nuclear policy commitment.

  11. A Compact, Portable, Reduced-Cost, Gamma Ray Spectroscopic System for Nuclear Verification Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1551-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavietes, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalkhoran, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a compact gamma-ray spectroscopic system with better energy resolution and lower costs than scintillator-based detector systems for uranium enrichment analysis applications.

  12. A worldwide review of the cost of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.; Mario, N.; Vignon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The 'true cost' of nuclear energy is a subject of great controversy, especially when considering capital costs of recent projects which opponents to this technology claim to be out of control. In order to provide an objective assessment of nuclear competitiveness, a systematic review of nuclear costs as estimated by stakeholders on a worldwide basis (parliamentary commissions, general accounting offices, academics from universities, non-governmental organizations [either promoting nuclear, or nonnuclear energy], utilities and vendors) was done. Based on these data, levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) were calculated, for different technologies and different regional areas. A breakdown between the key factors (pre-construction and owner costs, Capex, Opex, spent fuel management, dismantling and decommissioning) was provided. The study generally concludes that nuclear energy remains competitive, although costs of advanced technologies soared compared to Gen II. It also demonstrates the benefit of steady and ongoing nuclear programs compared to construction of single projects from time to time. (authors)

  13. Allocating nuclear power plant costs over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear generating plants coming into service in the 1980s have book values amounting to several billion dollars, doubling the rate bases of the owner utilities in some instances. The impact that this is producing on electric rates is of concern to consumers, regulators, and utilities alike. A review of the basic nature of a productive asset, the purpose of depreciation accounting, and the composition of interest rates leads to a method of constructing capital-recovery schedules which has come to be termed economic depreciation. This methodology departs from conventional methodology only in that it accepts inflation as a fact of life. This article indicates that application of the procedure to an actual nuclear reactor provides benefits for all classes of ratepayers in that initial capital-recovery costs to ratepayers are substantially lower and, in terms of dollars of constant purchasing power, the total amount paid by customers for return on investment is substantially the same. For the utility, whereas initial capital recovery is lower, total capital recovery is somewhat greater, and the utility is no worse off if it must raise some working capital in the capital markets. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  14. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated in this report. The following plants and systems are already operating: * Transport system for radioactive wastes, * A control spent fuel intermediate storage plant, * A repository for low and medium level wastes. These are planned: * A treatment plant for used fuels, * A repository for high-level wastes, and * Repository for decommissioning wastes. The costs include R and D and decommissioning. Total future costs from 1993 are estimated to be 46.4 billion SEK (8.3 billion USD), during 60 years. Up to 1992 8.7 billion SEK (1.6 billion USD) have been spent

  15. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  16. Technology and costs for decommissioning the Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The study shows that, from the viewpoint of radiological safety, a nuclear power plant can be dismantled immediately after it has been shut down and the fuel has been removed, which is estimated to take about one year. Most of the equipment that will be used in decommissioning is already available and is used routinely in maintenance and rebuilding work at the nuclear power plants. Special equipment need only be developed for dismantlement of the reactor vessel and for demolishing of heavy concrete structures. The dismantling of a nuclear power plant can be accomplished in about five years, with an average labour force of about 200 men. The maximum labour force required for Ringhals 1 has been estimated at about 500 men during the first years, when active systems are being dismantled in a number of fronts in the plant. During the last years when the buildings are being demolished, approximately 50 men are required. In order to limit the labour requirement and the dose burden to the personnel, the material is taken out in as large pieces as possible. The cost of decommissioning a boiling water reactor (BWR) of the size of Ringhals 1 has been estimated to be about MSEK 540 in January 1986 prices, and for a pressurized water reactor (PWR, Ringhals 2) about MSEK 460. The cost for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range of MSEK 410-760. These are the direct cost for the decommissioning work, to which must be added the costs of transportation and disposal of the decommissioning waste, about 100 000 m/sup3/. These costs have been estimated to be about MSEK 600 for the 12 Swedish reactors. (author)

  17. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dan

    2012-01-01

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy cost data base: A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on a once-through cycle, and high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line around the turn of the century. In addition to current generation light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on improved and advanced light-water reactors, liquid metal reactor plants and fuel cycle facilities. This report includes an updated data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes and projected power generation costs for fission and coal-fired alternatives. Effects of the 1986 Tax Reform Act are included. 126 refs., 17 figs., 47 tabs

  19. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  20. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles

  1. Regional comparison of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear's main disadvantages are its high capital investment cost and uncertainty in schedule compared with alternatives. Nuclear plant costs continue to rise whereas coal plant investment costs are staying relative steady. Based on average experience, nuclear capital investment costs are nearly double those of coal-fired generation plants. The capital investment cost disadvantage of nuclear is balanced by its fuel cost advantages. New base load nuclear power plants were projected to be competitive with coal-fired plants in most regions of the country. Nuclear power costs wre projected to be significantly less (10% or more) than coal-fired power costs in the South Atlantic region. Coal-fired plants were projected to have a significant economic advantage over nuclear plants in the Central and North Central regions. In the remaining seven regions, the levelized cost of power from either option was projected to be within 10%. Uncertainties in future costs of materials, services, and financing affect the relative economics of the nuclear and coal options significantly. 10 figures

  2. Cost benefit justification of nuclear plant reliability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.A.H.; Abdelmonem, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear power costs are evaluated on the bases of general ground rules (a) vary from time to time (b) vary from country to another (c) even vary from one reactor type to another. The main objective of an electric utility is to provide the electric energy to the different consummers at the lowest possible cost with reasonable reliability level. Rapid increase of the construction costs and fuel prices in recent years have stimulated a great deal of interest in improving the reliability and productivity of new and existing power plants. One of the most important areas is the improvement of the secondary steam loop and the reactor cooling system. The method for evaluating the reliability of steam loop and cooling system utilizes the cut-set technique. The developed method can be easily used to show to what extent the overall reliability of the nuclear plant is affected by the possible failures in the steam and cooling subsystem. The cost reliability trade-off analysis is used to evaluate alternative schemes in the design with a view towards meeting a high reliability goal. Based on historical or estimated failure and repair rate, the reliability of the alternate scheme can be calculated

  3. Nuclear maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Yoshihiro; Abe, Norihiko

    2000-01-01

    The Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. has developed to introduce various computer systems for desk-top business assistance in a power plant such as system isolation assisting system, operation parameter management system, and so on under aiming at business effectiveness since these ten and some years. Recently, by further elapsed years of the plants when required for further cost reduction and together with change of business environment represented by preparation of individual personal computer, further effectiveness, preparation of the business environment, and upgrading of maintenance in power plant business have been required. Among such background, she has carried out various proposals and developments on construction of a maintenance and management system integrated the business assistant know-hows and the plant know-hows both accumulated previously. They are composed of three main points on rationalization of business management and document management in the further effectiveness, preparation of business environment, TBM maintenance, introduction of CBM maintenance and introduction of maintenance assistance in upgrading of maintenance. Here was introduced on system concepts aiming at the further effectiveness of the nuclear power plant business, preparation of business environment, upgrading of maintenance and maintenance, and so on, at a background of environment around maintenance business in the nuclear power plants (cost-down, highly elapsed year of the plant, change of business environment). (G.K)

  4. Cost benefit analysis of reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost/benefit analysis of reactor safety systems is a possibility appropriate to deal with reactor safety. The Commission of the European Communities supported a study on the cost-benefit or cost effectiveness of safety systems installed in modern PWR nuclear power plants. The following systems and their cooperation in emergency cases were in particular investigated in this study: the containment system (double containment), the leakage exhaust and control system, the annulus release exhaust system and the containment spray system. The benefit of a safety system is defined according to its contribution to the reduction of the radiological consequences for the environment after a LOCA. The analysis is so far performed in two different steps: the emergency core cooling system is considered to function properly, failure of the emergency core cooling system is assumed (with the possible consequence of core melt-down) and the results may demonstrate the evidence that striving for cost-effectiveness can produce a safer end result than the philosophy of safety at any cost. (orig.)

  5. The effect of costs on the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses the future of the nuclear power industry from an economics and cost-factor point of view, from the point of view of plant management, as it affects and requires personnel training, as R and D cost and competition is involved, as end-user cost is involved, and as efficiency and cost effectiveness of nuclear power fare in comparison with other sources of electrical energy

  6. More reliable financing of future nuclear waste costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A commission of inquiry was established by Government in 1993 to review the management of capital funds according to the existing Act of the Financing of Future Expenses for Spent Nuclear Fuel etc. The commission proposes that: The funds which have been paid to the Swedish state to finance the costs arising in connection with the handling and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel etc, from the year 1995, should be invested in accordance with guidelines which aim at attaining a higher return than is currently possible; That an independent government body, called the Nuclear Waste Fund, should be assigned the task of managing the funds, in accordance with these guidelines; That the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate should continue to examine and evaluate issues relating to the application of the funds and recommend the level of the fee to be paid; and That a system including additional measures for guaranteeing the availability of funds should be implemented from the year 1995, in order to improve the reliability of the financing system. Our proposal involves extensive amendments to the Financing Act. On the other hand, the basic stipulations concerning responsibilities under the Act on Nuclear Activities, are not affected. (Seven work documents produced by consulting firms are published in a separate volume; SOU 1994:108) 5 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Nuclear power and climate change: The cost of adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailiere, H.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, the international community has been voicing concern over growing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are believed to be the largest contributor to global warming and more generally to climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an increase in the frequency of heat waves and droughts is expected in many parts of the world, as is that of storms, flooding and cold episodes. The potential consequences of this projected climate change have prompted calls to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to promote low-carbon energy sources such as renewables and nuclear power. At the same time, there has also been growing concern that without a rapid decrease in GHG emissions, climate change could occur at such a scale that it will have a significant impact on major economic sectors including the power generation sector. Although the expanded use of renewables will reduce emissions from the power sector, it will also increase the dependence of distribution systems and electricity production on climatic conditions. Thermal power plants, such as fossil fuel and nuclear, will be affected primarily by the diminishing availability of water and the increasing likelihood of heat waves, which will have an impact on the cooling capabilities and power output of plants. In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the IEA underlined the need to address an additional challenge, the water-energy nexus: water needs for energy production are set to grow at twice the rate of energy demands over the next decades. It has thus become clear that the availability of water for cooling will be an important criterion for assessing the viability of energy projects. Given the long operating life of nuclear reactors (60 years for Generation III designs), the possible impact of climate change on the operation and safety of nuclear power plants needs to be addressed at the design and siting stages in order to limit costly adaptation measures

  8. Nuclear power plant cost underestimation: mechanisms and corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Criticisms of inaccurate nuclear power plant cost estimates have commonly focused upon what factors have caused actual costs to increase and not upon the engineering cost estimate methodology itself. This article describes two major sources of cost underestimation and suggests corrections for each which can be applied while retaining the traditional engineering methodology in general

  9. The cost of nuclear electricity: France after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccard, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima disaster has lead the French government to release novel cost information relative to its nuclear electricity program allowing us to compute a levelized cost. We identify a modest escalation of capital cost and a larger than expected operational cost. Under the best scenario, the cost of French nuclear power over the last four decades is 59€/MWh (at 2010 prices) while in the worst case it is 83€/MWh. On the basis of these findings, we estimate the future cost of nuclear power in France to be at least 76€/MWh and possibly 117€/MWh. A comparison with the US confirms that French nuclear electricity nevertheless remains cheaper. Comparisons with coal, natural gas and wind power are carried out to find the advantage of these. - Highlights: • We compute the levelized cost of French nuclear power over 40 years using a novel court of audit report. • We include R and D, technology development, fissile fuel, financing cost, decommissioning and the back-end cycle. • We find a mild capital cost escalation and a high operation cost driven by a low fleet availability. • The levelized cost ranges between 59 and 83€/MWh (at 2010 prices) and compares favorably to the US. • A tentative cost for future nuclear power ranges between 76 and 117€/MWh and compares unfavorably against alternative fuels

  10. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  11. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Stevens, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  12. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated in this report. The following plants and systems are already operating: - Transportsystem for radioactive wastes. - A control spent fuel intermediate storage plant. - A repository for low and medium level wastes. These are planned: - A treatment plant for used fuels. A repository for high-level wastes and repository for decommissioning wastes. The costs include Rand D and decommissioning. Total future costs from 1990 are estimated to be 43 billion SEK (6,5 billion dollars), during 60 years. Up to 1990 7,4 billion SEK (1,1 billion dollars) have been spent. (L.E.)

  13. The cost of the nuclear energy-turnaround. An early nuclear phase-out and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Metin

    2013-01-01

    The booklet on the consequences of an early nuclear phase-out includes a description of the value creation strategy in the electricity market and the basic relations of the electricity price formation and a survey and evaluation of selected studies. The analysis was performed for the following studies: Energy policy scenarios for a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Economic consequences of a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Transformation of the electricity production systems with a forced nuclear phase-out - a contribution on sustainable energy systems following the reactor accident of Fukushima; Cost of a nuclear phase-out until 2022 in Germany and Bavaria.

  14. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  15. The future of nuclear power in France. An analysis of the costs of phasing-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund; Trueby, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important pillar in electricity generation in France. However, France's nuclear power plant fleet is ageing, and the possibility of reducing its share in power generation or even a complete phaseout has been increasingly discussed. Our research therefore focuses on three questions: First, what are the costs of phasing-out nuclear power in France under different scenarios? Second, who has to bear these costs, i.e., how much of the costs will be passed on to the rest of the European power system? And third, what effect does the uncertainty regarding future nuclear policy in France have on system costs? Applying a stochastic optimization model for the European electricity system, we show that additional system costs in France of a nuclear phase-out amount up to 76 billion EURO 2010 . Additional costs are mostly borne by the French power system. Surprisingly, we find that the costs of uncertainty are rather limited. Based on our results, we conclude that a commitment regarding nuclear policy reform is only mildly beneficial in terms of system costs.

  16. Cost effective snubber reduction program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Antaki, G.A.; Chang, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the stringent seismic requirements imposed on nuclear power plants, piping engineers have resorted to the extensive use of snubbers to support nuclear piping systems. The advantage of snubbers is that they provide dynamic restraint while allowing free thermal growth of the pipe. Unfortunately, as more plants go into operation, utilities have to face the costs of strict in-service inspection requirements and risks of unscheduled or extended plant outages associated with snubber failures. The snubber inspection requirements, defined in plant Technical Specifications, require periodic visual inspections of all snubbers and functional tests of a percentage of the plant snubbers, during refueling outages. For a typical 1000 Mw unit this represents from 50 to several hundred snubbers to be functionally tested at each refueling outage. Should failures occur during testing, the sample size must be further increased. Very quickly the costs and risks of extended shutdowns have led the industry to consider, and in many cases implement, snubber reduction programs. At the same time several changes in seismic design criteria have greatly facilitated the reduction of snubbers, making snubber elimination economically and technically attractive. In this paper we examine the costs and benefits of snubber reduction programs and propose a method for evaluating their cost benefits

  17. Nuclear Energy Cost Data Base: A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1986-12-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on either the current once-through cycle or self-generated recycle, high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line around the turn of the century. In additions to light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on liquid metal reactor plants. This report includes a data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, and a sample calculation for illustrative benchmark purposes

  18. Nuclear Energy Cost Data Base: a reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on either the current once-through cycle or self-generated recycle, high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line in the last decade of this century. In addition to light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on liquid metal reactor plants. This report includes a data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, and a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes

  19. Review of nuclear power costs around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Karousakis, P.M.; Moynet, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of nuclear power costs around the world from studies carried out by the IAEA and by UNIPEDE. Emphasis is placed on trends within each country of key parameters which affect both investment costs and total power generation costs, including construction and project durations, size of units, regulatory environment, scope of project, fuel cycle costs and general economic conditions. A synthesis of these trends, taking into consideration both nuclear and coal-fired plant capital and fuel costs as they are estimated to evolve in the near and medium term, is presented in terms of nuclear-to-coal cost ratios for both plant investment costs and total generating costs. The plant investment costs are expressed as ''overnight'' or ''fore'' costs, in constant money, for plants expected to enter commercial operation in the early 1990s. Pertinent assumptions are based on conditions prevailing in the particular country under review. These studies indicate that in most countries nuclear plant investment costs are rising more rapidly than the costs for coal-fired plants. A major cause for the rapid rise in nuclear plant costs is the drastic lengthening of project duration in most countries. France, as a notable exception, has been able to maintain a stable and reasonably short project time. In spite of the rapidly escalating nuclear plant investment costs, nuclear electricity generation has an economic advantage over coal in Europe and Canada and is competitive with coal in the eastern and midwestern parts of the United States of America (USA). The availability of abundant, low-cost coal gives coal-fired generation an economic advantage in the western USA. (author)

  20. Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovering, Jessica R.; Yip, Arthur; Nordhaus, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on the construction costs of nuclear power reactors has focused almost exclusively on trends in construction costs in only two countries, the United States and France, and during two decades, the 1970s and 1980s. These analyses, Koomey and Hultman (2007); Grubler (2010), and Escobar-Rangel and Lévêque (2015), study only 26% of reactors built globally between 1960 and 2010, providing an incomplete picture of the economic evolution of nuclear power construction. This study curates historical reactor-specific overnight construction cost (OCC) data that broaden the scope of study substantially, covering the full cost history for 349 reactors in the US, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, India, and South Korea, encompassing 58% of all reactors built globally. We find that trends in costs have varied significantly in magnitude and in structure by era, country, and experience. In contrast to the rapid cost escalation that characterized nuclear construction in the United States, we find evidence of much milder cost escalation in many countries, including absolute cost declines in some countries and specific eras. Our new findings suggest that there is no inherent cost escalation trend associated with nuclear technology. - Highlights: •Comprehensive analysis of nuclear power construction cost experience. •Coverage for early and recent reactors in seven countries. •International comparisons and re-evaluation of learning. •Cost trends vary by country and era; some experience cost stability or decline.

  1. Nuclear power costs in the UK, and reply by Sweet, C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.

    1978-01-01

    The criticisms made by Sweet in his article 'Nuclear Power Costs in the UK' (Energy Policy; 6:107 (1978)) that assessments of nuclear power costs have been based on incorrect methods and assumptions are here answered. The particular points in the original analysis considered are; inflation, forecasts, load factors, generating costs, R and D costs, and benefits from a nuclear programme. It is stated that the published literature shows that nuclear power costs have for a long time been critically compared with the cost of alternatives, using well tried systems-analysis techniques and that the charge that 'mistaken' techniques have been employed is simply not sustained by the evidence. In reply Sweet objects that although his estimates have been criticised yet neither a direct rebuttal nor any alternative figures have been offered and significantly, his estimate that the official figures understate the true costs of nuclear power was not challenged. Particular aspects of the argument considered are; escalation of nuclear building costs, coal and nuclear generating costs, recovering R and D costs, and the 100 GW programme. (U.K.)

  2. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  3. Impact of cost escalation on nuclear plant financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The extreme degree of plant cost increases in the recent years results from a combination of ten years of inflation in the overall economy, the adoption of more stringent statutory and regulatory requirements, and delays resulting from both regulation and intervention. Since different energy forms are competitive, cost and cost changes associated with any form have to be evaluated as - ''compared to what.'' Costs and changes in costs of nuclear and coal fired generation in the United States are reviewed. Reference to specific cost estimates of nuclear and coal plants of equivalent capacity enables separation of the cost effects of the three factors inflation, regulation and delay. In this analysis per kilowatt costs of two 1200 MW nuclear units are compared to those of three 800 MW bituminous coal units. At last various methods to finance new facilities are discussed. (author)

  4. Nuclear power costs in the build, operate, transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, M.N.; Sahin, B.

    1990-01-01

    The costs of nuclear power are discussed with special reference to the economic problems faced by developing countries, and the relative merit of a new accounting approach, viz., the build, operate, transfer contract model, which was proposed in Turkey for the Akkuyu nuclear power project, is illustrated. In this context, the general methodology of calculating nuclear power costs is summarized and a capital cost analysis for a 986 MW pressurized water reactor plant is given in terms of constant monetary units for the above contract model and the turnkey contract model. Adjustment of the costs taking into account regional conditions such as inflation and higher interest rates is also indicated. (orig.) [de

  5. Social cost-benefit analysis and nuclear futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The usefulness of cost-benefit analysis in making nuclear power investment decisions is considered. The essence of social cost-benefit analysis is outlined and shown to be unavoidably value-laden. As a case study six issues relevant to the decision to build on oxide fuel reprocessing plant (THORP) are examined. The potential practical value of using cost-benefit analysis as an aid to decision-making is considered for each of these issues. It is concluded that cost-benefit approach is of limited value in the nuclear power case because of its inapplicability to such issues as the liberty of the individual and nuclear weapons proliferation. (author)

  6. Video distribution system cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.

    1980-01-01

    A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.

  7. New nuclear power generation in the UK: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of possible nuclear new build in the UK. It compares costs and benefits of nuclear new build against conventional gas-fired generation and low carbon technologies (CCS, wind, etc.). A range of scenarios are considered to allow for uncertainty as regards nuclear and other technology costs, gas prices and carbon prices. In the base case, the analysis suggests that there is a small cost penalty for new nuclear generation relative to conventional gas-fired generation, but that this is offset by environmental and security of supply benefits. More generally nuclear new build has a positive net benefit for a range of plausible nuclear costs, gas prices and carbon prices. This supports the UK policy of developing an enabling framework for nuclear new build in a market-based context. To the extent that assumptions in the analysis are not borne out in reality (e.g. as regards nuclear cost), this is a no regrets policy, given that the market would not invest in nuclear if it is prohibitively costly. (author)

  8. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, Erik; Meskens, Gaston; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: → Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. → Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. → Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. → This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  9. Commentary on the cost of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    Although adequate levels of nuclear safety have been attained, the societal and institutional approaches taken in the United States to safely harvest the fruits of nuclear power technology have been beset with economic inefficiencies. The paper discusses difficulties with nuclear regulation and complexity and politicization of overall decision-making process. Public acceptance is the key to more economical attainment of nuclear safety objectives. It alone will fuel the federal and state governments to more expeditiously move toward what they would perceive to be a public mandate for nuclear utilization

  10. Cost estimates for nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Grant; Heptonstall, Phil; Gross, Robert; Handley, David

    2013-01-01

    Current UK Government support for nuclear power has in part been informed by cost estimates that suggest that electricity from new nuclear power stations will be competitive with alternative low carbon generation options. The evidence and analysis presented in this paper suggests that the capital cost estimates for nuclear power that are being used to inform these projections rely on costs escalating over the pre-construction and construction phase of the new build programme at a level significantly below those that have been experienced by past US and European programmes. This paper applies observed construction time and cost escalation rates to the published estimates of capital costs for new nuclear plant in the UK and calculates the potential impact on levelised cost per unit of electricity produced. The results suggest that levelised cost may turn out to be significantly higher than expected which in turn has important implications for policy, both in general terms of the potential costs to consumers and more specifically for negotiations around the level of policy support and contractual arrangements offered to individual projects through the proposed contract for difference strike price. -- Highlights: •Nuclear power projects costs can rise substantially during the construction period. •Pre-construction and construction time can be much longer than anticipated. •Adjusting estimates for observed experience increases levelised costs significantly. •Higher costs suggest that more policy support than envisaged may be required

  11. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  12. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  13. Nuclear reactor monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, C.N.; Bybee, R.T.; Mason, F.L.; Worsham, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention pertains to an improved monitoring system for the neutron flux in a nuclear reactor. It is proposed to combine neutron flux detectors, a thermoelement, and a background radiation detector in one measuring unit. The spatial arrangement of these elements is fixed with great exactness; they are enclosed by an elastic cover and are brought into position in the reactor with the aid of a bent tube. The arrangement has a low failure rate and is easy to maintain. (HP) [de

  14. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  15. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  16. System cuts radwaste-disposal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Pilot-plant and full-scale prototype-system test data on a new volume-reduction system for low-level radioactive wastes, of the type generated by nuclear plants, indicate that total present costs for radwaste disposal can be reduced by more than 50%. In 1975, Newport News Industrial Corp. and Energy Inc. decided to develop cooperatively a fluidized-bed process that would combine the features of a calciner and an incinerator. The new radwaste-volume-reduction system, designated RWR-1, can reduce the volume of concentrated liquids, ion-exchange resin beads, filter sludges, and various combustible solids, such as protective clothing, rags, paper, wood, and plastics

  17. Cost savings from nuclear regulatory reform: An econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canterbery, E.R.; Johnson, B.; Reading, D.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-generated power touted in the 1950s as someday being open-quotes too cheap to meterclose quotes got dismissed in the 1980s as incapable of being both safe and cost effective. Today, less than 20 percent of American's electricity is nuclear-generated, no new plants are planned or on order, and some of the earliest units are scheduled for decommissioning within the next decade. Even so, interest in nuclear power has been revived by increasing energy demands, concerns about global warming, and the uncertainty surrounding oil resources in the Persian Gulf. As a long-term alternative to fossil fuels, atomic energy offers the important advantages of clean air and domestic availability of fuel. But these advantages will count for little unless and until the costs of nuclear power can be seen as reasonable. The authors premise is that the relevant costs are those of providing safe and environmentally clean electric energy. To the extent that increased costs have resulted from increasingly stringent regulations, they reflect the internalization of external costs. Indeed, the external costs of nuclear power (particularly safety and environmental protection) have been internalized to a greater degree than with most alternative fuel sources used by electric utilities. Nuclear construction costs are properly compared with those of alternative sources only after the latter are adjusted for environmental damage and endangerment, including, as examples, the costs of oil spills, of building double-hulled tankers, and of building off-shore offloading facilities. A shift to nuclear sources could reduce these costs whereas it would increase disposal costs for radioactive materials. The authors contend that a better understanding of nuclear plant construction costs is pivotal to a balanced evaluation of the merits of uranium relative to other fuel choices. 12 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Nuclear reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a safety system for a nuclear reactor which uses a parallel combination of computer type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular parameter (from transducers located in the reactor system) and each of which produces the functional counterpart of that particular parameter. The various functional counterparts are then added together to form a control signal for shutting down the reactor. The functional counterparts are developed by analysis of experimental thermal and hydraulic data, which are used to form expressions that define safe conditions

  19. Nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is described. The system includes a series of parallel-connected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter and in each of which a precalculated functional value for that parameter is stored indicative of the percentage of maximum reactor load that the parameter contributes. The various functional values corresponding to the actual measured parameters are added together to provide a control signal used to shut down the reactor under overload conditions. (U.K.)

  20. An efficient and cost effective nuclear medicine image network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampathkumaran, K.S.; Miller, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    An image network that is in use in a large nuclear medicine department is described. This network was designed to efficiently handle a large volume of clinical data at reasonable cost. Small, limited function computers are attached to each scintillation camera for data acquisition. The images are transferred by cable network or floppy disc to a large, powerful central computer for processing and display. Cost is minimized by use of small acquisition computers not equipped with expensive video display systems or elaborate analysis software. Thus, financial expenditure can be concentrated in a powerful central computer providing a centralized data base, rapid processing, and an efficient environment for program development. Clinical work is greatly facilitated because the physicians can process and display all studies without leaving the main reading area. (orig.)

  1. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Serge; Descures, Sylvain; Du Pasquier, Louis; Francois, Patrice; Buonarotti, Stefano; Mariotti, Giovanni; Tarakonov, Jurij; Daniska, Vladimir; Bergh, Niklas; Carroll, Simon; AaSTRoeM, Annika; Cato, Anna; De La Gardie, Fredrik; Haenggi, Hannes; Rodriguez, Jose; Laird, Alastair; Ridpath, Andy; La Guardia, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Patrick; ); Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs. The 2012 report on the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, a joint recommendation by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission, proposes a standardised structure of cost items for decommissioning projects that can be used either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping of cost items for benchmarking purposes. The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities, prepared jointly by the NEA and IAEA, is intended to complement the ISDC, assisting cost estimators and reviewers in systematically addressing uncertainties in decommissioning cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner

  2. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  3. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  4. Validation of generic cost estimates for construction-related activities at nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.; Sciacca, F.; Claiborne, E.; Watlington, B.; Riordan, B.; McLaughlin, M.

    1988-05-01

    This report represents a validation study of the cost methodologies and quantitative factors derived in Labor Productivity Adjustment Factors and Generic Methodology for Estimating the Labor Cost Associated with the Removal of Hardware, Materials, and Structures From Nuclear Power Plants. This cost methodology was developed to support NRC analysts in determining generic estimates of removal, installation, and total labor costs for construction-related activities at nuclear generating stations. In addition to the validation discussion, this report reviews the generic cost analysis methodology employed. It also discusses each of the individual cost factors used in estimating the costs of physical modifications at nuclear power plants. The generic estimating approach presented uses the /open quotes/greenfield/close quotes/ or new plant construction installation costs compiled in the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) as a baseline. These baseline costs are then adjusted to account for labor productivity, radiation fields, learning curve effects, and impacts on ancillary systems or components. For comparisons of estimated vs actual labor costs, approximately four dozen actual cost data points (as reported by 14 nuclear utilities) were obtained. Detailed background information was collected on each individual data point to give the best understanding possible so that the labor productivity factors, removal factors, etc., could judiciously be chosen. This study concludes that cost estimates that are typically within 40% of the actual values can be generated by prudently using the methodologies and cost factors investigated herein

  5. Nuclear criticality information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety program at LLNL began in the 1950's with a critical measurements program which produced benchmark data until the late 1960's. This same time period saw the rapid development of computer technology useful for both computer modeling of fissile systems and for computer-aided management and display of the computational benchmark data. Database management grew in importance as the amount of information increased and as experimental programs were terminated. Within the criticality safety program at LLNL we began at that time to develop a computer library of benchmark data for validation of computer codes and cross sections. As part of this effort, we prepared a computer-based bibliography of criticality measurements on relatively simple systems. However, it is only now that some of these computer-based resources can be made available to the nuclear criticality safety community at large. This technology transfer is being accomplished by the DOE Technology Information System (TIS), a dedicated, advanced information system. The NCIS database is described

  6. Cost estimating relationships for nuclear power plant operationa and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Revised cost estimating relationships for 1987 are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants, which update guidelines published previously in 1982. The purpose of these cost estimating relationships is for use in long range planning and evaluations of the economics of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A listing of a computer program, LWROM, implementing the cost estimating relationships and written in advanced BASIC for IBM personal computers, is included

  7. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system is disclosed. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel

  8. The nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various nuclear reactor systems, starting with the Generation II, then the present development of the Generation III and the stakes and challenges of the future Generation IV. Some have found appropriate to oppose reactor systems or generations one to another, especially by minimizing the enhancements of generation III compared to generation II or by expecting the earth from generation IV (meaning that generation III is already obsolete). In the first part of the document (chapter 2), some keys are given to the reader to develop its proper opinion. Chapter 3 describes more precisely the various reactor systems and generations. Chapter 4 discusses the large industrial manoeuvres around the generation III, and the last chapter gives some economical references, taking into account, for the various means of power generation, the impediments linked to climate protection

  9. Decommissioning nuclear power plants. Policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector. This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  10. Decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power reactors. Technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The main topics discussed are planning, technology and costs of decommissioning nuclear power reactors. Oskarshamn-3 (BWR) and Ringhals-4 (PWR) have been used as reference reactors. 29 refs, figs, tabs

  11. Costs and benefits of relaunching nuclear energy in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Faiella; Luciano Lavecchia

    2012-01-01

    This paper supplies elements for assessing the costs and benefits of electronuclear energy in order to pursue three objectives: security of supply, cost reduction, and environmental sustainability. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) the use of nuclear energy increases the diversification of the energy mix and of energy suppliers, raising energy security levels, but it does not reduce Italy�s dependence on foreign energy; 2) the use of nuclear energy would not imply a reduction ...

  12. The costs of nuclear power in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A study on the costs of nuclear power generation in the Netherlands is presented. Light water cooled reactors are chosen as nuclear power plants and no difference is made in calculating the costs between a PWR type reactor and a BWR type reactor. The power plants have an output of 1000 MWe. From each part of the whole fuel cycle the costs are determined, taking into account interest, investments, time of construction, labor costs, insurances etc. Also are determined from each part of the fuel cycle the energy costs; the costs per kWh. Finally a comparison is made in costs between a 1000 MWe power plant and a 600 MWe power plant

  13. The costs of completing unfinished US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, S.L.; Bernstein, M.A.; Noland, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A cost benefit analysis is performed to assess the costs of completing unfinished nuclear power plants in four regions of the United States of America, (north-east, south-east, mid-west and west). The analysis is in five main sections: the projection of the cost to complete nuclear plants under construction, the forecast of future operations and maintenance costs, the forecast of price of fuels, the evaluation of future electricity demand and capacity growth, and calculation of the financial cost-benefit ratio based on the preceding figures. It was found that in the north-east, mid-west and west, because the demand for the power will not be made before the year 2000, finishing the units is not the least-cost supply option. Therefore, most of the units should not be finished unless over 90% completed already, in which case it may be cost-effective to finish them. (author)

  14. An analysis of nuclear plant operating costs: A 1991 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This report updates a 1988 Energy Information Administration (EIA) report which examined trends in nonfuel operating costs at the Nation's nuclear power plants. Nonfuel operating costs are comprised of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs and capital expenditures incurred after a plant begins operating. Capital expenditures are typically called ''capital additions'' because the costs are added to the utility's rate base and recovered as a depreciation expense over several years, the number of years being regulated by State Public Utility Commissions. These costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep a plant operational as well as those needed to make plant modifications mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or implemented at the utility's discretion. The 1988 report found that from 1974 through 1984, the last year for which data were available, nuclear power plant nonfuel operating costs escalated by 14 percent annually in real terms. The objective of the present study was to determine whether trends in nonfuel operating costs have changed since 1984, if there was any change in the underlying factors influencing these costs, and if so, how these changes affect the basic conclusions of the 1988 report. The general trends are encouraging: Total nonfuel operating costs peaked in 1984 and have been lower since that time; O ampersand M costs have been rising, but at a much lower rate than seen from 1974 through 1984; capital additions costs have actually been declining. 9 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1983-12-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors

  16. The Nuclear Employee Data System (NEDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Employee Data System (NEDS) is a centralized, dedicated, computer-based information management system designed to provide participating utilities with information that allows them to grant unescorted access to transient workers. The ability to access security-related information on individuals is one of the most important features of the NEDS. This paper discusses the sponsorship, management, system development activities, and system configuration and provides a cost/benefit ratio

  17. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  18. Post operation: The changing characteristics of nuclear fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental changes have occurred in the nuclear fuel cycle. These changes forged by market forces, legislative action, and regulatory climate appear to be a long term characteristic of the nuclear fuel cycle. The nature of these changes and the resulting emerging importance of post-operation and its impact on fuel cycle costs are examined

  19. Nuclear reactor refueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for transferring fuel assemblies between a nuclear reactor core and a fuel storage area while the fuel assembies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant is described. The system comprises an in-vessel fuel transfer machine located inside the reactor vessel and an ex-vessel fuel transfer machine located in a fuel storage tank. The in-vessel fuel transfer machine comprises two independently rotatable frames with a pivotable fuel transfer apparatus disposed on the lower rotatable frame. The ex-vessel fuel transfer machine comprises one frame with a pivotable fuel transfer apparatus disposed thereon. The pivotable apparatuses are capable of being aligned with each other to transfer a fuel assembly between the reactor vessel and fuel storage tank while the fuel assembly remains completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant. 9 claims, 7 figures

  20. (Value Stream Costing As A New Costing System)

    OpenAIRE

    Karcıoğlu, Reşar; Nuray, Meral

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the number of lean company which use lean manufacturing system is rising. This companies use the standard costing while appropriate for traditional bathch manufacturing. But standard costing system fails to support the goals of lean manufacturing system. A different method of costing based upon the characteristics of the value stream is needed to fulfill the needs of the lean company. This systemis Value Stream Costing. When a lean company moves to value stream management, th...

  1. Cost estimation of sumatra electricity expansion planning with nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to obtain the cost analysis on optimum solution of Sumatra electricity system using WASP-IV Program. Considering the economic aspect, nuclear power plant (NPP) is feasible in the future. From the geographical aspect Sumatra is prospecting for NPP site, especially the east coastal area due to the absence of hydro power potential and geothermal field. The use of petroleum as fuel in large scale power plants is not feasible. Beside causing high cost for electricity sector, it is also an important fuel for any other sectors such as transportation, electrification of isolated areas. Gas fuelled power plants is still feasible for next several decades in limited capacity. The study presents three scenarios, i.e. Low Scenario, Base Scenario and High Scenario applying discount rate of 8%, 10% and 12% respectively. Cost estimation for Sumatra System Expansion Planning is 57 465 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 59 349 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 57 796 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. The objective function is 15 172 US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 12 663 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 11 017 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. (author)

  2. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  3. Estimating the costs of nuclear power: benchmarks and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-05-01

    The debate on this topic is fairly confusing. Some present electricity production using nuclear power as an affordable solution, others maintain it is too expensive. These widely divergent views prompt fears among consumers and voters that they are being manipulated: each side is just defending its own interests and the true cost of nuclear power is being concealed. Companies and non-government organizations certainly adopt whatever position suits them best. But at the same time, the notion of just one 'true' cost is misleading. As we shall see in this paper there is no such thing as the cost of nuclear power: we must reason in terms of costs and draw a distinction between a private cost and a social cost. The private cost is what an operator examines before deciding whether it is opportune to build a new nuclear power station. This cost varies between different investors, particularly as a function of their attitude to risks. On the other hand the social cost weighs on society, which may take into account the risk of proliferation, or the benefits of avoiding carbon-dioxide emissions, among others. The cost of actually building new plant differs from one country to the next. So deciding whether nuclear power is profitable or not, a benefit for society or not, does not involve determining the real cost, but rather compiling data, developing methods and formulating hypotheses. It is not as easy as inundating the general public with contradictory figures, but it is a more effective way of casting light on economic decisions by industry and government. Without evaluating the costs it is impossible to establish the cost price, required to compare electricity production using nuclear power and rival technologies. Would it be preferable to build a gas-powered plant, a nuclear reactor or a wind farm? Which technology yields the lowest cost per KWh? Under what conditions - financial terms, regulatory framework, carbon pricing - will private investors see an adequate return

  4. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  6. 4+ Dimensional nuclear systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully integrated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. This paper proposes digital systems engineering anchored in three dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four plus dimensional (4 + D) Technology TM , a critical know how for digital management. ESSE (Engineering Super Simulation Emulation) features a 4 + D Technology TM for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Dased on an integrated 3D configuration management system, ESSE consists of solutions JANUS (Junctional Analysis Neodynamic Unit SoftPower), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit SoftPower), NOTUS (Neosystemic Optimization Technical Unit SoftPower), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Neocybernetic Unit SoftPower) and INUUS (Informative Neographic Utilities Unit SoftPower). NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4 + D system. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in

  7. Some problems on cost of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo

    1975-12-01

    The price of thermal power from oil has risen sharply. On the other hand, the price of atomic energy which has been expected to be favorable as compared with thermal power is rising slowly. In addition, the financial strength of electric utilities if lower, which results in difficulty of financing atomic power development. The course and the motivation of introducing nuclear power generation are briefly summarized. The economy and the usefulness of nuclear power generation and the problem of the financing for developing atomic energy are also examined.

  8. Nuclear hazardous waste cost control management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selg, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are currently under study to adjust the glass frit content to optimize the glass waste loadings and therefore significantly reduce the overall waste disposal cost. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Changes in waste contents affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt% waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Optimization of the glass waste forms to be produced in the SWPF is being supported by economic evaluations of the impact of the forms on waste disposal costs. Glass compositions are specified for acceptable melt processing and durability characteristics, with economic effects tracked by the number of waste canisters produced. This paper presents an evaluation of the effects of variations in waste content of the glass waste forms on the overall cost of the disposal, including offsite shipment and repository emplacement, of the Savannah River high-level wastes

  9. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlen, D.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper estimates the economical costs and benefits associated with a nuclear waste transmutation strategy. An 800 MWth, fast neutron spectrum, subcritical core design has been used in the study (the so called Sing-Sing Core). Three different fuel cycle scenarios have been compared. The main purpose of the paper has been to identify the cost drivers of a partitioning and transmutation strategy, and to estimate the cost of electricity generated in a nuclear park with operating accelerator driven systems. It has been found that directing all transuranic discharges from spent light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide (UOX) fuel to accelerator driven systems leads to a cost increase for nuclear power of 50±15%, while introduction of a mixed oxide (MOX) burning step in the LWRs diminishes the cost penalty to 35±10%. (authors)

  10. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  11. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs

  12. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  13. Future perspective of cost for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    The report presents and discussed results of evaluation of the cost for power generation in this and forthcoming years on the basis of an analysis of the current fuel prices and the economics of various power sources. Calculations show that nuclear power generation at present is inferior to coal-firing power generation in terms of required costs, but can become superior in the future due to an increased burn-up and reduced construction cost. Investigations are made of possible contributions of future technical improvements to reduction in the overall cost. Results suggest that nuclear power generation will be the most efficient among the various electric sources because of its technology-intensive feature. Development of improved light water reactors is of special importance to achieve a high burn-up and reduced construction costs. In general, the fixed cost accounts for a large part of the overall nuclear power generation cost, indicating that a reduction in construction cost can greatly increase the economic efficiency. Changes in the yen's exchange rate seem to have little effect on the economics of nuclear power generation, which represents another favorable aspect of this type of energy. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Nuclear energy: the cost of opting-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a study made on the financial and ecological costs that would be incurred if Switzerland opted out of the use of nuclear energy. Figures are quoted for the costs if two Swiss popular initiatives on the subject of opting out of nuclear energy were accepted in voting. The disadvantages offered by the alternatives such as combined gas and steam-turbine power plant, photovoltaics and wind power are quoted. Possible negative effects of opting out on the Swiss economy are looked at and the political aspects of renewing operational permits for nuclear power stations are discussed

  15. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  16. Nuclear power production: The financial costs. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, P.

    1993-11-01

    For many years, the Canadian nuclear industry has priced itself on its ability to provide safe, reliable and low-cost electricity to consumers. While nuclear power has indeed proved to be a relatively safe generator of electricity, its performance with respect to reliability and cost has declined noticeably in recent years. This paper documents the deteriorating cost performance of the industry, in comparison with that of its traditional competitor in power generation. It also breaks down the total costs into its component parts, assessing the key factors underlying the trends that are worsening the competitive position of the industry: a rise in initial capital costs, unanticipated technical difficulties resulting in additional capital costs, and the increasing operating expenses associated with poorer-than-expected reactor performance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Progress report on the investigation of nuclear plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past few years, many studies have been performed in an effort to understand, evaluate, and explain the reasons for the substantial increases in nuclear plant costs, as well as for the divergence between predicted and actual costs. Concerns regarding these cost increases is shared by utility owners, engineer/constructors, and public utility commissions. The future use of nuclear power depends on the ability of the industry to control these costs while maintaining safety. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) has responded to this concern by initiating an internal study to evaluate, quantify, and explain the factors influencing this cost growth. Previously, a conceptual approach was presented in which three explanatory variables or factors were used as surrogates for the many variables that affected plant cost. This paper presents a progress report of that continuing study

  18. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  19. The real costs of nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The UK Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has recently published figures which appear to show that nuclear generated electricity is 20% cheaper than electricity from coal stations. It is argued here that these figures cannot be used to make a case for nuclear power since they are based on an accounting convention which fails to give due consideration to inflation. In effect the convention used assumes that capital costs are paid in depreciated currency and become an artificially small part of total operating costs. By suitably adjusting the CEGB figures the author aims to provide a more realistic comparison of generating costs. (author)

  20. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov)

  1. Cost estimation of the decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A.; Pech, R.

    1991-01-01

    Most studies conducted to date on the cost of decommissioning nuclear facilities pertain to reactors. Few such studies have been performed on the cost of decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle plants, particularly spent fuel reprocessing plants. Present operators of these plants nevertheless need to assess such costs, at least in order to include the related expenses in their short-, medium- or long-term projections. They also need to determine now, for example, suitable production costs that the plant owners will have to propose to their customers. Unlike nuclear reactors for which a series effect is involved (PWRs, BWRs, etc.) and where radioactivity is relatively concentrated, industrial-scale reprocessing plants are large, complex installations for which decommissioning is a long and costly operation that requires a special approach. Faced with this problem, Cogema, the owner and operator of the La Hague and Marcoule reprocessing plants in France, called on SGN to assess the total decommissioning costs for its plants. This assessment led SGN to development by SGN engineers of a novel methodology and a computerized calculation model described below. The resulting methodology and model are applicable to other complex nuclear facilities besides reprocessing plants, such as laboratories and nuclear auxiliaries of reactor cores. (author)

  2. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  3. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Costs and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Bennett, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This article refers to a seminar (organized by the IAEA) on Costs and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes in Developing Countries held in Vienna from 9-12 September 1985. Its main objective was to promote a dialogue among the various parties involved in the domain of nuclear power financing, i.e. buyers, suppliers and financing organizations. At the meeting the Agency presented information showing that nuclear power plants are an economic means of generating electricity. In relation hereto the article deals with such topics as performance records, economic records, projected nuclear plant additions, financing constraints, current debt problems and new working relationships

  4. Costs and advantages of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almoguera, R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on nuclear energy competitiveness show that considering only the economics this option is the most economic one to generate the base load electricity in most of the countries which do not have plenty of alternative fuels, being this advantage both for the actual prices formation and for their stability on the long term. Should we add the strategic and environmental benefits linked to: Kioto emissions limits, short and long term supply security, national wealth increase due to quality and price of the supply and enhancement of related enterprises, the goodness of nuclear energy to supply a significant share of the electricity demand in most of the countries is evident. For the investors to make decisions for this option, some conditions have to be assured: regulatory stability, favourable national energy policy and expectation for the future, predictable and proven licensing process and expectation for moderate interest rates in the long term. (Author)

  5. Quantifying the social costs of nuclear energy: Perceived risk of accident at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtala, Anni; Remes, Piia

    2017-01-01

    The preferences expressed in voting on nuclear reactor licenses and the risk perceptions of citizens provide insights into social costs of nuclear power and decision making in energy policy. We show analytically that these costs consist of disutility caused by unnecessary anxiety - due to misperceived risks relating to existing reactors - and where licenses for new nuclear reactors are not granted, delayed or totally lost energy production. Empirical evidence is derived from Finnish surveys eliciting explicitly the importance of risk perceptions on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts. We show that the estimated marginal impact of a high perceived risk of nuclear accident is statistically significant and that such a perception considerably decreases the probability of a person supporting nuclear power. This result holds across a number of robustness checks including an instrumental variable estimation and a model validation by observed voting behavior of the members of Parliament. The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost, and are likely to affect the revenues, costs and financing conditions in the nuclear power sector in the future. - Highlights: • Survey on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts utilized. • A high perceived risk of nuclear accident decreases support for nuclear power. • The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost.

  6. Nuclear reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Each parameter of the processes of a nuclear reactor and components operatively associated with it is monitored by a set of four like sensors. A trip system normally operates on a ''two out four'' configuration; i.e., to trip the reactor it is necessary that at least two sensors of a set sense an off-normal parameter. This assumes that all sensors are in normal operating condition. However, when a sensor is in test or is subject to maintenance or is defective or disabled, the ''two out of four''configuration would be reduced to a ''one out of three'' configuration because the affected sensor is taken out of service. This would expose the system to the possibility that a single sensor failure, which may be spurious, will cause a trip of the reactor. To prevent this, it is necessary that the affected sensor be bypassed. If only one sensor is bypassed, the system operates on a ''two out of three'' configuration. With two sensors bypassed, the sensing of an off-normal parameter by a third sensor trips the reactor. The by-pass circuit also disables the circuit coupling the by-passed sensor to the trip circuit. (author)

  7. Nuclear system vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A particular case of the hot nuclei de-excitation is the total nuclear dislocation into light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He and α). Such events were first observed at bombarding energies lower than 100 MeV/nucleon due to high detection performances of the INDRA multidetector. The light system Ar + Ni was studied at several bombarding energies ranging from 32 to 95 MeV/nucleon. The events associated to a total vaporization of the system occur above the energy threshold of ∼ 50 MeV/nucleon. A study of the form of these events shows that we have essentially two sources. The excitation energy of these sources may be determined by means of the kinematic properties of their de-excitation products. A preliminary study results in excitation energy values of the order 10 - 14 MeV/nucleon. The theoretical calculation based on a statistical model modified to take into account high excitation energies and excited levels in the lightest nuclei predicts that the vaporization of the two partner nuclei in the Ar + Ni system takes place when the excitation energy exceeds 12 MeV/nucleon what is qualitatively in agreement with the values deduced from calorimetric analysis

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  9. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first comparative analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States. Studying the cost of nuclear power has often been a challenge, owing to the lack of reliable data sources and heterogeneity between countries, as well as the long time horizon which requires controlling for input prices and structural changes. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using expected demand variation as an instrument. We argue that benefits from nuclear reactor program standardization can arise through short term coordination gains, when the diversity of nuclear reactors' technologies under construction is low, or through long term benefits from learning spillovers from past reactor construction experience, if those spillovers are limited to similar reactors. We find that overnight construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect-Engineer (A- E). In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. (authors)

  10. Sensitivity of nuclear fuel cycle cost to uncertainties in nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.R.; Becker, M.; Parvez, A.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis system is developed for assessing the economic implications of uncertainties in nuclear data and related computational methods for light water power reactors. Results of the sensitivity analysis indicate directions for worthwhile improvements in data and methods. Benefits from improvements in data and methods are related to reduction of margins provided by designers to ensure meeting reactor and fuel objectives. Sensitivity analyses are carried out using the batch depletion code FASTCELL, the core analysis code FASTCORE, and the reactor cost code COSTR. FASTCELL depletes a cell using methods comparable to industry cell codes except for a few-group treatment of cell flux distribution. FASTCORE is used with the Haling strategy of fixed power sharing among batches in the core. COSTR computes costs using components and techniques as in industry costing codes, except that COSTR uses fixed payment schedules. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for large commercial boiling and pressurized water reactors. Each few-group nuclear parameter is changed, and initial enrichment is also changed so as to keep the end-of-cycle core multiplication factor unchanged, i.e., to preserve cycle time at the demand power. Sensitivities of equilibrium fuel cycle cost are determined with respect to approx. 300 few-group nuclear parameters, both for a normal fuel cycle and for a throwaway fuel cycle. Particularly large dollar implications are found for thermal and resonance range cross sections in fissile and fertile materials. Sensitivities constrained by adjustment of fission neutron yield so as to preserve agreement with zero exposure integral data also are computed

  11. Economic implications of nuclear operating and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear operating and maintenance (O and M) costs for U.S. plants have been increasing during the decade of the 1980's. Costs have stabilized over the last five years but have not yet significantly declined. Annual capacity factors have considerably improved during the last eight years and unit O and M costs expressed in Mills Kwh have thus declined. Two other important trends evident over the last five years have been the decline in fossil fuel prices and the transition to deregulated electric utilities market, accelerated with the passage of the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Within the next five years it may be possible for large scale industrial customers to directly contract with electricity generators, by they utilities or independent power producers (IPP's) for supplying their power requirements. The ability of such customers to directly contract with potential supplies based on low cost performance bypassing their local utility, may have significant implications for the structure of the utility industry in the near term and for plant operations. A greater pressure will likely be exerted on all plants, including nuclear to reduce operating costs so as to remain competitive with other power suppliers in their markets. Nuclear O and M costs are likely to be heavily scrutinized for possible savings and reductions. The electric utilities mergers waves and the nuclear industry's initiative on O and M cost control both aim at improving plant economics so as to better compete in the more deregulated environment. In this climate the issues of why nuclear O and M costs have increased, what can be done to reduce costs and what are the implications for advanced reactors design and economics are discussed. 14 figs

  12. Nuclear data information system for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li 2 O/H 2 O(SUS), 9Cr-2W/Li 2 O/H 2 O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li 2 ZrO 3 /He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V< SiC< RAF< SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  13. PLAN 98 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR I. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1998 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 1999 onward has been calculated to be SEK 45.8 billion. The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 2l st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.1 billion in current money terms

  14. Linear collider systems and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the systems and sub-systems involved in so-called ''conventional'' e + e - linear colliders and to study how their design affects the overall cost of these machines. There are presently a total of at least six 500 GeV c. of m. linear collider projects under study in the world. Aside from TESLA (superconducting linac at 1.3 GHz) and CLIC (two-beam accelerator with main linac at 30GHz), the other four proposed e + e - linear colliders can be considered ''conventional'' in that their main linacs use the proven technique of driving room temperature accelerator sections with pulsed klystrons and modulators. The centrally distinguishing feature between these projects is their main linac rf frequency: 3 GHz for the DESY machine, 11.424 GHz for the SLAC and JLC machines, and 14 GHz for the VLEPP machine. The other systems, namely the electron and positron sources, preaccelerators, compressors, damping rings and final foci, are fairly similar from project to project. Probably more than 80% of the cost of these linear colliders will be incurred in the two main linacs facing each other and it is therefore in their design and construction that major savings or extra costs may be found

  15. Development of an integrated cost model for nuclear plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, G.; Roy, R.

    2003-01-01

    A need for an integrated cost estimating tool for nuclear decommissioning and associated waste processing and storage facilities for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) was defined during the authors recent MSc studies. In order to close the defined gap a prototype tool was developed using logically derived CER's and cost driver variables. The challenge in developing this was to be able to produce a model that could produce realistic cost estimates from the limited levels of historic cost data that was available for analysis. The model is an excel based tool supported by 3 point risk estimating output and is suitable for producing estimates for strategic or optional cost estimates (±30%) early in the conceptual stage of a decommissioning project. The model was validated using minimal numbers of case studies supported by expert opinion discussion. The model provides an enhanced approach for integrated decommissioning estimates which will be produced concurrently with strategic options analysis on a nuclear site

  16. Guidelines for estimating nuclear power plant decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Williams, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other uses. (2) To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makes at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared. (3) To increase the validity, realism, and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

  17. Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance

  18. The importance of capital cost reduction in improving nuclear economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmo, A.; Braun, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the developed countries having existing nuclear programs, the situation necessitates lower total power generation cost. The restructuring of utility industry due to the deregulation causes to reorganize the ownership of some nuclear plants, and the overall economics of nuclear plants in relation to their local competition is reexamined. The reluctance to make any new long term capital cost commitment arises, and it makes new plant construction less likely in near future, and plant upgrading and improvement to be put to intense scrutiny. The capital cost recovery in existing nuclear plants in USA is discussed. It is important to recognize that there is very little that can be done to affect already expended capital, and only that can be done is to improve plant capacity factors, besides write-off. The roles of architects and engineers in improved plant economics are now evaluated by the various organizations which are interested in the participation in new nuclear industry reorganization and restructuring. The reduction of operation and maintenance costs and capital investment, and the improvement of capacity factor are reported. In new ALWR construction program, architects and engineers can significantly support the control of plant capital costs by the selection of the plant design and the sites, and the strategies of procurement and contract, construction schedule and others. (K.I.)

  19. Evaluating decommissioning costs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the economic aspects of decommissioning of large nuclear power plants in an attempt to put the subject in proper perspective. This is accomplished by first surveying the work that has been done to date in evaluating the requirements for decommissioning. A review is presented of the current concepts of decommissioning and a discussion of a few of the uncertainties involved. This study identifies the key factors to be considered in the econmic evaluation of decommissioning alternatives and highlights areas in which further study appears to be desirable. 12 refs

  20. Thermionic nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Thermionic nuclear reactors can be expected to be candidate space power supplies for power demands ranging from about ten kilowatts to several megawatts. The conventional ''ignited mode'' thermionic fuel element (TFE) is the basis for most reactor designs to date. Laboratory converters have been built and tested with efficiencies in the range of 7-12% for over 10,000 hours. Even longer lifetimes are projected. More advanced capabilities are potentially achievable in other modes of operation, such as the self-pulsed or unignited diode. Coupled with modest improvements in fuel and emitter material performance, the efficiency of an advanced thermionic conversion system can be extended to the 15-20% range. Advanced thermionic power systems are expected to be compatible with other advanced features such as: (1) Intrinsic subcritically under accident conditions, ensuring 100% safety upon launch abort; (2) Intrinsic low radiation levels during reactor shutdown, allowing manned servicing and/or rendezvous; (3) DC to DC power conditioning using lightweight power MOSFETS; and (4) AC output using pulsed converters

  1. A cost and safety superiority of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereslavtszev, P.E.; Luan Guishi; Xia Chengang

    1994-08-01

    Considering economy and safety, an optimization model of nuclear energy developing scenarios of China was set up. An objective function to optimize was determined. Three prospective developing scenarios of China nuclear energy system including hybrid reactor were calculated and discussed. In the system which has no fissile material exchange with other system, a smooth developing model has a smooth distribution of inventory of Pu, thus the potential danger of whole nuclear energy system will be decreased. This scheme will improve investment effectiveness. Result shows that the optimization is necessary and the significant profit in cost and safety can be obtained. (5 tabs., 8 figs., 12 refs.)

  2. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthélemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an econometric analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States based on overnight costs data. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using change in expected electricity demand as instrument. We argue that the construction of nuclear reactors can benefit from standardization gains through two channels. First, short term coordination benefits can arise when the diversity of nuclear reactors' designs under construction is low. Second, long term benefits can occur due to learning spillovers from past constructions of similar reactors. We find that construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect–Engineer. In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. -- Highlights: •This paper analyses the determinants of nuclear reactors construction costs and lead-time. •We study short term (coordination gains) and long term (learning by doing) benefits of standardization in France and the US. •Results show that standardization of nuclear programs is a key factor for reducing construction costs. •We also suggest that technological progress has contributed to construction costs escalation

  3. Internalization of external costs for nuclear power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Ionita, Gheorghe; Gheorghe-Sorescu, Antonius; Glodeanu, Florin

    2006-01-01

    , for that impact. Externality is one type of failure that causes inefficiency.' Like other energy sources, nuclear energy has risks and benefits that need to be fully recognized and assessed to evaluate its external costs. The external costs of nuclear energy include: radioactive waste disposal, future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impact of radioactivity releases in routine operation and effects of severe accidents. Beyond the competitive generation costs of existing nuclear power plants in most markets, benefits of nuclear power, that are not reflected currently in prices, include: security of supply, cost stability and the quasi absence of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases, other pollutant gases and particulates. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. This paper presents a few aspects on externalities of nuclear power and current approach on the internalization of external costs on radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning of the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. The paper contents as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. External costs; 3. Positive externalities of nuclear electricity; 4. Actions relevant to internalize future liabilities for nuclear power in Romania; 5. Conclusions. In conclusion the capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. If externalities such as: security of supply, cost stability and broad economic impacts on employment and balance of trade would be internalized, the effect would be positive for nuclear energy. In Romania, decommissioning and radioactive wastes

  4. POWERCO, Nuclear Power Plant Electricity Cost and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, Frank D.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: POWERCO calculates the cost of electricity produced by nuclear power stations, assuming all cash expenses such as investment and fuel costs, operating expenses, and taxes are known. The power cost is held constant throughout the project life. 2 - Method of solution: The cost calculation is based on the requirement that income received must provide for recovery of investment, return on investment, and all operating expenses. Equations are developed to calculate true fixed charge rates and true average fuel working capital

  5. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely-activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. A list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (auth)

  6. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed in this paper. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. Finally, a list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (author)

  7. Evolutionary cost management in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.G.; Mazzini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reader is urged to consider the material in ''The Evolutionary Theory of Cost Management'' carefully before proceeding with the material in this paper. The recommendations in this paper flow from the revised line of thinking generated by the evolutionary approach. The suggestions will be difficult to accept in the absence of an understanding of the underlying theory. Although the authors briefly discuss some of the theory, it is nevertheless recommended that the reader develop a fuller understanding of the concepts by studying the prior paper

  8. On Decommissioning Cost for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff (NAC International (United Kingdom)); Rush, Chris (NAC International (United States))

    2011-01-15

    The two biggest changes in NPP DandD over the last 15 years that are applicable across all countries are: a. Equipment and tools used in NPP DandD have evolved to be available on a more industrial basis, although concerning DandD of the main NPP components, such activity typically is very individual and requires one-of equipment to be developed. b. Regulation of DandD has increased. Earlier regulations were adapting to what emerged from evolving DandD projects. Today regulatory requirements have caught up and have been framed based on the feedback of experience over the last 15 years. In general they impose prescriptive requirements on DandD approaches and execution. In the U.S. access to LLW disposal has been opened up to a majority of states, which will ease the development and timely execution of DandD projects. A newly emerging trend in the U.S. is that segregation of some categories of waste, to facilitate the disposal of some volumes in general landfill rather than in radioactive waste disposal facilities, is being sacrificed, on cost grounds, in favour of mixing waste volumes with the consequence of having to dispose of a larger volume of waste in a LLW facility. Regarding access to information that can be meaningful and sufficiently detailed to support an international benchmarking inter-comparison of NPP DandD cost information: - NAC has established good access to detailed information on actual DandD projects at one U.S. PWR (Trojan) and one U.S. BWR (Rancho Seco). Additional information sources probably can be accessed with additional investigation. - Germany has highly relevant cost estimate and actual NPP DandD experience. Accessibility of the information is not yet fully determined. This will need more extensive, face-to-face interaction with the relevant stakeholders. Utilities and cost estimate service providers offer the opportunity to access relevant information. Specific terms and conditions that would apply and the extent of detail that would be

  9. On Decommissioning Cost for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rush, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The two biggest changes in NPP DandD over the last 15 years that are applicable across all countries are: a. Equipment and tools used in NPP DandD have evolved to be available on a more industrial basis, although concerning DandD of the main NPP components, such activity typically is very individual and requires one-of equipment to be developed. b. Regulation of DandD has increased. Earlier regulations were adapting to what emerged from evolving DandD projects. Today regulatory requirements have caught up and have been framed based on the feedback of experience over the last 15 years. In general they impose prescriptive requirements on DandD approaches and execution. In the U.S. access to LLW disposal has been opened up to a majority of states, which will ease the development and timely execution of DandD projects. A newly emerging trend in the U.S. is that segregation of some categories of waste, to facilitate the disposal of some volumes in general landfill rather than in radioactive waste disposal facilities, is being sacrificed, on cost grounds, in favour of mixing waste volumes with the consequence of having to dispose of a larger volume of waste in a LLW facility. Regarding access to information that can be meaningful and sufficiently detailed to support an international benchmarking inter-comparison of NPP DandD cost information: - NAC has established good access to detailed information on actual DandD projects at one U.S. PWR (Trojan) and one U.S. BWR (Rancho Seco). Additional information sources probably can be accessed with additional investigation. - Germany has highly relevant cost estimate and actual NPP DandD experience. Accessibility of the information is not yet fully determined. This will need more extensive, face-to-face interaction with the relevant stakeholders. Utilities and cost estimate service providers offer the opportunity to access relevant information. Specific terms and conditions that would apply and the extent of detail that would be

  10. Aseismic foundation system for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, F.; Richli, M.

    1977-01-01

    The aseismic foundation system, as described in this paper, is a new development, which makes it possible to build standard nuclear power stations in areas exposed to strong earthquakes. By adopting proven engineering concepts in design and construction of components, great advantages are achieved in the following areas: safety and reliability; efficiency; design schedule; cost. The need for an aseismic foundation system will arise more and more, as a large part of nuclear power station sites are located in highly seismic zones or must meet high intensity earthquake criteria due to the lack of historic data. (Auth.)

  11. Status report on nuclear electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for a multipayload multimission vehicle needed in both deep-space missions and a variety of geocentric missions is reviewed. The space system power level is a function of the initial launch vehicle mass, but developments in out-of-core nuclear thermionic direct conversion have broadened design options. Cost, design, and performance parameters are compared for reusable chemical space tugs and NEP reusable space tugs. Improvements in heat pipes, ion engines, and magnetoplasmadynamic arc jet thrust subsystems are discussed.

  12. Assessing the high costs of new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komanoff, C.

    1984-01-01

    The variation in nuclear plant capital costs, both over time and within the current generation of plants, is considerable and is one of the impressive facts associated with that technology. This article concerns statistical methods for determining relative management efficiency or inefficiency in nuclear plant construction. It emphasizes the need to adjust raw cost data for important variables in order to make fair comparisons among disparate projects. The analysis identifies the costliest and least-costly projects and elucidates trends that helped or harmed several or more projects at the same time. Its findings can form a supplement and guide for engineering and management audits of individual nuclear projects. 5 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  13. Modernization of US Nuclear Forces: Costs in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia-Jimenez, D.

    2017-01-01

    This short research paper addresses two topics that have emerged in the debate about whether, when, and how to modernize U.S. nuclear forces.1 The first topic relates to the size and scale of the planned nuclear force, with some critics of the modernization plan arguing that the United States is simply replicating the Cold War force for a very different era. The second topic relates to the cost of the modernization effort, with some critics arguing that the cost is unaffordable.2 This paper begins with a review of the changes in the size and scale of U.S. nuclear forces since the Cold War. It then examines the expected costs of modernization in a comparative perspective.

  14. Modernization of US Nuclear Forces: Costs in Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia-Jimenez, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-12

    This short research paper addresses two topics that have emerged in the debate about whether, when, and how to modernize U.S. nuclear forces.1 The first topic relates to the size and scale of the planned nuclear force, with some critics of the modernization plan arguing that the United States is simply replicating the Cold War force for a very different era. The second topic relates to the cost of the modernization effort, with some critics arguing that the cost is unaffordable.2 This paper begins with a review of the changes in the size and scale of U.S. nuclear forces since the Cold War. It then examines the expected costs of modernization in a comparative perspective.

  15. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  16. Projected costs of nuclear and conventional base load electricity generation in some IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The cost of nuclear and conventional electricity is one of the most important parameters for power system planning, and in particular for decisions on base load power projects. This study reviews the projected levelized electricity generation costs of the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained and evaluated for nuclear and fossil fuelled (mainly coal-fired) plants that could be commissioned in the mid- to late 1990s in 10 IAEA Member States. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  17. A cost-effective methodology to internalize nuclear safety in nuclear reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, M.; Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology to perform nuclear reactor design, balancing safety and economics at the conceptual engineering stage, is presented in this work. The goal of this integral methodology is to take into account safety aspects in an optimization design process where the design variables are balanced in order to obtain a better figure of merit related with reactor economic performance. Design parameter effects on characteristic or critical safety variables, chosen from reactor behavior during accidents (safety performance indicators), are synthesized on Design Maps. These maps allow one to compare the safety indicator with limits, which are determined by design criteria or regulations, and to transfer these restrictions to the design parameters. In this way, reactor dynamic response and other safety aspects are integrated in a global optimization process, by means of additional rules to the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical calculations. An application of the methodology, implemented in Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program 3 (IREP3) code, to optimize safety systems of CAREM prototype is presented. It consists in balancing the designs of the Emergency Injection System (EIS), the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS), the primary circuit water inventory and the containment height, to cope with loss of coolant and loss of heat sink (LOHS) accidental sequences, taking into account cost and reactor performance. This methodology turns out to be promising to internalize cost-efficiently safety issues. It also allows one to evaluate the incremental costs of implementing higher safety levels

  18. Cost-estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Various advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include several advanced light water reactors as well as the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and the advanced liquid-metal reactor. One measure-of the attractiveness of a new concept is cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electric generation. In order to make reasonable comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules and assumptions must be applied when developing cost estimates. This paper describes the cost-estimate guidelines developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to be used in developing cost estimates for the advanced nuclear reactors and how these guidelines relate to the DOE cost verification process

  19. Scottish Nuclear's information systems strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglis, P.

    1991-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear, the company which has owned and operated Scotland's nuclear power generating capacity since privatization, inherited a substantial amount of computer hardware and software from its predecessor, the South of Scotland Electricity Board. Each of the two power stations, Torness and Hunterston, were using Digital Vax clusters as the Scottish Nuclear company was formed. This had a major influence on the information systems strategy which has subsequently been adopted. (UK)

  20. Nuclear technologies for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Lynch, G.F.

    1990-03-01

    If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified and appropriate reactors developed. The Canadian program on reactor systems for local energy supply is at the forefront of these developments. This program emphasizes design simplicity, low power density and fuel rating, reliance on natural processes, passive systems, and reduced reliance on operator action. The first product, the SLOWPOKE Energy System, is a 10 MW heat source specifically designed to provide hot water to satisfy the needs of local heating systems for building complexes, institutions and municipal district heating systems. A demonstration heating reactor has been constructed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba and has been undergoing an extensive test program since first operation in 1987 July. Based on the knowledge learned from the design, construction, licensing and operational testing of this facility, the design of the 10 MW commercial-size unit is well advanced, and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is prepared to commit the construction of the first commercial unit. Although the technical demonstration of the concept is important, it is recognized that another crucial element is the public and regulatory acceptance of small nuclear systems in urban areas. The decision by a community to commit the construction of a SLOWPOKE Energy System brings to a sharp focus the current public apprehension about nuclear technologies

  1. $35 billion habit: will nuclear cost overruns bankrupt the utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed some 150 modifications in the design and operation of nuclear power plants as a result of the accident at Three Mile Island. The Atomic Industrial Forum estimates the total cost of the NRC's proposed rule changes at $35.5 billion ($3.5 billion in capital costs for the entire industry, and $32 billion in outage and construction-delay costs to the utilities) for existing facilities and for those with construction well underway. The changes range from improved training for reactor workers to a major overhaul of the reactor-containment design. The nuclear industry is asking the NRC to modify the proposals citing excessive costs (like the $100 million changes needed for a plant that cost $17 million to build) and safety (some of the complex regulations may interfere with safety). Financing the changes has become a major problem for the utilities. If the regulators allow all the costs to be passed along to the consumer, the author feels electricity will be too expensive for the consumer

  2. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  4. Cost Savings of Nuclear Power with Total Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of fast reactor (FR) generated electricity with pyro-processing is estimated in this article. It compares favorably with other forms of energy and is shown to be less than that produced by light water reactors (LWR's). FR's use all the energy in natural uranium whereas LWR's utilize only 0.7% of it. Because of high radioactivity, pyro-processing is not open to weapon material diversion. This technology is ready now. Nuclear power has the same advantage as coal power in that it is not dependent upon a scarce foreign fuel and has the significant additional advantage of not contributing to global warming or air pollution. A jump start on new nuclear plants could rapidly allow electric furnaces to replace home heating oil furnaces and utilize high capacity batteries for hybrid automobiles: both would reduce US reliance on oil. If these were fast reactors fueled by reprocessed fuel, the spent fuel storage problem could also be solved. Costs are derived from assumptions on the LWR's and FR's five cost components: 1) Capital costs: LWR plants cost $106/MWe. FR's cost 25% more. Forty year amortization is used. 2) The annual O and M costs for both plants are 9% of the Capital Costs. 3) LWR fuel costs about 0.0035 $/kWh. Producing FR fuel from spent fuel by pyro-processing must be done in highly shielded hot cells which is costly. However, the five foot thick concrete walls have the advantage of prohibiting diversion. LWR spent fuel must be used as feedstock for the FR initial core load and first two reloads so this FR fuel costs more than LWR fuel. FR fuel costs much less for subsequent core reloads ( 6 /MWe. The annual cost for a 40 year licensed plant would be 2.5 % of this or less if interest is taken into account. All plants will eventually have to replace those components which become radiation damaged. FR's should be designed to replace parts rather than decommission. The LWR costs are estimated to be 2.65 cents/kWh. FR costs are 2.99 cents/kWh for the first

  5. Costs for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelina, M.E.; Arsent'ev, S.V.; Molchanov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the method of calculation of rates for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials, which can minimize the insurer's costs for this type of insurance in situation when there is no statistics available and it is not possible to calculate the insurance rate by the traditional means using the probability theory

  6. ORSIM, Nuclear Fuel, Fossil Fuel Hydroelectric Power Plant Cost and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, B.E.; Turnage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORSIM is an electric power generating system integration model which simulates the multi-year operation of a mixed power system consisting of fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, and pumped-storage units. For any specified refueling schedule for nuclear units and future load forecast, the model determines a plan of operation for the system which attempts to minimize the total discounted operating cost over a specified study period. The analysis considers the effects of forced outages, spinning reserve operating constraints, and scheduled introduction and retirement of generating stations. The model determines a maintenance schedule for the non-nuclear stations (nuclear stations are maintained during refueling outages) and the optimum allocation of energy-fixed nuclear and hydroelectric resources. It calculates the expected energy generated by each station in the system, by period over the planning horizon, based on input or calculated incremental operating cost. It also calculates the expected loss-of- load probability and un-served energy demand for each period in the planning horizon. An optimum operating plan, designed to minimize the discounted total production cost, is then calculated, as are the costs of operating each station in the system and the discounted total production cost for the derived plan of operation. 2 - Method of solution: ORSIM searches for a particular mode of operation which, over a multi-year planning horizon, will minimize the total system operating cost of a particular electric power generation system discounted to the beginning of the planning horizon. It does this by: (a) calculating the planned maintenance outages for all units; (b) estimating the incremental discounted cost of energy produced by each station in the system for every subinterval of the planning horizon; (c) utilizing the incremental discounted costs of energy generation to calculate, via probabilistic simulation, the economic optimum

  7. Cost evaluation of I and C upgrade approach in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Tae; Lee, Jae-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost evaluation process for I and C system upgrade is built. • 4 cost factors affecting I and C system upgrade are described. • Additional cost incurred by a phased upgrade is calculated. • Cost for system upgrade between upgrade implementations is compared. - Abstract: Utilities have recently been debating the respective pros and cons of implementation of a multi-phase upgrade during several normal outages versus a single major upgrade implementation during a prolonged outage. We have studied these approaches and have been developing the basic design of nuclear power plants (NPPs) instrumentation and control (I and C) upgrade since early 2008. As part of this study, analyses of the NPPs I and C systems were conducted and the need for upgrading the systems was raised. One of the primary concerns regarding the system upgrade is a cost-benefit implementation, which will influence the upgrade approach. From this viewpoint, the I and C upgrade must consider economic factors such as I and C vendor cost, architecture engineering cost, installation cost, utility cost, and other transition costs such as training and procedure development. This paper presents a comparison study of economical aspects including cost evaluation between the aforementioned upgrade implementations and suggests a solution for I and C upgrade approach

  8. Plan 96 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. The cost calculations include costs for R,D and D as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The following facilities and systems are already in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products, Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Final repository for radioactive operational wastes. Plans exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste, Final repository for decommissioning waste. The total future costs, in Jan 1996 prices, for the Swedish waste system from 1997 have been calculated to be 42.2 billion SEK (about 6.4 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. It is estimated that 10.6 billion SEK in current money has been spent through 1996. Costs based on waste quantities from operation of the reactors for 40 years are also reported. 6 refs

  9. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucien Teunckens; Kurt Pflugrad; Candace Chan-Sands; Ted Lazo

    2000-01-01

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

  10. The external cost of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-01-01

    The external cost of the nuclear fuel cycle has been evaluated in the particular context of France as part of the European Commission's ExternE project. All the steps in the fuel cycle which involve the use of cutting edge technology were taken into consideration, from mining of uranium ores to waste disposal, via construction, dismantling of nuclear power plants and the transport of radioactive materials. The general methodology adopted in the study, known as the 'Impact Pathway Analysis', is based on a sequence of evaluations from source terms to the potential= effects on man and the environment, and then to their monetary evaluation, using a single framework devised for all the fuel cycles considered in the ExternE project. The resulting external cost is in the range of 2 to 3 mEuro/kWh when no discount rate is applied, and around 0.1 mEuro/kWh when a discount rate of 3% is considered. Further developments have been made on the external cost of a nuclear accident and on the integration of risk aversion in its evaluation. It appeared that the external cost of a nuclear accident would be about 0.04 mEuro/kWh, instead of 0.002 mEuro/kWh without taking risk aversion into account. (authors)

  11. US nuclear industry plans squeeze on O and M costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The United States nuclear industry, still the largest in the world with 107 operating commercial plants, wants to squeeze still more fat out of operation and maintenance costs. Success or failure could decide whether many operating units remain competitive with other forms of baseload electricity generation over the coming decade. (Author)

  12. Fusion reactor cost reductions by employing non-nuclear grade components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.; Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Sonn, D.L.; Wise, R.K.

    1987-09-01

    The Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor fits the requirements of low radioactive inventories and inherent safety and is therefore a candidate for non-nuclear construction throughout. This reactor consists of a rotating blanket of ceramic granules that absorb the energy from D-T target explosions occurring along the rotational axis. Laser energy is beamed in axially from both ends. Two cost estimates were made for an 815 MWe Cascade power plant. One was based on an ''all conventional'' plant, which is constructed and costed using well-established, conventional fossil power plant methods. The second was a ''nuclear plus conventional'' design, constructed and costed using a combination of fossil and fission reactor plant methods and standards that would be typical of advanced fission reactors. The total capital requirements for the ''all conventional'' construction plant were estimated in 1985 dollars at $1490 M, including indirect costs. Similarly, the ''nuclear plus conventional'' construction plant was estimated at $1940 M. The savings of $450 M (23%) represents strictly the difference between Cascade ICF power plants designed and constructed to nuclear safety-related requirements versus all non-nuclear. This example clearly shows that, if fusion plants can take advantage of low activation materials and inherent safety features to eliminate the need for nuclear-related expenses, then such plants may have economic advantages over nuclear-grade systems. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Methodology used in IRSN nuclear accident cost estimates in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by IRSN to estimate the cost of potential nuclear accidents in France. It concerns possible accidents involving pressurized water reactors leading to radioactive releases in the environment. These accidents have been grouped in two accident families called: severe accidents and major accidents. Two model scenarios have been selected to represent each of these families. The report discusses the general methodology of nuclear accident cost estimation. The crucial point is that all cost should be considered: if not, the cost is underestimated which can lead to negative consequences for the value attributed to safety and for crisis preparation. As a result, the overall cost comprises many components: the most well-known is offsite radiological costs, but there are many others. The proposed estimates have thus required using a diversity of methods which are described in this report. Figures are presented at the end of this report. Among other things, they show that purely radiological costs only represent a non-dominant part of foreseeable economic consequences. (authors)

  14. Energetic and economic cost of nuclear heat − impact on the cost of desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardour Saied

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study has been carried out to evaluate the cost of heat supplied by a pressurized water reactor type of nuclear reactors to thermal desalination processes. In the context of this work, simplified models have been developed to describe the thermodynamics of power conversion, the energetics of multi-effect evaporation (MED, and the costs of electricity and heat cogenerated by the dual-purpose power plant. Application of these models show that, contrary to widespread belief, (nuclear-powered MED and seawater reverse osmosis are comparable in terms of energy effectiveness. Process heat can be produced, in fact, by a relatively small increase in the core power. As fuel represents just a fraction of the cost of nuclear electricity, the increase in fuel-related expenses is expected to have limited impact on power generation economics.

  15. Technology and costs for dismantling a Swedish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    Various estimates concerning the costs of decommissioning a redundant nuclear power reactor to the green fields state are given in the literature. The purpose of this study is to provide background material for the Swedish nuclear power utilities to estimate the costs and time required to dismantle an ASEA-ATOM Boiling Water Reactor. The units Oskarshamn II and Barsebeck 1, both with an installed capacity of approximately 600 MW, serve as reference plants. The time of operation before final shutdown is assumed to be 40 years. Dismantling operations are initiated one year after shutdown. When the dismantling of the plant is finished, the site is to be released for unrestricted use. The costs for dismantling and subsequent final disposal of the radioactive waste are estimated at approximately SEK 500 million (approximately US dollars 120 million) in terms of 1979 prices. The sum includes 25% contingency. The dismantling cost is equivalent to 10-15% of the installation cost of an equivalent new nuclear power plant. The exact percentage is dependent on the interest rate during the construction period. It is shown in the study that a total dismantling can be accomplished in less than five years. This report is a compilation of studies performed by ASEA-ATOM and VBB based on premises given by KBS. The reports from these studies are presented in appendices. (Auth.)

  16. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Costs of construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants - determinant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da

    1981-01-01

    A study about the construction costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant, including direct costs, equipment costs, installation and indirect costs such as: engineering, job-training and administration is presented. The operation and maintenance costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant and costs of energy generation are still studied. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Nuclear Medicine National Headquarter System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Nuclear Medicine National HQ System database is a series of MS Excel spreadsheets and Access Database Tables by fiscal year. They consist of information from all...

  19. Distributed systems for protecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, P.

    1980-05-01

    The advantages of distributed control systems for the control of nuclear power stations are obviously of great interest. Some years ago, EPRI, (Electric Power Research Institute) showed that multiplexing the signals is technically feasible, that it enables the availability specifications to be met and costs to be reduced. Since then, many distributed control systems have been proposed by the manufacturers. This note offers some comments on the application of the distribution concept to protection systems -what should be distributed- and ends with a brief description of a protection system based on microprocessors for the pressurized power stations now being built in France [fr

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  1. Impact of the fuel cost in the electric generation cost by nuclear means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.; Gomez R, M.C.; Palacios H, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the uranium cost has been increased in the international market due to a countless of factors like they are: increase of the demand, the turnaround of the nuclear energy in some Asian countries, the decrease of the offer due to problems in the mining for their extraction, etc. These increments impact the costs of electric generation in the concept of fuel, presently work is calculated that order is the prospective impact when the costs of the uranium and the services of the fuel cycle are increased to the speed that one has come increasing, and an increase is postulated beyond the 100 usd/lb U 3 O 8 , being also calculated its impact in the total cost of electric generation by nuclear means. (Author)

  2. Innovation in Nuclear Technology for the Least Product Price and Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Romney

    2003-01-01

    In energy markets, costs dominate for all new technology introductions (pressure valves, gas turbines, reactors) both now and far into the future. Technology improves, and costs are reduced as markets are penetrated with the trend following a learning/experience curve (MCE) based on classic economic forces. The curve followed is governed by development costs and market targets, and nuclear systems follow such a curve in order to compete with other technologies and projected future cost for alternate energy initiatives. Funding impacts directly on market penetration and on the ''learning rate.'' The CANDU/AECL development path (experience curve) is a chosen balance between evolution and revolution for a competitive advantage

  3. A cost summary applicable to seismic construction and maintenance of nuclear safety related piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of costs applicable to nuclear power plant piping for an earthquake defined as 0.2 SSE-PGA as a function of three eras of initial construction: 1967--1974, 1974--1981 and 1981--1990. Costs have been presented for both new construction and maintenance in operating plants using both the original PSAR-FSAR design criteria and current SRP requirements. It is recommended that the cost information contained in this report be considered in evaluating the cost benefit relationships associated with current and proposed future changes in seismic design procedures applicable to safety-related piping systems

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  5. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-01-01

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications

  6. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, I.

    2004-01-01

    As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning

  7. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: the case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission's ExternE Project has made major advances in the quantification of external costs of electricity. Although some impacts cannot be valued, important conclusions are possible. This paper outlines some provisional implications for energy policy. External costs are technology

  8. Nuclear fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention pertains to the method and apparatus for the confining of a stream of fusible positive ions at values of density and high average kinetic energy, primarily of tightly looping motions, to produce nuclear fusion at a useful rate; more or less intimately mixed with the fusible ions will be lowerenergy electrons at about equal density, introduced solely for the purpose of neutralizing the positive space charge of the ions

  9. Nuclear system test simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, S.D.; Hill, W.D.; Wilson, P.A.; Steiner, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A transportable test simulator is described for a nuclear power plant. The nuclear power plant includes a control panel, a reactor having actuated rods for moving into and out of a reactor for causing the plant to operate, and a control rod network extending between the control panel and the reactor rods. The network serially transmits command words between the panel and rods, and has connecting interfaces at preselected points remote from the control panel between the control panel and rods. The test simulator comprises: a test simulator input for transport to and connection into the network at at least one interface for receiving the serial command words from the network. Each serial command includes an identifier portion and a command portion; means for processing interior of the simulator for the serial command words for identifying that portion of the power plant designated in the identifier portion and processing the word responsive to the command portion of the word after the identification; means for generating a response word responsive to the command portion; and output means for sending and transmitting the response word to the nuclear power plant at the interface whereby the control panel responds to the response word

  10. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs.

  11. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs

  12. Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor systems engineering. Fourth edition, Volume Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

    1994-01-01

    This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new materials on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: the systems concept, design decisions, and information tools; energy transport; reactor fuel management and energy cost considerations; environmental effects of nuclear power and waste management; nuclear reactor safety and regulation; power reactor systems; plant operations; and advanced plants and the future

  13. A Deterministic and Probabilistic Cost Estimate for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Gag Kyeon; Kwon, Jong Jooh

    2005-01-01

    There are many cost estimate methodologies for some future projects. Revenue Requirement Method (RRM), Cost/Benefit Ratio method, Return on Investment, Pay Back Period Method. etc. This paper uses the RRM method which is the amount of revenue that must be collected from customers to compensate a utility for all expenditures associated with implementing an alternative decision involving money. This RRM can be combined with a random sampling statistical simulation computer program to calculated the Probability Distribution Functions(PDF) of the cost elements for generating cost. EPRI developed this combined statistical techniques into RRM, named Statistical Revenue Requirement Method(SRRM). The statistical technique is a random sampling statistical simulation. The simulation tool is usually Monte Carlo sampling, Latin Latin Hypercube sampling, etc. SRRM is used to estimating for future power plants, apartments, hospital, marketing, etc. In this paper, RRM calculation and SRRM simulation have been practiced for PWR1400MWe nuclear power plants

  14. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  15. Nuclear database management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.; Sutton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors are developing software tools for accessing and visualizing nuclear data. MacNuclide was the first software application produced by their group. This application incorporates novel database management and visualization tools into an intuitive interface. The nuclide chart is used to access properties and to display results of searches. Selecting a nuclide in the chart displays a level scheme with tables of basic, radioactive decay, and other properties. All level schemes are interactive, allowing the user to modify the display, move between nuclides, and display entire daughter decay chains

  16. Reduction of cost of poor quality in nuclear fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, B.

    2000-01-01

    Within ABB reduction of Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) has become an important process to focus quality improvement initiatives on bottom-line results. The process leads to improved bottom-line results, through cost savings, but it also leads to quality improvements in our processes, products and services. The traditional way of measuring and controlling COPQ in the production workshops is not enough. It is of vital importance to include other non-value creating costs as well, both internally, e.g. in the engineering work, and externally, in delivered products and purchased goods. ABB Atom has since a number of years used the COPQ process in the various steps of nuclear fuel manufacturing. The definition has been expanded to cover, for instance: Scrap, rework and deviations; Margin slippage; Warranty costs; Lack of supplier performance; Excess and obsolete inventory. Each of the COPQ elements has a responsible 'owner' within the management of the Nuclear Fuel Division. The owners form a COPQ task force, which is responsible for analyzing results, setting goals and initiating improvement actions. The COPQ result is updated each month and is presented to all employees in several ways, such as Intranet. For the various COPQ elements improvement initiatives have been implemented. The presentation will describe some of them, such as reduction of: Scrap, rework and deviations through a process with zero defect meetings, high level of process automation, statistical methods; Margin slippage through business process re-engineering; Warranty costs through an improved design review process and expanded testing of new products; Costs for lack in supplier performance through a new concept for supplier QA/QC. It is our strong belief that both ABB Atom and our Customers will benefit from the COPQ process since it leads to a higher quality for nuclear fuel and control rods and facilitates lower product prices. (author)

  17. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, G. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  18. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  19. Productivity results of nuclear information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The information necessary to manage a nuclear generation station and multiple stations is greater today than ever before. The management of the processes necessary to develop information from data requires professional management and a programmatic approach. The cost is not insignificant. But the cost of not facing this challenge squarely is greater. The San Onofre Nuclear Generation Plant has developed the Nuclear Information Services function to assist management and professionals at all levels with their information needs. Often, this is merely giving them the tools they need to do it themselves. Herein contains a selection of specific examples that urges officer and senior level management to review the concept of the Nuclear Information Services function in more depth to determine the appropriateness of such an approach within their organizations. The establishment of on line computerized systems for the majority of the work flow processes and administrative process has resulted in an estimate 190 less people needed. The Health Physics Automated Access Control System (AACS) implementation resulted in a savings of $800,000 a year. The implementation of a Site Procedures Information Network (SPIN) has saved $160,000 per year

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Maccia, C.; Pages, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction is now widely accepted as a rational analytical framework to consistently address the resource allocation problem underlying any risk management process. This paper presents how this technique can be usefully applied to complex systems such as the management of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants into the environment. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation and sensitivity analysis of unit costs on the basis of an equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.; You, S. R.; Gao, R. X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the difference in the value of the nuclear fuel cycle cost calculated by the deterministic and probabilistic methods on the basis of an equilibrium model. Calculating using the deterministic method, the direct disposal cost and Pyro-SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) nuclear fuel cycle cost, including the reactor cost, were found to be 66.41 mills/kWh and 77.82 mills/kWh, respectively (1 mill = one thousand of a dollar, i.e., 10-3 $). This is because the cost of SFR is considerably expensive. Calculating again using the probabilistic method, however, the direct disposal cost and Pyro-SFR nuclear fuel cycle cost, excluding the reactor cost, were found be 7.47 mills/kWh and 6.40 mills/kWh, respectively, on the basis of the most likely value. This is because the nuclear fuel cycle cost is significantly affected by the standard deviation and the mean of the unit cost that includes uncertainty. Thus, it is judged that not only the deterministic method, but also the probabilistic method, would also be necessary to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycle cost. By analyzing the sensitivity of the unit cost in each phase of the nuclear fuel cycle, it was found that the uranium unit price is the most influential factor in determining nuclear fuel cycle costs.

  2. Cost effectiveness at Beznau and other Swiss nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland, with 7 million inhabitants, has the sixth highest per-capita electricity consumption in the world. At present, 40% of electric power is nuclear. The four Swiss nuclear plants have an average capacity factor well above 80%. Total cost per kw.h ranges from 5.4 US-cents for Beznau to 7.1 for Leibstadt. Staffing levels are lower than in other countries, due to the stable and highly skilled work force. The maintenance practice has been one of preventive maintenance. Both steam generators in Beznau-1 were replaced in 1993, and Beznau-2 is scheduled for 2000. Some maintenance is done by contractors. There is practically no technical support from headquarters. Retrofitting mandated by the regulatory authority is a matter of concern, because of its effect on production costs. Possible deregulation of the market for electricity in Europe powers the drive to become more efficient. 3 tabs

  3. Implementation of a Cost-Accounting System for Visibility of Weapon Systems Life-Cycle Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    ... costs through activity-based costing and management. The system must deliver timely, integrated data for management purposes to permit understanding of total weapon costs, provide a basis for estimating costs of future systems, and feed other tools for life-cycle cost management.

  4. The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidova, Ivana; Desecures, Sylvain; Lexow, Thomas; Buonarroti, Stefano; Marini, Giuseppe; Pescatore, Claudio; Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Daniska, Vladimir; Linan, Jorge Borque; Caroll, Simon; Hedberg, Bjoern; De La Gardie, Fredrik; Haenggi, Hannes; Laguardia, Thomas S.; Ridpath, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R and D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for the preparation of decommissioning plans, for the securing of funds and for decommissioning implementation. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. The remainder of report is divided into the following chapters: - Chapter 2 covers the purpose and nature of decommissioning cost estimates, approaches to cost estimation and the major elements of a cost estimate. - Chapter 3 examines the development of the integrated schedule of the activity-dependent work scope and the determination of the project critical path. - Chapter 4 describes the attributes of a quality assurance programme applicable to cost estimation and the use and cautions of benchmarking the estimate from other estimates or actual costs. - Chapter 5 describes the pyramidal structure of the report, and the scope and content that should be included in the cost study report to ensure consistency and transparency in the estimate underpinnings. - Chapter 6 provides some observations, conclusions and recommendations on the use of this guide

  5. Development of simplified decommissioning cost estimation code for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    The simplified decommissioning cost estimation code for nuclear facilities (DECOST code) was developed in consideration of features and structures of nuclear facilities and similarity of dismantling methods. The DECOST code could calculate 8 evaluation items of decommissioning cost. Actual dismantling in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was evaluated; unit conversion factors used to calculate the manpower of dismantling activities were evaluated. Consequently, unit conversion factors of general components could be classified into three kinds. Weights of components and structures of the facility were necessary for calculation of manpower. Methods for evaluating weights of components and structures of the facility were studied. Consequently, the weight of components in the facility was proportional to the weight of structures of the facility. The weight of structures of the facility was proportional to the total area of floors in the facility. Decommissioning costs of 7 nuclear facilities in the JAEA were calculated by using the DECOST code. To verify the calculated results, the calculated manpower was compared with the manpower gained from actual dismantling. Consequently, the calculated manpower and actual manpower were almost equal. The outline of the DECOST code, evaluation results of unit conversion factors, the evaluation method of the weights of components and structures of the facility are described in this report. (author)

  6. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program

  7. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  9. An application of the 'Bayesian cohort model' to nuclear power plant cost analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new method for identifying the effects of calendar year, plant age and commercial operation starting year on the costs and performances of nuclear power plants and also developed an analysis system running on personal computers. The method extends the Bayesian cohort model for time series social survey data proposed by one of the authors. The proposed method was shown to be able to separate the above three effects more properly than traditional methods such as taking simple means by time domain. The analyses of US nuclear plant cost and performance data by using the proposed method suggest that many of the US plants spent relatively long time and much capital cost for modification at their age of about 10 to 20 years, but that, after those ages, they performed fairly well with lower and stabilized O and M and additional capital costs. (author)

  10. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-01-01

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning

  11. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  12. Nuclear power systems: Their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Mankind utilizes energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. Canada is one of a growing number of countries which have chosen to embrace nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy systems. As of August 1992 there were 433 power reactors operating in 35 countries and accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, thirteen countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with France leading at nearly 70%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 68 power reactors are under construction in 16 countries, enough to expand present generating capacity by close to 20%. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether or not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR has irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety back into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents which have occurred to date. (author). 7 refs

  13. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  14. Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2017 to 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    amounts at roughly the same rates that costs for similar programs have grown in the past. Nuclear forces account for roughly 6 percent of the total 10...nuclear forces, some published estimates of the total costs of nuclear weapons account for the costs of several related activities. Examples include...based its estimate on historical costs of analogous programs. b. This category includes nuclear-related research and operations support activities by

  15. Accounting and cost control of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmaier, P.

    1977-01-01

    1) chart or classification of accounts, 2) all plant expenses, 3) cost control, 4) storage of spare parts and supplies, 5) control of applicable dose rate, 6) charges for insurance. The accuracy of accounting and cost control is a primary thing for the efficiency in a nuclear power station. The much more important factor is the availability. It is necessary to save costs by a more effective storage or a more detailed and automatic process of single jobs in the workshop. But a very definite experience made in Obrigheim is the fact that not only commercial people know which financial loss will occur if the plant is out of operation one hour. This knowledge is also important for the technical people and for the workers in the workshops. The technical responsibility and the security in operation of the plant and the commercial understanding for the risk of non-availability do not exclude each other. (HP) [de

  16. Estimating the cost of disposal for Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) prepared an Environmental Impact Statement and nine supporting Primary Reference Documents on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. This report summarizes the basis of the cost estimate which is provided in the primary reference document on engineering for a disposal facility. The scope of the cost estimate is explained by describing the key features of the disposal facility design, by noting the major assumptions made in preparing the estimates, and by listing the included and excluded cost components. An activity-based project planning and control method is explained whereby the project schedule, costs, and personnel requirements are interlinked; forming an integrated perspective on the total project life cycle. The summary and distribution of costs in each project stage by major facility or activity are presented. The results of studies which reviewed the overall cost estimate are also described. These studies indicate that, within the scope, the estimate is reasonable and compares well with similar international studies. (author)

  17. Decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. Interim report: Data collection and preliminary evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Based on the interest in decommissioning costs within Member States, especially in WWER- 440 operating countries that face the complex decision about continued operation vs. decommissioning in the near future, the IAEA launched the task to prepare a technical document on decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The main objectives of this publication were to present the decommissioning costs of WWER-440 NPPs in a uniform manner, i.e. using the cost item and cost group system of the Interim Technical Document on Nuclear Decommissioning 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes' developed jointly by the EC, the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and providing, as such, a basis for understanding decommissioning costs differences. Member States operating WWER-440 NPPs or having such units under shutdown or even under decommissioning conditions have been requested to provide cost estimates and other input data in order to facilitate understanding of their cost figures. Both decommissioning options, i.e. immediate decommissioning and safe enclosure, have been considered. In the aforementioned joint Interim Technical Document, cost items related to activities that are carried out with a similar emphasis, whether or not tied to a similar time schedule for decommissioning, or that are based on overall activities that cannot be categorised in a specific time period, are grouped as follows: pre-decommissioning actions; facility shutdown activities; procurement of general equipment and material; dismantling activities; waste processing, storage and disposal; site security, surveillance and maintenance; site restoration, cleanup and landscaping; project management, engineering and site support; research and development; fuel and nuclear material; other costs. Before starting implementation of the study, agreement was obtained on general financial, technical and social boundary conditions that should be used in order to facilitate

  18. Computer systems and nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkaoua, Th.; Poizat, F.; Augueres, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with computer systems in nuclear industry. In most nuclear facilities it is necessary to handle a great deal of data and of actions in order to help plant operator to drive, to control physical processes and to assure the safety. The designing of reactors requires reliable computer codes able to simulate neutronic or mechanical or thermo-hydraulic behaviours. Calculations and simulations play an important role in safety analysis. In each of these domains, computer systems have progressively appeared as efficient tools to challenge and master complexity. (A.C.)

  19. CONCEPT-5, Cost and Economics Analysis for Nuclear Fuel or Fossil Fuel Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, H.I.; Gratteau, J.E.; Zielsinki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The CONCEPT computer code system was developed to provide conceptual capital cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of plant type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs similar to the accounting system described in document NUS-531. Cost models are provided in CONCEPT5, the fifth generation in the development of the CONCEPT package, for single-unit coal-fired plants, pressurized-water reactors, boiling- water reactors, liquid-metal-cooled reactors, and multi-unit coal- fired plants based on today's average or best operating experience. Costs may be obtained for any of twenty U.S. cities, a hypothetical Middletown site, and two Canadian cities. CONCEPT5 models are updated models of those available in CONCEPT3 and, in addition, this edition contains historical factory equipment cost data for the generation of cost indices and escalation rates; indirect costs are calculated as a function of unit size rather than a function of direct costs; and an indirect cost account for owner's costs and an improved time-dependent escalation feature are included. The CONCEPT3 models and cost data are outdated; the package is being retained in the library since it is the only UNIVAC1108 machine version of CONCEPT available and could prove helpful in converting the latest IBM release. 2 - Method of solution: CONCEPT is based on the premise that any central station power plant involves approximately the same major cost components regardless of location or date of initial operation. The program has detailed cost models for each plant type at a reference condition. Through use of size, time, and location- dependent cost adjustments, a reference cost model is modified to produce a specific capital cost estimate. CONCEPT is supported by two auxiliary programs--CONTAC, which generates and maintains

  20. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  1. Nuclear reactor conceptual design: methodology for cost-effective internalisation of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, M.; Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel and promising methodology to perform nuclear reactor design is presented in this work. It achieves to balance efficiently safety and economics at the conceptual engineering stage. The key to this integral approach is to take into account safety aspects in a design optimisation process where the design variables are balanced in order to obtain a better figure of merit related with reactor economic performance. Design parameter effects on characteristic or critical safety variables, chosen from reactor behaviour during accidents and from its probabilistic safety assessment -safety performance indicators-, are synthesised on Safety Design Maps. These maps allow one to compare these indicators with limit values, which are determined by design criteria or regulations, and to transfer these restrictions to the design parameters. In this way, reactor dynamic response and other safety aspects are integrated in a global optimisation process, by means of additional rules to the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical calculations. This methodology turns out to be promising to balance and optimise reactor and safety system design in an early engineering stage, in order to internalise cost-efficiently safety issues. It also allows one to evaluate the incremental costs of implementing higher safety levels. Furthermore, through this methodology, a simplified design can be obtained, compared to the resultant complexity when these concepts are introduced in a later engineering stage. (author)

  2. The downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle. Tome II: Electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Galley, R.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Office's continuing work in the nuclear field, Mr. Christian Bataille and Mr. Robert Galley, Members of Parliament for the Nord and Aube departements respectively, published in June 1998 the first part of their investigation into the downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the work done in application of the law of 30 December 1991 concerning research into radioactive waste management. This document supplements that initial technical approach with a technical and economic study of the costs of generating electricity. To begin with, the performance of existing nuclear generating plant is examined, in particular the past, present and future contributions of this plant to the growth and competitiveness of the French economy. Secondly, the competitiveness of the different generating systems is analysed with a view to the construction of new facilities, using the method of discounted average costs which is at present the standard approach governing investment decisions, and identifying the different ways in which the said systems are dealt with as regards the cost categories considered. The potential contributions of external factor analysis and the calculation of external costs are then reviewed in order to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the different electricity generating systems on a more global basis. The report includes more than a hundred tables of data and cost curves upon which the Rapporteurs base their comments, conclusions and recommendations

  3. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  4. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph; Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar

    1999-04-01

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  5. FORMATION OF THE ENTERPRISE COSTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borysiuk Iryna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper deals with the actual issues of formation of the enterprise management system costs, because in the conditions of an unstable market environment the financial performance depends on the efficiency of the cost management system, competitiveness, financial sustainability and investment attractiveness of any subject of economic activity. Purpose of the article is consolidation of approaches to cost management, theoretical substantiation and development of recommendations regarding the formation of the enterprise cost management system. Results. Development of an enterprise cost management system based on research on the essence and cost management approaches. The goals, tasks, principles, methods, tools, functions and main elements of the cost management system were determined, factors of the external and internal environment of the enterprise, that affect the system of its costs management. Conclusions. Formation of integrated cost management system ensures the successful company operation on the market, production of competitive products based on costs and prices optimization and making a profit, increase of the reasonableness of making managerial decisions.

  6. CANDU nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the components that make up a CANDU reactor. Major emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. The reasons for CANDU's performance and the inherent safety of the system are also discussed

  7. Cost estimate of Olkiluoto disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.; Saanio, T.

    2005-03-01

    The cost estimate covers the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO, the investment and the operating costs of the above and underground facilities, the decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and the closure costs of the repository. The above ground facility is a once-investment; a re-investment takes place after 37 years operation. The repository is extended stepwise thus also the investment take place in stages. Annual operating costs are calculated with different operating efficiencies. The total investment costs of the disposal facility are estimated to be 503 M euro (Million Euros), the total operating costs are 1,923 M euro and the decommissioning and the closure costs are 116 M euro totaling 2,542 M euro. The investment costs of the above ground facility are 142 M euro, the operating costs are 1,678 M euro. The repository investment costs are 360 M euro and the operating costs are 245 M euro. The decommissioning costs are 7 M euro and the closure costs are 109 M euro. The costs are calculated by using the price level of December 2003. The cost estimate is based on a plan, where the spent fuel is encapsulated and the disposal canisters are disposed into the bedrock at a depth of about 420 meters in one storey. In the encapsulation process, the fuel assemblies are closed into composite canisters, in which the inner part of the canister is made of nodular cast iron and the outer wall of copper having a thickness of 50 mm. The inner canister is closed gas-tight by a bolted steel lid, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the outer copper lid. The encapsulation plant is independent and located above the deep repository spaces. The disposal canisters are transported to the repository by the lift. The disposal tunnels are constructed and closed in stages according the disposal canisters disposal. The operating time of the Loviisa nuclear power plant units is assumed to be 50 years and the operating time of the Olkiluoto nuclear power

  8. Safety and cost evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Hautojaervi, A.; Korhonen, R.

    1989-11-01

    The report introduces the results of the nuclear waste management safety and cost evaluation research carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1984-1988. The emphasis is on the description of the state-of-art of performance and cost evaluation methods. The report describes VTT's most important assessment models. Development, verification and validation of the models has largely taken place within international projects, including the Stripa, HYDROCOIN, INTRACOIN, INTRAVAL, PSACOIN and BIOMOVS projects. Furthermore, VTT's other laboratories are participating in the Natural Analogue Working Group,k the CHEMVAL project and the CoCo group. Resent safety analyses carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory include a concept feasibility study of spent fuel disposal, safety analyses for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSAR's) of the repositories to be constructed for low and medium level operational reactor waste at the Olkiluoto and Loviisa power plants as well as safety analyses of disposal of decommissioning wastes. Appendix 1 contains a comprehensive list of the most important publications and technical reports produced. They present the content and results of the research in detail

  9. A cohort analysis of nuclear generation cost data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    At the Nuclear Energy Information Center of the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Ltd., cost analysis of nuclear power generation has been carried out. In general, it is frequently carried out to analyze timely changing trends on various indexes on management of power stations such as annual O and M (operation and management) costs, apparatus using ratio, and so on, in nuclear power stations. Main aims of such analyses are to obtain knowledge useful for future policies and management decision making by grasping factors causing such changes to evaluate effects based on them as quantitatively as possible. Effects of the timely changing factors on various indexes on management of power stations can consider by dividing them to three types shown as follows; (1) effects of every years, (2) effects of every elapsed years, and (3) effects of operation beginning year. By separating these three effects to evaluate them, grasping of factors at background of the changes and their quantitative evaluations can be carried out more correctly, to be expected to obtain more useful knowledge. Here were described results applied on engineering method called by the 'Bayes type Cohort model' developed at a field of social science to trend analysis on indexes of such power stations. (G.K.)

  10. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  11. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.; Backe, S.; Cato, A.; Lindskog, S.; Efraimsson, H.; Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, S.; Sjoeblom, R.

    2008-07-01

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost

  12. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost

  13. INIS - International Nuclear Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents International Nuclear Information System (INIS): history of its development; INIS support products (INIS Reference Series, Friendly Inputting of Bibliographic Records software); INIS output products (INIS Atomindex, magnetic tapes, online service, database on CD-ROM, microfiche service); INIS philosophy; input of INIS database by subject areas; and examples of INIS input

  14. Recent space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  15. Costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants as reported to the public to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasma, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper attempts to determine what information has been available to the public, in the United States, concerning the cost of decommissioning nuclear power plants. The search was conducted in the Television News Index and Abstracts, in the annual indexes to The Reader's Digest, and in two computer-based bibliographic retrieval systems, Lockheed's DIALOG Magazine Index and the New York Times Information Bank. Fewer than ten articles appeared in widely read places, with none at all in the Reader's Digest and none on the evening TV news, from 1974 to date. The cost of decommissioning nuclear power plants was reported in various ways, with a wide range of estimates and relatively little actual experience. Costs were given in dollars of different years, in percentages of construction costs, in cost per KWH as per month to the consumer, etc., making the range of reported costs seem even wider than it really was. It is not surprising that the public fears that decommissioning costs will be alarmingly high. The public debate on energy policy might be more rational with better information on decommissioning costs. 16 references

  16. Nuclear reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To allow sufficient removal of radioactive substance released in the reactor containment shell upon loss of coolants accidents thus to sufficiently decrease the exposure dose to human body. Constitution: A clean-up system is provided downstream of a heat exchanger and it is branched into a pipeway to be connected to a spray nozzle and further connected by way of a valve to a reactor container. After the end of sudden transient changes upon loss of coolants accidents, the pool water stored in the pressure suppression chamber is purified in the clean-up system and then sprayed in the dry-well by way of a spray nozzle. The sprayed water dissolves to remove water soluble radioactive substances floating in the dry-well and then returns to the pressure suppression chamber. Since radioactive substances in the dry-well can thus removed rapidly and effectively and the pool water can be reused, public hazard can also be decreased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Report on estimated nuclear energy related cost for fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report first describes major actions planned to be taken in Japan in fiscal 1991 in the field of nuclear energy utilization. Major activities to be made for comprehensive strengthening of safety assurance measures are described, focusing on improvement of nuclear energy related safety regulations, promotion of research for safety assurance, improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures, environmental radioactivity surveys, control of exposure of workers engaged in radioactivity related jobs, etc. The report then describes actions required for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the procurement of uranium resources, establishment of a uranium enrichment process, reprocessing of spent fuel, application of recovered uranium, etc. Other activities are required for the development of new type reactors, effective application of plutonium, development of basic techniques, international contributions, cooperation with the public. Then, the report summarizes estimated costs required for the activities to be performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. (N.K.)

  18. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaney, E.G.; Mickelson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency's Working Group on Decommissioning is preparing a study entitled ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Feasibility, Needs and Costs.'' The study addresses the economics, technical feasibility and waste management aspects of decommissioning larger commercial reactors and nuclear support facilities. Experience on decommissioning small reactors and fuel cycle facilities shows that current technology is generally adequate. Several major projects that are either underway or planned will demonstrate decommissioning of the larger and more complex facilities. This experience will provide a framework for planning and engineering the decommissioning of the larger commercial reactors and fuel cycle facilities. Several areas of technology development are desired for worker productivity improvement, occupational exposure reduction, and waste volume reduction. In order to assess and plan for the decommissioning of large commercial nuclear facilities, projections have been made of the capacity of these facilities that may be decommissioned in the future and the radioactive waste that would be produced from the decommissioning of these facilities. These projections through the year 2025 are based on current data and the OECD reactor capacity forecast through the year 2000. A 25-year operating lifetime for electrical power generation was assumed. The possibilities of plant lifetime extension and the deferral of plant dismantlement make this projection very conservative

  19. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants

  20. Expert systems and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system

  1. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  2. Cost related to nuclear power plants: the international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report about the international costs of nuclear electricity generations is divided in two distinct parts: the first one shows the competitiveness of the main sources of electricity generation for base load operation according to studies carried on by OECD and UNIPEDE since 1983; the second one discusses the most recent OECD study about the different types of power plants to be constructed in its number states, based on the experience of each country and the technology evolution of the different fuels used. (F.E.). 4 refs, 2 figs, 27 tab

  3. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  4. New technologies for lower-cost design and construction of new nuclear power plants. Annex 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Bryan, R.E.; Harmon, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute studies indicate that in order to be competitive with gas-fired electric power plant capital costs, new nuclear plant capital cost in the USA must be decreased by at least 35% to 40% relative to costs of some Advanced Light Water Reactors designed in the early 1990s. To address this need, the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring three separate projects under its Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These projects are the Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants, the Smart Equipment Nuclear Power Plant Program, and the Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test Program. The goal of the Design-Construction program is reduction of the complete nuclear plant design-procure-construct-install-test cycle schedule and cost. A 3D plant model was combined with a construction schedule to produce a 4D visualization of plant construction, which was then used to analyze plant construction methods. Insights include the need for concurrent engineering, a plant-wide central database, and use of the World-Wide WEB. The goal of Smart Equipment program is to design, develop, and evaluate the methods for implementing smart equipment and predictive maintenance technology. 'Smart' equipment means components and systems that are instrumented and monitored to detect incipient failures in order to improve their reliability. The resulting smart equipment methods will be combined with a more risk-informed regulatory approach to allow plant designers to (1) simplify designs without compromising overall reliability and safety and (2) maintain more reliable plants at lower cost. Initial results show that rotating equipment such as charging pumps would benefit most from smart instrumentation and that the technique of Bayesian Belief Networks would be most appropriate for providing input to a health monitoring system. (author)

  5. Nuclear waste: A look at current use of funds and cost estimates for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has revised its long-range cost estimates for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other highly radioactive waste from about $20 billion to between $21 billion and $41 billion. Delays in meeting some program milestones have added to the costs of the program and consequently DOE has proposed a 5-year delay for the first repository to come on-line. These program uncertainties will limit confidence in the estimates for the next several years. One such uncertainty is the estimated quantity of spent fuel for disposal. DOE's estimating approach overstates the amount of spent fuel that utilities will generate and the fees that they will pay into the Nuclear Waste Fund. As a result, DOE may not be collecting fees at a rate that will cover total program costs and may be overbuilding the waste system

  6. Cost comparison of very high temperature nuclear reactors for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Newman, J.B.

    1975-03-01

    In April 1974, the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing very high temperature nuclear reactors. General Electric and Westinghouse produced concepts for the entire nuclear system, including the balance of plant. The General Atomic assessment included only the nuclear reactor portion of the nuclear plant. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. (UE and C) was requested by the USAEC in November 1974 to prepare an economic comparison of the three conceptual plants. The comparison is divided into three tasks: (1) Develop a balance of plant conceptual design to be combined with the General Atomic concept as a basis for comparison, and estimate the cost of the General Atomic/UE and C concept in July 1974 dollars; (2) Normalize the overall plant costs for the General Atomic/UE and C, General Electric and Westinghouse concepts, compare the costs, and identify significant differences between the concepts; and (3) Estimate the operation and maintenance costs for the General Atomic/UE and C plant and compare with the other concepts. The results of these task studies are discussed

  7. Nuclear energy in the operation of the spanish electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza, L.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a basic role in electricity production in Spain. Its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs, with its fuel having low weight in the cost structure, the security of supply that the possibility of storing its fuel on-site in the power plant gives and the absence of CO 2 emissions are some of the advantages nuclear energy presents. Its stiffness for demand variations, its sudden disconnections, which are infrequent but with high impact on System Operation, the social perception and nuclear waste management must also be weighted up. (Author)

  8. Data acquisition system for nuclear reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Railesha; Tiwari, S.S.; Panday, Lokesh; Suri, Nitin; Chouksey, Abhsek; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Tarun; Agrawal, Ashish; Pandey, Pranav Kumar; Sharma, Brijnandan; Bhatia, Chirag

    2004-01-01

    We have designed an online real time data acquisition system for nuclear reactor environment monitoring. Data acquisition system has eight channels of analog signals and one channel of pulsed input signal from detectors like GM Tube, or any other similar input. Connectivity between the data acquisition system and environmental parameters monitoring computer is made through a wireless data communication link of 151 MHz/100 mW RF power and 10 km maximum communication range for remote data telemetry. Sensors used are gamma ionizing radiation sensor made from CsI:Tl scintillator, atmospheric pressure sensor with +/-0.1 mbar precision, temperature sensor with +/-l milli degree Celsius precision, relative humidity with +/-0.1RH precision, pulse counts with +/-1 count in 0-10000 Hz count rate measurement precision and +/-1 count is accumulated count measurement precision. The entire data acquisition system and wireless telemetry system is 9 V battery powered and the device is to be fitted on a wireless controlled mobile robot for scanning the nuclear reactor zone from remote. Wireless video camera has been planned for integration into the existing system on a later date for moving the robotics environmental data acquisition system beyond human vision reach. System development cost is Rs.25 Lacs and has been developed for Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India and Indian Defense use. (author)

  9. Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Rainey, R.H.

    1980-02-01

    A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

  11. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  12. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Inga; Backe, S.; Iversen, Klaus; Lindskog, S; Salmenhaara, S.; Sjoeblom, R.

    2006-11-01

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one

  13. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one

  14. Costing the OMNIUM-G system 7500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    A complete OMNIUM-G System 7500 was cost analyzed for annual production quantities ranging from 25 to 10,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to in-depth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes, coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. When production quantities increase both labor and material costs reduce substantially. A redesign of the system that was analyzed could result in lower costs when annual production runs approach 100,000 units/year. Material and labor costs for producing 25, 100, 25,000 and 100,00 units are given for 17 subassembly units.

  15. Nuclear technology databases and information network systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi; Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Minakuchi, Satoshi

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the databases related to nuclear (science) technology, and information network. Following contents are collected in this paper: the database developed by JAERI, ENERGY NET, ATOM NET, NUCLEN nuclear information database, INIS, NUclear Code Information Service (NUCLIS), Social Application of Nuclear Technology Accumulation project (SANTA), Nuclear Information Database/Communication System (NICS), reactor materials database, radiation effects database, NucNet European nuclear information database, reactor dismantling database. (J.P.N.)

  16. Economic benefits of advanced materials in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    A key obstacle to the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors. However, cost estimates come with a large uncertainty since far fewer fast reactors have been built than light water reactor facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. Reductions in capital cost can result from design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. It is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost. Advanced materials may also allow improved safety and longer component lifetimes. This work examines the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment cost of fast nuclear reactors.

  17. The Launch Systems Operations Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to

  18. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  19. Emerging nuclear energy systems and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gsponer, A.; Sahin, S.; Jasani, B.

    1983-01-01

    Generally when considering problems of proliferation of nuclear weapons, discussions are focused on horizontal proliferation. However, the emerging nuclear energy systems currently have an impact mainly on vertical proliferation. The paper indicates that technologies connected with emerging nuclear energy systems, such as fusion reactors and accelerators, enhance the knowledge of thermonuclear weapon physics and will enable production of military useful nuclear materials (including some rare elements). At present such technologies are enhancing the arsenal of the nuclear weapon states. But one should not forget the future implications for horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons as some of the techniques will in the near future be within the technological and economic capabilities of non-nuclear weapon states. Some of these systems are not under any international control. (orig.) [de

  20. Canadian nuclear power plant construction cost forecast and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequence of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of the situation to take place in the future. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A data base is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of forty years are generated and applications of alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts to uncertainty assessment are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the very first ever done for Canadian NGS constructions

  1. Nuclear data processing using a database management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilla, V.; Gonzalez, L.

    1991-01-01

    A database management system that permits the design of relational models was used to create an integrated database with experimental and evaluated nuclear data.A system that reduces the time and cost of processing was created for computers type EC or compatibles.A set of programs for the conversion from nuclear calculated data output format to EXFOR format was developed.A dictionary to perform a retrospective search in the ENDF database was created too

  2. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive

  3. Costs and results of federal incentives for commercial nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, R.H.; Wendling, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper (1) estimates the total costs of federal expenditures in support of incentives for the development of commercial nuclear energy through 1988, and (2) analyzes the results and benefits to the nation of this federal investment. The federal incentives analyzed include research and development, regulation of commercial nuclear energy, tax incentives, waste management and disposal, enrichment plants, liability insurance, the uranium mining industry, and all other federal support activities. The authors estimate that net federal incentives totaled about $45-50 billion (1988 dollars). They estimate the results of the federal incentives, focusing on six categories, namely, electric energy produced, the total (direct plus indirect) economic benefits of the industry created, R and D program benefits, value of energy imports displaced, environmental effects, and health, safety, and risk effects. The results total $1.9 trillion, with approximately $250-300 billion identified as net benefits. The authors conclude that the high return on the investment justified federal incentives for nuclear energy development over the past four decades and that the federal government and the nation have received a significant return on the incentives investment

  4. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    ...), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear applications, although there is an emphasis placed on the analysis of nuclear systems...

  5. US Army Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1980-07-01

    The Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS) was developed to meet the Army requirements of an unattended, automatic nuclear burst reporting system. It provides pertinent data for battlefield commanders on a timely basis with high reliability

  6. Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1985-06-01

    Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that gadolinium, one of 16 rare earth elements, appears in the marketplace as a by-product and that its present supply is a function of the production rate of other more prevalent rare earths. The potential demand for gadolinium in a fuel reprocessing facility serving a future fast reactor industry amounts to only a small fraction of the supply. At the present rate of consumption, domestic supplies of rare earths containing gadolinium are adequate to meet national needs (including fuel reprocessing) for over 100 years. With access to foreign sources, US demands can be met well beyond the 21st century. It is concluded therefore that the supply of gadolinium will quite likely be more than adequate for reprocessing spent fuel for the early generation of fast reactors. The current price of 99.99% pure gadolinium oxide lies in the range $50/lb to $65/lb (1984 dollars). By the year 2020, in time for reprocessing spent fuel from an early generation of large fast reactors, the corresponding values are expected to lie in the $60/lb to $75/lb (1984 dollars) price range. This increase is modest and its economic impact on nuclear fuel reprocessing would be minor. The economic potential for recovering gadolinium from the wastes of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (which use gadolinium neutron poison) was also investigated. The cost of recycled gadolinium was estimated at over twelve times the cost of fresh gadolinium, and thus recycle using current recovery technology is not economical. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Reliability and Cost Impacts for Attritable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    on reliability and cost: a probabilistic model. Electric Power Systems Research, 72(3), 213-224. Kalbfleisch, J.D. & Prentice, R.L. (1980). The...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-17-M-172 RELIABILITY AND COST IMPACTS FOR ATTRITABLE SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to... power of discrete time Markov chains, whether homogeneous or non-homogeneous, to model the reliability and dependability of repairable systems should

  8. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK)

  9. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-03-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK).

  10. Monetary evaluation of radiation detriment cost in cost/benefit analysis of protective actions after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J.; Xue, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the monetary evaluation of radiation detriment cost in the cost/benefit analyses of countermeasures after nuclear accidents. The methods used to determine the so-called α factor in cost/benefit analysis are presented. It is pointed out that the approaches found in current literature to the consideration of individual dose in cost-benefit analyses have some limitations. To overcome those deficiencies, we introduced the concept of individual dose evaluation function in this paper. In addition, we developed a modified approach to cost-benefit analyses of protective actions after nuclear accidents. (author)

  11. Cost Control Guide For Decommissioning Of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This cost control guide was prepared in response to the request from the OECD/NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) - Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) to offer the industry guidance in preparing and implementing cost and schedule controls during decommissioning. The DCEG sent out a survey questionnaire in 2010 soliciting comments from OECD member states on their use of cost controls during decommissioning. While the response was limited, the consensus was to proceed with the preparation of this guide. Cost and schedule control systems have been in use for more than 30 years, and in the last 10 years or so have evolved into a more formalised earned value management system (EVMS). This guide is based on the internationally recognised standard, Earned Value Management Systems (ANSI, 2007). The EVMS is built on a work breakdown structure (WBS) of decommissioning activities, and a defined process for controlling a project. The EVMS not only provides measurement of project status and future performance, but also builds a structure and culture for accountability on project performance. This guide describes the performance metrics used to determine the value earned based on what was planned to be done, what was actually accomplished and what it actually cost. Variances measured monthly at a minimum indicate where potential problems are arising and raise a flag for the project manager to implement corrective actions for the next reporting period. The success of the EVMS programme depends on management commitment to implement a culture change for its employees, and to impose the EVMS on potential future contractors performing decommissioning work at a facility. Formal training is required to ensure all elements of the process are understood and put into action. It is recommended to begin with a small project, and graduate to larger projects as the staff learns how to use the system. The EVMS process has been used internationally for small

  12. Cost/benefit analyses of reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The study presents a methodology for quantitative assessment of the benefit yielded by the various engineered safety systems of a nuclear reactor containment from the standpoint of their capacity to protect the environment compared to their construction costs. The benefit is derived from an estimate of the possible damage from which the environment is protected, taking account of the probabilities of occurrence of malfunctions and accidents. For demonstration purposes, the methodology was applied to a 1 300-MWe PWR nuclear power station. The accident sequence considered was that of a major loss-of-coolant accident as investigated in detail in the German risk study. After determination of the benefits and cost/benefit ratio for the power plant and the containment systems as designed, the performance characteristics of three subsystems, the leakoff system, annulus exhaust air handling system and spray system, were varied. For this purpose, the parameters which describe these systems in the activity release programme were altered. The costs were simultaneously altered in order to take account of the performance divergences. By varying the performance of the individual sub-systems an optimization in design of these systems can be arrived at

  13. A reply to “Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Hultman, Nathan E.; Grubler, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    present data on the overnight costs of more than half of nuclear reactors built worldwide since the beginning of the nuclear age. The authors claim that this consolidated data set offers more accurate insights than previous country-level assessments. Unfortunately, the authors make analytical choices that mask nuclear power's real construction costs, cherry pick data, and include misleading data on early experimental and demonstration reactors. For those reasons, serious students of such issues should look elsewhere for guidance about understanding the true costs of nuclear power. - Highlights: • claim to accurately assess nuclear plant costs over time. • The authors err by relying on overnight costs, which exclude interest. • The authors cherry pick data (e.g, ignoring problems with French nuclear data). • The article's cherry picked data don’t even support the article's own conclusions. • Lovering et al. is not a reliable source for costs of nuclear power.

  14. Cost comparisons of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent nuclear fuel in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Man; Seong, Ki-Yeoul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We compare the costs of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent fuel. → We use the parametric method and quotations to deduce unknown cost items. → Net present values and levelized unit prices are calculated for cost comparisons. → A system price is the most decisive factor in cost comparisons. - Abstract: As a part of an effort to determine the ideal storage solution for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel, a cost assessment was performed to better quantify the competitiveness of several storage types. Several storage solutions were chosen for comparison, including three dry storage concepts and a wet storage concept. The net present value (NPV) and the levelized unit cost (LUC) of each solution were calculated, taking into consideration established scenarios and facility size. Wet storage was calculated to be the most expensive solution for a 1700 MTU facility, and metal cask storage marked the highest cost for a 5000 MTU facility. Sensitivity analyses on discount rate, metal cask price, operation and maintenance cost, and facility size revealed that the system price is the most decisive factor affecting competitiveness among the storage types.

  15. Cost comparisons of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent nuclear fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung, E-mail: skycho@krmc.or.kr [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Man; Seong, Ki-Yeoul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > We compare the costs of wet and dry interim storage facilities for PWR spent fuel. > We use the parametric method and quotations to deduce unknown cost items. > Net present values and levelized unit prices are calculated for cost comparisons. > A system price is the most decisive factor in cost comparisons. - Abstract: As a part of an effort to determine the ideal storage solution for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel, a cost assessment was performed to better quantify the competitiveness of several storage types. Several storage solutions were chosen for comparison, including three dry storage concepts and a wet storage concept. The net present value (NPV) and the levelized unit cost (LUC) of each solution were calculated, taking into consideration established scenarios and facility size. Wet storage was calculated to be the most expensive solution for a 1700 MTU facility, and metal cask storage marked the highest cost for a 5000 MTU facility. Sensitivity analyses on discount rate, metal cask price, operation and maintenance cost, and facility size revealed that the system price is the most decisive factor affecting competitiveness among the storage types.

  16. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  17. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  18. Cost estimation of thermal and nuclear power using annual securities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu; Murakami, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Cost estimation of generation cost derived from various power sources was widely conducted using model plant or annual securities report of electric utilities. Although annual securities report method was subjected to some limitation in methodology itself, useful information was obtained for cost comparison of thermal and nuclear power. Studies on generation cost evaluation of thermal and nuclear power based on this method during past five years showed that nuclear power cost was almost stable 7 Yen/kWh and thermal power cost was varying 9 - 12 Yen/kWh dependent on violent fluctuations of primary energy cost. Nuclear power was expected cost increase due to enhanced safety requirements or damage compensation of accidents as well as decommissioning and back-end cost, which were difficult to evaluate accurately with annual securities report. Further comprehensive and accurate cost estimation should be encouraged including these items. (T. Tanaka)

  19. NCIS - a Nuclear Criticality Information System (overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1983-07-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is being established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to serve personnel responsible for safe storage, transport, and handling of fissile materials and those concerned with the evaluation and analysis of nuclear, critical experiments. Public concern for nuclear safety provides the incentive for improved access to nuclear safety information

  20. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  1. Safety assessment for Generation IV nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. ISAM is an integrated 'tool-kit' consisting of 5 analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development: 1) qualitative safety features review - QSR, 2) phenomena identification and ranking table - PIRT, 3) objective provision tree - OPT, 4) deterministic and phenomenological analyses - DPA, and 5) probabilistic safety analysis - PSA. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time

  2. Cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2012-01-01

    As for any large and complex project, the basis for cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is established with the development of the project. Just as its construction, dismantling of a nuclear power plant is similarly demanding. Daily changing situations due to the progress of construction - in the present case progress of dismantling - result in significant logistical challenges for project managers and site supervisors. This will be aggravated by the fact that a considerable amount of the removed parts are contaminated or even activated. Hence, not only occupational health, safety and environmental protection is to be assured, employees, public and environment are to be adequately protected against the adverse effect of radioactive radiation as well. Work progress and not least expenses involved with the undertaking depend on adherence to the planned course of actions. Probably the most frequent cause of deviation from originally planned durations and costs of a project are disruptions in the flow of work. For being enabled to counteract in a timely and efficient manner, all required activities are to be comprehensively captured with the initial planning. The effect initial activities may have on subsequent works until completion must particularly be investigated. This is the more important the larger and more complex the project actually are. Comprehensive knowledge of all the matters which may affect the progress of the works is required in order to set up a suitable work break-down structure; such work break-down structure being indispensable for successful control and monitoring of the project. In building the related organizational structure of the project, all such stakeholders not being direct part of the project team but which may potentially affect the progress of the project are to be considered as well. Cost effective and lost time injury free dismantling of decommissioned nuclear power plants is based on implementing

  3. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  4. Cost and effectiveness of radon barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-12-01

    Earthen, asphalt, and multilayer radon barrier systems can all provide reduction in the amount of radon gas released from uranium mill tailings. Pacific Northwest Laboratory field tested all three types of covers at Grand Junction, Colorado during the summer of 1981. All nine individual radon barrier systems tested currently meet the EPA standard for radon flux of 20 pCi m - 2 s - 1 . The cost of the asphalt and 3m earthen covers were about the same at the field test. Multilayer covers were significantly more costly. Cost estimates for three high priority western sites indicate 3m of earthen cover is the least costly radon barrier when earthen material is available at or near the disposal site. If earthen material must be imported more than 8 to 10 km asphalt and possibly multilayer radon barriers can be cost effective

  5. Distributed systems for the protection of nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, P.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages of distributed control systems usually mentioned are improved exploitation, cost reduction, and adaptation to changes in technology. These advantages are obviously very interesting for nuclear power plant applications, and many such systems have been proposed. This note comments on the application of the distributed system concept to protection systems - what should be distributed - and closes with a brief description of a protection system based on microprocessors for pressurized water stations being built in France. (auth) [fr

  6. Report on the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel alternatives cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Initial estimates of costs for the interim management and disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The Task Team evaluated multiple alternatives, assessing programmatic, technical, and schedule risks, and generated life-cycle cost projections for each alternative. The eight technology alternatives evaluated were: direct co-disposal; melt and dilute; reprocessing; press and dilute; glass material oxidation dissolution system (GMODS); electrometallurgical treatment; dissolve and vitrify; and plasma arc. In followup to the Business Plan that was developed to look at SNF dry storage, WSRC prepared an addendum to the cost study. This addendum estimated the costs for the modification and use of an existing (105L) reactor facility versus a greenfield approach for new facilities (for the Direct Co-Disposal and Melt and Dilute alternatives). WSRC assessed the impacts of a delay in reprocessing due to the potential reservation of H-Canyon for other missions (i.e., down blending HEU for commercial use or the conversion of plutonium to either MOX fuel or an immobilized repository disposal form). This report presents the relevant results from these WSRC cost studies, consistent with the most recent project policy, technology implementation, canyon utilization, and inventory assumptions. As this is a summary report, detailed information on the technical alternatives or the cost assumptions raised in each of the above-mentioned cost studies is not provided. A comparison table that briefly describes the bases used for the WSRC analyses is included as Appendix A

  7. Cost estimate of a nuclear power phaseout in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power phaseout costing is an extremely complex task, as a multitude of aspects affecting the economy at large as well as specific industrial branches, and both direct and indirect effects are to be identified and considered. Another question arising is the general approach to be taken, as such an estimate may be done e.g. from the angle of an electric utility, or the electricity consumers, tax payers, or that of the national economy. In addition, the strategy and time frame of the phaseout scenario play a major role, which is a decision of policy. The article discusses a number of approaches as addressed above and emphasises that any approach or scenario elaborated is based on very different, specific assumptions requiring individual interpretation of results plus supplementary parameter variation and sensitivity calculations. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Discount rates for social cost benefit analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question that this paper addresses is how decisions affecting many citizens should be made when there are uncertain outcomes in the distant future. By distant is meant beyond the lifetimes of individuals alive now. Thus the proposed methodology would apply to many decisions in nuclear energy from the investment in new energy sources such as fusion, to the long-term storage of wastes. Decisions of this type have usually been analyzed using cost benefit analysis. In this case, future outcomes are discounted at the so-called social discount rate. By comparison, the proposed methodology uses information on individual citizen's preferences and willingness to pay to make a future generation better off. The connection between the proposed approach and more traditional discounting techniques is examined using the government decision about storing helium for the future as an example

  9. Power systems with nuclear-electric generators - Modelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban Constantin

    2002-01-01

    This is a vast analysis on the issue of sustainable nuclear power development with direct conclusions regarding the Nuclear Programme of Romania. The work is targeting specialists and decision making boards. Specific to the nuclear power development is its public implication, the public being most often misinformed by non-professional media. The following problems are debated thoroughly: - safety, nuclear risk, respectively, is treated in chapter 1 and 7 aiming at highlighting the quality of nuclear power and consequently paving the way to public acceptance; - the environment considered both as resource of raw materials and medium essential for life continuation, which should be appropriately protected to ensure healthy and sustainable development of human society; its analysis is also presented in chapter 1 and 7, where the problem of safe management of radioactive waste is addressed too; - investigation methods based on information science of nuclear systems, applied in carrying out the nuclear strategy and planning are widely analyzed in the chapter 2, 3 and 6; - optimizing the processes by following up the structure of investment and operation costs, and, generally, the management of nuclear units is treated in the chapter 5 and 7; - nuclear weapon proliferation as a possible consequence of nuclear power generation is treated as a legal issue. The development of Romanian NPP at Cernavoda, practically, the core of the National Nuclear Programme, is described in chapter 8. Actually, the originality of the present work consists in the selection and adaptation from a multitude of mathematical models applicable to the local and specific conditions of nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. The Romanian economy development and power development oriented towards reduction of fossil fuel consumption and protection of environment, most reliably ensured by the nuclear power, is discussed in the frame of the world trends of the energy production. Various scenarios are

  10. Calculating the cost of research and Development in nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsulevich, N.Je.; Nosovs'ka, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Methodological support assessing the cost of research and development in the area of nuclear and radiation safety regulation is considered. Basic methodological recommendations for determining labor expenditures for research and development in nuclear and radiation safety are provided.

  11. Establishment of nuclear data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kim, J. D.; Oh, S. Y.; Lee, Y. O.; Gil, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.

    1997-01-01

    Fission fragment data have been collected and added to the existing nuclear database system. A computer program was written for generating on-line graphs of energy-dependent neutron reaction cross section. This program deals with about 300 major nuclides and serves on the internet. As a part of nuclear data evaluation works, the covariance data for neutron cross section of structural nuclides were evaluated. Also the elastic and inelastic cross sections were evaluated by using ABAREX and EGNASH2 code. In the field of nuclear data processing, a cross section library for TWODANT code for liquid metal reactor was generated and validated against Russian and French critical reactors. The resonance data for Pu-242 in CASMO-3 library were updated. In addition, continuous-energy libraries for MCNP were generated from ENDF/B-VI.2, JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2. These libraries were validated against the results from a series of critical experiments at HANARO. (author). 87 refs., 29 tabs., 23 figs

  12. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  13. Development of cost-benefit analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Tetsuya; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    In order to promote the FDR development, it is necessary to see various benefits brought by introduction of FBR from multiple perspectives and have a good grasp of such benefits quantitatively and an adequate R and D investment scale which corresponds with them. In this study, the structured prototype in the previous study was improved to be able to perform cost-benefit analysis. An example of improvement made in the system is addition of subroutine used for comparison between new energy and benefits brought by introduction of FBR with special emphasis on addition of logic for analyzing externality about the new energy. Other improvement examples are modification of the Conventional Year Expense Ratio method of power generation cost to Average Durable Year Cost method, addition of database function and turning input data into database, and reviewing idea on cost by the type of waste material and price of uranium. The cost-benefit analysis system was also restructured utilizing Microsoft ACCESS so that it should have a data base function. As the result of the improvement mentioned above, we expect that the improved cost-benefit analysis system will have higher generality than the system before; therefore, great deal of benefits brought by application of the system in the future is expected. (author)

  14. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  15. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

  16. INIS - International Nuclear Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevyjel, A.

    1983-10-01

    The International Nuclear Information System is operated by the IAEA in close cooperation with its participating countries. Each country is responsible for the acquisition of the literature published within its boundaries. These data are collected by the INIS secretariat in Vienna and the resulting comprehensive data base is available for all member states. On behalf of Austrian Federal Chancellor's Office the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf operates the Austrian INIS-Center, which offers information services in form of retrospective searches and current awareness services. (Author) [de

  17. Supersymmetry for nuclear cluster systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, G.; Cseh, J.; Van Isacker, P.

    2001-01-01

    A supersymmetry scheme is proposed for nuclear cluster systems. The bosonic sector of the superalgebra describes the relative motion of the clusters, while its fermionic sector is associated with their internal structure. An example of core+α configurations is discussed in which the core is a p-shell nucleus and the underlying superalgebra is U(4/12). The α-cluster states of the nuclei 20 Ne and 19 F are analysed and correlations between their spectra, electric quadrupole transitions, and one-nucleon transfer reactions are interpreted in terms of U(4/12) supersymmetry. (author)

  18. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  19. Nuclear detection systems in traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, T.; Pernicka, L.; Svec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. Aim of this paper is to point out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at preselected traffic check points (railway and highway border crossings, industrial sites entry gates, international airports). The ITRAP lab test was designed to work as strict benchmark to qualify border monitoring systems 67 with very low false alarm rates, in addition the minimum sensitivity to give an alarm has been defined for fix-installed systems, pocket type and hand held instruments. For the neutron tests a special prepared Californium source ( 252 Cf) was used to simulate the weapons plutonium. The source is shielded against gamma radiation, use a moderator and provides the required neutron rate of 20000 n/s at 2 rn distance. To test the false alarm rate (rate of false positive ) the same test facility , under the same background conditions, was used but without a radioactive test source. The ITRAP lab tests for the fix-installed systems started at May 1998 and first results were given in September 1998. Only 2 of 14 fix-installed monitoring systems could fulfil the minimum requirement for neutron detection. 7 of 14 fix-installed monitoring systems (50%) passed the ITRAP lab test. The analytical method developed and used for certification of installed radiation monitors in the Slovak Institute of Metrology consists in measurement of radiation activity of selected radionuclide in defined conditions. (authors)

  20. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul; Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure

  1. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  2. Nuclear Systems (NS): Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nuclear Systems Project demonstrates nuclear power technology readiness to support the goals of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate. To this end, the...

  3. Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

  4. Nuclear and coal-fired power plant capital costs 1978 -June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, R.T.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography covers 16 papers dealing with the economics of power generation - mainly comparisons between the capital costs of nuclear and coal fired plants. Some of the papers additionally discuss fuel, operating and maintenance costs, and performance. (U.K.)

  5. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  6. Composite type nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Koichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention realizes a high thermal efficiency by heating steams at the exit of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant to high temperature by a thermal super-heating boiler. That is, a thermal superheating boiler is disposed between the steam generator and a turbogenerator to heat steams from the steam generator and supply them to the turbogenerator. In this case, it may be possible that feedwater superheating boiler pipelines to the steam generator are caused to pass through the thermal superheating boiler so that they also have a performance of heating feedwater. If the system of the present invention is used, it is possible to conduct base load operation by nuclear power and a load following operation by controlling the thermal superheating boiler. Further, a hydrogen producing performance is applied to the thermal superheating boiler to produce hydrogen when electric power load is lowered. An internally sustaining type operation method can be conducted of burning hydrogen by the superheating boiler upon increased electric power load. As a result, a power generation system which has an excellent economical property and can easily cope with the load following operation can be attained. (I.S.)

  7. Development of geological disposal system; localization of element cost data and cost evaluation on the HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik; Kim, Kil Jung; Yang, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Chun [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    To estimate Total Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for Korea HLW Repository through localization of element cost data, we review and re-organize each basic element cost data for reference repository system, localize various element cost and finally estimate TSLCC considering economic parameters. As results of the study, TSLCC is estimated as 17,167,689 million won, which includes costs for site preparation, surface facilities, underground facilities and management/integration. Since HLW repository Project is an early stage of pre-conceptual design at present, the information of design and project information are not enough to perform cost estimate and cost localization for the Project. However, project cost structure is re-organized based on the local condition and Total System Life Cycle Cost is estimated using the previous cost data gathered from construction experience of the local nuclear power plant. Project results can be used as basic reference data to assume total construction cost for the local HLW repository and should be revised to more reliable cost data with incorporating detail project design information into the cost estimate in a future. 20 refs. (Author)

  8. A cost modelling system for cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeh, Daniel; Ellman, Jeremy; Keogh, Shelagh

    2014-01-01

    An advance in technology unlocks new opportunities for organizations to increase their productivity, efficiency and process automation while reducing the cost of doing business as well. The emergence of cloud computing addresses these prospects through the provision of agile systems that are scalable, flexible and reliable as well as cost effective. Cloud computing has made hosting and deployment of computing resources cheaper and easier with no up-front charges but pay per-use flexible payme...

  9. Cost reduction and safety design features of new nuclear power plants in India. Annex 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    Indian Nuclear Power Programme is designed to exploit limited reserves of uranium and extensive resource of thorium. Pressurised heavy water reactors are found most suitable and form the main stay of the first stage of the programme. Thorium utilisation is achieved in the second and third stages. Today India has total installed capacity of 2720 MWe of PHWRs which are operating with high plant load factors of over 80%. Rich experience of construction and operation of over 150 reactor years is being utilised in effecting cost reduction and safety improvements. Standardisation and reduction in gestation period by preproject activities, advance procurement and work packages of engineer, procure, construct and commission are some of the techniques being adopted for cost reduction in the new projects. But the cost of safety is rising. Design basis event of double ended guillotine rupture of primary pressure boundary needs a relook based on current knowledge of material behaviour. This event appears improbable. Similarly some of the safety related systems like closed loop cooling water operating at low temperature and pressure, and low usage factors may be designed as per standard codes without invoking special nuclear requirements. The paper will address these issues and highlight the possible areas for cost reduction both in operating and safety systems. Modern construction and project management techniques are being employed. Gestation period of 5 years and cost of less than US $1400 per KWe are the present targets. In Indian environment nuclear power is found to be competitive with thermal power plants at distances of about 800 Kms from the coal mines. (author)

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of physical protection system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yahua; Li Bin; Li Shiju

    2009-01-01

    Based on the prompt detection analysis, this paper introduced one analysis model of intrusion path in nuclear power plant by means of morphology analysis and developed the evaluation software for path model analysis of physical protection system. Quantitative analysis on three elements (detection, delay, and response) of physical protection system was presented with an imaginary intrusion event example in Mac Arthur nuclear center. The results indicated that the path prompt detection analysis worked effectively to find the weak point of the physical protection system in NPP, and meantime we can also get the high cost-effectiveness improved measures. It is an effective approach to evaluate the overall performance of the system. (authors)

  14. Advanced nuclear systems in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Foskolos, K.; Goetzmann, C.; Kroeger, W.; Stanculescu, A.; Wydler, P.

    1996-09-01

    This study aims at a comparison of future reactor concepts, paying particular attention to aspects of safety, of the fuel cycle, the economics, the experience-base and the state of development. Representative examples of typical development lines, that could possibly be 'of interest' within a time horizon of 50 years were selected for comparison. This can be divided into three phases: - Phase I includes the next 10 years and will be characterised mainly by evolutionary developments of light water reactors (LWR) of large size; representative: EPR, - Phase II: i.e. the time between 2005 and 2020 approximately, encompasses the forecasted doubling of today's world-wide installed nuclear capacity; along with evolutionary reactors, innovative systems like AP600, PIUS, MHTGR, EFR will emerge, - Phase III covers the time between 2020 and 2050 and is characterised by the issue of sufficient fissile material resources; novel fast reactor systems including hybrid systems can, thus, become available; representatives: IFR, EA, ITER (the latter being). The evaluated concepts foresee partly different fuel cycles. Fission reactors can be operated in principle on the basis of either a Uranium-Plutonium-cycle or a Thorium-Uranium-cycle, while combinations of these cycles among them or with other reactor concepts than proposed are possible. With today's nuclear park (comprising mainly LWRs), the world-wide plutonium excess increases annually by about 100 t. Besides strategies based on reprocessing like: - recycling in thermal and fast reactors with mixed oxide fuels, - plutonium 'burning' in reactors with novel fuels without uranium or in 'hybrid' systems, allowing a reduction of this excess, direct disposal of spent fuel elements including their plutonium content ('one-through') is being considered. (author) figs., tabs., 32 refs

  15. [Relationship between cost systems and hospital expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cornejo, Beatriz; Pérez-Méndez, José A

    To analyze the relationship between the degree of development of hospital cost systems (CS) implemented by the regional health services (RHS) and the variation in unit cost of hospitals in Spanish National Health Service (NHS) between 2010 and 2013 and to identify other explanatory factors of this variation. A database of NHS hospitals was constructed from exclusively public sources. Using a multilevel regression model, explaining factors of the variation in unit cost (cost per weighted unit of activity [WAU]) of a sample of 170 hospitals were analyzed. The variables representative of the degree of development of CS are associated in a negative and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. It is observed that if a high-level development CS is used the cost variation per WAU would be reduced by close to 3.2%. There is also a negative and significant relationship between the variation in the cost per WAU and the variations in the percentage of high technology and the hospital occupancy rate. On the other hand, the variations in the average cost of personnel and in the number of workers per 100 beds are associated in a positive and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. In the period analysed, during which the main health expenditure adjustment was made, the control in hospital unit cost is associated not only with spending cuts but also with aspects related to their management, such as the implementation of more developed CS. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear reactor power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector prevents a parameter signal which differs from the other parameter signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation from passing to the control system. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selection unit and control channels. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test. (author)

  17. Recirculation system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H. E.; Dollard, W. J.; Tower, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    A recirculation system for use in pressurized water nuclear reactors to increase the output temperature of the reactor coolant, thereby achieving a significant improvement in plant efficiency without exceeding current core design limits. A portion of the hot outlet coolant is recirculated to the inlets of the peripheral fuel assemblies which operate at relatively low power levels. The outlet temperature from these peripheral fuel assemblies is increased to a temperature above that of the average core outlet. The recirculation system uses external pumps and introduces the hot recirculation coolant to the free space between the core barrel and the core baffle, where it flows downward and inward to the inlets of the peripheral fuel assemblies. In the unlikely event of a loss of coolant accident, the recirculation system flow path through the free space and to the inlets of the fuel assemblies is utilized for the injection of emergency coolant to the lower vessel and core. During emergency coolant injection, the emergency coolant is prevented from bypassing the core through the recirculation system by check valves inserted into the recirculation system piping

  18. Impact of extreme load requirements and quality assurance on nuclear power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Definitive costs, applicable to nuclear power plant concrete structures, as a function of National Regulatory Requirements, standardization, the effect of extreme load design associated with both design basis accidents and extreme external events and quality assurance are difficult to develop since such effects are interrelated and not only differ widely from country to country, project to project but also vary in time. Table 1 shows an estimate of the of the overall plant cost effects of external event extreme load design on nuclear power plant design for the U.S -and selected foreign countries for which experience with LWRs exist- Germany is the most expensive primarily due to a military aircraft crash resistance. However, the German requirement for 4 safeguards trains rather than 2 and the containment design requirement to consider one Steam Generator blowdown concurrent with a RCS blowdown. This presentation will concentrate on the direct current impact extreme load design and quality assurance have on concrete structures, systems and components for nuclear plants. This presentation is considered timely due to the increased interest in the c potential backfit of Eastern European nuclear power stations of the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 types which typically did not consider the extreme loads identified in Table 1 and accident loads in Table 3 and quality assurance in Table 5 in their original design. Concrete structures in particular are highlighted because they typically form the last barrier to radioactive release from the containment and other Safety Related Structures

  19. Controlling the radiological impact in the nuclear fuel cycle: a cost/benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Methods that are used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. This control is exercised through the application of a series of Federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. These licenses contain technical specifications which define the limits for the release of radioactive materials. The control is exercised more directly in a technical sense by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. The first part of this paper contains a summary of the principal Federal laws and regulations that apply to nuclear fuel cycle facilities and a description of how they are applied in licensing procedures. A detailed discussion is presented of the amounts of radioactive materials that may be released from licensed facilities, and the radiological doses that individuals and populations surrounding these facilities would receive from these releases. These doses are then compared with the radiological doses received from natural background radiation to put them in perspective. Cost/benefit engineering surveys which are being made to determine the cost (in dollars) and the effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities, and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas are described

  20. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  1. Distribution system costs associated with the deployment of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Palmintier, Bryan; Mather, Barry; Denholm, Paul

    2018-07-01

    The broadening of our energy system to include increasing amounts of wind and solar has led to significant debate about the total costs and benefits associated with different types of generators - with potentially far-reaching policy implications. This has included debate about the cost associated with integrating these generators onto the electric grid. For photovoltaics (PV), this encompasses costs incurred on both the bulk power and distribution systems, as well as the value provided to them. These costs and benefits, in particular those associated with integrating PV onto the distribution system, are not well understood. We seek to advance the state of understanding of 'grid integration costs' for the distribution system by reviewing prior literature and outlining a transparent, bottom-up approach that can be used to calculate these costs. We provide a clear delineation of costs to integrate PV in to the distribution system within the larger context of total costs and benefits associated with PV generators. We emphasize that these costs are situationally dependent, and that a single 'cost of integration' cannot be obtained. We additionally emphasize that benefits must be considered when evaluating the competitiveness of the technology in a given situation.

  2. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  3. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radle, James E.; Archer, Daniel E.; Carter, Robert J.; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T.; Britton, Charles L. Jr.; Lind, Randall F.; Wright, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  4. New generation nuclear microprobe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, David N.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the minimum probe size for nuclear microscopy has stayed around 1 μm with only a few groups reporting a sub-micron probe size around 0.5 μm. No breakthroughs in nuclear microprobe design have been forthcoming to produce dramatic improvements in spatial resolution. The difficulties of breaking the constraints that are preventing reduction of the probe size have been well recognised in the past. Over the past 5 years it has become clear that some of these constraints may not be as limiting as first thought. For example, chromatic aberration clearly is not as significant as implied from first-order ion optics calculations. This paper reviews the constraints in view of the increased understanding of the past 5 years and looks at several new approaches, presently being evaluated in Melbourne and elsewhere, on how to make progress. These approaches include modified RF ion sources for improved beam brightness and exploitation of relaxed constraints on some lens aberrations allowing the use of high demagnification probe forming lens systems

  5. New Department of Energy policy and guidance for cost-effectiveness in nuclear materials control and accountability programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ryn, G.L.; Zack, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives have given Departmental nuclear facilities the opportunity to take more credit for certain existing safeguards and security systems in determining operational program protection requirements. New policies and guidance are coupled with these initiatives to enhance systems performance in a cost effective and efficient manner as well as to reduce operational costs. The application of these methods and technologies support safety, the reduction of personnel radiation exposure, emergency planning, and inspections by international teams. This discussion will review guidance and policies that support advanced systems and programs to decrease lifetime operational costs without increasing risk

  6. Nuclear energy cost data base. A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power-generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for DOE/NE. Proposals are presented for such a methodology and for reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. This report is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analysis and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base-load light water reactors on either a current once-through cycle or self-generated recycle, high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil and natural gas-fired electric generating plant coming on line in the last decade of this century. This paper includes a data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, and a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes

  7. Major issues associated with nuclear power generation cost and their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Shimogori, Kei; Suzuki, Atsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of power generation cost that is an important item for energy policy planning. Especially with a focus on nuclear power generation cost, it reviews what will become a focal point on evaluating power generation cost at the present point after the estimates of the 'Investigation Committee on Costs' that was organized by the government have been issued, and what will be a major factor affecting future changes in costs. This paper firstly compared several estimation results on nuclear power generation cost, and extracted/arranged controversial points and unsolved points for discussing nuclear power generation cost. In evaluating nuclear power generation cost, the comparison of capital cost and other costs can give the understanding of what can be important issues. Then, as the main issues, this paper evaluated/discussed the construction cost, operation/maintenance cost, external cost, issue of discount rate, as well as power generation costs in foreign countries and the impact of fossil fuel prices. As other issues related to power generation cost evaluation, it took up expenses for decommissioning, disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and re-processing, outlined the evaluation results by the 'Investigation Committee on Costs,' and compared them with the evaluation examples in foreign countries. These costs do not account for a large share of the entire nuclear power generation costs. The most important point for considering future energy policy is the issue of discount rate, that is, the issue of fund-raising environment for entrepreneurs. This is the factor to greatly affect the economy of future nuclear power generation. (A.O.)

  8. High pressure sealing systems for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garam, E. de

    1993-01-01

    TIA is the FRAMATOME Division in charge of design, manufacture maintenance and improvement of reactor core instrumentation. In the course of its activities, TIA was rapidly confronted with problems of leakage occurring in PWR in-core instrumentation, both in the neutron flux measurement system (flux thimbles and thimble guide tubes) and in the equipment used for core temperature sensing. TIA has likewise placed emphasis, in setting objectives for its operations, on improving instrumentation reliability, reducing maintenance costs and limiting the radiation doses sustained during maintenance. The very satisfactory results achieved by TIA in all of these areas have led us to look to the future with confidence. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the various improvements devised by TIA over the years and to take inventory of the experience gained by the Division with instrumentation for all types of nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves V, J.A.; Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)

  10. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  11. Integrated nuclear and radiation protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, V.; Cerga, V.; Pirvu, V.; Badea, E.

    1993-01-01

    A multifunctional radiation monitoring equipment, flexible and capable to meet virtually environmental radiation monitoring, activity measurement and computational requirements, for nuclear laboratories has been designed. It can be used as a radiation protection system, for radionuclide measurement in isotope laboratories, nuclear technology, health physics and nuclear medicine, nuclear power stations and nuclear industry. The equipment is able to measure, transmit and record gamma dose rate and isotope activities. Other parameters and functions are optionally available, such as: self-contained alarm level, system self-test, dose integrator, syringe volume calculation for a given dose corrected for decay, calibration factor, 99 Mo assays performing and background subtraction

  12. Audit Office's report on the costs of nuclear energy in january 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The cost of nuclear power ranges between 33 and 49.5 euros/KWh according to accountable hypothesis. This cost includes all, it means that provisions for dismantling and waste managing are included. The impact of uncertainties on the costs of dismantling and of waste managing is low and represents only a few per cent of the cost. Maintenance costs of the reactors are going to soar because the fleet of reactors face important upgrading works for life extension and for complying to new safety requirements. The impact on the cost of nuclear energy is expected to be between 10 and 15 percent. (A.C.)

  13. The relationship between cost system complexity, purposes of use, and cost system effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses survey data from 133 Dutch, medium-sized manufacturing firms to examine the associations between cost system complexity (in terms of the applied overhead absorption procedures), purposes of use, and cost system effectiveness. First, factor analysis identifies two underlying

  14. Nuclear power project management information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lailong; Zhang Peng; Xiao Ziyan; Chun Zengjun; Huang Futong

    2001-01-01

    Project Management Information System is an important infrastructure facility for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Station. Based on the practice of Lingao nuclear power project management information system (NPMIS), the author describes the NPMIS design goals, system architecture and software functionality, points out the outline issues during the development and deployment of NPMIS

  15. Nuclear data evaluation method and evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation methods and Nuclear Data Evaluation System have been developed in China. A new version of the system has been established on Micro-VAX2 computer, which is supported by IAEA under the technology assistance program. The flow chart of Chinese Nuclear Data Evaluation System is shown out. For last ten years, the main efforts have been put on the double differential cross section, covariance data and evaluated data library validation. The developed evaluation method and Chinese Nuclear Data Evaluation System have been widely used at CNDC and in Chinese Nuclear Data Network for CENDL. (1 tab., 15 figs.)

  16. Implementation of a Cost-Accounting System for Visibility of Weapon Systems Life-Cycle Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    .... The DoD Acquisition Reform Goal 10 required DoD to define requirements and establish an implementation plan for a cost-accounting system that provides routine visibility into weapon system life-cycle...

  17. Automated accounting systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.

    1994-01-01

    History of the development of nuclear materials accounting systems in USA and their purposes are considered. Many present accounting systems are based on mainframe computers with multiple terminal access. Problems of future improvement accounting systems are discussed

  18. Establishment of nuclear data evaluation system (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Chang Kun; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyung Guk; Kil, Chung Sup; Kim, Kang Suk

    1994-08-01

    Nuclear data is fundamental data for development of new type of nuclear, upgrade of nuclear fuel, treatment of radwaste, research on fusion reactor, radioisotope usage, and nuclear medical therapy. Nuclear data is produced with experiments. However rack of experimental data for thousands of nuclides and various reaction types makes it essential to do statistical evaluation and theoretical interpolation. This study is intended to join international cooperation after establishing domestic basis for nuclear data evaluation work. This project is the first year of five year plan to do followings: 1) Establishment of database system to collect experimental data, 2) Setup of computer assistance system for evaluation work, 3) Verification of established system by test evaluation of selected nuclide reaction. The system has a collection of mass data of nuclides, computer codes for test evaluation of total cross section of 0-16 and collection of EXFOR format data for 0-16. This system will be improved continuously on next years. (Author)

  19. 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009. Abstracts. Part 1. Session: Safety of nuclear technology; Innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycle; Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009 (29 Sep - 2 Oct, 2009, Obninsk). Problems of safety of nuclear technology are discussed, innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles are treated. Abstracts on professional education for nuclear power and industry are presented. Nuclear knowledge management are discussed

  20. Nuclear Insurance Subsidies Cost from Post-Fukushima Accounting Based on Media Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Laureto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of nuclear liability insurance is difficult without arbitrary liability caps; however, post-mortem calculations can be used to calculate insurance costs. This study analyzes the Fukushima (Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster to quantify the cost per unit electricity ($/kWh of nuclear energy from the lifetime of the plant after accounting for the true cost of the liability needed to cover the damages from the nuclear disaster determined from news reports. These costs are then compared to the cost of electricity currently paid by Japanese consumers, and then are aggregated to determine the indirect subsidy for nuclear power providers in both Japan and the USA. The results show that the reported costs of the Fukushima nuclear disaster are $20–525 billion, which results in a real insurance cost from the lifetime of electricity produced at the plants between $0.22–5.78/kWh. These values are far higher than the current insurance costs by Japanese law of $0.01/kWh and even the total costs consumers pay for electricity. Although the spread in the input costs is large and the reported metrics are incomplete, the nuclear insurance subsidy is clearly substantial in Japan and in the USA. Ideally, energy sources should be economically sustainable without the need for a government insurance subsidy. For the electricity market to function effectively and efficiently in all other countries using nuclear power, the insurance costs should be reported accurately and included in nuclear electricity costs without arbitrary government liability caps.

  1. Sensitivity of nuclear fuel-cycle cost to uncertainties in nuclear data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1980-11-01

    An improved capability for assessing the economic implications of uncertainties in nuclear data and methods on the power reactor fuel cycle was developed. This capability is applied to the sensitivity analysis of fuel-cycle cost with respect to changes in nuclear data and related computational methods. Broad group sensitivities for both a typical BWR and a PWR are determined under the assumption of a throwaway fuel cycle as well as for a scenario under which reprocessing is allowed. Particularly large dollar implications are found for the thermal and resonance cross sections of fissile and fertile materials. Sensitivities for the throwaway case are found to be significantly larger than for the recycle case. Constrained sensitivities obtained for cases in which information from critical experiments or other benchmarks is used in the design calculation to adjust a parameter such as anti ν are compared with unconstrained sensitivities. Sensitivities of various alternate fuel cycles were examined. These included the extended-burnup (18-month) LWR cycle, the mixed-oxide (plutonium) cycle, uranium-thorium and denatured uranium-thorium cycles, as well as CANDU-type reactor cycles. The importance of the thermal capture and fission cross sections of 239 Pu is shown to be very large in all cases. Detailed, energy dependent sensitivity profiles are provided for the thermal range (below 1.855 eV). Finally, sensitivity coefficients are combined with data uncertainties to determine the impact of such uncertainties on fuel-cycle cost parameters

  2. A naval nuclear port: the costs to Rosyth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, C.

    1988-07-01

    This report is part of Greenpeace's Nuclear Free Seas Campaign. Previous publications have detailed the global inventory of the growing naval nuclear arsenals, the increasingly dangerous maritime strategies, and the UK's role in the naval nuclear arms race. The purpose of this research is to bring to the public's attention the environmental dangers that threaten Rosyth as a result of its role in the infrastructure that supports the UK's nuclear navy. The dockyard is used for replacing the fuel (refuelling) and maintenance (refitting) of nuclear powered submarines. It is also home port to four Type 42 Destroyers which are capable of carrying nuclear depth bombs for their helicopters. The presence in Rosyth of HMS Dreadnought, the first of Britain's nuclear powered submarines to be decommissioned, raises the additional question of the final destination of this and the nine other nuclear submarines scheduled to have their nuclear fuel removed in the next 12 years. The report considers the likelihood of a serious accident involving a nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon in Rosyth 'Public Safety Scheme' which is supposedly designed to cope with a nuclear reactor accident. The study looks at the dangers inherent in the 'normal' activities of nuclear powered submarines in Rosyth. It considers the adequacy of the present monitoring of the radiation that comes with their presence, looks at the health implications for workers and examines the high level of leukaemia in the under 25 age group that have been recorded in the area. (author)

  3. Managing the Cost of Plant Piping System Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenco, John M.; Keck, Donna R.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the average annual cost impact of external piping system leakage on commercial nuclear plant operations and maintenance can easily range into the millions of dollars for each reactor unit. Evidence suggests that this significant O and M cost reduction opportunity has largely been overlooked, due to the number of diverse line items and budget areas affected. Results released last year from an EPRI pilot study of more than a dozen reactor units at seven plant sites operated by multiple utilities found that the average annual cost impact was indeed around $1.6 million per year per unit. Subsequent field experience has also demonstrated that an effective fluid leak management program can substantially reduce these costs within the first three years of implementation. This paper presents the general cost impact research results from various studies, outlines key elements of an effective plant fluid leak management program, discusses important implementation issues, and presents results from case studies covering different utility approaches to developing and implementing an effective fluid leak management program. Actual cost data will be included where appropriate. (authors)

  4. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  5. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  6. Economic Evaluation of Decommissioning Cost of Nuclear Power Plant in the National Electricity Plan in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Nam, Ji Hee

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning cost of a nuclear power plant includes the costs related with dismantling a nuclear power plant, disposal of a spent fuel and of a low/medium radioactive waste. The decommissioning cost is different from the other expenditures in that it is occurred after the reactor finishes its commercial operation. In this respect, the electricity act was enforced to secure provisions for decommissioning a nuclear power plant during its commercial operation. The purpose of this study is to provide economic evaluation and economic cost for a decommissioning when the cost of a decommissioning is provided as one of input to the national electricity plan. Therefore, this study does not deal with whether the estimated amount of a decommissioning cost is just or not. This study focuses how to transfer the estimated decommissioning cost given in the electricity act to the economic cost, which can be used in the national electricity plan

  7. 75 FR 64717 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost... Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (``CSC'') including its obligation to contribute to an international supplementary fund in the event of certain nuclear incidents. The NOI provided a September 27...

  8. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  9. Changing World, Unchanging Accounting? Cost Systems for Hungarian Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Musinszki

    2011-01-01

    The literature of agricultural cost accounting has defined the definition of cost centres and cost bearers, the contents of the accounts, the procedures and methods for cost accounting and unit cost calculation without any significant changes for decades now. Do the agricultural companies set up and operate their own cost allocation and unit cost calculation systems on procedures made for state owned farms and cooperatives, or do they align their cost system with the challenges of our times? ...

  10. Israel's nuclear posture: a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupur, Vyoma

    1998-01-01

    Security has always been a paramount and constant theme in the Israeli mind set. This paper traces the historical evolution of the country's nuclear posture and the acquisition of a nuclear capability in the backdrop of this concern. A further attempt has been made to analyse the principal characteristics of Israel's nuclear position and the events and issues that shaped it. (author)

  11. Two views of the comparative escalation of nuclear and coal-fired power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Doan L. Phung critiques Charles Komanoff's 1981 book Power Plant Cost Escalation, which compares new nuclear plant costs unfavorably with those of new coal plants because of the increase in capital costs. Phung blames prophets of doom who ignore the escalating costs throughout the economy and now focus their anti-nuclear attacks in economic terms. Proposals by Alvin Weinberg and others to concentrate on reactor-safety improvements are used to conclude that these efforts will further expand the capital costs of nuclear plants and make them noncompetitive. Phung questions whether Komanoff's modeling considers enough of the political, regulatory, and technological factors to determine future costs. Komanoff replies by explaining his method of analysis and denying a bias against nuclear power. A postscript by Phung reiterates his criticism of simplistic calculations and extrapolations. 17 references

  12. 8th symposium on space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems

  13. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  14. Preinspection of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The general plans of the systems affecting the safety of the nuclear power plants are accepted by the Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP) on the basis of the preinspection of the systems. This is the prerequisite of the preinspection of the structures and components belonging to these systems. Exceptionally, when separately agreed, the IRP may perform the preinspection of a separate structure or component, although the preinspection documentation of the whole system, e.g. the nuclear heat generating system, has not been accepted. This guide applies to the nuclear power plant systems that have been defined to be preinspected in the classification document accepted by the IRP

  15. Retrofit of safety and control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiper, J.T.; Fassett, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The modularity, compactness, compatibility, and licensability of the microcontrol system make it a cost-effective approach to obtain the benefits of digital control technology in the retrofit of nuclear power plants. Retrofit of individual loops or complete systems can be scheduled to meet the operational needs of the plant. The existing racks, panels, and cable systems can be utilized to the maximum extent to minimize the installed cost. Future expansion to total plant control or plant management is supported by the network communication module or gateway. The microcontrol module provides benefits now in improved operation, and future benefits in planned, controlled upgrading

  16. Emergency system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a circuit called 'of emergency help' intended to remove, in a safe and quick manner, the residual thermal power on the safety vessel of a fast neutron reactor cooled by a liquid metal flow, in the event of a failure occurring inside the main reactor vessel or on it. This system includes a network of spray nozzle tubes, distributed around and near the external surface of the safety vessel, to project on to the surface of the vessel a mist of a liquid having high latent vaporisation heat. The steam produced on contact with the safety vessel is collected in the space provided between the safety vessel and the external protection vessel by at least one collector pipe for dischaging this steam outside the vessel. Under a preferred design mode of the invention the liquid is water the use of which turns out to be particularly advantageous in practice owing to its favourable physical properties and its low cost [fr

  17. Nuclear energy in Canada: the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear electricity in Canada is generated by CANDU nuclear power stations. The CANDU reactor - a unique Canadian design - is fuelled by natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. The system has consistently outperformed other comparable nuclear power systems in the western world, and has an outstanding record of reliability, safety and economy. As a source of energy it provides the opportunity for decreasing our dependence on dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. (auth)

  18. Evaluating the Cost, Safety, and Proliferation Risks of Small Floating Nuclear Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J; Abdulla, Ahmed; Morgan, M Granger

    2017-11-01

    It is hard to see how our energy system can be decarbonized if the world abandons nuclear power, but equally hard to introduce the technology in nonnuclear energy states. This is especially true in countries with limited technical, institutional, and regulatory capabilities, where safety and proliferation concerns are acute. Given the need to achieve serious emissions mitigation by mid-century, and the multidecadal effort required to develop robust nuclear governance institutions, we must look to other models that might facilitate nuclear plant deployment while mitigating the technology's risks. One such deployment paradigm is the build-own-operate-return model. Because returning small land-based reactors containing spent fuel is infeasible, we evaluate the cost, safety, and proliferation risks of a system in which small modular reactors are manufactured in a factory, and then deployed to a customer nation on a floating platform. This floating small modular reactor would be owned and operated by a single entity and returned unopened to the developed state for refueling. We developed a decision model that allows for a comparison of floating and land-based alternatives considering key International Atomic Energy Agency plant-siting criteria. Abandoning onsite refueling is beneficial, and floating reactors built in a central facility can potentially reduce the risk of cost overruns and the consequences of accidents. However, if the floating platform must be built to military-grade specifications, then the cost would be much higher than a land-based system. The analysis tool presented is flexible, and can assist planners in determining the scope of risks and uncertainty associated with different deployment options. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Methodology for cost estimate in projects for nuclear power plants decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salij, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual approaches to cost estimating of nuclear power plants units decommissioning projects were determined. The international experience and national legislative and regulatory basis were analyzed. The possible decommissioning project cost classification was given. It was shown the role of project costs of nuclear power plant units decommissioning as the most important criterion for the main project decisions. The technical and economic estimation of deductions to common-branch fund of decommissioning projects financing was substantiated

  20. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  1. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  2. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  3. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  4. A Modern Costing System: Activity Based Costing and An Application On A Textile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Titiz, İsmet; Altunay, Mehmet Akif

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is understanding Activity Based Costing which is one of the systems of modern cost approaches. Main concepts about activity based costing is defined and development of the system is identified. In the last part, an application about the activity based costing system in a textile company is explained and the results are analyzed.

  5. PLACE OF PRODUCTION COSTS SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia CHEREDNYCHENKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic conditions require the development and implementation of an adequate system of production costs, which would ensure a steady profit growth and production volumes in a highly competitive, constantly increasing input prices and tariffs. This management system must be based on an integrated production costs system analysis (PCSA, which would provide all operating costs management subsystems necessary information to design and make better management decisions. It provides a systematic analysis of more opportunities in knowledge, creating conditions of integrity mechanism knowledge object consisting of elements that show intersystem connections, each of which has its own defined and limited objectives, relationship with the environment.

  6. Supplier quality assurance systems: a study in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, A.J.; Churchill, G.F.; Dale, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are reported of a study which investigated the impact of quality assurance on 13 suppliers to the nuclear industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the benefits and problems of applying quality assurance in the supply of high risk plant items and material for nuclear installations. The paper discusses the problems facing the industry including: multiple audits and inspections, the irritation with having to contend with two quality system standards (namely BS 5750 and BS 5882) and the cost effectiveness of the more stringent quality system and quality control surveillance requirements imposed by the nuclear industry. It is also pointed out that companies supplying non-nuclear industrial customers were dissatisfied with the qualifications, experience and professional competence of some auditors and many inspectors. (author)

  7. International Nuclear Information System in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsurdin Ahamad

    1984-01-01

    Practice of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) in Malaysia is reviewed. The Nuclear Energy Unit, a participating representative of Malaysia, holds the responsibilities of disseminating information through this system. Its available services relevant to the aims of INIS are discussed

  8. Containments for consolidated nuclear steam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    A containment system for a consolidated nuclear steam system incorporating a nuclear core, steam generator and reactor coolant pumps within a single pressure vessel is described which is designed to provide radiation shielding and pressure suppression. Design details, including those for the dry well and wet well of the containment, are given. (UK)

  9. Nuclear generating station and heavy water plant cost estimates for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear generating station capital, operating and maintenance costs are basic input data for strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. This report presents estimates of these costs for natural uranium CANDU stations, CANDU stations operating on advanced fuel cycles, and liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Cost estimates for heavy water plants are also presented. The results show that station capital costs for advanced fuel cycles are not expected to be significantly greater than those for natural uranium stations. LMFBR capital costs are expected to be 25-30 percent greater than for CANDU's. (auth)

  10. The Swedish system for funding of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Tommy; Westerlind, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Sweden goes back to early 1950's. Research and development on spent fuel disposal in Sweden started in earnest with the report of the AKA-commission 1976, which outlined a complete system for the management of spent fuel and associated waste, including how to handle the costs. Components of the system, mentioned in the AKA-report, such as a sea transportation (MS Sigyn), a central spent fuel storage facility (CLAB) and a final repository for operational waste (SFR) have since been constructed and taken in operation. The research and planning for the additional facilities needed for a complete system is in an advanced stage. A nuclear waste fund has also been created, based on a special fee on nuclear power production. During the 1970's the nuclear power utilities established their own internal funds for future waste management expenses. These funds were transferred to the government-run financing system established in 1981 when the Swedish parliament passed the Act on the Financing of Future Expenses for Spent Nuclear Fuel etc. The fees to be paid into the Fund are to be based on the assumption that each reactor generates electricity for 25 years. These fees, plus the interest on the money already deposited in the Fund, must meet all expenses for handling spent fuel, dismantling facilities and for dealing with radioactive decommissioning waste. A guarantee shall compensate for the eventuality of a nuclear power plant being closed before the end of the 25-year earning period. The type of guarantee must be available until all nuclear waste has been placed in a repository and must cover contingencies for the waste programme. This guarantee will be used if expenses for future nuclear waste management become higher than expected, if these expenses have to be met earlier than expected, or if the actual amount in the Fund is lower than was estimated. The process of yearly cost calculations, review and determination of fees and guarantees is well

  11. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  12. Nuclear thermal rocket workshop reference system Rover/NERVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Rover/NERVA engine system is to be used as a reference, against which each of the other concepts presented in the workshop will be compared. The following topics are reviewed: the operational characteristics of the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR); the accomplishments of the Rover/NERVA programs; and performance characteristics of the NERVA-type systems for both Mars and lunar mission applications. Also, the issues of ground testing, NTR safety, NASA's nuclear propulsion project plans, and NTR development cost estimates are briefly discussed

  13. Cost, Schedule and Risk Management, The Building Blocks of a U.S. Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, John

    2002-01-01

    The most important consideration in the decision to build a new nuclear plant is the capital cost. Right? Yes and no. Yes, the capital cost accounts for 80% of the generation cost of a new plant. No, because there are other equally important considerations. (author)

  14. A parametric cost model for estimating operating and support costs of US Navy (non-nuclear) surface ships

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With few effective decision-making tools to assess the affordability of major weapon systems, management of total ownership costs is continually misunderstood. Cost analysis provides a quick and reliable assessment of affordability. Because there is no standardized method for calculating reliable estimates of operating and support (O&S) costs (the principal component of total ownership cost), this thesis formulates a parametric cost mo...

  15. Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Volkan-Salanci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Radiology information system (RIS is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system, radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex© for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. (MIRT 2012;21:97-102

  16. Integrated control system for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, William F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Integrated Control System (ICS) has been developed to facilitate Plowshare nuclear detonations by following a unified system approach. This system consolidates the techniques for firing, safety program, scientific program, and communications. Maximum emphasis is placed upon control and data transmission by radio rather than hardwire or coaxial cable. The ICS consists of a Command Point (CP) Trailer, a radio repeater station, a field station (the ICE Box), and several chassis located in the explosive canister. Commands originate in the CP and are transmitted via microwave radio to the ICE Box; monitors are returned to the CP from the canister, the ICE Box, and sensors near ground zero. The system allows complete checkout and operation before shipment to the field. The explosive canister may be dry-run at the assembly area (at NTS) before shipment to the field. The basic detonation functions for every event are: 1. Arming and firing commands in the explosive canister and at surface ground zero. 2. Environmental monitors and suitable arming monitors in the explosive canister. 3. Safety monitors at the zero site for weather, RAMS (Remote Area Monitoring System), and cavity collapse. Secondary functions that may be required for a specific project are: 4. Scientific program of phenomenology measurements. 5. Explosive performance measurements. 6. Ground zero television. 7. Auxiliary communications such as local telephones, VHF radio. By combining functions that have previously been performed by separate organizations and systems, the ICS attempts a minimum cost detonation service. Economy of operation results because: 1. Operating personnel work on more than one sub-system. 2. Interfaces and interface complexity are minimized. 3. A reduced dependence upon signal cables results from a microwave-based system. 4. Pre-fabrication allows test operation before shipment to the field and minimizes setup time in the field. The ICS is in use on the Sturtevant event and is

  17. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions

  18. Cost-benefit comparison of nuclear and nonnuclear health and safety protective measures and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.P.; Mauro, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This article compares the costs and benefits of health and safety measures and regulations in the nuclear and nonnuclear fields. A cost-benefit methodology for nuclear safety concerns is presented and applied to existing nuclear plant engineered safety features. Comparisons in terms of investment costs to achieve reductions in mortality rates are then made between nuclear plant safety features and the protective measures and regulations associated with nonnuclear risks, particularly with coal-fired power plants. These comparisons reveal a marked inconsistency in the cost effectiveness of health and safety policy, in which nuclear regulatory policy requires much greater investments to reduce the risk of public mortality than is required in nonnuclear areas where reductions in mortality rates could be achieved at much lower cost. A specific example of regulatory disparity regarding gaseous effluent limits for nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants is presented. It is concluded that a consistent health and safety regulatory policy based on uniform risk and cost-benefit criteria should be adopted and that future proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory requirements should be critically evaluated from a cost-benefit viewpoint

  19. Mobile liquid VR system: a cost effective alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.; Harkins, R.; HPD, Inc., Naperville, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The need for cost effective alternatives to treat large volumes of liquid radwaste has never been more evident. As part of a continuing effort to introduce such alternatives, HPD, Inc., and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., have integrated two proven state-of-the-art technologies to offer a mobile liquid volume reduction system that satisfies nuclear industry requirements, with respect to liquid radwaste handling. This system optimizes proven technology by employing a crystallizer unit to concentrate the waste liquids to 50 weight percent solids, thereby reducing the volume to be solidified by factors of 40, while using only 20 percent of the energy required by conventional evaporative systems. In addition, the system employs a field proven cement solidification process which has been accepted in a Topical Report by the US NRC and which offers the highest waste to container volume ratios for stable waste forms in the industry. This volume reduction-solidification system is able to reduce over 7000 gallons of liquid waste per day to less than 30 cubic feet of 10CFR61 certified stable solidified waste for ultimate disposal or on-site storage. This document describes the GEODE System; its applicability; economics; volume reduction; scope of responsibility and experience. Major benefits include higher VR factors; assurance of continual regulatory compliance; and no capital investment

  20. Development of the fuel-cycle costs in nuclear power stations with light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosch, R.; Moraw, G.; Musil, G.; Schneeberger, M.

    1976-01-01

    The authors investigate the fuel-cycle costs in nuclear power stations with light-water reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years 1966 to 1976. They determine the effect of the price development for the individual components of the nuclear fuel cycle on the fuel-cycle costs averaged over the whole power station life. Here account is taken also of inflation rates and the change in the DM/US $ parity. In addition they give the percentage apportionment of the fuel-cycle costs. The authors show that real fuel-cycle costs for nuclear power stations with light-water reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany have risen by 11% between 1966 and 1976. This contradicts the often repeated reproach that fuel costs in nuclear power stations are rising very steeply and are no longer competitive. (orig.) [de