WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear regulatory process

  1. A feasibility study on regulatory analysis in the nuclear regulatory decision making process in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, D. K.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, K. K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Nuclear safety regulation has different implications from economic regulation. In recent survey, it was found that Korea people want more regulatory effort than current one. This indicates that scientific method is necessary to improve the efficiency of regulation with limited resources of regulators. The main reason to conduct the regulatory analysis like cost-benefit analysis is obtaining the rationality of regulation to be implemented and persuading the licensees to comply under the quantified condition. That is, the ultimate goal is to verify the necessity and justice of regulation and to achieve the safety goal with minimum impacts. Guidelines and procedures developed in this study should help regulators to reach that goal.

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  3. Establishment of the nuclear regulatory framework for the process of decommissioning of nuclear installations in Mexico; Establecimiento del marco regulador nuclear para el proceso de cierre de instalaciones nucleares en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron V, J. A.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A., E-mail: juan.salmeron@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Today has not managed any process of decommissioning of nuclear installations in the country; however because of the importance of the subject and the actions to be taken to long term, the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in Mexico, accordance with its objectives is developing a National Nuclear Regulatory Framework and defined requirements to ensure the implementation of appropriate safety standards when such activities are performed. In this regard, the national nuclear regulatory framework for nuclear installations and the particular case of nuclear power reactors is presented, as well as a proposed licensing process for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde based on international regulations and origin country regulations of the existing reactors in nuclear facilities in accordance with the license conditions of operation to allow to define and incorporate such regulation. (Author)

  4. Nuclear regulatory process in the UK: the road to nuclear license; Proceso regulatorio nuclear en el Reino Unido: el camino hacia la licencia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, M.

    2012-07-01

    Relaunching a nuclear-based electric power generating system in any country, even in one like the United Kingdom (UK) that already has an adequate regulatory system that is pioneering in Europe and the world and has had several plants in operation for many years, always involves a series of far-reaching reforms of an institutional and national nature which, at the same time, serve to raise the standards of nuclear safety to the highest level, in order to reduce the risk run by the investors in the program and to ensure that both regulatory bodies and governments fulfill their fundamental function; serve and protect the citizen and always strive to improve the country's well-being. (Author)

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the April 1996 reporting period from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are issuances pertaining to: (1) Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (2) Georgia Tech Research Reactor, (3) River Bend Station, (4) Millstone Unit 1, (5) Thermo-Lag fire barrier material, and (6) Louisiana Energy Services.

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  7. Yeast nuclear RNA processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Bernstein; Eric; A; Toth

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors.In this review,we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs,and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool.Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors.Similarly,the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus.Such advances invariably generate many new questions,which we highlight in this review.

  8. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - regulatory system and roles of different actors during the decision process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In November 2006 Swedish Nuclear Fuels Co. applied for a license to build a plant for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuels at Oskarshamn, Sweden. The company also have plans to apply, in 2009, for a license to construct a underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. KASAM arranged a seminar in November 2006 in order to describe and discuss the licensing rules and regulations and the roles of different parties in the decision making. Another objective of the seminar was to point out possible ambiguities in this process. Another interesting question under discussion was in what ways the basic data for the decision should be produced. The seminar covered the part of the process beginning with the application for a license and ending with the government approval/rejection of the application. Most time was spent on the legal aspects of the process

  9. Hastening the regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringham, G. [Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The state of the Canadian oil industry was discussed during this power point presentation with particular emphasis on its production, exports, drilling, industry revenues and capital investment levels. The proposed projects in each of northern Alberta's oil sands deposits, the Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake were were announced, along with the inventory of major Alberta projects and the projection of oil sands capital investment. Since 1998, $9 billion has been invested and a further $33 billion has been announced for new or expanded oil sands projects. The year 2000 estimates for Canadian crude oil and natural gas production are 2.3 million barrels per day and 6.3 trillion cubic feet per year respectively. This represented a record year for production of both crude oil and natural gas. In 2000, more than 15,500 wells were drilled in Canada. A graph depicting Canadian crude oil supply forecasted a steady increase in supply from year 2000 to 2010. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) completed a review of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board regulatory and enforcement processes. Both industry and government efforts are focusing on eliminating regulatory overlap and duplication. Some of the main areas of interest for exploration, drilling, production and pipeline facilities include the examination of regulatory processes for environmentally sensitive areas, rural municipalities with planning bylaws, aboriginal lands and additional fees. 8 figs.

  10. Papers on the nuclear regulatory dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Freeman, S.D.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1985-10-01

    The four papers contained in this report are titled: (1) From Prescriptive to Performance-Based Regulation of Nuclear Power; (2) Nuclear Regulatory Reform: A Technology-Forcing Approach; (3) Improving the Regulation of Nuclear Power; and (4) Science and Its Limits: The Regulators' Dilemma. These four papers investigate issues relating to the long-term regulation of nuclear energy. They were prepared as part of the Institute for Energy Analysis' project on Nuclear Regulation funded by a grant from the Mellon Foundation and a smaller grant by the MacArthur Foundation. Originally this work was to be supplemented by contributions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and from the Department of Energy. These contributions were not forthcoming, and as a result the scope of our investigations was more restricted than we had originally planned.

  11. 10 CFR 1.45 - Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. 1.45 Section 1.45... Program Offices § 1.45 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research— (a) Plans, recommends, and implements programs of nuclear regulatory research, standards development...

  12. Regulatory practices for nuclear power plants in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bajaj

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB is responsible for the stipulation and enforcement of rules and regulations pertaining to nuclear and radiological safety. This paper describes the regulatory process followed by AERB for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their construction as well as operation. This regulatory process has been continuously evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor technology. Some of the recent initiatives taken by AERB in this direction are briefly described. Today, AERB faces new challenges like simultaneous review of a large number of new projects of diverse designs, a fast growing nuclear power program and functioning of operating plants in a competitive environment. This paper delineates how AERB is gearing up to meet these challenges in an effective manner.

  13. Technical and regulatory review of the Rover nuclear fuel process for use on Fort St. Vrain fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis for processing and final disposal of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) irradiated fuel in Rover-type equipment or technologies. This analysis includes an evaluation of the current Rover equipment status and the applicability of this technology in processing FSV fuel. The analyses are based on the physical characteristics of the FSV fuel and processing capabilities of the Rover equipment. Alternate FSV fuel disposal options are also considered including fuel-rod removal from the block, disposal of the empty block, or disposal of the entire fuel-containing block. The results of these analyses document that the current Rover hardware is not operable for any purpose, and any effort to restart this hardware will require extensive modifications and re-evaluation. However, various aspects of the Rover technology, such as the successful fluid-bed burner design, can be applied with modification to FSV fuel processing. The current regulatory climate and technical knowledge are not adequately defined to allow a complete analysis and conclusion with respect to the disposal of intact fuel blocks with or without the fuel rods removed. The primary unknowns include the various aspects of fuel-rod removal from the block, concentration of radionuclides remaining in the graphite block after rod removal, and acceptability of carbon in the form of graphite in a high level waste repository.

  14. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  15. Safeguards inventory and process monitoring regulatory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaluzzi, Jack M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Detecting the theft or diversion of the relatively small amount of fissile material needed to make a nuclear weapon given the normal operating capacity of many of today’s running nuclear production facilities is a difficult task. As throughput increases, the ability of the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Program to detect the material loss decreases because the statistical measurement uncertainty also increases. The challenge faced is the ability of current accounting, measurement, and material control programs to detect small yet significant losses under some regulatory approaches can decrease to the point where it is extremely low if not practically non-existent at normal operating capacities. Adding concern to this topic is that there are variations among regulatory bodies as far as what is considered a Significant Quantity (SQ). Some research suggests that thresholds should be lower than those found in any current regulation which if adopted would make meeting detection goals even more difficult. This paper reviews and compares the current regulatory requirements for the MA elements related to physical inventory, uncertainty of the Inventory Difference (ID), and Process Monitoring (PM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rosatom of the Russian Federation and the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) of China. The comparison looks at how the regulatory requirements for the implementation of various MA elements perform across a range of operating capacities in example facilities.

  16. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the...

  17. Recommendations on legislative and regulatory framework and regulatory body of nuclear security in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Jilong; LI Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the definition of nuclear security that has been changing from the cold war age to the post-911 period, and clarifies the close relationship and yet a clear distinction between nuclear security, nuclear safety and nuclear safeguard. Based on analyses of the current state of nuclear security activities in China as well as the requirements and the law infrastructure, a legislative and regulatory framework of nuclear security and the mandate of a regulatory body in China are recommended.

  18. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars

    some disadvantages as well, those are byproduct formation, secretion of proteolytic enzymes and formation of mycotoxins. The aim of this project was to reduce these disadvantages, though investigating the regulatory processes. The first objective was to study the regulatory events leading to A. niger......T. The physiological batch characterization showed that the ΔprtT strain had the lowest protease activity (fivefold reduced), but also featured excessive CO2 yield, reduced growth rate and lower biomass yields. The ΔprtB strain had a close to twofold reduced levels of secreted proteases but with additional beneficial...

  19. Legal principles of regulatory administration and nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyeong Hui; Cheong, Sang Kee [Hannam Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    This research presents a critical analysis and evaluation of principles of administrative laws in order to provide framework of structural reform on the nuclear safety regulation system. The focus of this analysis and evaluation is centered around the area of origin of regulatory administrative laws; authorities of regulation; procedures of regulatory actions; regulatory enforcement; and administrative relief system. In chapter 2 the concept of regulatory administration is analysed. Chapter 3 identifies the origin of regulatory administration and the principles of administration laws. It also examines legal nature of the nuclear safety standard. In relation to regulatory authorities. Chapter 4 identifies role and responsibility of administration authorities and institutions. It also examines fundamental principles of delegation of power. Then the chapter discusses the nuclear safety regulation authorities and their roles and responsibilities. Chapter 5 classifies and examines regulatory administration actions. Chapter 6 evaluates enforcement measure for effectiveness of regulation. Finally, chapter 7 discusses the administrative relief system for reviewing unreasonable regulatory acts.

  20. Development of digital library system on regulatory documents for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Kim, K. J.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, M. W.; Lee, J. I. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish nuclear regulatory document retrieval system based on internet. With the advancement of internet and information processing technology, information management patterns are going through a new paradigm. Getting along the current of the time, it is general tendency to transfer paper-type documents into electronic-type documents through document scanning and indexing. This system consists of nuclear regulatory documents, nuclear safety documents, digital library, and information system with index and full text.

  1. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to page Search NRC Report a Safety Concern Nuclear Reactors Power Reactors Research & Test Reactors Operating Reactors ... Reactors Operator Licensing for New Reactors Research Activities Nuclear Reactor Quick Links Nuclear Materials Special Nuclear Material ...

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January 1997. Volume 45, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This book contains issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Director`s Decision for January 1997. The issuances concern Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and General Atomics Gore, Oklahoma Site decontamination and decommissioning funding; Louisiana Energy Services, Claiborne Enrichment Center denies appeal to review emergency planning; General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating station, challenges to technical specifications concerning spent fuel pool; and Consumers Power Company, Palisades Nuclear Plant dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel.

  3. KWOC (Key-Word-Out-of-Context) Index of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-04-01

    To meet the objectives of the program funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a Performance Assurance Information Program that collects, compiles, and distributes program-related information, reports, and publications for the benefit of the DOE-NE program participants. THE KWOC Index of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide Series'' is prepared as an aid in searching for specific topics in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guide Series.

  4. 77 FR 34379 - Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Nuclear Regulatory...

  5. Regulatory oversight of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainulainen, E. (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The report constitutes the report on regulatory control in the field of nuclear energy which the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is required to submit once a year to the Ministry of Employment and the Economy pursuant to Section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. The report is also delivered to the Ministry of Environment, the Finnish Environment Institute, and the regional environmental authorities of the localities in which a nuclear facility is located. The regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2011 included the design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. The first parts of the report explain the basics of nuclear safety regulation included as part of STUK's responsibilities, as well as the objectives of the operations, and briefly introduce the objects of regulation. The chapter concerning the development and implementation of legislation and regulations describes changes in nuclear legislation, as well as the progress of STUK's YVL Guide revision work. The section concerning the regulation of nuclear facilities contains an overall safety assessment of the nuclear facilities currently in operation or under construction. The chapter concerning the regulation of the final disposal project for spent nuclear fuel de-scribes the preparations for the final disposal project and the related regulatory activities. The section concerning nuclear non-proliferation describes the nuclear non-proliferation control for Finnish nuclear facilities and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, as well as measures required by the Additional Protocol of the Safeguards Agreement. The chapter describing the oversight of security arrangements in the use of nuclear energy discusses oversight of the security arrangements in nuclear power plants and other plants, institutions and functions included within the scope of STUK's regulatory oversight. The chapter also discusses the national and

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1992 edition. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olive, K [ed.

    1992-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. This digest is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1991, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed.

  7. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress, Volume 1, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the first of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Atomic Energy Act, Energy Reorganization Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, and Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Other information included in this volume pertains to NRC user fees, NRC authorizations, the Inspector General Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act.

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, September 1995. Volume 42, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This book contains an issuance of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board and a Director`s Decision, both of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The issuance concerns the dismissal of a case by adopting a settlement reached by the Staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and a Radiation Safety Officer of a hospital in which the safety officer pled guilty to deliberate misconduct. The Director`s Decision was to deny a petition to impose a fine on Tennessee Valley Authority concerning alleged harassment of the petitioner and to appoint an independent arbitration board to review all past complaints filed against TVA concerning the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant.

  9. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1998-08-01

    The report describes regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland in 1997. Nuclear regulatory control ascertained that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with the conditions set out in operating licences and current regulations. In addition to NPP normal operation, STUK oversaw projects at the plant units relating to power uprating and safety improvements. STUK prepared statements for the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the applications for renewing the operating licenses of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. The most important items of supervision in nuclear waste management were studies relating to the final disposal of spent fuel from NPPs and the review of the licence application for a repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. Preparation of general safety regulations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, to be published in the form of a Council of State Decision, was started. By safeguards control, the use of nuclear materials was verified to be in compliance with current regulations and that the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were always known. Nuclear material safeguards were stepped up to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. In co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki), preparations were undertaken to implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For enforcement of the Treaty and as part of the international regulatory approach, STUK is currently developing laboratory analyses relating to airborne radioactivity measurements. The focus of co-operation funded by external sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and Leningrad NPPs, improvement of nuclear waste management in North-West Russia, development of the organizations of nuclear safety authorities in Eastern Europe and development

  10. 76 FR 61402 - Draft Nuclear Regulatory Commission Fiscal Year 2012-2016 Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... construct and operate new nuclear power plants including small modular reactors, while continuing to ensure... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Nuclear Regulatory Commission Fiscal Year 2012-2016 Strategic Plan AGENCY:...

  11. 78 FR 49726 - International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/Regulatory/Energy Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... International Trade Administration International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/ Regulatory... International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC)--to organize participation by representatives of... power projects, including national energy planning authorities, nuclear regulatory institutions, energy...

  12. Regulatory and safety aspects of ageing in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufer, B. [OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France). Nuclear Safety Div.

    2002-08-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a semi-autonomous body within the OECD established in 1958 with the mandate to promote co-operation among the governments of its participating countries in furthering the development of nuclear power as a safe, environmentally acceptable and economicy energy source. While all of groups have detailed programmes involving important aspects, this paper will focus specifically on the work of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). (orig.)

  13. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    2000-06-01

    This report concerns the regulatory control of nuclear energy in Finland in 1999. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. STUK's regulatory work was focused on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants as well as on nuclear waste management and safeguards of nuclear materials. The operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants was in compliance with the conditions set out in their operating licences and with current regulations, with the exception of some inadvertent deviations from the Technical Specifications. No plant events endangering the safe use of nuclear energy occurred. The individual doses of all nuclear power plant workers remained below the dose threshold. The collective dose of the workers was low, compared internationally, and did not exceed STUK's guidelines at either nuclear power plant. The radioactive releases were minor and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the plant was well below the limit established in a decision of the Council of State at both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. STUK issued statements to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the environmental impact assessment programme reports on the possible nuclear power plant projects at Olkiluoto and Loviisa and about the continued operation of the research reactor in Otaniemi, Espoo. A Y2k-related safety assessment of the Finnish nuclear power plants was completed in December. In nuclear waste management STUK's regulatory work was focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as on the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. A statement was issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment report on a proposed final

  15. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This document provides digests and indexes for issuances of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. These indexes and digests are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances.

  16. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This document provides digests and indexes for issuances of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. These indexes and digests are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances.

  17. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission organization charts and functional statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This document contains organization charts for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and for the five offices of the NRC. Function statements are provided delineating the major responsibilities and operations of each office. Organization and function are provided to the branch level. The head of each office, division, and branch is also listed.

  18. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  19. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  1. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  2. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  3. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1999-10-01

    The report describes regulatory control of the safe use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in 1998. STUK is the Finnish nuclear safety authority. The submission of this report to the Ministry of Trade and Industry is stipulated in Section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. It was verified by regulatory control that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with conditions set out in the operating licences of the plants and with regulations currently in force. In addition to supervising the normal operation of the plants, STUK oversaw projects carried out at the plant units, which related to the uprating of their power and the improvement of their safety. STUK issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry a statement about applications for the renewal of the operating licences of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, which had been submitted by Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy. Regulatory activities in the field of nuclear waste management were focused on the storage and final disposal of spent fuel as well as the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. STUK issued a statement to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment programme pertaining to a spent fuel repository project, which had been submitted by Posiva Oy, as well as on Imatran Voima Oy's application concerning the operation of a repository for medium- and low-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. The use of nuclear materials was in compliance with the regulations currently in force and also the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were ensured by safeguards control. In international safeguards, important changes took place, which were reflected also in safeguards activities at national level. International co-operation continued based on financing both from STUK's budget and from additional sources. The focus of co-operation funded from outside sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of

  4. Modeling nuclear processes by Simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md, E-mail: nahrul@iium.edu.my [Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Modelling and simulation are essential parts in the study of dynamic systems behaviours. In nuclear engineering, modelling and simulation are important to assess the expected results of an experiment before the actual experiment is conducted or in the design of nuclear facilities. In education, modelling can give insight into the dynamic of systems and processes. Most nuclear processes can be described by ordinary or partial differential equations. Efforts expended to solve the equations using analytical or numerical solutions consume time and distract attention from the objectives of modelling itself. This paper presents the use of Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox software that is widely used in control engineering, as a modelling platform for the study of nuclear processes including nuclear reactor behaviours. Starting from the describing equations, Simulink models for heat transfer, radionuclide decay process, delayed neutrons effect, reactor point kinetic equations with delayed neutron groups, and the effect of temperature feedback are used as examples.

  5. Modeling nuclear processes by Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md

    2015-04-01

    Modelling and simulation are essential parts in the study of dynamic systems behaviours. In nuclear engineering, modelling and simulation are important to assess the expected results of an experiment before the actual experiment is conducted or in the design of nuclear facilities. In education, modelling can give insight into the dynamic of systems and processes. Most nuclear processes can be described by ordinary or partial differential equations. Efforts expended to solve the equations using analytical or numerical solutions consume time and distract attention from the objectives of modelling itself. This paper presents the use of Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox software that is widely used in control engineering, as a modelling platform for the study of nuclear processes including nuclear reactor behaviours. Starting from the describing equations, Simulink models for heat transfer, radionuclide decay process, delayed neutrons effect, reactor point kinetic equations with delayed neutron groups, and the effect of temperature feedback are used as examples.

  6. Evolution of nuclear security regulatory activities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Luiz A. de; Monteiro Filho, Joselio S.; Belem, Lilia M.J.; Torres, Luiz F.B. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Segurania Nuclear. Coordenacao de Salvaguardas e Protecao Fisica], e-mail: gpf@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The changing of the world scenario in the last 15 years has increased worldwide the concerns about overall security and, as a consequence, about the nuclear and radioactive material as well as their associated facilities. Considering the new situation, in February 2004, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), decided to create the Nuclear Security Office. This Office is under the Coordination of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, in the Directorate for Safety, Security and Safeguards (Regulatory Directorate). Before that, security regulation issues were dealt in a decentralized manner, within that Directorate, by different licensing groups in specific areas (power reactors, fuel cycle facilities, radioactive facilities, transport of nuclear material, etc.). This decision was made in order to allow a coordinated approach on the subject, to strengthen the regulation in nuclear/radioactive security, and to provide support to management in the definition of institutional security policies. The CNEN Security Office develops its work based in the CNEN Physical Protection Regulation for Nuclear Operational Units - NE-2.01, 1996, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the IAEA Nuclear Security Series . This paper aims at presenting the activities developed and the achievements obtained by this new CNEN office, as well as identifying the issues and directions for future efforts. (author)

  7. 77 FR 70846 - Regulatory Guide 1.182, “Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 1.182, ``Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear Power Plants'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY: The...

  8. Steam Generator tube integrity -- US Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.L.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1997-02-01

    In the US, the current regulatory framework was developed in the 1970s when general wall thinning was the dominant degradation mechanism; and, as a result of changes in the forms of degradation being observed and improvements in inspection and tube repair technology, the regulatory framework needs to be updated. Operating experience indicates that the current U.S. requirements should be more stringent in some areas, while in other areas they are overly conservative. To date, this situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis in the US. However, the NRC staff is now developing a proposed steam generator rule as a generic framework for ensuring that the steam generator tubes are capable of performing their intended safety functions. This paper discusses the current U.S. regulatory framework for assuring steam generator (SG) tube integrity, the need to update this regulatory framework, the objectives of the new proposed rule, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guide (RG) that will accompany the rule, how risk considerations affect the development of the new rule, and some outstanding issues relating to the rule that the NRC is still dealing with.

  9. 77 FR 9273 - WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... COMMISSION WORKSHOP Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute...), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute..., Performance and Reliability Branch, Division of Risk Analysis, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, United...

  10. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  11. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  12. Dynamic SPR monitoring of yeast nuclear protein binding to a cis-regulatory element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Grace; Brody, James P

    2007-11-09

    Gene expression is controlled by protein complexes binding to short specific sequences of DNA, called cis-regulatory elements. Expression of most eukaryotic genes is controlled by dozens of these elements. Comprehensive identification and monitoring of these elements is a major goal of genomics. In pursuit of this goal, we are developing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based assay to identify and monitor cis-regulatory elements. To test whether we could reliably monitor protein binding to a regulatory element, we immobilized a 16bp region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome 5 onto a gold surface. This 16bp region of DNA is known to bind several proteins and thought to control expression of the gene RNR1, which varies through the cell cycle. We synchronized yeast cell cultures, and then sampled these cultures at a regular interval. These samples were processed to purify nuclear lysate, which was then exposed to the sensor. We found that nuclear protein binds this particular element of DNA at a significantly higher rate (as compared to unsynchronized cells) during G1 phase. Other time points show levels of DNA-nuclear protein binding similar to the unsynchronized control. We also measured the apparent association complex of the binding to be 0.014s(-1). We conclude that (1) SPR-based assays can monitor DNA-nuclear protein binding and that (2) for this particular cis-regulatory element, maximum DNA-nuclear protein binding occurs during G1 phase.

  13. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  14. A Review on the Regulatory Strategy of Human Factors Engineering Consideration in Pakistan Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the

  15. Shaping Formal Networks throug the Regulatory Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, Thad E.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, at the federal level, new or amended programs typically create networks consisting of multiactor structures spanning governments, sectors, and/or agencies. This study examines the implementation structures created through the regulatory process. We find that in a majo

  16. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances: February 1995. Volume 41, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This book contains an issuance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and a Director`s Decision. The issuance concerns consideration by the Commission of appeals from both the Initial Decision and a Reconsideration Order issued by the Presiding Officer involving two materials license amendment applications filed by the University of Missouri. The Director`s Decision from the Office of Enforcement denies petitions filed by Northeast Utilities employees requesting that accelerated enforcement action be taken against Northeast Utilities for activities concerned with NU`s fitness-for-duty program.

  18. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Gene A.; Noda, Frank T.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  19. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  20. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating, and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating, (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating, and several industrial applications. Although only about 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven

  1. Regulatory oversight report 2012 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2012 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) and the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and at the University of Basel. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in the relevant facilities. It ensures that the facilities comply with the regulations and operate as required by law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation. It formulates and updates its own guidelines which stipulate the criteria for evaluating the current activities and future plans of the operators of nuclear facilities. ENSI produces regular reports on its regulatory activities and nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear facilities. It fulfils its statutory obligation to provide the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2012, the five nuclear power plants in Switzerland were all operated safely. 34 events were reported; on the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 33 events as Level 0 and 1 as Level 1. ENSI evaluates the safety of each nuclear power plant as part of a systematic safety evaluation taking account of both reportable events and other findings, in particular the results of more than 400 inspections conducted by ENSI during 2012. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and an incineration/melting plant. At the end of 2012, the cask storage hall contained 40 transport/storage casks

  2. Attribute Exploration of Gene Regulatory Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wollbold, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims at the logical analysis of discrete processes, in particular of such generated by gene regulatory networks. States, transitions and operators from temporal logics are expressed in the language of Formal Concept Analysis. By the attribute exploration algorithm, an expert or a computer program is enabled to validate a minimal and complete set of implications, e.g. by comparison of predictions derived from literature with observed data. Here, these rules represent temporal dependencies within gene regulatory networks including coexpression of genes, reachability of states, invariants or possible causal relationships. This new approach is embedded into the theory of universal coalgebras, particularly automata, Kripke structures and Labelled Transition Systems. A comparison with the temporal expressivity of Description Logics is made. The main theoretical results concern the integration of background knowledge into the successive exploration of the defined data structures (formal contexts). Applyi...

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, April 1995. Volume 41, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This book contains issuances of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, and an issuance of the Director`s decision. The issuances concern a petition filed by Dr. James E Bauer seeking interlocutory Commission review of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board`s order imposing several restrictions on Dr. Bauer; a denial of an Interveners` Petition for Review addressing the application of Babcock and Wilcox for a renewal of its Special Nuclear Materials License; granting a motion for a protective order, by Sequoyah Fuel Corporation and General Atomics, limiting the use of the protected information to those individuals participating in the litigation and for the purposes of the litigation only; granting a Petitioner`s petition for leave to intervene and request for a hearing concerning Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech Research Reactor) renewal of a facility license; and a denial of a petition filed by Mr. Ted Dougherty requesting a shutdown of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station based on concerns regarding the vulnerability of the plant to earthquakes and defensibility of the plant to a terrorist threat.

  4. [Enzymatic regulatory processes in gene recombination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarskiĭ, V A; Profir, A V

    1988-01-01

    Recombination bistability in the system of genetic regulation in pro- and eucaryots is analysed on the basis of sigmoid kinetics of regulatory enzymes. It is shown that under an increase of either exogenic factors (temperature) or endogenic factors (concentration of molecules, which activate the enzymes) of crucial values, bistability solutions for recombination frequencies are possible. Histeresic character of the dependence of this value on the external parameters is pointed out. The role of fluctuation processes in distortion of the memory effects is discussed. On the basis of monostable solutions molecular account for the empiric Plau law is given for U-shaped dependence of recombination frequency on temperature.

  5. Comparison of ISO 9000 and recent software life cycle standards to nuclear regulatory review guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A.

    1998-01-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the assessment of certain quality and software life cycle standards to determine whether additional guidance for the U.S. nuclear regulatory context should be derived from the standards. This report describes the nature of the standards and compares the guidance of the standards to that of the recently updated Standard Review Plan.

  6. 75 FR 63725 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Consideration of Petition in the Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 Nuclear Energy Institute; Consideration of Petition in the Rulemaking Process... raised in a petition submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and is denying the remaining four...

  7. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  8. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent...

  9. 10 CFR 30.12 - Persons using byproduct material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using byproduct material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 30.12 Section 30.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Persons using byproduct material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  10. 78 FR 13712 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site, Revision 0 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Document issuance....

  11. 78 FR 57668 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal... availability of ``U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Plan for Monitoring Disposal Actions Taken by the...

  12. Review of decision methodologies for evaluating regulatory actions affecting public health and safety. [Nuclear industry site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; McDonald, C.L.; Schilling, A.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report examines several aspects of the problems and choices facing the governmental decision maker who must take regulatory actions with multiple decision objectives and attributes. Particular attention is given to the problems facing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and to the decision attribute of chief concern to NRC, the protection of human health and safety, with emphasis on nuclear power plants. The study was undertaken to provide background information for NRC to use in refining its process of value/impact assessment of proposed regulatory actions. The principal conclusion is that approaches to rationally consider the value and impact of proposed regulatory actions are available. These approaches can potentially improve the decision-making process and enable the agency to better explain and defend its decisions. They also permit consistent examination of the impacts, effects of uncertainty and sensitivity to various assumptions of the alternatives being considered. Finally, these approaches can help to assure that affected parties are heard and that technical information is used appropriately and to the extent possible. The principal aspects of the regulatory decision problem covered in the report are: the legal setting for regulatory decisions which affect human health and safety, elements of the decision-making process, conceptual approaches to decision making, current approaches to decision making in several Federal agencies, and the determination of acceptable risk levels.

  13. Bim nuclear translocation and inactivation by viral interferon regulatory factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    Full Text Available Viral replication efficiency is in large part governed by the ability of viruses to counteract pro-apoptotic signals induced by infection of the host cell. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 uses several strategies to block the host's innate antiviral defenses via interference with interferon and apoptotic signaling. Contributors include the four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4, which function in dominant negative fashion to block cellular IRF activities in addition to targeting IRF signaling-induced proteins such as p53 and inhibiting other inducers of apoptosis such as TGFbeta receptor-activated Smad transcription factors. Here we identify direct targeting by vIRF-1 of BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim, a key negative regulator of HHV-8 replication, to effect its inactivation via nuclear translocation. vIRF-1-mediated relocalization of Bim was identified in transfected cells, by both immunofluorescence assay and western analysis of fractionated cell extracts. Also, co-localization of vIRF-1 and Bim was detected in nuclei of lytically infected endothelial cells. In vitro co-precipitation assays using purified vIRF-1 and Bim revealed direct interaction between the proteins, and Bim-binding residues of vIRF-1 were mapped by deletion and point mutagenesis. Generation and experimental utilization of Bim-refractory vIRF-1 variants revealed the importance of vIRF-1:Bim interaction, specifically, in pro-replication and anti-apoptotic activity of vIRF-1. Furthermore, blocking of the interaction with cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the Bim-binding region of vIRF-1 confirmed the relevance of vIRF-1:Bim association to vIRF-1 pro-replication activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IRF protein that interacts with a Bcl-2 family member and of nuclear sequestration of Bim or any other member of the family as a means of inactivation. The data presented reveal a novel mechanism utilized by a virus to control

  14. Regulatory oversight report 2012 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2012 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) and the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and at the University of Basel. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in the relevant facilities. It ensures that the facilities comply with the regulations and operate as required by law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation. It formulates and updates its own guidelines which stipulate the criteria for evaluating the current activities and future plans of the operators of nuclear facilities. ENSI produces regular reports on its regulatory activities and nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear facilities. It fulfils its statutory obligation to provide the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2012, the five nuclear power plants in Switzerland were all operated safely. 34 events were reported; on the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 33 events as Level 0 and 1 as Level 1. ENSI evaluates the safety of each nuclear power plant as part of a systematic safety evaluation taking account of both reportable events and other findings, in particular the results of more than 400 inspections conducted by ENSI during 2012. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and an incineration/melting plant. At the end of 2012, the cask storage hall contained 40 transport/storage casks

  15. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices..., Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma...

  16. Application of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation Equivalency to Construction of New Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BISHOP, G.E.

    1999-06-02

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office, is charged with moving 2.100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel elements left over from plutonium production into semi-permanent storage at DOE'S Hanford site in Washington state. In anticipation of eventual NRC regulation, the DOE decided to impose NRC requirements on new SNFP facility design and construction, specifically for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The SNFP implemented this policy of ''NRC equivalency'' with the goal of achieving a level of nuclear safety equivalent to that of NRC-licensed fuel processing facilities. Appropriate features of the NRC licensing process were adopted. However, the SNFP maintained applicable DOE requirements in tandem with the NRC regulations. Project work is continuing, with the first fuel movement scheduled for November, 2000.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy & Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advanced Fuel Cycle Research & Development Seminar Series FY 2007 & 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    In fiscal year 2007, the Advanced Burner Reactor project initiated an educational seminar series for the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel on various aspects of fast reactor fuel cycle closure technologies. This important work was initiated to inform DOE and NRC personnel on initial details of sodium-cooled fast reactor, separations, waste form, and safeguard technologies being considered for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Research and Development program, and to learn the important lesson from the licensing process for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant that educating the NRC staff early in the regulatory process is very important and critical to a project success.

  18. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  19. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P. J. [HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Marine Engineering Submarines Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator Serco Assurance Redgrave Court, Merton Road, Bootle L20 7HS (United Kingdom); Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T. [FLEET HQ, Leach Building, Whale Island, Portsmouth, PO2 8BY (United Kingdom); Tapping, K. [Serco Assurance,Thomson House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  20. United States nuclear regulatory commission program for inspection of decommissioning nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or Commission) has been inspecting decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) since the first such facility permanently shutdown in September 1967. Decommissioning inspections have principally focused on the safe storage and maintenance of spent reactor fuel; occupational radiation exposure; environmental radiological releases; the dismantlement and decontamination of structures, systems, and components identified to contain or potentially contain licensed radioactive material; and the performance of final radiological survey of the site and remaining structures to support termination of the USNRC-issued operating license. Over the last 5 years, USNRC inspection effort in these areas has been assessed and found to provide reasonable confidence that decommissioning can be conducted safely and in accordance with Commission rules and regulations. Recently, the staff has achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with particular decommissioning accidents 1 and plans to apply these insights to amendments proposed to enhance decommissioning rules and regulations. The probabilities, scenarios, and conclusions resulting from this effort are being assessed as to their applicability to the inspection of decommissioning commercial power reactors. (author)

  1. New dedicated AMS system at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninson, D.; D' Amatto, E.; Oliveira, A.A.; Stark, J.W.; Bonino, N.O.; Bustos, G.R.; Alvarez, D.E.; Amodei, A.J.; Bonino, A.G.; Giannico, M.A.; Pomar, C. E-mail: cpomar@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2000-10-01

    At present, a new AMS system is being installed, at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, in Argentina. The main goal of the system will be AMS assays of actinides in the area of nuclear safeguards. The installation of the facility started in January 1998. The present status of the project is described.

  2. Chapter 2: selection process for nuclear sites; Capitulo 2: processo de selecao de sitios nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    The five criteria of a selection process will be discussed as follows: 1) Structure of the site selection procedure: functional stages required for discrimination from the interest region to installation license. 2) Selection criteria incorporating the nuclear regulatory, environmental and installation project requirements that should be considered in the selection process. 3) Quantification criterion: quantification of relative adequacy of a site related to selection criterion. 4) Weighing factor: weighing factor development reflecting the relative importance of individual criteria incorporating the interest composition among criterion. 5) Public involvement: development of a process integrating information and public enrollment participation.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission activities to prepare for reviewing license applications and issuing licenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uleck, R.B.; DeFino, C.V. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) assigned States the responsibility to provide for disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1993. The LLRWPAA also required the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish procedures and develop the technical review capability to process license applications for new LLRW disposal facilities. Under the LLRWPAA, NRC is required, to the extent practicable, to complete its review of an LLRW disposal facility license application within 15 months of its submittal by a State. This provision of the LLRWPAA helps ensure that NRC, in addition to protecting public health and safety and the environment, facilitates States` achievement of LLRWPAA milestones for new facility development. A timely NRC review is needed for States to accomplish their objective of having new disposal facilities in operation on the dates prescribed in the LLRWPAA. To help assure NRC and States` compliance with the provisions of the LLRWPAA, NRC has developed a licensing review strategy that includes: (1) the further development of regulatory guidance, (2) enhancement of licensing review capability, and (3) prelicensing regulatory consultation with potential applicants.

  4. Organization, Integration and Assembly of Genetic and Epigenetic Regulatory Machinery in Nuclear Microenvironments: Implications for Biological Control in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Gary S.; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B; van Wijnen, Andre; Montecino, Martin; Young, Daniel W.; Javed, Amjad; Pratap, Jitesh; Choi, Je-Yong; Ali, Syed A; Pande, Sandhya; Hassan, Mohammad Q.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing awareness that the fidelity of gene expression necessitates coordination of transcription factor metabolism and organization of genes and regulatory proteins within the three dimensional context of nuclear architecture. The regulatory machinery that governs genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression is compartmentalized in nuclear microenvironments. Temporal and spatial parameters of regulatory complex organization and assembly are functionally linked to biological con...

  5. 44 CFR 351.21 - The Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cooperation with other Federal agencies, the appropriate planning bases for NRC licensed nuclear facilities... detection and measurement. (m) Assist FEMA with the development, implementation and presentation to...

  6. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - List of Federal Financial Assistance Administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Which...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Which Title IX Applies Note: All recipients of Federal financial... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of Federal Financial Assistance Administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Which Title IX Applies A Appendix A to Part 5 Energy NUCLEAR...

  8. Vital area identification for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power reactor licensees and new reactor applicants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Varnado, G. Bruce

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant licensees and new reactor applicants are required to provide protection of their plants against radiological sabotage, including the placement of vital equipment in vital areas. This document describes a systematic process for the identification of the minimum set of areas that must be designated as vital areas in order to ensure that all radiological sabotage scenarios are prevented. Vital area identification involves the use of logic models to systematically identify all of the malicious acts or combinations of malicious acts that could lead to radiological sabotage. The models available in the plant probabilistic risk assessment and other safety analyses provide a great deal of the information and basic model structure needed for the sabotage logic model. Once the sabotage logic model is developed, the events (or malicious acts) in the model are replaced with the areas in which the events can be accomplished. This sabotage area logic model is then analyzed to identify the target sets (combinations of areas the adversary must visit to cause radiological sabotage) and the candidate vital area sets (combinations of areas that must be protected against adversary access to prevent radiological sabotage). Any one of the candidate vital area sets can be selected for protection. Appropriate selection criteria will allow the licensee or new reactor applicant to minimize the impacts of vital area protection measures on plant safety, cost, operations, or other factors of concern.

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, Volume 44, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report includes the issuances received in October 1996. Issuances are from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, and the Directors` Decisions. 15 issuances were received and are abstracted individually in the database: Louisiana Energy Services, U.S. Enrichment Corporation, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation, James L. Shelton, Juan Guzman, Northern States Power Company, TESTCO Inc., Washington Public Power Supply System, all nuclear plants, Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, Duke Power Company, Florida Power Corporation, and Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (2 issuances). No issuances were received from the the Administrative Law Judges or the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking.

  10. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  11. Jaczko to resign as chair of Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    .... Jaczko formerly served as science advisor to Sen. Harry Reid (D‐Nev.). As NRC chair, Jaczko halted the commission's license application review for storing nuclear waste at Nevada's Yucca Mountain...

  12. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  13. Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, C

    2003-01-01

    LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

  14. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  15. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  16. Assessment of Safety Culture within the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Muhammad [Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Islamabad (Pakistan); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the SC of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) by developing a performance indicator-based questionnaire. Aspects that potentially play important roles in developing perceptions of SC, including age, type of job, gender and duty hours of regulatory staff, are given due importance in this study. The study also identifies the strengths and weaknesses in the SC of the PNRA and can be used as a model study to assess the SC of other RBs. The questionnaire, developed to assess the SC of the PNRA, was in line with the PNRA's own defined attributes for SC. In the past, significant efforts have been made to ensure the safe operation of NPPs by improving designs and operating procedures; however, the nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP in Japan in March 2011 revealed that the currently allotted hardware safety margins are not sufficient, and much work is needed to improve safety management in terms of SC. Initially, the concept of SC was introduced for operating organizations to ensure safe operation of NPPs; nonetheless, more recent investigations of nuclear events and accidents, especially Fukushima, and at Davis-Besse, in the US, have revealed that a strong focus is required to address and improve the SC of Regulatory Bodies (RBs). Strong SC is considered a vital tool for RBs to achieve their objectives and discharge their responsibilities in an effective and efficient manner. Though the relationship between the SC of RBs and that of operating organizations is not straight forward, it is believed that the former has a strong influence over the latter. The questionnaire was consistent in terms of the credible nature of its questions, and the response group covered different levels of PNRA staff, from managers to lower level staff. The results show that the PNRA staff have a very good understanding of the nature and significance of attributes of SC and are doing their best to exercise the same within the

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, Volume 42, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report include the issuances received during the specificed period (August 1995) from the NRC, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rule Making. In these issuances, the following areas were addressed: (1) Emergency planning at the University of Missouri, (2) Transfer of operating license at Plant Vogtle, (3) Discriminatory action against a whistle-blower at Millstone Units 1 & 2, (4) Regulatory issues related to embittlement and cracking at Oyster Creek, and (5) Age-related deterioration of reactor internals components at Pilgrim.

  18. Enhancement of Regulatory Supervision of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia: involving the military authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudak, S.F.; Sneve, M.K.; Bulatov, O.R.; Vasiliev, A.P.; Malinkin, V.M.

    2011-10-15

    This report describes work carried out within the cooperation programme between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Directorate of State Supervision for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation performed in 2008-2009. It focuses on development of improved regulatory documents and supervision procedures for handling spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at facilities that are no longer used by the Russian Federation Navy but that are still under military supervision and control. (Author)

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders: July 1, 1992--December 31, 1992, Volume 36, Pages 1--396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967.

  20. Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushkin, Vladimir

    2004-06-01

    With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

  1. ICT Support for Regulatory Compliance of Business Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Governatori, Guido

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an ITC (Information and Communication Technology) approach to support regulatory compliance for business processes, and we report on the development and evaluation of a business process compliance checker called Regorous, based on the compliance-by-design methodology proposed by Governatori and Sadiq

  2. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Volume 44, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report includes issuances received during September 1996. After reviewing in detail each of the claims made in this informal proceeding the presiding officer sustained the staff of the USNRC in its determination that the applicant did not pass the written portion of his examination to become a licensed operator of a nuclear power plant. In the proceeding concerning citizen group challenges to the decommissioning plan for the Rowe Yankee power station, the licensing board grants licensee Yankee Atomic Electric Company`s motion for summary disposition.

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, Volume 46, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report includes the issuances received in October 1997. Issuances are from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, and the Directors` Decisions. Five issuances were received on the following subjects: (1) decontamination and decommissioning funding for Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and General Atomics; (2) involvement in NRC-licensed activities by Aharon Ben-Haim; (3) Barnett Industrial X-Ray, Inc.; (4) spent fuel storage installation at Northern States Power Company; and (5) Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station. No issuances were received from the the Administrative Law Judges or the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking.

  5. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher, telephone: (301) 492- 3668; email: Carol.Gallagher@nrc.gov . FOR... by the Commission on June 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62 FR..., Maryland, this 13th day of October 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael F. Weber,...

  6. 76 FR 31997 - Final Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... COMMISSION Final Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S... Understanding (MOU) between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Homeland Security... Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS), which provides text and image files of NRC's...

  7. Emerging Technologioes in Instrumentation and Controls and Their Potential Regulatory Implications for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Bobrek, Miljko [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Howlader, Mostofa [ORNL; Killough, Stephen M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Moore, Michael Roy [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Shourbaji, Ayman A [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of eight instrumentation and control (&C) technology areas, with applications in nuclear power plants (NPPs), that were the focus of a recent study performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC.) The state of the technology s application in NPPs, along with potential regulatory impact(s), are discussed. The technology focus areas are: (1) sensors and measurement systems, (2) communications media and networking, (3) microprocessors and other integrated circuits, (4) computational platforms, (5) surveillance, diagnostics, and prognostics, (6) human-system interactions, (7) high-integrity software, and (8) I&C architectures in new plants. The regulatory implications of these focus areas with regard to their application in NPPs are also discussed.

  8. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  9. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J [comp.

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  10. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  11. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J [comp.

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.J. (comp.)

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  13. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  14. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okko, O. (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory control of nuclear materials (i.e. nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. Safeguards are required for Finland to comply with international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation - mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The results of STUK's nuclear safeguards inspection activities in 2011 continued to demonstrate that the Finnish licence holders take good care of their nuclear materials. There were no indications of undeclared nuclear materials or activities and the inspected materials and activities were in accordance with the licence holders' declarations.

  15. Exploring the regulatory decision-making process for medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafuri, G.

    2013-01-01

    The basis of regulatory decisions is the benefit-risk assessment, a complex process that requires the evaluation of quality, non-clinical and clinical data submitted by the pharmaceutical company. Unfortunately the scientific evidence supporting the use of a new product is always incomplete and

  16. Bioattractors: dynamical systems theory and the evolution of regulatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Monk, Nick

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we illustrate how dynamical systems theory can provide a unifying conceptual framework for evolution of biological regulatory systems. Our argument is that the genotype-phenotype map can be characterized by the phase portrait of the underlying regulatory process. The features of this portrait--such as attractors with associated basins and their bifurcations--define the regulatory and evolutionary potential of a system. We show how the geometric analysis of phase space connects Waddington's epigenetic landscape to recent computational approaches for the study of robustness and evolvability in network evolution. We discuss how the geometry of phase space determines the probability of possible phenotypic transitions. Finally, we demonstrate how the active, self-organizing role of the environment in phenotypic evolution can be understood in terms of dynamical systems concepts. This approach yields mechanistic explanations that go beyond insights based on the simulation of evolving regulatory networks alone. Its predictions can now be tested by studying specific, experimentally tractable regulatory systems using the tools of modern systems biology. A systematic exploration of such systems will enable us to understand better the nature and origin of the phenotypic variability, which provides the substrate for evolution by natural selection.

  17. Electrosleeve process for in-situ nuclear steam generator repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moran, T.E. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Renaud, E. [Babcock and Wilcox Industries Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Degradation of steam generator (SG) tubing by localized corrosion is a widespread problem in the nuclear industry that can lead to costly forced out-ages, unit de-rating, SG replacement or even the permanent shutdown of a reactor. In response to the onset of SG tubing degradation at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Unit 5, and the determined unsuitability of conventional repair methods (mechanically expanded or welded sleeves) for Alloy 400, an alternative repair technology was developed. Electrosleeve is a non-intrusive, low-temperature process that involves the electrodeposition of a nanocrystalline nickel microalloy forming a continuously bonded, structural layer over the internal diameter of the degraded region. This technology is designed to provide a long-term pressure boundary repair, fully restoring the structural integrity of the damaged region to its original state. This paper describes the Electrosleeve process for SG tubing repair and the unique properties of the advanced sleeve material. The successful installation of Electrosleeves that have been in service for more than three years in Alloy 400 SG tubing at the Pickering-5 CANDU unit, the more recent extension of the technology to Alloy 600 and its demonstration in a U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR), is presented. A number of PWR operators have requested plant operating technical specification changes to permit Electrosleeve SG tube repair. Licensing of the Electrosleeve by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is expected imminently. (author)

  18. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments.

  19. Organization, integration, and assembly of genetic and epigenetic regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments: implications for biological control in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gary S; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; van Wijnen, Andre J; Montecino, Martin; Young, Daniel W; Javed, Amjad; Pratap, Jitesh; Choi, Je-Yong; Ali, Syed A; Pande, Sandhya; Hassan, Mohammad Q

    2009-02-01

    There is growing awareness that the fidelity of gene expression necessitates coordination of transcription factor metabolism and organization of genes and regulatory proteins within the three-dimensional context of nuclear architecture. The regulatory machinery that governs genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression is compartmentalized in nuclear microenvironments. Temporal and spatial parameters of regulatory complex organization and assembly are functionally linked to biological control and are compromised with the onset and progression of tumorigenesis. High throughput imaging of cells, tissues, and tumors, including live cell analysis, is expanding research's capabilities toward translating components of nuclear organization into novel strategies for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Intercomparison run for uranium and tritium determination in urine samples, organised by Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Serdeiro, N H; Equillor, H E

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), Argentina, has carried out an intercomparison run for tritium and uranium determination in urine, in November 2002. The aim of this exercise was to assess the performance of the laboratories that usually inform these radionuclides and to provide technical support in order to have an appropriate occupational monitoring in vitro. In the present work, the results of the intercomparison and the assessment of each laboratory are published.

  1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances: Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders. Progress report, January 1, 1996--June 30, 1996. Volume 43, pages 1-358

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all legal precedents for the agency within a six month period. This is the forty-third volume of issuances.

  2. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond L; Murphy, Arthur T; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear Energy: An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems, and Applications of Nuclear Processes introduces the reader to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes. It provides a factual description of basic nuclear phenomena, as well as devices and processes that involve nuclear reactions. The problems and opportunities that are inherent in a nuclear age are also highlighted.Comprised of 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of fundamental facts and principles, with emphasis on energy and states of matter, atoms and nuclei, and nuclear reactions. Radioactivi

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 73 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Offices and Classified Mailing Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. A Appendix A to Part 73—U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission..., Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah...

  4. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

    2009-12-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  5. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Wharton

    2009-10-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  6. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Project Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Wharton; Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Project Plan. The Project Plan is intended to provide the high-level direction that documents the required software activities to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  7. Report to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) is devoted to the activities performed during calendar year 1986. Comments and observations are provided on operating experience at nuclear power plants and other NRC licensees, including results from selected AEOD studies; summaries of abnormal occurrences involving US nuclear plants; reviews of licensee event reports and their quality, reactor scram experience from 1984 to 1986, engineered safety features actuations, and the trends and patterns analysis program; and assessments of nonreactor and medical misadministration events. In addition, the report provides the year-end status of all recommendations included in AEOD studies, and listings of all AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1986.

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Volume 40, Pages 1--387

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a six-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly softbounds and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition. Cross references in the text and indexes are to the NRCI page numbers which are the same as the page numbers in this publication. This book covers the following: issuances of the NRC; issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards; and issuances of Directors` decisions.

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances: Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1--December 31, 1996. Volume 44, Pages 1--432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a six-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly softbounds and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition. Cross references in the text and indexes are to the NRCI page numbers which are the same as the page numbers in this publication. Issuances are referred to as follows: Commission--CLI, Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards--LBP, Administrative Law Judges--ALJ, Directors` Decisions--DD, and Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking--DPRM.

  10. Anomalous Nuclear Phenomena Associated with Ultrafast Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingliu; Zhou, Xiaoping; Han, Lijun; Wang, Liyin

    2007-03-01

    Localized nuclear reactions on the tips of the surface of electrodes in electrolysis cells have been observed by using solid detectors CR-39 and autoradiography in our laboratory at the period of May, 1989. A physical model of transient vortex dynamics with torsion coherence with the zero point energy has been proposed by Xingliu Jiang based on the ultrafast processes of tripple phases area of tip effect on the electrode surface. Considering the large equivelent capacitance of electrochemical double layer, it is presumed that the double layer can exhibit nonlinear electrical response with spatial and temporal variations confined to micreoscopic areas by tip effect. Recent work reveals that nuclear reactions which usually occur at the field of high energy states, could be created in the systems of far from equilibrium with nonlinear beharvior at room tempurature.Our current understanging of science is like a puzzle with a large missing piece-zero point energy. Jiang Xingliu, Lei Jinzhi, Torsion field and tapping the zero-point energy in an electrochemical system, J. of New Energy, 4(2), 93(1999). B. Naranjo, J.K. Gimzewski & S. Putterman, Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal, Nature, 434, 1115(2005).

  11. Regulatory oversight report 2008 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2008 ueber die nukleare Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2008. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions, personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the safety point of view. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management, earthquake damage analysis and agreements on nuclear safety. The underground disposal of highly-radioactive nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories are discussed, as are proposals for additional nuclear power stations.

  12. Safety Management in Non-Nuclear Contexts. Examples from Swedish Railway Regulatory and Company Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Ilkka; Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2005-06-15

    processes of organizational change, the regulatory and operational activities, safety objectives

  13. Safety Management in Non-Nuclear Contexts. Examples from Swedish Railway Regulatory and Company Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Ilkka; Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2005-06-15

    processes of organizational change, the regulatory and operational activities, safety objectives

  14. Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, H K

    2001-01-01

    as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class o...

  15. Effect of nuclear viscosity on fission process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shidong; Kuang Huishun; Zhang Shufa; Xing Jingru; Zhuo Yizhong; Wu Xizhen; Feng Renfa

    1989-02-01

    According to the fission diffusion model, the deformation motion of fission nucleuses is regarded as a diffusion process of quasi-Brownian particles under fission potential. Through simulating such Brownian motion in two dimensional phase space by Monte-Carlo mehtod, the effect of nuclear visocity on Brownian particle diffusion is studied. Dynamical quanties, such as fission rate, kinetic energy distribution on scission, and soon are numerically calculated for various viscosity coefficients. The results are resonable in physics. This method can be easily extended to deal with multi-dimensional diffusion problems.

  16. Retinoic acid exerts dual regulatory actions on the expression and nuclear localization of interferon regulatory factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin M; Ross, A Catharine

    2006-05-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), a transcription factor and tumor suppressor involved in cell growth regulation and immune responses, has been shown to be induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, the factors controlling the cellular location and activity of IRF-1 are not well understood. In this study, we examined the expression of IRF-1 and its nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and target gene expression in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells, a model of breast epithelial cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. Following initial treatment with ATRA, IRF-1 mRNA and protein were induced within 2 hrs, reached a peak (>30-fold induction) at 8 hrs, and declined afterwards. IRF-1 protein was predominantly cytoplasmic during this treatment. Although a second dose of ATRA or Am580 (a related retinoid selective for retinoic acid receptor-alpha [RARalpha]), given 16 hrs after the first dose, restimulated IRF-1 mRNA and protein levels to a similar level to that obtained by the first dose, IRF-1 was predominantly concentrated in the nucleus after restimulation. ATRA and Am580 also increased nuclear RARalpha, whereas retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRalpha)--a dimerization partner for RARalpha, was localized to the nucleus upon second exposure to ATRA. However, ATRA and Am580 did not regulate the expression or activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1), a transcription factor capable of inducing the expression of IRF-1, indicating an STAT-1-independent mechanism of regulation by ATRA and Am580. The increase in nuclear IRF-1 after retinoid restimulation was accompanied by enhanced binding to an IRF-E DNA response element, and elevated expression of an IRF-1 target gene, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-2. The dual effect of retinoids in increasing IRF-1 mRNA and protein and in augmenting the nuclear localization of IRF-1 protein may be essential for maximizing the tumor suppressor activity and the immunosurveillance

  17. Improved cost-benefit techniques in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, F.J.; Nesse, R.J.; Vaeth, M.; Wusterbarth, A.R.; Currie, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    The major objective of this report is to help the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory mission, particularly with respect to improving the use of cost-benefit analysis and the economic evaluation of resources within the NRC. The objectives of this effort are: (1) to identify current and future NRC requirements (e.g., licensing) for valuing nonmarket goods; (2) to identify, highlight, and present the relevant efforts of selected federal agencies, some with over two decades of experience in valuing nonmarket goods, in this area; and (3) to review methods for valuing nonmarket impacts and to provide estimats of their magnitudes. Recently proposed legislation may result in a requirement for not only more sophisticated valuation analyses, but more extensive applications of these techniques to issues of concern to the NRC. This paper is intended to provide the NRC with information to more efficiently meet such requirements.

  18. Regulatory oversight report 2011 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2011 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Confederation, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the two universities of Basel and Lausanne. ENSI ensures that the facilities comply with regulations and operate according to the law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials to and from nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. It maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of a national emergency structure. Building on the legislative framework, ENSI also formulates and updates its own guidelines. It provides the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2011, all five nuclear power reactors in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were operated safely and ENSI concluded that they had complied with their approved operating conditions. There were 27 reportable events in the nuclear power plants in Switzerland: 7 at Beznau, 5 at Goesgen, 11 at Leibstadt und 4 at Muehleberg. On the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 26 events as Level 0. One event, at the Muehleberg nuclear power plant, was rated as INES Level 1. This related to a potential blockage of the emergency water intake system in the event of extreme flooding. The operator BKW shut down the Muehleberg plant ahead of the scheduled maintenance date and upgraded the system. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2011, the cask storage hall contained 34 transport/storage casks with fuel assemblies and vitrified residue packages

  19. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, Alan [Chockie Group International, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2005-09-15

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  20. Decision-making behavior of experts at nuclear power plants. Regulatory focus influence on cognitive heuristics; Entscheidungsverhalten von Experten in Kernkraftwerken. Der Einfluss des regulatorischen Fokus auf kognitive Heuristiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Johannes

    2015-09-15

    The goal of this research project was to examine factors, on the basis of regulatory focus theory and the heuristics and biases approach, that influence decision-making processes of experts at nuclear power plants. Findings show that this group applies anchoring (heuristic) when evaluating conjunctive and disjunctive events and that they maintain a constant regulatory focus characteristic. No influence of the experts' characteristic regulatory focus on cognitive heuristics could be established. Theoretical and practical consequences on decision-making behavior of experts are presented. Finally, a method for measuring the use of heuristics especially in the nuclear industry is discussed.

  1. Quantum information processing through nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulnes, J.D.; Sarthour, R.S.; Oliveira, I.S. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bonk, F.A.; Azevedo, E.R. de; Bonagamba, T.J. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Freitas, J.C.C. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2005-09-15

    We discuss the applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to quantum information processing, focusing on the use of quadrupole nuclei for quantum computing. Various examples of experimental implementation of logic gates are given and compared to calculated NMR spectra and their respective density matrices. The technique of Quantum State Tomography for quadrupole nuclei is briefly described, and examples of measured density matrices in a two-qubit I = 3/2 spin system are shown. Experimental results of density matrices representing pseudo-Bell states are given, and an analysis of the entropy of theses states is made. Considering an NMR experiment as a depolarization quantum channel we calculate the entanglement fidelity and discuss the criteria for entanglement in liquid state NMR quantum information. A brief discussion on the perspectives for NMR quantum computing is presented at the end. (author)

  2. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25 years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and product-related terms, it is commonly interpreted as a strictly process-based legislation. In view of several new emerging techniques which are closer to the conventional breeding than common genetic engineering, we argue that it should be actually interpreted more in relation to the resulting product. A legal guidance on how to define plants produced by exploring novel genome editing techniques in relation to the decade-old legislation is urgently needed, as private companies and public researchers are waiting impatiently with products and projects in the pipeline. We here outline the process in the EU to develop a legislation that properly matches the scientific progress. As the process is facing several hurdles, we also compare with existing frameworks in other countries and discuss ideas for an alternative regulatory system.

  3. Nuclear parton distributions and the Drell-Yan process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulagin, S. A.; Petti, R.

    2014-10-01

    We study the nuclear parton distribution functions on the basis of our recently developed semimicroscopic model, which takes into account a number of nuclear effects including nuclear shadowing, Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents, and off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions. We discuss in detail the dependencies of nuclear effects on the type of parton distribution (nuclear sea vs valence), as well as on the parton flavor (isospin). We apply the resulting nuclear parton distributions to calculate ratios of cross sections for proton-induced Drell-Yan production off different nuclear targets. We obtain a good agreement on the magnitude, target and projectile x, and the dimuon mass dependence of proton-nucleus Drell-Yan process data from the E772 and E866 experiments at Fermilab. We also provide nuclear corrections for the Drell-Yan data from the E605 experiment.

  4. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-07-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  5. The probabilities of nuclear processes; Probabilidades de los procesos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  6. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC`s) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC`s study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC`s dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  7. Regulatory oversight report 2007 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2007 ueber die nukleare Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions and personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the point of view of safety. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management. Finally, the disposal of nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories in Switzerland is commented on.

  8. Identification of a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear localization motif in interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen C T Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2 is a muscle-enriched transcription factor required to activate vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA expression in muscle. IRF2BP2 is found in the nucleus of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. During the process of skeletal muscle differentiation, some IRF2BP2 becomes relocated to the cytoplasm, although the functional significance of this relocation and the mechanisms that control nucleocytoplasmic localization of IRF2BP2 are not yet known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by fusing IRF2BP2 to green fluorescent protein and testing a series of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis constructs, we mapped the nuclear localization signal (NLS to an evolutionarily conserved sequence (354ARKRKPSP(361 in IRF2BP2. This sequence corresponds to a classical nuclear localization motif bearing positively charged arginine and lysine residues. Substitution of arginine and lysine with negatively charged aspartic acid residues blocked nuclear localization. However, these residues were not sufficient because nuclear targeting of IRF2BP2 also required phosphorylation of serine 360 (S360. Many large-scale phosphopeptide proteomic studies had reported previously that serine 360 of IRF2BP2 is phosphorylated in numerous human cell types. Alanine substitution at this site abolished IRF2BP2 nuclear localization in C(2C(12 myoblasts and CV1 cells. In contrast, substituting serine 360 with aspartic acid forced nuclear retention and prevented cytoplasmic redistribution in differentiated C(2C(12 muscle cells. As for the effects of these mutations on VEGFA promoter activity, the S360A mutation interfered with VEGFA activation, as expected. Surprisingly, the S360D mutation also interfered with VEGFA activation, suggesting that this mutation, while enforcing nuclear entry, may disrupt an essential activation function of IRF2BP2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nuclear localization of IRF2BP2 depends on

  9. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed.

  10. Nuclear Parton Distributions and the Drell-Yan Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kulagin, S A

    2014-01-01

    We study the nuclear parton distribution functions basing on our recently developed semi-microscopic model, which takes into account a number of nuclear effects including nuclear shadowing, Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents and off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions. We discuss in details the dependencies of nuclear effects on the type of parton distribution (nuclear sea vs. valence) as well as on the parton flavour (isospin). The resulting nuclear parton distributions are applied to calculate the ratios of cross sections for proton-induced Drell-Yan production off different nuclear targets. We obtain a good agreement on the magnitude, target and projectile x and the dimuon mass dependence of proton-nucleus Drell-Yan process data from the E772 and E866 experiments at Fermilab.

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclea...

  12. Introduction of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Activities to Reflect Lessons Learned from Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hong [Kyungwon E-C Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Charter requires the staff to highlight potential policy issues for the Commission and provide the Commission every 6 months an update on the review work conducted under the Charter. The recent status of NRC's activities and related program to reflect the lesson-learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant's severe accident are introduced in this paper. A wide variety of the U.S. NRC's activities to reflect lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accidents was investigated. From the investigation, it was found that most of NRC's activities, based on the Fukushima Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) recommendations, are being implemented in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The NRC staff initially prioritized the NTTF recommendations based on its judgment of the potential and relative safety enhancement which could be realized by each. As a result of the staff's prioritization and assessment process, the NTTF recommendations were prioritized into three tiers (i.e., Tier 1, 2 and 3). Tier 1 recommendations are which the staff determined should be started without unnecessary delay and for which sufficient resource flexibility, including availability of critical skill sets, exists. Tier 2 recommendations are which could not be initiated in the near term due to factors that include the need for further technical assessment and alignment, dependence on Tier 1 issues, or availability of critical skill sets. Tier 3 recommendations are that require further staff study to support a regulatory action, have an associated shorter term action that needs to be completed to inform the longer-term action, are dependent on the availability of critical skill sets, or are dependent on the resolution of NTTF Recommendation 1. Through the implementation of each tier activities, existing layers of defense in depth are expected to be gradually bolstered, and such a regulatory approach is much similar in the other countries. It was also found that

  13. Assessment of factors that affect the effectiveness of regulatory bodies: an application to the nuclear area; Avaliacao de fatores que afetam a eficacia de orgaos reguladores: uma aplicacao ao setor nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2005-09-15

    This work examines the main factors that affect the effectiveness of the non-economic regulatory process and establishes a model to propose actions to improve the regulation and the role of the regulatory body. The Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is used and some tools for analysis, derived from the expectations of the stake holders, are added to the methodology. The stake holders taken into account are the public, the licensees, the supervisory bodies, other regulatory bodies, international organizations, concerned groups, and the regulatory body staff. The proposed actions aim to gradually change the organization, and the adopted methodology sees the organizational evolution as a continuum. Some elements of the Theory of Complexity are compared to the SSM concepts in order to validate the evolutionary approach. The model is applied to the specific case of,the nuclear regulation and the Brazilian regulatory body. Situations perceived as 'problem situations' are listed and some actions are proposed for improvement, including the establishment of performance indicators for effectiveness in nuclear regulation. (author)

  14. Nucleation Process in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Peres-Menezes, D

    1998-01-01

    An extended version of the non linear Walecka model, with rho mesons and eletromagnetic field is used to investigate the possibility of phase transitions in hot (warm) nuclear matter, giving rise to droplet formation. Surface properties of asymmetric nuclear matter as the droplet surface energy and its thickness are also examined.

  15. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  16. Process improvement for regulatory analyses of custom-blend fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical testing of custom-blend fertilizers is essential to ensure that the products meet the formulation requirements. For purposes of proper crop nutrition and consumer protection, regulatory oversight promotes compliance and particular attention to blending and formulation specifications. Analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products must be performed and reported within a very narrow window in order to be effective. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Biochemistry Laboratory is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and conducts analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products primarily during the spring planting season. Using the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process, the Biochemistry Laboratory has reduced turnaround times from as much as 45 days to as little as 3 days. The LSS methodology focuses on waste reduction through identifying: non-value-added steps, unneeded process reviews, optimization of screening and confirmatory analyses, equipment utilization, nonessential reporting requirements, and inefficient personnel deployment. Eliminating these non-value-added activities helped the laboratory significantly shorten turnaround time and reduce costs. Key improvement elements discovered during the LSS process included: focused sample tracking, equipment redundancy, strategic supply stocking, batch size optimization, critical sample paths, elimination of nonessential QC reviews, and more efficient personnel deployment.

  17. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities.

  18. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  19. Interim report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.C.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory assisted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the development of a radioactive waste classification system that will satisfy technical, environmental, and societal concerns. This is an interim report to the NRC on work accomplished to date. It describes a proposed waste-classification system that is based on the final disposition of waste material. The system consists of three classes of radioactive waste. The classification of any radioactive waste will depend primarily on its hazard potential. Other characteristics such as longevity (half-size) will be considered also. The levels of hazard that differentiate the three classes of radioactive waste will be determined by ongoing work. This report describes other work to be completed before a suitable radioactive waste-classificaion system is established.

  20. Feed-forward transcriptional programming by nuclear receptors: regulatory principles and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Sarah K; Gerber, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are widely targeted to treat a range of human diseases. Feed-forward loops are an ancient mechanism through which single cell organisms organize transcriptional programming and modulate gene expression dynamics, but they have not been systematically studied as a regulatory paradigm for NR-mediated transcriptional responses. Here, we provide an overview of the basic properties of feed-forward loops as predicted by mathematical models and validated experimentally in single cell organisms. We review existing evidence implicating feed-forward loops as important in controlling clinically relevant transcriptional responses to estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids, among other NR ligands. We propose that feed-forward transcriptional circuits are a major mechanism through which NRs integrate signals, exert temporal control over gene regulation, and compartmentalize client transcriptomes into discrete subunits. Implications for the design and function of novel selective NR ligands are discussed.

  1. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, November 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-09-30

    A bibliography of 152 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period November 1975 through June 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  2. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, July--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1977-03-01

    A bibliography of 148 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  3. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC office of nuclear regulatory research, July--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    A bibliography of 198 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1977 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are arranged first by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  4. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A central question in molecular biology is how transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) act in combination. Recent high-throughput data provide us with the location of multiple regulatory regions for multiple regulators, and thus with the possibility of analyzing the multivariate di...

  5. Non-transcriptional regulatory processes shape transcriptional network dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J. Christian J; Tabor, Jeffrey J.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the extra- or intracellular environment is often captured as biochemical signals propagating through regulatory networks. These signals eventually drive phenotypic changes, typically by altering gene expression programs in the cell. Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks has given a compelling picture of bacterial physiology, but transcriptional network maps alone often fail to describe phenotypes. In many cases, the dynamical performance of transcriptional re...

  6. Regulatory Issues and Challenges in Developing Seismic Source Characterizations for New Nuclear Power Plant Applications in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. W.; Unruh, J.; Lindvall, S.; Lettis, W.

    2009-05-01

    further complicated by: (1) a given applicant's uncertainty in how to revise the EPRI-SOG model, which was developed using a process similar to that dictated by SSHAC for a level 3 or 4 study, without conducting a resource-intensive SSHAC level 3 or higher study for their respective application; and (2) a lack of guidance from the NRC on acceptable methods of demonstrating that new data, interpretations, and opinions are adequately represented within the EPRI-SOG model. Partly because of these issues, initiative was taken by the nuclear industry, NRC and DOE to develop a new base PSHA model for the central and eastern US. However, this new SSC model will not be completed for several years and does not resolve many of the fundamental regulatory and philosophical issues that have been raised during the current round of applications. To ensure regulatory stability and to provide accurate estimates of hazard for nuclear power plants, a dialog must be started between regulators and industry to resolve these issues. Two key issues that must be discussed are: (1) should new data and new interpretations or opinions of old data be treated differently in updated SSCs, and if so, how?; and (2) how can new data or interpretations developed by a small subset of the technical community be weighed against and potentially combined with a SSC model that was originally developed to capture the "center, body and range" of the technical community?

  7. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Risk Management Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-11-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the risk management. Risk management is intended to ensure a methodology for conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, responses, and monitoring and control activities associated with the SAPHIRE project work, and to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  8. 75 FR 52046 - Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Development of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Culture Policy Statement: Public Meeting... public comments submitted in response to the draft policy statement (74 FR 57525, November 6, 2009.... The revised draft policy statement has benefitted from public comments, the results of the...

  9. 75 FR 62153 - Notice of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuance of Materials License SUA-1596 for Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Notice of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuance of Materials License SUA-1596 for Uranium One... Commission (NRC) has issued a license to Uranium One Americas, Inc. (Uranium One) for its Moore Ranch uranium... Uranium One to operate its facility as proposed in its license application, as amended, and to...

  10. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  11. Non-transcriptional regulatory processes shape transcriptional network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J Christian J; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-10-11

    Information about the extra- or intracellular environment is often captured as biochemical signals that propagate through regulatory networks. These signals eventually drive phenotypic changes, typically by altering gene expression programmes in the cell. Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks has given a compelling picture of bacterial physiology, but transcriptional network maps alone often fail to describe phenotypes. Cellular response dynamics are ultimately determined by interactions between transcriptional and non-transcriptional networks, with dramatic implications for physiology and evolution. Here, we provide an overview of non-transcriptional interactions that can affect the performance of natural and synthetic bacterial regulatory networks.

  12. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center; Aspectos fisicos de garantia de calidad en medicina nuclear y radioterapia. Enfoque regulatorio del centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [CNSN, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7, Ave. Miramar, La Habana (Cuba); Varela C, C. [CCEEM, Calle 4 No. 455 e/19 y 21, Ave. Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cruz@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  13. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A central question in molecular biology is how transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) act in combination. Recent high-throughput data provide us with the location of multiple regulatory regions for multiple regulators, and thus with the possibility of analyzing the multivariate di...... occurrences of multiple TREs along the genome that is capable of providing new insights into dependencies among elements involved in transcriptional regulation. The method is available as an R package from http://www.math.ku.dk/~richard/ppstat/.......BACKGROUND: A central question in molecular biology is how transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) act in combination. Recent high-throughput data provide us with the location of multiple regulatory regions for multiple regulators, and thus with the possibility of analyzing the multivariate...

  14. Application of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jonatas F.C. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi, occurred in Japan in 2011, brought reflections, worldwide, on the management of nuclear and environmental licensing processes of existing nuclear reactors. One of the key lessons learned in this matter, is that the studies of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accidents are becoming essential, even in the early stage of a nuclear development project. In Brazil, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, conducts the nuclear licensing. The organism responsible for the environmental licensing is Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. In the scope of the licensing processes of these two institutions, the safety analysis is essentially deterministic, complemented by probabilistic studies. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the study performed to evaluate the behavior of the nuclear reactor in a sequence of events that may lead to the melting of its core. It includes both probability and consequence estimation of these events, which are called Severe Accidents, allowing to obtain the risk assessment of the plant. Thus, the possible shortcomings in the design of systems are identified, providing basis for safety assessment and improving safety. During the environmental licensing, a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), including probabilistic evaluations, is required in order to support the development of the Risk Analysis Study, the Risk Management Program and the Emergency Plan. This article aims to provide an overview of probabilistic risk assessment methodologies and their applications in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil. (author)

  15. Nuclear fuels: Development, processing and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allday, C.

    1982-08-01

    The successful development of the world's energy resources has enabled industries in the more advanced countries to provide the economic basis on which improved living standards are based. As the less well-developed countries seek to improve their standards of living the pressure on existing energy resources will increase. In this context it is essential not to allow the current industrial recession in the developed countries, with its associated apparent abundancy of coal, oil and gas, to mask the longer-term energy situation. It is not here proposed to discuss the role of nuclear power in the energy scene except to say that, with the continuing need to develop energy resources, nuclear as a proven safe and economic system - will have a vital role to fulfil in meeting the world's future energy demands. This paper is concerned with the development of nuclear fuel and the industry which has grown around it during the last 30 years. It shall concentrate on its development in this country and describe the history and activities of BNFL.

  16. Empathic and Self-Regulatory Processes Governing Doping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Boardley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence associating doping behavior with moral disengagement (MD has accumulated over recent years. However, to date, research examining links between MD and doping has not considered key theoretically grounded influences and outcomes of MD. As such, there is a need for quantitative research in relevant populations that purposefully examines the explanatory pathways through which MD is thought to operate. Toward this end, the current study examined a conceptually grounded model of doping behavior that incorporated empathy, doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE, doping MD, anticipated guilt and self-reported doping/doping susceptibility. Participants were specifically recruited to represent four key physical-activity contexts and consisted of team- (n = 195 and individual- (n = 169 sport athletes and hardcore- (n = 125 and corporate- (n = 121 gym exercisers representing both genders (nmale = 371; nfemale = 239; self-reported lifetime prevalence of doping across the sample was 13.6%. Each participant completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated strong support for all study hypotheses. Specifically, we established: (a empathy and doping SRE negatively predicted reported doping; (b the predictive effects of empathy and doping SRE on reported doping were mediated by doping MD and anticipated guilt; (c doping MD positively predicted reported doping; (d the predictive effects of doping MD on reported doping were partially mediated by anticipated guilt. Substituting self-reported doping for doping susceptibility, multisample analyses then demonstrated these predictive effects were largely invariant between males and females and across the four physical-activity contexts represented. These findings extend current knowledge on a number of levels, and in doing so aid our understanding of key psychosocial processes that may govern doping behavior across key physical-activity contexts.

  17. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  18. Regulatory challenges in the management of aging of structural materials in nuclear power plants; Retos reguladores en la gestion del envejecimiento de los materiales estructurales de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo, C.; Mendoza, C.; Mas, E.; Conde, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The article discusses two major pathways by which a regulatory body, and in particular the CSN, may participate in the acquisition of the necessary knowledge on mechanisms of aging of nuclear structural materials: to participate in forums to share operational experience and R and R project, both nationally and internationally. It notes the importance of this participation to carry out its regulatory function based on the knowledge acquired and the unique challenge of transferring that knowledge to rules and guidelines for their application. The article discusses various R and D projects in which the CSN participates directly. It calls for the presence of regulatory bodies in R and D project funded by the EU and the transfer of the results of such projects to codes, standards or guidelines for feasible implementation. (Author)

  19. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission accountability report, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is one of six Federal agencies participating in a pilot project to streamline financial management reporting. The goal of this pilot is to consolidate performance-related reporting into a single accountability report. The project, which is being carried out under the guidance of the Chief Financial Officers Council, was undertaken in accordance with the Government Management Reform Act (GMRA) of 1994. The GMRA permits the streamlining of financial management reports in consultation with the appropriate Congressional Committees through a liaison in the US Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The results of the pilot project will determine the method to be used for reporting financial management information for fiscal year (FY) 1996. This report consolidates the information previously reported in the following documents: (1) the NRC`s annual financial statement required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990; (2) the Chairman`s annual report to the President and the Congress, required by the Federal Managers` Financial Integrity Act of 1982; (3) the Chairman`s semiannual report to the Congress on management decisions and final actions on Office of Inspector General audit recommendations, required by the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended. This report also includes performance measures, as required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990.

  20. Regulatory application of seismic experience data for nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Ying [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of its review and evaluation (Reference 3) of the SQUG GIP (Reference 2) and on the basis of the differences between current seismic qualification requirements and the criteria and procedures provided in the GIP, the NRC staff does not consider the USI A-46 methodology given in the GIP to be a `seismic qualification` procedure. Rather, the staff considers the GIP methodology to be a seismic adequacy verification procedure, which was developed on the basis of generic equipment earthquake experience data, supplemented by generic equipment test data. The implementation of the GIP approach for USI A-46 plants provides safety enhancement, in certain aspects, beyond the original licensing bases. Therefore, the GIP methodology is an acceptable evaluation method, for USI A-46 plants only, to verify the seismic adequacy of the safe-shutdown equipment installed in the NPPs in the United States. With the new development in the experience-based approach for seismic qualification of equipment currently underway in the U.S. nuclear industry, there is a potential for future regulatory application of an experience-based approach as a seismic qualification method for certain selected equipment installed in NPPs in the United States. However, industry`s use of the experience-based approach will be dependent on the submittal and staff approval of this approach. (J.P.N.)

  1. Genome-Scale Analysis of Cell-Specific Regulatory Codes Using Nuclear Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible for biologists to generate genome-wide profiles of chromatin features at the nucleotide resolution. Enzymes such as nucleases or transposes have been instrumental as a chromatin-probing agent due to their ability to target accessible chromatin for cleavage or insertion. On the scale of a few hundred base pairs, preferential action of the nuclear enzymes on accessible chromatin allows mapping of cell state-specific accessibility in vivo. Such accessible regions contain functionally important regulatory sites, including promoters and enhancers, which undergo active remodeling for cells adapting in a dynamic environment. DNase-seq and the more recent ATAC-seq are two assays that are gaining popularity. Deep sequencing of DNA libraries from these assays, termed genomic footprinting, has been proposed to enable the comprehensive construction of protein occupancy profiles over the genome at the nucleotide level. Recent studies have discovered limitations of genomic footprinting which reduce the scope of detectable proteins. In addition, the identification of putative factors that bind to the observed footprints remains challenging. Despite these caveats, the methodology still presents significant advantages over alternative techniques such as ChIP-seq or FAIRE-seq. Here we describe computational approaches and tools for analysis of chromatin accessibility and genomic footprinting. Proper experimental design and assay-specific data analysis ensure the detection sensitivity and maximize retrievable information. The enzyme-based chromatin profiling approaches represent a powerful and evolving methodology which facilitates our understanding of how the genome is regulated.

  2. Resonance-like nuclear processes in solids: 3rd and 4th order processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that in the family of heavy charged particle and electron assisted double nuclear processes resonance-like behavior can appear. The transition rates of the heavy particle assisted 3rd-order and electron assisted 4th-order resonance like double nuclear processes are determined. The power of low energy nuclear reactions in $Ni-H$ systems formed in $Ni$ placed in $H_{2}$ gas environment is treated. Nuclear power produced by quasi-resonant electron assisted double nuclear processes in these $Ni-H$ systems is calculated. The power obtained tallies with experiments and its magnitude is considerable for practical applications.

  3. Complex Unsaturated Zone Flow and Thermohydrologic Processes in a Regulatory Environment: A Perspective on Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. W.; Manepally, C.; Justus, P. S.; Basagaoglu, H.; Pensado, O.; Dubreuilh, P.

    2007-12-01

    An important part of a risk-informed, performance-based regulatory review of a potential license application for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is the consideration of alternative interpretations and models of risk significant physical processes. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expects that simplified models will be abstracted from complex process-level models to conduct total-system performance assessments. There are several phases or steps to developing an abstracted model and its supporting basis from more detailed and complicated models for each area of the total system. For complex ambient and thermally perturbed flow in fractured tuffs of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, these steps c,an be summarized as (i) site characterization and observation, (ii) field and laboratory tests, (iii) conceptual model development, (iv) process-level numerical modeling, and (v) abstraction development. Each step is affected by uncertainty in (i) assessing parameters for models and (ii) conceptualization and understanding of governing processes. Because of the complexity and uncertainty, alternative interpretations and models become important aspects in the regulatory environment. NRC staff gain confidence in performance assessment model results through understanding the uncertainty in the various models. An example of a complex process in the unsaturated zone is seepage into drifts, which leads to liquid water potentially contacting waste packages. Seepage is a risk-important process for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain because of its potential effect on waste package integrity and trainsport of potentially released radionuclides. Complexities for seepage include (i) characterization of fractures that carry flow, (ii) effect of small to intermediate scale structural features on flow, (iii) consideration of the diverse flow regimes (rivulets, film flow, capillarity) in fractures, (iv) effect of vapor transport associated

  4. A novel processing system of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakuki, Masanori; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    The proteolytic cascade is the key step in transactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a transcriptional factor of lipid synthesis. Proteolysis of SREBP-2 is strictly regulated by sterols, but that of SREBP-1c was not strongly sterol-regulated, but inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the proteolytic processing of SREBP-1 and -2 was examined by transfection studies of cDNA-encoding mutants in which all the known cleavage sites were disrupted. In cultured cells, sterol-regulated SREBP-2 processing was completely eliminated by mutation of cleavage sites. In contrast, the corresponding SREBP-1c mutants as well as wild type exhibited large amounts of cleaved products in the nuclear extracts from culture cells and murine liver in vivo. The nuclear form of the mutant SREBP-1c was induced by delipidated condition and suppressed by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 PUFA, but not by sterols. This novel processing mechanism was affected by neither SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) nor insulin-induced gene (Insig)-1, unlike SREBP-2, but abolished by a serine protease inhibitor. Through analysis of deletion mutant, a site-2 protease recognition sequence (DRSR) was identified to be involved in this novel processing. These findings suggest that SREBP-1c cleavage could be subjected to a novel PUFA-regulated cleavage system in addition to the sterol-regulatory SCAP/Insig system.

  5. Practical-Moral Knowledge: The Social Organization of Regulatory Processes in Academic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lynda D.; Kerrick, Madeleine R.; Stoeckl, Rita F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we developed a theoretical frame to analyze how practical-moral knowledge structures the regulatory processes of learning to control and direct behavior during literacy lessons in two elementary classrooms. We describe how regulatory behaviors were congruent with the local social and moral order, constituents of practical-moral…

  6. Results of regulatory impact survey of industrial and medical materials licensees of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, D.; Melber, B.; Brichoux, J. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Hattrup, M.; Conger, R.; Hughes, K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a regulatory impact survey of nuclear materials licensees of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Commissioners of the NRC directed staff to provide the Commission with first hand information from licensees that could be used to improve the overall regulatory program. A self-administered, mail-out survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of licensees who had interaction with the NRC during the previous 12 months. A total of 371 respondents of the 589 who were sent questionnaires returned completed surveys, for a response rate of 63%. The body of the report presents the findings of the survey including a brief introduction to the approach used, followed by survey findings regarding regulations, policies and regulatory guidance; experience with licensing applications, renewals and amendments; inspections; reporting requirements; and enforcement actions. The appendices of the report include a copy of the survey as administered to licensees, a fuller description of the survey design and data collection methods, and detailed graphic material describing survey responses.

  7. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  8. Nuclear medium effects in Drell–Yan process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.; Ruiz Simo, I.

    2017-04-01

    We study the nuclear medium effects in Drell–Yan process using quark parton distribution functions calculated in a microscopic nuclear model which takes into account the effects of Fermi motion, nuclear binding and nucleon correlations through a relativistic nucleon spectral function. The contributions of π and ρ mesons as well as shadowing effects are also included. The beam energy loss is calculated using a phenomenological approach. The present theoretical results are compared with the experimental results of the E772 and E866 experiments. These results are applicable to the forthcoming experimental analysis of E906 Sea Quest experiment at the Fermi Lab.

  9. Nuclear medium effects in Drell-Yan process

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We study the nuclear medium effects in Drell-Yan process using quark parton distribution functions calculated in a microscopic nuclear model which takes into account the effects of Fermi motion, nuclear binding and nucleon correlations through a relativistic nucleon spectral function. The contributions of $\\pi$ and $\\rho$ mesons as well as shadowing effects are also included. The beam energy loss is calculated using a phenomenological approach. The present theoretical results are compared with the experimental results of E772 and E886 experiments. These results are applicable to the forthcoming experimental analysis of E906 Sea Quest experiment at Fermi Lab.

  10. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  11. Epithelial nuclear factor-κB signaling promotes lung carcinogenesis via recruitment of regulatory T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaynagetdinov, R; Stathopoulos, G T; Sherrill, T P; Cheng, D-S; McLoed, A G; Ausborn, J A; Polosukhin, V V; Connelly, L; Zhou, W; Fingleton, B; Peebles, R S; Prince, L S; Yull, F E; Blackwell, T S

    2012-06-28

    The mechanisms by which chronic inflammatory lung diseases, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, confer enhanced risk for lung cancer are not well-defined. To investigate whether nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key mediator of immune and inflammatory responses, provides an interface between persistent lung inflammation and carcinogenesis, we utilized tetracycline-inducible transgenic mice expressing constitutively active IκB kinase β in airway epithelium (IKTA (IKKβ trans-activated) mice). Intraperitoneal injection of ethyl carbamate (urethane), or 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used to induce lung tumorigenesis. Doxycycline-treated IKTA mice developed chronic airway inflammation and markedly increased numbers of lung tumors in response to urethane, even when transgene expression (and therefore epithelial NF-κB activation) was begun after exposure to carcinogen. Studies using a separate tumor initiator/promoter model (MCA+BHT) indicated that NF-κB functions as an independent tumor promoter. Enhanced tumor formation in IKTA mice was preceded by increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis of alveolar epithelium, resulting in increased formation of premalignant lesions. Investigation of inflammatory cells in lungs of IKTA mice revealed a substantial increase in macrophages and lymphocytes, including functional CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). Importantly, Treg depletion using repetitive injections of anti-CD25 antibodies limited excessive tumor formation in IKTA mice. At 6 weeks following urethane injection, antibody-mediated Treg depletion in IKTA mice reduced the number of premalignant lesions in the lungs in association with an increase in CD8 lymphocytes. Thus, persistent NF-κB signaling in airway epithelium facilitates carcinogenesis by sculpting the immune/inflammatory environment in the lungs.

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Authority low energy germanium detection system: performance for the uranium individual monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinella, M.R.; Krimer, M.; Rojo, A.M.; Gregori, B.N. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Avda. del Libertador 8250, (C1429BNP) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez Parada, I. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, Avda. del Libertador 8250, (C1429BNP) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The lung counter facility of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is presented. A calibration was carried out using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) phantom. This phantom is provided with a pair of lungs and lymph nodes containing uranium homogeneously distributed and a set of four overlay plates covering a chest wall thickness (CWT) ranging from 1.638 to 3.871 cm. Individual organ calibration factors were acquired for {sup 235}U photo-peaks energies and for each effective chest thickness. Using these factors, a collection of theoretical fitting curves were found. A counting efficiency formulae and a curve for simultaneously active lymph nodes and lung was obtained and checked through measures. Background measurements of the chamber with and without volunteer persons were performed in order to obtain the detection limits (DL) of the system. As this task involves the knowledge of the volunteers CWTs, these magnitudes were determined through formulae selected from the literature taking into account the detection system characteristics. The deviation in the CWT assigned to an individual, generated by applying different equations, produces variations up to 33% in the estimations of the incorporated activity and DL. An analysis of the changes in efficiencies as consequences of the detectors locations and CWT was also performed. This reveals that the DL of the camera (detectors, shield and blank phantom) is between 2.7 and 6.4 Bq of {sup 235}U, which implies 4.9 and 11.5 mg lung burden of natural uranium. An estimation of the minimum detectable intake performed with the DL considering blank persons shows that a system with the characteristics described is only adequate for non-routine individual monitoring. (authors)

  13. The NJOY nuclear data processing system Version 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.

    1994-10-01

    The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from elevated nuclear data in the ENDF format, including the latest US library, ENDF/B-VI. The NJOY code can work with neutrons, photons, and charged particles, and it can produce libraries for a wide variety of particle transport and reactor analysis codes.

  14. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System, Version 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Muir, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boicourt, R. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kahler, III, Albert Comstock [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-09

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System, version 2016, is a comprehensive computer code package for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF-4 through ENDF-6 legacy card-image formats. NJOY works with evaluated files for incident neutrons, photons, and charged particles, producing libraries for a wide variety of particle transport and reactor analysis codes.

  15. Impact of nuclear mass uncertainties on the $r$-process

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Dirk; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear masses play a fundamental role in understanding how the heaviest elements in the Universe are created in the $r$-process. We predict $r$-process nucleosynthesis yields using neutron capture and photodissociation rates that are based on nuclear density functional theory. Using six Skyrme energy density functionals based on different optimization protocols, we determine for the first time systematic uncertainty bands -- related to mass modeling -- for $r$-process abundances in realistic astrophysical scenarios. We find that features of the underlying microphysics make an imprint on abundances especially in the vicinity of neutron shell closures: abundance peaks and troughs are reflected in trends of neutron separation energy. Further advances in nuclear theory and experiments, when linked to observations, will help in the understanding of astrophysical conditions in extreme $r$-process sites.

  16. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  17. Nuclear structure studies for the astrophysical r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, B; Thielemann, F K; Walters, W B

    2001-01-01

    The production of the heaviest elements in nature occurs via the r-process, i.e. a combination of rapid neutron captures, the inverse photodisintegrations, and slower beta sup - -decays, beta-delayed processes as well as fission and possibly interactions with intense neutrino fluxes. A correct understanding and modeling requires the knowledge of nuclear properties far from stability and a detailed prescription of the astrophysical environment. Experiments at radioactive ion beam facilities have played a pioneering role in exploring the characteristics of nuclear structure in terms of masses and beta-decay properties. Initial examinations paid attention to highly unstable nuclei with magic neutron numbers and their beta-decay properties, related to the location and height of r-process peaks, while recent activities focus on the evolution of shell effects at large distances from the valley of stability. We show in site-independent applications the effect of both types of nuclear properties on r-process abundanc...

  18. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  19. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  20. Nuclear medium effects in Drell-Yan process

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Simo, I Ruiz; Singh, S K

    2013-01-01

    We study nuclear medium effects in Drell-Yan processes at small target x using quark parton distribution functions and nucleon structure functions for a bound nucleon calculated in a microscopic nuclear model which takes into account the effect of Fermi motion, nuclear binding and nucleon correlations through a relativistic spectral function. The contributions of $\\pi$ and $\\rho$ mesons, target mass corrections and nuclear shadowing are also included. The results are compared with the theoretical and experimental results. The model is able to successfully explain the low target x results of E772 and E866 Drell-Yan experiments and is applicable to the forthcoming experimental analysis of E906 Sea Quest experiment at Fermi Lab.

  1. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J (Aiken, SC); Fulghum, Charles K (Aiken, SC); Harpring, Lawrence J (North Augusta, SC); Huffman, Russell K (Augusta, GA); Varble, Donald L (Evans, GA)

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  2. Electrochemical fluorination for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2016-07-05

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  3. Galvanic cell for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2017-02-07

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  4. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT APPROACHES: CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-05-29

    Engineered barriers including cementitious barriers are used at sites disposing or contaminated with low-level radioactive waste to enhance performance of the natural environment with respect to controlling the potential spread of contaminants. Drivers for using cementitious barriers include: high radionuclide inventory, radionuclide characteristics (e.g., long half-live, high mobility due to chemical form/speciation, waste matrix properties, shallow water table, and humid climate that provides water for leaching the waste). This document comprises the first in a series of reports being prepared for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The document is divided into two parts which provide a summary of: (1) existing experience in the assessment of performance of cementitious materials used for radioactive waste management and disposal and (2) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approaches that have been applied for assessments. Each chapter is organized into five parts: Introduction, Regulatory Considerations, Specific Examples, Summary of Modeling Approaches and Conclusions and Needs. The objective of the report is to provide perspective on the state of the practice for conducting assessments for facilities involving cementitious barriers and to identify opportunities for improvements to the existing approaches. Examples are provided in two contexts: (1) performance assessments conducted for waste disposal facilities and (2) performance assessment-like analyses (e.g., risk assessments) conducted under other regulatory regimes. The introductory sections of each section provide a perspective on the purpose of performance assessments and different roles of cementitious materials for radioactive waste management. Significant experience with assessments of cementitious materials associated with radioactive waste disposal concepts exists in the US Department of Energy Complex and the commercial nuclear sector. Recently, the desire to close legacy facilities has created

  5. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  6. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25?years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and p...

  7. The flavone apigenin blocks nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in the hepatic cells WRL-68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tsz Yan; Lin, Shu-Mei; Leung, Lai K

    2015-06-28

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is a pivotal transcriptional factor in cholesterol metabolism. Factors interfering with the proper functioning of SREBP-2 potentially alter plasma lipid concentrations. Consuming fruits and vegetables is associated with beneficial plasma lipid profile. The mechanism by which plant foods induce desirable lipid changes remains unclear. Apigenin, a common plant food flavonoid, was shown to modulate the nuclear translocation of SREBP-2 in the hepatic cells WRL-68 in the present study. The processing of SREBP-2 protein occurred after translation, and apigenin blocked this activation route. Further examination indicated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was activated by the flavone, and co-administrating the AMPK-specific inhibitor compound C could release the blockage. Reporter gene assay revealed that the transactivation of sterol responsive element (SRE)-containing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) promoter was suppressed by the flavone. Similarly, electromobility shift assay result also demonstrated a reduced DNA-binding activity on the SRE domain under the same treatment. The reduced transactivity and DNA-binding activity could be attributed to a decreased amount of SREBP-2 translocating from cytosol to nucleus as depicted by confocal microscopy. Quantitative RT-PCR assay demonstrated that the transcription of HMGCR followed the same pattern of SREBP-2 translocation. In summary, the present study showed that apigenin prevented SREBP-2 translocation and reduced the downstream gene HMGCR transcription. The minimum effective dosage should be achievable in the form of functional food consumption or dietary supplementation.

  8. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  9. Identification of a Nuclear Exosome Decay Pathway for Processed Transcripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meola, Nicola; Domanski, Michal; Karadoulama, Evdoxia

    2016-01-01

    , the Zn-finger protein ZCCHC8, and the RNA-binding factor RBM7. NEXT primarily targets early and unprocessed transcripts, which demands a rationale for how the nuclear exosome recognizes processed RNAs. Here, we describe the poly(A) tail exosome targeting (PAXT) connection, which comprises the ZFC3H1 Zn...

  10. Human Regulatory Protein Ki-1/57 Is a Target of SUMOylation and Affects PML Nuclear Body Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ângela; Souza, Edmarcia E; Costa, Fernanda C; Meirelles, Gabriela V; Gonçalves, Kaliandra A; Santos, Marcos T; Bressan, Gustavo C; McComb, Mark E; Costello, Catherine E; Whelan, Stephen A; Kobarg, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    Ki-1/57 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic regulatory protein first identified in malignant cells from Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is involved in gene expression regulation on both transcriptional and mRNA metabolism levels. Ki-1/57 belongs to the family of intrinsically unstructured proteins and undergoes phosphorylation by PKC and methylation by PRMT1. Previous characterization of its protein interaction profile by yeast two-hybrid screening showed that Ki-1/57 interacts with proteins of the SUMOylation machinery, the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme UBC9 and the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS3, which suggested that Ki-1/57 could be involved with this process. Here we identified seven potential SUMO target sites (lysine residues) on Ki-1/57 sequence and observed that Ki-1/57 is modified by SUMO proteins in vitro and in vivo. We showed that SUMOylation of Ki-1/57 occurred on lysines 213, 276, and 336. In transfected cells expressing FLAG-Ki-1/57 wild-type, its paralog FLAG-CGI-55 wild-type, or their non-SUMOylated triple mutants, the number of PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) is reduced compared with the control cells not expressing the constructs. More interestingly, after treating cells with arsenic trioxide (As2O3), the number of PML-NBs is no longer reduced when the non-SUMOylated triple mutant Ki-1/57 is expressed, suggesting that the SUMOylation of Ki-1/57 has a role in the control of As2O3-induced PML-NB formation. A proteome-wide analysis of Ki-1/57 partners in the presence of either SUMO-1 or SUMO-2 suggests that the involvement of Ki-1/57 with the regulation of gene expression is independent of the presence of either SUMO-1 or SUMO-2; however, the presence of SUMO-1 strongly influences the interaction of Ki-1/57 with proteins associated with cellular metabolism, maintenance, and cell cycle.

  11. Cis-regulatory control of the nuclear receptor Coup-TF gene in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini G Kalampoki

    Full Text Available Coup-TF, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor super family, has a fundamental role in the development of metazoan embryos. The study of the gene's regulatory circuit in the sea urchin embryo will facilitate the placement of this transcription factor in the well-studied embryonic Gene Regulatory Network (GRN. The Paracentrotus lividus Coup-TF gene (PlCoup-TF is expressed throughout embryonic development preferentially in the oral ectoderm of the gastrula and the ciliary band of the pluteus stage. Two overlapping λ genomic clones, containing three exons and upstream sequences of PlCoup-TF, were isolated from a genomic library. The transcription initiation site was determined and 5' deletions and individual segments of a 1930 bp upstream region were placed ahead of a GFP reporter cassette and injected into fertilized P.lividus eggs. Module a (-532 to -232, was necessary and sufficient to confer ciliary band expression to the reporter. Comparison of P.lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus upstream Coup-TF sequences, revealed considerable conservation, but none within module a. 5' and internal deletions into module a, defined a smaller region that confers ciliary band specific expression. Putative regulatory cis-acting elements (RE1, RE2 and RE3 within module a, were specifically bound by proteins in sea urchin embryonic nuclear extracts. Site-specific mutagenesis of these elements resulted in loss of reporter activity (RE1 or ectopic expression (RE2, RE3. It is proposed that sea urchin transcription factors, which bind these three regulatory sites, are necessary for spatial and quantitative regulation of the PlCoup-TF gene at pluteus stage sea urchin embryos. These findings lead to the future identification of these factors and to the hierarchical positioning of PlCoup-TF within the embryonic GRN.

  12. The s Process: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Models, Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaeppeler, Franz; Bisterzo, Sara; Aoki, Wako

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He burning layers of low mass AGB stars and during the He and C burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear...

  13. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  14. Report to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on analysis and evaluation of operational data - 1987: Power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-10-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) is devoted to the activities performed during 1987. The report is published in two volumes. NUREG-1272, Vol. 2, No. 1, covers Power Reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry, with comments regarding the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year, and summarizes information from Licensee Event Reports, the NRC's Operations Center, and Diagnostic Evaluations. NUREG-1272, Vol. 2, No. 2, covers Nonreactors and presents a review of the nonreactors events and misadministration reports that were reported in 1987 and a brief synopsis of AEOD studies published in 1987. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD Reports issued for 1980-1987.

  15. Developing the nuclear idea: concept, technique, and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billow, Richard M

    2013-10-01

    I introduce an approach to group that has remained undeveloped in the literature, but represents an essence of relationally oriented group psychotherapy. Evolving from the verbalizations and enactments through which the group symbolizes and becomes known-a nuclear idea takes shape. It emerges from the nucleus of the group process: co-created from intersubjective forces and locations that cannot be fully specified, yet may be possible to observe, name, and utilize clinically. Groups organize themselves by developing nuclear ideas, with the therapist's active participation. They are vehicles through which a group comes to think about its thinking: not only what it thinks, but also how it thinks, or chooses not to think, and when and why. Developing the nuclear idea provides a framework for how the therapist-and the group itself-goes about the task of containing. With its emphasis on meaning and the development of meaning as transformational, the concept of the nuclear idea supplements the whole group, interpersonal, and intrapsychic lenses through which the therapist comes to understand group experience and base interventions. Clinical vignettes illustrate how the therapist may develop nuclear ideas thematically, conceptualize further, and negotiate meaning with the co-participation of other group members.

  16. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marijn; Sheeran, Paschal; Kok, Gerjo; Hiemstra, Anneke; Prins, Jan M; Hospers, Harm J; van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior relation in relation to HIV medication adherence (Study 1) and intensive exercise behavior (Study 2). In Study 1, questionnaire and electronically monitored adherence data were collected at baseline and 3 months later from patients in the control arm of an HIV-adherence intervention study. In Study 2, questionnaire data was collected at 3 time points 6-weeks apart in a cohort study of physical activity. Complete data at all time points were obtained from 51 HIV-infected patients and 499 intensive exercise participants. Intentions were good predictors of behavior and explained 25 to 30% of the variance. Self-regulatory processes explained an additional 11% (Study 1) and 6% (Study 2) of variance in behavior on top of intentions. Regression and bootstrap analyses revealed at least partial, and possibly full, mediation of the intention-behavior relation by self-regulatory processes. The present studies indicate that self-regulatory processes may explain how intentions drive behavior. Future tests, using different health behaviors and experimental designs, could firmly establish whether self-regulatory processes complement current health behavior theories and should become routine targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  18. A 3D bioprinting exemplar of the consequences of the regulatory requirements on customized processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Medcalf, Nicholas; Segal, Joel; Williams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided 3D printing approaches to the industrial production of customized 3D functional living constructs for restoration of tissue and organ function face significant regulatory challenges. Using the manufacture of a customized, 3D-bioprinted nasal implant as a well-informed but hypothetical exemplar, we examine how these products might be regulated. Existing EU and USA regulatory frameworks do not account for the differences between 3D printing and conventional manufacturing methods or the ability to create individual customized products using mechanized rather than craft approaches. Already subject to extensive regulatory control, issues related to control of the computer-aided design to manufacture process and the associated software system chain present additional scientific and regulatory challenges for manufacturers of these complex 3D-bioprinted advanced combination products.

  19. Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from the staff panel on the Commission's determination of an Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrence (ENO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The Panel finds that the first criterion, pertaining to whether the accident caused a discharge of radioactive material or levels of radiation offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.84, has not been met. It further finds that there is presently insufficient information to support any definitive finding as to whether or not the second criterion, relating to damage to persons or property offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.85, has been met. Since the Panel has not found that both criteria have been met, it recommends that the Commission determine that the accident at Three Mile Island did not constitute an extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

  20. An operational approach to standard nuclear process model (SNPM) and SAP nuclear software implementation at Slovenske Elektrarne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.C. [Nuclear Power Plants Operation Department, Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s., Mlynske nivy 47, 821 09 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-07-01

    Benchmarking efforts in the fall of 2006 showed significant performance gaps in multiple measured processes between the Slovenske Elektrarne (SE) nuclear organization and the highest performing nuclear organizations in the world. While overall performance of the SE nuclear fleet was good and in the second quartile, when compared to the worldwide population of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), SE leadership set new goals to improve safety and operational performance to the first decile of the worldwide PWR Fleet. To meet these goals the SE nuclear team initiated a project to identify and implement the Best Practice nuclear processes in multiple areas. The benchmarking process identified the Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM), used in the US nuclear fleet, as the industry best practice process model. The Slovenske Elektrarne nuclear management team used various change management techniques to clearly establish the case for organizational and process change within the nuclear organization. The project organization established by the SE nuclear management team relied heavily on functional line organization personnel to gain early acceptance of the project goals and methods thereby reducing organizational opposition to the significant organizational and process changes. The choice of a standardized process model used, all or in part, by approximately one third of the nuclear industry worldwide greatly facilitated the development and acceptance of the changes. Use of a nuclear proven templated software platform significantly reduced development and testing efforts for the resulting fully integrated solution. In the spring of 2007 SE set in motion a set of initiatives that has resulted in a significant redesign of most processes related to nuclear plant maintenance and continuous improvement. Significant organizational structure changes have been designed and implemented to align the organization to the SNPM processes and programs. The completion of the initial

  1. MicroRNAs: Processing, Maturation, Target Recognition and Regulatory Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Girish C.; Singh, Jagjit; Barik, Sailen

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in posttranscriptional gene regulation have revealed another fine-tuning step in the expression of genetic information. A large number of cellular pathways, which act in organismal development and are important in health and disease, appear to be modulated by miRNAs. At the molecular level, miRNAs restrain the production of proteins by affecting the stability of their target mRNA and/or by down-regulating their translation. This review attempts to offer a snapshot of aspects of miRNA coding, processing, target recognition and function in animals. Our goal here is to provide the readers with a thought-provoking and mechanistic introduction to the miRNA world rather than with a detailed encyclopedia. PMID:22468167

  2. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements.

  3. One hub-one process: a tool based view on regulatory network topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneppen Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between the regulatory design and the functionality of molecular networks is a key issue in biology. Modules and motifs have been associated to various cellular processes, thereby providing anecdotal evidence for performance based localization on molecular networks. Results To quantify structure-function relationship we investigate similarities of proteins which are close in the regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. We find that the topology of the regulatory network only show weak remnants of its history of network reorganizations, but strong features of co-regulated proteins associated to similar tasks. These functional correlations decreases strongly when one consider proteins separated by more than two steps in the regulatory network. The network topology primarily reflects the processes that is orchestrated by each individual hub, whereas there is nearly no remnants of the history of protein duplications. Conclusion Our results suggests that local topological features of regulatory networks, including broad degree distributions, emerge as an implicit result of matching a number of needed processes to a finite toolbox of proteins.

  4. Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela Y; Aaker, Jennifer L

    2004-02-01

    This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal.

  5. Analysis of suprathermal nuclear processes in the solar core plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2017-04-01

    A consistent model for the description of suprathermal processes in the solar core plasma naturally triggered by fast particles generated in exoergic nuclear reactions is formulated. This model, based on the formalism of in-flight reaction probability, operates with different methods of treating particle slow-down in the plasma, and allows for the influence of electron degeneracy and electron screening on processes in the matter. The model is applied to examine slowing-down of 8.7 MeV α-particles produced in the {}7{Li}(p,α )α reaction of the pp chain, and to analyze suprathermal processes in the solar CNO cycle induced by them. Particular attention is paid to the suprathermal {}14{{N}}{(α ,{{p}})}17{{O}} reaction unappreciated in standard solar model simulations. It is found that an appreciable non-standard (α ,p) nuclear flow due to this reaction appears in the matter and modifies running of the CNO cycle in ∼95% of the solar core region. In this region at R> 0.1{R}ȯ , normal branching of nuclear flow {}14{{N}}≤ftarrow {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}} transforms to abnormal sequential flow {}14{{N}}\\to {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}}, altering some element abundances. In particular, nuclear network calculations reveal that in the outer core the abundances of 17O and 18O isotopes can increase by a factor of 20 as compared with standard estimates. A conjecture is made that other CNO suprathermal (α ,p) reactions may also affect abundances of CNO elements, including those generating solar neutrinos.

  6. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Alexander, Paul

    1996-03-01

    During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this paper, examples of specific applications in the areas of materials and food processing, transport in reactors and two-phase flow are discussed. One specific study, that of the internal structure of a packed column, is considered in detail. This example is reported to illustrate the extent of new, quantitative information of generic importance to many processing operations that can be obtained using NMR imaging in combination with image analysis.

  7. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis.

  8. Gap bridging enhancement of modified Urca process in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Alford, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear matter at neutron-star densities and temperatures, Cooper pairing leads to the formation of a gap in the nucleon excitation spectra resulting in exponentially strong Boltzmann suppression of many transport coefficients. Previous calculations have shown evidence that density oscillations of sufficiently large amplitude can overcome this suppression for flavor-changing beta processes, via the mechanism of "gap bridging". We address the simplifications made in that initial work, and show that gap bridging can counteract Boltzmann suppression of neutrino emissivity for the realistic case of modified Urca processes in matter with $^3P_2$ neutron pairing.

  9. A study for good regulatin of the CANDU's in Korea. Development of safety regulatory requirement for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Ki; Shin, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Yu, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J. [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The objective of project is to derive the policy recommendations to improve the efficiency of CANDU plants regulation. These policy recommendations will eventually contribute to the upgrading of Korean nuclear regulatory system and safety enhancement. During the first phase of this 2 years study, following research activities were done. On-site survey and analysis on CANDU plants regulation. Review on CANDU plants regulating experiences and current constraints. Review and analysis on the new Canadian regulatory approach.

  10. Modelling non-stationary dynamic gene regulatory processes with the BGM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk; Rahnenfuehrer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a Bayesian network model for inferring non-stationary regulatory processes from gene expression time series has been proposed. The Bayesian Gaussian Mixture (BGM) Bayesian network model divides the data into disjunct compartments (data subsets) by a free allocation model, and infers networ

  11. 76 FR 34007 - Draft Regulatory Basis for a Potential Rulemaking on Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: NUREG-1909, a white paper authored by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials, titled... waste through developing more sophisticated reprocessing technologies. During the Bush Administration... reprocessing spent fuel and deploying fast reactors to burn long-lived actinides. In response to these...

  12. Elements to evaluate the intention in the non-compliance s or violations to the regulatory framework in the national nuclear facilities; Elementos para evaluar la intencionalidad en los incumplimientos o violaciones al marco regulador en las instalaciones nucleares nacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J. M.; Gonzalez V, J. A., E-mail: jmespinosa@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Inside the impact evaluation process to the safety of non-compliance s or violations, developed and implanted by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), the Guide for the Impact Evaluation to the Safety in the National Nuclear Facilities by Non-compliance s or Violations to the Regulatory Framework was developed, which indicates that in the determination of the severity (graveness level) of a non-compliance or violation, four factors are evaluated: real and potential consequences to the safety, the impact to the regulator process and the intention. The non-compliance s or intentional violations are of particular interest, since the development of the regulatory activities of the CNSNS considers that the personnel of the licensees, as well as their contractors, will act and will communicate with integrity and honesty. The CNSNS cannot tolerate intentional non-compliance s, for what this violations type can be considered of a level of more graveness that the subjacent non-compliance. To determine the severity of a violation that involves intention, the CNSNS also took in consideration factors as the position and the personnel's responsibilities involved in the violation, the graveness level of the non-compliance in itself, the offender's intention and the possible gain that would produce the non-compliance, if exists, either economic or of another nature. The CNSNS hopes the licensees take significant corrective actions in response to non-compliance s or intentional violations, these corrective actions should correspond to the violation graveness with the purpose of generating a dissuasive effect in the organizations of the licensees. The present article involves the legal framework that confers the CNSNS the attributions to impose administrative sanctions to its licensees, establishes the definition of the CNSNS about what constitutes a non-compliance or intentional violation and finally indicates the intention types (deliberate

  13. Preliminary results of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission collaborative research program to assess tsunami hazard for nuclear power plants on the Atlantic and gulf coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A.M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Twitchell, David C.; Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.J.; Buczkowski, Brian J.; Sansoucy, M.

    2018-01-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear facilities in the United States. For this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and other key researchers for the purpose of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The initial phase of this work consisted principally of collection, interpretation, and analysis of available offshore data and information. Necessarily, the US NRC research program includes both seismic- and landslide-based tsunamigenic sources in both the near and the far fields. The inclusion of tsunamigenic landslides, an important category of sources that impact tsunami hazard levels for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts over the long time periods of interest to the US NRC is a key difference between this program and most other tsunami hazard assessment programs. Although only a few years old, this program is already producing results that both support current US NRC activities and look toward the long-term goal of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. This paper provides a summary of results from several areas of current research. An overview of the broader US NRC research program is provided in a companion paper in this conference.

  14. Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Derek C

    2009-11-01

    Ego-depletion (depletion of self-regulatory strength) can impair conscious efforts at self-regulation. Research into nonconscious self-regulation has demonstrated that preconscious automaticity and implementation intentions can automatically carry out regulatory tasks during times of ego-depletion. However, preconscious automaticity can only emerge during well-practiced tasks while implementation intentions can only support tasks that have been explicitly planned. Thus, when it comes to supporting the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour during times of ego-depletion these processes should be ineffective. However, it is argued here that because the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour can incidentally prime the underlying mental representations those primed representations can be postconsciously re-activated to support that behaviour during times of ego-depletion. Postconscious self-regulation might, therefore, support a type of self-regulatory behaviour that has, thus far, not been associated with any form of support.

  15. A critical assessment of regulatory triggers for products of biotechnology: Product vs. process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHughen, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Regulatory policies governing the safety of genetic engineering (rDNA) and the resulting products (GMOs) have been contentious and divisive, especially in agricultural applications of the technologies. These tensions led to vastly different approaches to safety regulation in different jurisdictions, even though the intent of regulations-to assure public and environmental safety-are common worldwide, and even though the international scientific communities agree on the basic principles of risk assessment and risk management. So great are the political divisions that jurisdictions cannot even agree on the appropriate triggers for regulatory capture, whether product or process. This paper reviews the historical policy and scientific implications of agricultural biotechnology regulatory approaches taken by the European Union, USA and Canada, using their respective statutes and regulations, and then critically assesses the scientific underpinnings of each.

  16. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake, E-mail: jake.amoroso@srs.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle S. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We explored the feasibility of melt processing multiphase titanate-based ceramics. • Melt processing produced phases obtained by alternative processing methods. • Phases incorporated multiple lanthanides and transition metals. • Processing in reducing atmosphere suppressed un-desirable Cs–Mo coupling. • Cr partitions to and stabilizes the hollandite phase, which promotes Cs retention. - Abstract: Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction–oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs–Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  17. Regulatory activities related with the modification of the frequency of the programmed stoppings of the Argentine nuclear centrals; Actividades regulatorias relacionadas con la modficacion de la frecuencia de las paradas programadas de las centrales nucleares argentinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, E.; Calvo, J.; Waldman, R.; Navarro, R

    2006-07-01

    The mandatory character documentation of the Argentinean nuclear power stations in Embalse and Atucha I, required the realization of a programmed stoppings every twelve months to execute that settled down in the maintenance and surveillance programs for each installation. Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., in it character of Responsible Entity of the operation of these power stations, requested to the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority, in 2003 and 2005 respectively, the authorization to change the period of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance of the systems related with the safety, to extend them from twelve to eighteen months. The mentioned applications were founded in economic aspects and in inclining to a decrease in the doses of the workers that perform in the activities that are carried out in the programmed stops. The adopted position by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to decide on these applications was based on the result of diverse evaluations that included the use of the Probabilistic Analysis of Safety specific of each power station, the operative experience resultant of the execution of the preventive maintenance program, and of the results of the repetitive tests and of the inspections in service. The regulatory decisions were different in each case. Indeed, the Embalse nuclear power station was authorized by the Regulatory Authority to modify from twelve to eighteen months the period among the realization of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance, conditioned to the execution of some specific regulatory requirements. On the other hand, the Atucha I nuclear power station was not authorized to modify this period. In this presentation that is detailed the acted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in both cases, the used analysis tools, and the foundation of the adopted decisions. (Author)

  18. Bridging research and environmental regulatory processes: the role of knowledge brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Thompson, Marcella; Rice, James W; Senier, Laura; Brown, Phil; Suuberg, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Federal funding agencies increasingly require research investigators to ensure that federally sponsored research demonstrates broader societal impact. Specifically, the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) requires research centers to include research translation and community engagement cores to achieve broader impacts, with special emphasis on improving environmental health policies through better scientific understanding. This paper draws on theoretical insights from the social sciences to show how incorporating knowledge brokers in research centers can facilitate translation of scientific expertise to influence regulatory processes and thus promote public health. Knowledge brokers connect academic researchers with decision-makers, to facilitate the translation of research findings into policies and programs. In this article, we describe the stages of the regulatory process and highlight the role of the knowledge broker and scientific expert at each stage. We illustrate the cooperation of knowledge brokers, scientific experts and policymakers using a case from the Brown University (Brown) SRP. We show how the Brown SRP incorporated knowledge brokers to engage scientific experts with regulatory officials around the emerging public health problem of vapor intrusion (VI). In the Brown SRP, the knowledge broker brought regulatory officials into the research process, to help scientific experts understand the critical nature of this emerging public health threat, and helped scientific experts develop a research agenda that would inform the development of timely measures to protect public health. Our experience shows that knowledge brokers can enhance the impact of environmental research on public health by connecting policy decision-makers with scientific experts at critical points throughout the regulatory process.

  19. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Helman

    2016-07-01

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and 18F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  20. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Hobbs, David T.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.; Mcilwain, Michael; Moyer, Bruce A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Subramanian, K.; Vienna, John D.; Wilmarth, B.

    2008-07-18

    Cleaning up the nation’s nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as contracting strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term, specific clean-up goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research focused on the full cleanup life-cycle offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing 1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, 2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, 3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, 4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes.

  1. Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)

    1978-10-01

    These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  2. Nuclear processes and neutrino production in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, S.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of flare neutrino flux is approached from the standpoint of recent observations and theoretical results on the nuclear processes in solar flares. Attention is given to the energy spectra and total numbers of accelerated particles in flares, as well as their resulting production of beta(+)-emitting radionuclei and pions; these should be the primary sources of neutrinos. The observed 0.511 MeV line flux for the June 21, 1980 flare is compared with the expected from the number and spectrum of accelerated particles.

  3. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue 29: Bolting degradation or failure in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, T.Y.

    1991-09-01

    Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-29 deals with staff concerns about public risk due to degradation or failure of safety-related bolting in nuclear power plants. The issue was initiated in November 1982. Value-impact studies of a mandatory program on safety-related bolting for operating plants were inconclusive: therefore, additional regulatory requirements for operating plants could not be justified in accordance with provisions of 10 CFR 50.109. In addition, based on operating experience with bolting in both nuclear and conventional power plants, the actions already taken through bulletins, generic letters, and information notices, and the industry-proposed actions, the staff concluded that a sufficient technical basis exists for the resolution of GSI-29. The staff further concluded that leakage of bolted pressure joints is possible but catastrophic failure of a reactor coolant pressure boundary joint that will lead to significant accident sequences is highly unlikely. For future plants, it was concluded that a new Standard Review Plant section should be developed to codify existing bolting requirements and industry-developed initiatives. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Radioactive decay as a forced nuclear chemical process: Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2015-11-01

    Concepts regarding the mechanism of radioactive decay of nuclei are developed on the basis of a hypothesis that there is a dynamic relationship between the electronic and nuclear subsystems of an atom, and that fluctuating initiating effects of the electronic subsystem on a nucleus are possible. Such relationship is reflected in experimental findings that show the radioactive decay of nuclei might be determined by a positive difference between the mass of an initial nucleus and the mass of an atom's electronic subsystem, i.e., the mass of the entire atom (rather than that of its nucleus) and the total mass of the decay products. It is established that an intermediate nucleus whose charge is lower by unity than the charge of the initial radioactive nucleus is formed as a result of the above fluctuating stimuli that initiate radioactive decay, and its nuclear matter is thus in an unbalanced metastable state of inner shakeup, affecting the quark subsystem of nucleons. The intermediate nucleus thus experiences radioactive decay with the emission of α or β particles. At the same time, the high energy (with respect to the chemical scale) of electrons in plasma served as a factor initiating the processes in different nuclear chemical transformations and radioactive decays in low-temperature plasma studied earlier, particularly during the laser ablation of metals in aqueous solutions of different compositions and in near-surface cathode layers upon glow discharge. It is shown that a wide variety of nucleosynthesis processes in the Universe can be understood on the same basis, and a great many questions regarding the formation of light elements in the solar atmosphere and some heavy elements (particularly p-nuclei) in the interiors of massive stars at late stages of their evolution can also be resolved.

  5. Overcoming language barriers in the informed consent process: regulatory and compliance issues with the use of the "short form".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the informed consent process can be a significant impediment when recruiting non-English speaking subjects into clinical research studies. Regulatory guidelines indicate that the short form procedure be utilized in such circumstances. In this paper, we examine some of the ambiguities in the regulatory framework, the resulting need for institutional policy guidelines, and compliance issues with the short form process.

  6. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for...

  7. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT APPROACHES: CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-05-29

    Engineered barriers including cementitious barriers are used at sites disposing or contaminated with low-level radioactive waste to enhance performance of the natural environment with respect to controlling the potential spread of contaminants. Drivers for using cementitious barriers include: high radionuclide inventory, radionuclide characteristics (e.g., long half-live, high mobility due to chemical form/speciation, waste matrix properties, shallow water table, and humid climate that provides water for leaching the waste). This document comprises the first in a series of reports being prepared for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The document is divided into two parts which provide a summary of: (1) existing experience in the assessment of performance of cementitious materials used for radioactive waste management and disposal and (2) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approaches that have been applied for assessments. Each chapter is organized into five parts: Introduction, Regulatory Considerations, Specific Examples, Summary of Modeling Approaches and Conclusions and Needs. The objective of the report is to provide perspective on the state of the practice for conducting assessments for facilities involving cementitious barriers and to identify opportunities for improvements to the existing approaches. Examples are provided in two contexts: (1) performance assessments conducted for waste disposal facilities and (2) performance assessment-like analyses (e.g., risk assessments) conducted under other regulatory regimes. The introductory sections of each section provide a perspective on the purpose of performance assessments and different roles of cementitious materials for radioactive waste management. Significant experience with assessments of cementitious materials associated with radioactive waste disposal concepts exists in the US Department of Energy Complex and the commercial nuclear sector. Recently, the desire to close legacy facilities has created

  8. Nuclear fuel materials processing in reactive gas plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jin Young; Yang, Myung Seung; Seo, Yong Dae; Kim Yong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and have been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  9. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Woong Ki; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and has been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  10. Nuclear pre-mRNA processing in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.S.N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Biology and Program in Molecular Plant Biology; Golovkin, M. (eds.) [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    This volume of CTMI, entitled Nuclear premRNA Processing in Plants, with 16 chapters from leading scientists in this area, summarizes recent advances in nuclear pre-mRNA processing and its role in plant growth and development. It provides researchers in the field, as well as those in related areas, with an up-to-date and comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the current status and future potential of this research in understanding plant biology. The first four chapters focus on spliceosome composition, genome-wide alternative splicing, and splice site requirements for U1 and U12 introns using computational and empirical approaches. Analysis of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that 80% of all protein-coding nuclear genes contain one or more introns. The lack of an in vitro plant splicing system has made it difficult to identify general and plant-specific components of splicing machinery in plants. The next three chapters focus on serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, which are known to play key roles in constitutive and regulated splicing of pre-mRNA and other aspects of RNA metabolism in metazoans. These proteins engage both in RNA binding and protein.protein interactions and function as splicing regulators at multiple stages of spliceosome assembly. This family of proteins has expanded considerably in plants with several plant-specific SR proteins. Several serendipitous discoveries made using forward genetics are indicating that RNA metabolism (alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, mRNA transport) plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The next seven chapters focus on these aspects of RNA metabolism. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates a number of physiological processes during plant growth and development. The next chapter or A.B. Rose discusses the ways introns affect gene expression both positively and

  11. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-08-28

    Cleaning up the nation’s nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research, addressing the full cleanup life-cycle, offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing 1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, 2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, 3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and 4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM’s responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM’s mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The

  12. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.; Tang, Ming; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin; Su, Dong; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2014-11-01

    Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction-oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs-Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  13. Used nuclear fuel separations process simulation and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Krebs, J.F.; Copple, J.M.; Frey, K.E.; Maggos, L.E.; Figueroa, J.; Willit, J.L.; Papadias, D.D. [Argonne National Laboratory: 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent efforts in separations process simulation at Argonne have expanded from the traditional focus on solvent extraction flowsheet design in order to capture process dynamics and to simulate other components, processing and systems of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. For example, the Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction (AMUSE) code has been enhanced to make it both more portable and more readily extensible. Moving away from a spreadsheet environment makes the addition of new species and processes simpler for the expert user, which should enable more rapid implementation of chemical models that simulate evolving processes. The dyAMUSE (dynamic AMUSE) version allows the simulation of transient behavior across an extractor. Electrochemical separations have now been modeled using spreadsheet codes that simulate the electrochemical recycle of fast reactor fuel. The user can follow the evolution of the salt, products, and waste compositions in the electro-refiner, cathode processors, and drawdown as a function of fuel batches treated. To further expand capabilities in integrating multiple unit operations, a platform for linking mathematical models representing the different operations that comprise a reprocessing facility was adapted to enable systems-level analysis and optimization of facility functions. (authors)

  14. Systematic Approach to Computational Design of Gene Regulatory Networks with Information Processing Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskon, Miha; Mraz, Miha

    2014-01-01

    We present several measures that can be used in de novo computational design of biological systems with information processing capabilities. Their main purpose is to objectively evaluate the behavior and identify the biological information processing structures with the best dynamical properties. They can be used to define constraints that allow one to simplify the design of more complex biological systems. These measures can be applied to existent computational design approaches in synthetic biology, i.e., rational and automatic design approaches. We demonstrate their use on a) the computational models of several basic information processing structures implemented with gene regulatory networks and b) on a modular design of a synchronous toggle switch.

  15. Applications of digital pulse processing in nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Grzywacz, R

    2003-01-01

    Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on hybrid systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing concepts have been developed. For example, one specific design, the Digital Gamma Finder (DGF-4C), has been used extensively for particle- and gamma-spectroscopy of nuclei far from stability. Using the DGF-4C, a variety of data acquisition systems have been implemented and used for measurements with semiconductor and scintillator detectors at recoil separators like the RMS at ORNL, the FRS at GSI and LISE at GANIL. Some novel features and unique advantages, such as trigger-less operation and pulse shape recording, are discussed in the context of selected studies.

  16. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science - 9279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-03-01

    In this document, we propose that scientific investments for the disposal of nuclear and hazardous wastes should not be focused solely on what may be viewed as current Department of Energy needs, but also upon longer-term investments in specific areas of science that underpin technologies presently in use. In the latter regard, we propose four science theme areas: 1) the structure and dynamics of materials and interfaces, 2) coupled chemical and physical processes, 3) complex solution phase phenomena, and 4) chemical recognition phenomena. The proposed scientific focus for each of these theme areas and the scientific opportunities are identified, along with links to major risks within the initiative areas identified in EM’s Engineering and Technology Roadmap.

  17. 78 FR 33995 - Nuclear Proliferation Assessment in Licensing Process for Enrichment or Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...; denial. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM), PRM-70-9, submitted by the American Physical Society (APS or the petitioner). The petitioner requested... members of the public. DATES: The docket for PRM-70-9 closed on June 6, 2013. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  18. Management of the process of nuclear transport; Gestion del proceso de transporte nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requejo, P.

    2015-07-01

    Since 1996 ETSA is the only Spanish logistics operator specialized on servicing the nuclear and radioactive industry. Nowadays ETSA has some technological systems specifically designed for the management of nuclear transports. These tools have been the result of the analysis of multiple factors involved in nuclear shipments, of ETSAs wide experience as a logistics operator and the search for continuous improvement. (Author)

  19. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing... CONTACT: Gregory Chapman, Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards, Office.... Introduction Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide 8.24, ``Health Physics Surveys During Enriched...

  20. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, Helman, E-mail: haamayae@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and {sup 18}F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  2. A Hydrogen Containment Process For Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. The hydrogen exhaust from the engine is contained in two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. The burner burns off the majority of the hydrogen, and the remaining hydrogen is removed in the tubular heat exchanger through the species recombination mechanism. A multi-dimensional, pressure-based multiphase computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to conceptually sizing the oxygen-rich burner, while a one-dimensional thermal analysis methodology was used to conceptually sizing the heat exchanger. Subsequently, a steady-state operation of the entire hydrogen containment process, from pressure vessel, through nozzle, diffuser, burner and heat exchanger, was simulated numerically, with the afore-mentioned computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational results show that 99% of hydrogen reduction is achieved at the end of the burner, and the rest of the hydrogen is removed to a trivial level in the heat exchanger. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger is less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  3. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission seismic regulations, research, and emerging trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokshi, N.C.; Shao, L.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research; Apostolakis, G.

    1997-03-01

    Historically in the United States, seismic issues have played an important role in determining site suitability and, in some cases, have determined the ultimate fate of power plants. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, a seismic design philosophy evolved as the licensing of the earlier plants was in progress. Concepts such as the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) emerged and were codified into the federal regulations with the publication in December 1973 of Appendix A, `Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,` to 10 CFR Part 100, `Reactor Site Criteria.` Seismic considerations are also important in siting and design of other fuel cycle and waste facilities. In this paper, a brief overview of the current seismic siting and design regulations are described along with some recent and planned changes based on the past experience, advancement in the state-of-the-art, and research results. In particular, the recently revised siting rule and use of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in implementation of the rule will be described in more detail. The paper includes discussion of some recent seismic issues and research activities, including issues related to aging. Some emerging trends are highlighted. In particular, the paper focuses on use of `expert opinion` in the probabilistic analysis and risk informed regulations and their implications to the seismic design. An additional focus is on international cooperative programs and how to initiate such programs such that better use can be made of limited resources to resolve issues of common interest. (author)

  4. Application of laser processing for disassembly of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Gennady A.; Zinchenko, A. V.; Arutyunyan, R. B.

    1998-12-01

    Provision of safety and drop of ecological risk at salvaging of nuclear submarines (NSM) of Russia Navy Forces represents one of the most actual problems of nowadays. It is necessary to remove from services of Russian Navy Forces 170 - 180 nuclear submarines by 2000. At salvaging of Russian Navy Forces NSM it should be necessary to cut out reactor compartments with more than 150 thousand tons of gross weight and to fragment terminal carcasses of submarines with gross weight of 2 million tons. Taking into account overall dimensions of salvaging objects and Euro-standard requirement on the sizes of carcass fragments, for salvaging of one NSM it is necessary to execute more than 10 km of cuts. Using of conventional methods of gas and plasma cutting of ship constructions and equipment polluted with radioactive oxides and bedding of insulation and paint and varnish materials causes contamination of working zones and environment by a mix of radioactive substances and highly toxic combustion products, nomenclature of which includes up to 50 names. Calculations carried out in the Institute of industrial and Marine Medicine have shown that salvage of just one NSM with using of gas and plasma cutting are accompanied by discharge into an environment of up to 11.5 kg of chromium oxides, up to 22.5 kg of manganese oxides, up to 97 kg of carbon oxides and up to 650 kg of nitrogen oxides. Fragmentation of such equipment by a method of directional explosion or hydraulic jet is problematic because of complexity of treated constructions and necessity to create special protective facilities, which will accumulate a bulk of radioactive and toxic discharges, as a consequence of the explosion and spreaded by shock waves and water deluges. In a number of new technological processes the cutting with using of high-power industrial lasers radiation stands out. As compared with other technological processes, laser cutting has many advantages determined by such unique properties of laser

  5. Regulatory guidance document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  6. Nuclear structure theory for the astrophysical rp-process and r-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.A.; Clement, R.; Schatz, H.; Giansiracusa, J.; Richter, W.A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Walters, W.B

    2003-05-19

    The astrophysical processes of rapid-proton capture and rapid-neutron capture require the knowledge of many nuclear properties which are not known from experiment. I will describe two examples of how theoretical models are used to provide this input. The first of these uses the Hartree-Fock method for displacement energies to obtain the masses of proton-rich nuclei needed for the rp-process. The second uses a model for configuration mixing near {sup 132}Sn to provide Q values and beta-decay lifetimes for the r-process.

  7. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Inspection of the brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the area of radiotherapy. A critical analysis; Inspecao do orgao regulador nuclear brasileiro na area de radioterapia. Uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Ricardo Roberto de Azevedo

    2005-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible in Brazil for the activities of licensing and control of radioactive installations in the radiotherapy medical area. The majority of these activities are developed by CNEN Co-ordination of Radioactive Installations (CORAD). One of the necessary stages for the development of licensing and control activities is the inspection of radiotherapy services (clinics and hospitals). Almost all of these inspections are carried out by CNEN Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), through its Service of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (SEFME). This work makes a survey of the main nonconformities found during ten years of inspections in radiotherapy services (1995 - 2004) and analyses the efficiency of these inspections in making the radiotherapy services develop their activities according to the norms in vigour in the country and adopt corrective actions against, at least, the nonconformities evidenced by CNEN inspectors. Additionally, it analyses the possibility of improvement and / or the optimisation of the process, through a procedure able to be unified and controlled, aiming a prompt communication to those involved in the licensing process (SEFME and CORAD) about the attendance by the radiotherapy services to the non-conformity items observed during the inspection. (author)

  9. Methodological proposal for the construction of the labor profiles of inspectors of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority; Propuesta metodologica para la construccion de los perfiles laborales de inspectores de la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcher, A.M.; Maceiras, E.; Degiovanni, G.; Perrin, C.; Sajaroff, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: alarcher@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) like essential part of their strategic institutional plan and in the mark of the modernization of the National Public Administration (NPA), identify the necessity to modify their functional organization, introducing the administration for processes and defining more flexible and better guided structures to the work in team. Starting from the definition of a new institutional flowchart it decided to proceed to a general reorganization of the human resources and on January, 2005 it was prepared the creation of a process whose serious objective to sit down the bases for the development of the professional career of the ARN. To such an end, it was thought about a work outline by stages, the first one of which had as final objective the elaboration of the Labor Profiles of the Institution. The work group for this first stage was integrated by a group of professionals of long trajectory in the institution and not belonging to the sector of Human Resources (RRHH). By this way it was organized as an independent group that it worked in narrow collaboration with the specific sector and informed directly to the maximum institutional direction. For the construction of the profiles a 'mixed' model was chosen that included the requirements of each position (that to make) and the competitions to complete them (how to make it), since a focus purely of competitions has not been seen as the more appropriate for the public administration and in particular for the ARN. In this work it is given to know a part of the results obtained during six months of effective work of the PerLa Group (denominated as well as an acronym of the expression Labor Profiles) putting emphasis in the defined profiles for the inspectors of those different regulatory branches that constitute the environment of competition of the RNA, this is Radiological Protection, Nuclear Safety, Safeguards and Physical Protection. The idea that underlies to the

  10. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond L

    1993-01-01

    This expanded, revised, and updated fourth edition of Nuclear Energy maintains the tradition of providing clear and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the subject, with emphasis on the explanation of trends and developments. As in earlier editions, the book is divided into three parts that achieve a natural flow of ideas: Basic Concepts, including the fundamentals of energy, particle interactions, fission, and fusion; Nuclear Systems, including accelerators, isotope separators, detectors, and nuclear reactors; and Nuclear Energy and Man, covering the many applications of radionuclides, r

  11. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Fifth Edition provides nuclear engineers, plant designers and radiation physicists with a comprehensive overview of nuclear energy and its uses, discusses potential problems and provides an outlook for the futureNew and important trends are discussed including probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), deregulation of the electric power industry to permit competition in the supply of electricity; improvements in performance characteristics of nuclear power plants, such as capacity factor, production costs, and safety factors; storage and disposal of all types of radioactive w

  12. The role of learning environment on high school chemistry students' motivation and self-regulatory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective self-regulatory learning strategies, with the goal of helping students adapt to future learning situations and become life-long learners. This study identifies key features that may characterize these "powerful learning environments", which I term "high self-regulating learning environments" for ease of discussion, and examine the environment's role on students' motivation and self-regulatory processes. Using direct observation, surveys, and formal and informal interviews, I identified perceptions, motivations, and self-regulatory strategies of 67 students in my high school chemistry classes as they completed academic tasks in both high and low self-regulating learning environments. With social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, I then examined how students' beliefs and processes changed after they moved from low to a high self-regulating learning environment. Analyses revealed that key features such as task meaning, utility, complexity, and control appeared to play a role in promoting positive changes in students' motivation and self-regulation. As embedded cases, I also included four students identified as high self-regulating, and four students identified as low self-regulating to examine whether the key features of high and low self-regulating learning environments played a similar role in both groups. Analysis of findings indicates that key features did play a significant role in promoting positive changes in both groups, with high self-regulating students' motivation and self-regulatory strategies generally remaining higher than the low self-regulating students; this was the case in both environments. Findings

  13. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1983. Volume 3, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, R A; Cerbone, R J; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Luckas, Jr, W J; Reich, M; Saha, P; Sastre, C

    1983-06-01

    The projects reported are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Development, Validation and Application, CRBR Balance of Plant Modeling, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, LWR Plant Analyzer Development, LWR Code Assessment and Application; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Bolting Failure Analysis, Probability Based Load Combinations for Design of Category I Structures, Mechanical Piping Benchmark Problems, Soil Structure Interaction; Human Error Data for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Events, Criteria for Human Engineering Regulatory Guides and Human Factors in Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards.

  14. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Volume 3. No. 2. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, R A; Cerbone, R J; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Luckas, Jr, W J; Reich, M; Saha, P; Sastre, C

    1983-09-01

    The projects reported are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC development, Validation and Application, CRBR balance of plant modeling, thermal-hydraulic reactor safety experiments, LWR plant analyzer development, LWR code assessment and application, thermal reactor code development (RAMONA-3B); stress corrosion cracking of PWR steam generator tubing, bolting failure analysis, probability based load combinations for design of category I structures, mechanical piping benchmark problems; human error data for nuclear power plant safety related events, criteria for human engineering regulatory guides and human factors in nuclear power plant safeguards.

  15. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  16. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting; Volume 2, Severe accident research, Thermal hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.J. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchersfrom CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-06-01

    Normal brain maturational and developmental processes, together with plastic reorganization of the brain in response to experiential demands, contribute to the acquisition of improved capacities for self-regulation and impulse control during adolescence. The frontal lobe is a main focus for these developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise to semicompulsory urges to perform the movements that constitute simple tics, complex tics, or compulsions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the expression of the genetic diathesis to TS is influenced by genetic and nongenetic factors affecting activity-dependent reorganization of neuroregulatory systems, thereby influencing the phenotype, illness severity, and adult outcome of tic disorders. Similar developmental processes during adolescence likely determine the phenotype and natural history of a broad range of other complex neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset, and they likely contribute to the acquisition of improved self-regulatory capacities that characterize normal adolescent development.

  18. Network and Database Security: Regulatory Compliance, Network, and Database Security - A Unified Process and Goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol A. Blake

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Database security has evolved; data security professionals have developed numerous techniques and approaches to assure data confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This paper will show that the Traditional Database Security, which has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges to database objects are not enough to protect data confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This paper is a compilation of different journals, articles and classroom discussions will focus on unifying the process of securing data or information whether it is in use, in storage or being transmitted. Promoting a change in Database Curriculum Development trends may also play a role in helping secure databases. This paper will take the approach that if one make a conscientious effort to unifying the Database Security process, which includes Database Management System (DBMS selection process, following regulatory compliances, analyzing and learning from the mistakes of others, Implementing Networking Security Technologies, and Securing the Database, may prevent database breach.

  19. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  20. A novel digital pulse processing architecture for nuclear instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moline, Yoann; Thevenin, Mathieu; Corre, Gwenole [CEA, LIST - Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Paindavoine, Michel [CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne - Laboratoire d' Etude de l' Apprentissage et du Developpement, 21000 DIJON, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The field of nuclear instrumentation covers a wide range of applications, including counting, spectrometry, pulse shape discrimination and multi-channel coincidence. These applications are the topic of many researches, new algorithms and implementations are constantly proposed thanks to advances in digital signal processing. However, these improvements are not yet implemented in instrumentation devices. This is especially true for neutron-gamma discrimination applications which traditionally use charge comparison method while literature proposes other algorithms based on frequency domain or wavelet theory which show better performances. Another example is pileups which are generally rejected while pileup correction algorithms also exist. These processes are traditionally performed offline due to two issues. The first is the Poissonian characteristic of the signal, composed of random arrival pulses which requires to current architectures to work in data flow. The second is the real-time requirement, which implies losing pulses when the pulse rate is too high. Despite the possibility of treating the pulses independently from each other, current architectures paralyze the acquisition of the signal during the processing of a pulse. This loss is called dead-time. These two issues have led current architectures to use dedicated solutions based on re-configurable components like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to overcome the need of performance necessary to deal with dead-time. However, dedicated hardware algorithm implementations on re-configurable technologies are complex and time-consuming. For all these reasons, a programmable Digital pulse Processing (DPP) architecture in a high level language such as Cor C++ which can reduce dead-time would be worthwhile for nuclear instrumentation. This would reduce prototyping and test duration by reducing the level of hardware expertise to implement new algorithms. However, today's programmable solutions do not meet

  1. Government Performance and Results Act: Performance plan FY 1999, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuches, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) strategic plan [NUREG-1614, Vol. 1, September 1997] establishes a strategic framework that will guide future decision-making and will help the NRC continue to meet its responsibility for protecting public health and safety, promoting the common defense and security, and protecting the environment. This performance plan complements the agency`s strategic plan by setting annual goals with measurable target levels of performance for FY 1999, as required by the Government Performance and Results Act. No significant contribution was made to the preparation of the performance plan by any non-Federal entity. However, a contractor was used to help facilitate discussions and resolution of issues. Within six months after the close of FY 1999, the NRC will submit to the President and the Congress a report on program performance for FY 1999. This performance report will review the success of the agency in achieving the performance goals established for FY 1999. Where those goals have been achieved, the underlying assumptions and strategies will be examined to ensure that continued applicability is warranted in the future. If any of the FY 1999 performance goals are not met, the agency will conduct a thorough analysis of why it did not meet the goal and the actions necessary to meet-the goal in the future. One result of this analysis will be the documentation of plans and schedules for achieving the established performance goal. If the analysis should indicate that the performance goal is impractical or infeasible, the performance report will document why that is the case and what action is recommended.

  2. Regulatory mechanism of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate is mediated by nuclear factor-κB and inhibits neutrophil accumulation in ARDS mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongman; Xu, Lisheng; Zhao, Jiping; Wang, Donghui; Guo, Ranran; Wang, Junfei; Gong, Wenbin; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Liang

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of nuclear factor (NF)-κB on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation and the inflammatory response in lung tissues with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as well as the therapeutic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Mouse models of ARDS were established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BALB/c mice were divided into control, LPS and PDTC + LPS groups. The expression of PMN adhesion molecules, CD11b/CD18 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), were detected by immunohistochemistry, while the protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the lung tissue were analyzed by western blot analysis. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the apoptosis rate of PMNs in the bronchoalveolar fluid, and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were also determined. Following an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, alveolar septum rupture, pulmonary interstitial hyperemia and PMN infiltration in the alveolar was observed. The protein expression of p65 in the pulmonary cytoplasm decreased, while the expression of p65 in the nucleus increased. The levels of IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α increased and the high expression status was maintained for 24 h. As the time increased, CD11b/CD18 and ICAM-1 expression increased, as well as MPO activity, while the apoptosis of PMNs was delayed. Compared with the LPS group, the expression of p65 in the pulmonary cytoplasm and the PMN apoptosis rate increased following PDTC intervention, while the expression of p65 in the nucleus decreased, as well as the expression levels of the cytokines and MPO activity. Therefore, PDTC reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines via the NF-κB pathway, which reduced the activation of PMNs in the lung tissue and promoted PMN apoptosis.

  3. Geologic uncertainty in a regulatory environment: An example from the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautman, C. A.; Treadway, A. H.

    1991-11-01

    Regulatory geologists are concerned with predicting the performance of sites proposed for waste disposal or for remediation of existing pollution problems. Geologic modeling of these sites requires large-scale expansion of knowledge obtained from very limited sampling. This expansion induces considerable uncertainty into the geologic models of rock properties that are required for modeling the predicted performance of the site. One method for assessing this uncertainty is through nonparametric geostatistical simulation. Simulation can produce a series of equiprobable models of a rock property of interest. Each model honors measured values at sampled locations, and each can be constructed to emulate both the univariate histogram and the spatial covariance structure of the measured data. Computing a performance model for a number of geologic simulations allows evaluation of the effects of geologic uncertainty. A site may be judged acceptable if the number of failures to meet a particular performance criterion produced by these computations is sufficiently low. A site that produces too many failures may be either unacceptable or simply inadequately described. The simulation approach to addressing geologic uncertainty is being applied to the potential high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A. Preliminary geologic models of unsaturated permeability have been created that reproduce observed statistical properties reasonably well. A spread of unsaturated groundwater travel times has been computed that reflects the variability of those geologic models. Regions within the simulated models exhibiting the greatest variability among multiple runs are candidates for obtaining the greatest reduction in uncertainty through additional site characterization.

  4. Linking the Regulatory and Reimbursement Processes for Medical Devices: The Need for Integrated Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Wilcher, Britni; van Giessen, Anoukh; Taylor, Rod S

    2017-02-01

    Much criticism has been directed at the licencing requirements for medical devices (MDs) as they often result in a lack of robust evidence to inform health technology assessment (HTA) decisions. To better understand the current international decisional framework on MD technologies, we undertook three linked research studies: a review of the device regulatory procedures, a survey of current HTA practices and an empirical comparison of HTA reports of drugs versus MDs. Our review confirms that current device regulatory processes across the globe are substantially less stringent than drugs. As a result, international HTA agencies report that they face a number of challenges when assessing MDs, including reliance on suboptimal data to make clinical and cost-effectiveness decisions. Whilst many HTA agencies have adapted their processes and procedures to handle MD technology submissions, in our comparison of HTA reports we found little evidence of the application of methodologies that take account of device-specific issues, such as incremental development. Overall, our research reinforces the need for better linkage between licencing and HTA and the development and application of innovative HTA methodologies with the objective of securing faster patient access for those technologies that can be shown to represent good value for money. © 2017 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. FRENDY: A new nuclear data processing system being developed at JAEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kenichi; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Kunieda, Satoshi; Suyama, Kenya; Fukahori, Tokio

    2017-09-01

    JAEA has provided an evaluated nuclear data library JENDL and nuclear application codes such as MARBLE, SRAC, MVP and PHITS. These domestic codes have been widely used in many universities and industrial companies in Japan. However, we sometimes find problems in imported processing systems and need to revise them when the new JENDL is released. To overcome such problems and immediately process the nuclear data when it is released, JAEA started developing a new nuclear data processing system, FRENDY in 2013. This paper describes the outline of the development of FRENDY and both its capabilities and performances by the analyses of criticality experiments. The verification results indicate that FRENDY properly generates ACE files.

  6. The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are some of the most thoroughly tested and evaluated of all food additives. Products including aspartame and saccharin, have undergone several rounds of risk assessment by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in relation to a number of potential safety concerns, including carcinogenicity and more recently, effects on body weight gain, glycemic control and effects on the gut microbiome. The majority of the modern day sweeteners; acesulfame K, advantame, aspartame, neotame and sucralose have been approved in the United States through the food additive process, whereas the most recent sweetener approvals for steviol glycosides and lo han guo have occurred through the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) system, based on scientific procedures. While the regulatory process and review time of these two types of sweetener evaluations by the FDA differ, the same level of scientific evidence is required to support safety, so as to ensure a reasonable certainty of no harm.

  7. 75 FR 28073 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-3039, ``Standard Format and Content...

  8. 75 FR 48382 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1228, ``Standard Format and Content...

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the issuances received during the specified period from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board only. The two issuances included relate to: (1) suspension of byproduct material license for Eastern Testing and Inspection, Inc., and (2) license renewal for the Georgia Tech research reactor.

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  14. The oil rich Niger Delta region: a framework for improved performance of the Nigerian regulatory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, N Chukemeka Hemanachi

    2003-06-01

    The adoption of this policy framework has the ability to reconcile industry, the environment and community interests, taking into account all factors that are relevant to managing developments that are both sustainable and contributory to the achievement of industrial and community stability. The management of resource development is crucial in sustaining the Niger Delta ecosystem and the human population resident in the Niger Delta region. If these separate bodies are constituted they would have the potential to reduce and discourage: i) the vulnerability of the regulatory body to influential and powerful multinational oil companies; ii) the proclivity for unaccountability to the people of the Niger Delta region, since the people of the Niger Delta would have access to the regulatory body's classified and unclassified information, and are part of the decision-making process; and iii) a reduction in conflict between the oil mining companies and the aggrieved youths of the oil rich Niger Delta region. This policy framework also has the added advantage of producing high quality decisions and more acceptable decisions than those for which the people of the Niger Delta region are excluded from the processes that concern their existence. The agency decision-making could now become a multilateral process and thus promote and enhance the accurate, impartial and rational application of legislative directives to given cases or classes of cases. Most importantly, the Minister of Petroleum Resources should be empowered by legislation to revoke any license or lease in respect of an area designated as marginal if left undeveloped for a period of 5 years and grant a lease or license for the area to a more responsible oil company.

  15. Actions of the Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the adequate implementation of the legislation in matter of radiological protection; Acciones de la Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear cubana en la adecuada implementacion de la Legislacion en materia de proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet R, O.M. [Delegacion Territorial CITMA. Peralta No.16, Rpto Peralta, Holguin, CP 80400 (Cuba); Guillen C, A.; Betancourt H, L.A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Calle 28 No.504, Miramar Playa, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: ofelia@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of the regulatory activity in matter of safety and radiological protection it depends in great measure of the practical implementation level of the legislation in this matter. In our country this objective has been achieved through the one continuous improvement of the Hierarchical System of Nuclear Regulation, the reconciliation with specialists and national experts in each matter during the elaboration of the legal documents; the popularization and gratuitous distribution of it approved; the precision in the validation conditions of the authorizations of those main precepts applicable to the practices; the legal foundation of the deficiencies evidenced in the regulatory inspections; the development of a Safety Culture; the realization of Annual Regulatory Conferences and mainly in the training of the personnel related with the safety. Also, the constant analysis on the part of the specialists of the Regulatory Authority of the grade of implementation of this legislation, it discussion in national and international events and the actions recommended in these works. As a result of this focus, it is considered that the Regulatory Authority has impacted appropriately in the implementation of this legislation. (Author)

  16. Critical thinking as a self-regulatory process component in teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P

    2010-05-01

    This article presents a theoretically grounded model of critical thinking and self-regulation in the context of teaching and learning. Critical thinking, deriving from an educational psychology perspective is a complex process of reflection that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking and professional development. My conceptualisation in this discussion paper argues that both theoretical orientations (critical thinking and self-regulation) operate in a dynamic interactive system of teaching and learning. My argument, based on existing research evidence, suggests two important points: (i) critical thinking acts as another cognitive strategy of self-regulation that learners use in their learning, and (ii) critical thinking may be a product of various antecedents such as different self-regulatory strategies.

  17. CO2 – intrinsic product, essential substrate and regulatory trigger of microbial and mammalian production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian eBlombach

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence CO2/HCO3- dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant CO2/HCO3- levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate derived products. At the same time CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular CO2/HCO3- depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such like hydrostatic pressures, aeration and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local CO2/HCO3- levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of CO2/HCO3- in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity and transcriptional regulation.

  18. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  19. Regulatory mechanism of protein metabolic pathway during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zuo, Qisheng; Lian, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhentao; Wang, Yingjie; Ahmed, Mahmoud F; Tang, Beibei; Xiao, Tianrong; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2015-08-01

    We explored the regulatory mechanism of protein metabolism during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cells and provide a basis for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro. We sequenced the transcriptome of embryonic stem cells, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), bioinformatics analysis methods, and detection of the key genes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we found 16 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the biological metabolism during the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to primordial germ cells and 15 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the differentiation stage of primordial germ cells to spermatogonial stem cells. We found three pathways, arginine-proline metabolic pathway, tyrosine metabolic pathway, and tryptophan metabolic pathway, significantly enriched in the whole differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to spermatogonial stem cells. Moreover, for these three pathways, we screened key genes such as NOS2, ADC, FAH, and IDO. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression trend of these genes were the same to RNA-Seq. Our findings showed that the three pathways and these key genes play an important role in the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to male germ cells. These results provide basic information for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro.

  20. Prohibition and regulatory authority: a documental research about drugs categorizing administrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Karla Soares

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to map the decision making process and identify actors and foundation of regulatory normative acts within public policy about drugs, consubstantiated with the edition and updates of Portaria SVS/MS nº 344/1998, which defines rules to substances under special control and forbidden substances in Brazil, and complement the meaning of Law 11.343/2006. A documentary research was made to elucidate the following issues: compliance of the acts of National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance - ANVISA to the actualizations of the lists of the international conventions about the theme; actors who have initiative of the inclusion process of substances; steps of the process; use of social participation, decisional transparency and accountability mechanisms; consulted sources to subsidize the decision and main reasons related in the technical reports. The results shows that there’s not total compliance to the international parameters with the inclusion of substances in the Brazilian controlling lists and that the prohibition is more related to public security reasons than health damages, probably due to asymmetric influence of interest groups in the administrative process.

  1. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-01-01

    Normal brain maturational and developmental processes, together with plastic reorganization of the brain in response to experiential demands, contribute to the acquisition of improved capacities for self-regulation and impulse control during adolescence. The frontal lobe is a main focus for these......Normal brain maturational and developmental processes, together with plastic reorganization of the brain in response to experiential demands, contribute to the acquisition of improved capacities for self-regulation and impulse control during adolescence. The frontal lobe is a main focus...... for these developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise...... influencing the phenotype, illness severity, and adult outcome of tic disorders. Similar developmental processes during adolescence likely determine the phenotype and natural history of a broad range of other complex neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset, and they likely contribute to the acquisition...

  2. Kinematics of high-energy nuclear processes; Cinematica de los procesos nucleares de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title:Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  3. Kinematics of low-energy nuclear processes; Cinematica de los procesos nucleares de baja energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  4. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; CUI Shu-Wen; YAN Zhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions should not include Drell-Yan experimental data.

  5. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANChun-Gui; CUIShu-Wen; YANZhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Dre11-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Dre11-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions shoul""""d not include Dre11-Yan experimental data.

  6. The NJOY nuclear data processing system: Volume 2, The NJOY, RECONR, BROADR, HEATR, and THERMR modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Boicourt, R.M.

    1982-05-01

    The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing cross sections and related nuclear parameters from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data. This volume provides detailed descriptions of the NJOY module, which contains the executive program and utility subroutines used by the other modules, and it discusses the theory and computational methods of four of the modules used for producing pointwise cross sections: RECONR, BROADR, HEATR, and THERMR.

  7. Rho family GTP binding proteins are involved in the regulatory volume decrease process in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine F; Beisner, Kristine H; Willumsen, Berthe M

    2002-01-01

    The role of Rho GTPases in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process following osmotic cell swelling is controversial and has so far only been investigated for the swelling-activated Cl- efflux. We investigated the involvement of RhoA in the RVD process in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, using wild-...

  8. Investigating relationship between self- and co-regulatory learning processes in a workplace e-learning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.; Tampinongkol, S.; Sedighi, M.; Van den Berg, J.; Veen, W.

    2014-01-01

    While supporting regulatory learning processes in work environments is increasingly becoming important, there is not a clear picture of the interaction between self- and coregulatory processes performed by learners in workplace e-learning systems. In this paper, by following a design-based research

  9. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995. Volume 42, Pages 1-258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This is the 42nd volume of issuances of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. This book is a reprinting, containing corrections of numerous printing errors in a previously distributed book. It covers the period from July 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities, and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a 6-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly editions and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition.

  10. Literature on fabrication of tungsten for application in pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Phillips, A.G.; Johnson, L.D.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-10-11

    The pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels requires crucibles, stirrers, and transfer tubing that will withstand the temperature and the chemical attack from molten salts and metals used in the process. This report summarizes the literature that pertains to fabrication (joining, chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying, forming, and spinning) is the main theme. This report also summarizes a sampling of literature on molbdenum and the work previously performed at Argonne National Laboratory on other container materials used for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  11. Cis-regulatory elements: molecular mechanisms and evolutionary processes underlying divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopp, Patricia J; Kalay, Gizem

    2011-12-06

    Cis-regulatory sequences, such as enhancers and promoters, control development and physiology by regulating gene expression. Mutations that affect the function of these sequences contribute to phenotypic diversity within and between species. With many case studies implicating divergent cis-regulatory activity in phenotypic evolution, researchers have recently begun to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for cis-regulatory divergence. Approaches include detailed functional analysis of individual cis-regulatory elements and comparing mechanisms of gene regulation among species using the latest genomic tools. Despite the limited number of mechanistic studies published to date, this work shows how cis-regulatory activity can diverge and how studies of cis-regulatory divergence can address long-standing questions about the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic evolution.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Process Validation Technical Support Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-03-13

    The purpose of Process Validation is to confirm that nominal process operations are consistent with the expected process envelope. The Process Validation activities described in this document are not part of the safety basis, but are expected to demonstrate that the process operates well within the safety basis. Some adjustments to the process may be made as a result of information gathered in Process Validation.

  13. Urgent problems of the vector meson production in nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, A I

    2001-01-01

    A brief review of the topical problems related to dynamics of vector meson is given. In particular, in-medium modification of the vector meson properties in hot and nuclear matter, photoproduction of the phi-mesons as a probe for hidden strangeness in a nucleon phi-, omega-production and OZI-rule violation, omega-production as a tool for studying the baryon resonance properties are discussed

  14. Processing used nuclear fuel with nanoscale control of uranium and ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Ernest M.; Peruski, Kathryn M.; Prizio, Sarah E.; Bridges, Andrea N. A.; Rudisill, Tracy S.; Hobbs, David T.; Phillip, William A.; Burns, Peter C.

    2016-05-01

    Current separation and purification technologies utilized in the nuclear fuel cycle rely primarily on liquid-liquid extraction and ion-exchange processes. Here, we report a laboratory-scale aqueous process that demonstrates nanoscale control for the recovery of uranium from simulated used nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL). The selective, hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative dissolution of SIMFUEL material results in the rapid assembly of persistent uranyl peroxide nanocluster species that can be separated and recovered at moderate to high yield from other process-soluble constituents using sequestration-assisted ultrafiltration. Implementation of size-selective physical processes like filtration could results in an overall simplification of nuclear fuel cycle technology, improving the environmental consequences of nuclear energy and reducing costs of processing.

  15. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Quality Assurance Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-02-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Software Quality Assurance Plan. The Software Quality Assurance Plan is intended to ensure all actions necessary for the software life cycle; verification and validation activities; documentation and deliverables; project management; configuration management, nonconformance reporting and corrective action; and quality assessment and improvement have been planned and a systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a software product conforms to established technical requirements; and to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  16. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Quality Assurance Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the Software Quality Assurance Plan. The Software Quality Assurance Plan is intended to ensure all actions necessary for the software life cycle; verification and validation activities; documentation and deliverables; project management; configuration management, nonconformance reporting and corrective action; and quality assessment and improvement have been planned and a systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a software product conforms to established technical requirements; and to meet the contractual commitments prepared by the sponsor; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  17. Nuclear safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear risk in Eastern Europe and other regions. Scientific-technical cooperation with nuclear regulatory authorities and technical support organizations (TSOs); Einschaetzung der nuklearen Sicherheit von Kernkraftwerken sowie nuklearer Risiken in Osteuropa und anderen Regionen. Wissenschaftlich-technische Zusammenarbeit mit atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen (TSO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2014-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS project 3611I01512 formed the frame of the GRS for the scientifictechnical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety of NPPs and for the evaluation of nuclear risks in Eastern Europe and other regions for the period from September 2011 till June 2014. In the present final report main results of the project are described. The project comprised the following technical topics: - Record status of NPP modernisation programs, Monitoring and evaluation of modernisation programs; - Design basis and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000); - Cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3+ and on building NRA and safety evaluation capacities; - Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste; - Evaluation of new reactor concepts and their safety design; Panels at regulatory level. The work results are preceded by a summary on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  18. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  19. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.b, E-mail: eduardo@lps.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Cota, Raphael E.; Ramos, Bruno L., E-mail: brunolange@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  20. Public participation processes related to nuclear research installations: what are the driving factors behind participation intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcanu, Catrinel; Perko, Tanja; Laes, Erik

    2014-04-01

    This article addresses organised public participation processes related to installations for nuclear research. The aim was to determine predictors that could provide an empirical insight into the motivations underlying people's intended level of involvement. The results highlight attitude towards participation and moral norm as the strongest predictors for participation intention. Other significant predictors were time constraints, attitude towards nuclear energy, subjective and descriptive norms, and knowledge. An opposing relationship is noted between participation intention and attitude towards nuclear energy. At the same time, people who are more knowledgeable about the nuclear domain seem more willing to get involved. The analysis also revealed that financial benefits do not influence people's intended involvement in participation processes related to nuclear research installations. The results reported here are based on empirical data from a large-scale public opinion survey (N = 1020) carried out in Belgium during May-June 2011.

  1. Impact of nuclear fission on r-process nucleosynthesis and origin of solar r-process elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibagaki, Shota, E-mail: shota.shibagaki@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, Grant J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Chiba, Satoshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8850 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Binary neutron star mergers (NSMs) are expected to be main production sites of r-process elements. Their ejecta are extremely neutron-rich (Y{sub e}<0.1), and the r-process path proceeds along the neutron drip line and enters the region of fissile nuclei. In this situation, although superheavy nuclei may be synthesized and the r-process path may reach the island of stability, those are sensitive to theoretical models of nuclear masses and nuclear fission. In this study, we carry out r-process nucleosynthesis simulations in the NSMs. Our new nuclear reaction network code include new theoretical models of nuclear masses and nuclear fission. Our r-process simulation of a binary NSM shows that the final r-process elemental abundances exhibit flat pattern for A∼110-160, and several fission cycling operate in extremely neutron-rich conditions of the NSM. We find that the combination of the NSMs and the magnetorotational supernovae can reproduce the solar r-process elements. We discuss the validity of this interpretation.

  2. The nuclear processes responsible for the CNO synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M; Goriely, S

    2002-01-01

    The abundances of the isotopes of the elements C, N and O are mainly affected by the cold CNO cycles in non-explosive stellar situations, or by the hot CNO chains that can develop in certain explosive sites, like classical novae. Helium burning phases can modify the composition of the ashes of the CNO transmutations through several $\\alpha$-capture reactions, the most famed one being 12C(a,g)16O. This contribution presents a short review of the purely nuclear physics limitations imposed on the accuracy of the predicted C, N and O yields from H-burning in non-explosive stars or novae. This analysis makes largely use of the NACRE compilation for the rates of the reactions on stable targets making up the cold CNO cycle. Some more recent rate determinations are also considered. The analysis of the impact of the rate uncertainties on the abundance predictions is conducted in the framework of a simple parametric astrophysical model. These calculations have the virtue of being a guide in the selection of the nuclear...

  3. Uranium mining in Virginia: scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining and processing in Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Uranium Mining in Virginia; Committee on Earth Resources; National Research Council

    2012-01-01

    .... Uranium Mining in Virginia examines the scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining, milling, and processing as they relate to the Common...

  4. Reverse engineering nuclear properties from rare earth abundances in the r process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, M. R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.; Steiner, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    The bulk of the rare earth elements are believed to be synthesized in the rapid neutron capture process or r process of nucleosynthesis. The solar r-process residuals show a small peak in the rare earths around A∼ 160, which is proposed to be formed dynamically during the end phase of the r process by a pileup of material. This abundance feature is of particular importance as it is sensitive to both the nuclear physics inputs and the astrophysical conditions of the main r process. We explore the formation of the rare earth peak from the perspective of an inverse problem, using Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses to investigate the unknown nuclear properties required to best match rare earth abundance sector of the solar isotopic residuals. When nuclear masses are changed, we recalculate the relevant β-decay properties and neutron capture rates in the rare earth region. The feedback provided by this observational constraint allows for the reverse engineering of nuclear properties far from stability where no experimental information exists. We investigate a range of astrophysical conditions with this method and show how these lead to different predictions in the nuclear properties influential to the formation of the rare earth peak. We conclude that targeted experimental campaigns in this region will help to resolve the type of conditions responsible for the production of the rare earth nuclei, and will provide new insights into the longstanding problem of the astrophysical site(s) of the r process.

  5. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  6. Modelling non-stationary gene regulatory processes with a non-homogeneous Bayesian network and the allocation sampler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk; Edwards, Kieron D.; Ghazal, Peter; Millar, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Method: The objective of the present article is to propose and evaluate a probabilistic approach based on Bayesian networks for modelling non-homogeneous and non-linear gene regulatory processes. The method is based on a mixture model, using latent variables to assign individual measurements to diff

  7. Modelling non-stationary gene regulatory processes with a non-homogeneous Bayesian network and the allocation sampler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk; Edwards, Kieron D.; Ghazal, Peter; Millar, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Method: The objective of the present article is to propose and evaluate a probabilistic approach based on Bayesian networks for modelling non-homogeneous and non-linear gene regulatory processes. The method is based on a mixture model, using latent variables to assign individual measurements to

  8. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  9. Behavior of technetium in nuclear waste vitrification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Ian L

    Nearly 100 tests were performed with prototypical melters and off-gas system components to investigate the extents to which technetium is incorporated into the glass melt, partitioned to the off-gas stream, and captured by the off-gas treatment system components during waste vitrification. The tests employed several simulants, spiked with (99m)Tc and Re (a potential surrogate), of the low activity waste separated from nuclear wastes in storage in the Hanford tanks, which is planned for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Single-pass technetium retention averaged about 35 % and increased significantly with recycle of the off-gas treatment fluids. The fraction escaping the recycle loop was very small.

  10. Regulatory approach of the monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants program; Abordagem regulatoria do programa de monitoracao da eficacia da manutencao para usinas nucleoeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajgel, Stefan

    2009-03-15

    The electrical power generation using nuclear power plants requires this installation being safety, reliable and available for the working periods. For this purpose, an adequate, effective and well conducted maintenance program makes an essential and useful tool to the owner of the plant. However, it is necessary to follow the regulatory requirements for this program implementation which monitories this maintenance effectiveness. There are Brazilian norms requirements which must be followed. The international regulatory guides establish these requirements in good details but it is necessary to verify if this methodology for implementing can be totally applied here in Brazil. Then, the american guide NUMARC 93-01 which details how can be implemented a program for this monitoring, shows some methods for using. In this thesis, the Delphi and Probabilistic Safety Analysis were briefly included because they were preferred for implementing this monitoring.in a Brazilian plant. The results which are being obtained show that, looking the regulatory aspects, the NUMARC 93-01 follows our regulations and gives good results for the plant management. (author)

  11. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  12. Nuclear Transparency with the gamma + n -> pi- + p Process in 4He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Lingyan Zhu; John Arrington; Todd Averett; Elizabeth Beise; John Calarco; Ting Chang; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Marius Coman; Benjamin Clasie; Christopher Crawford; Sonja Dieterich; Frank Dohrmann; Kevin Fissum; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Kawtar Hafidi; Jens-Ole Hansen; Douglas Higinbotham; R.J. Holt; Cornelis De Jager; Xiaochao Zheng; X. Jiang; Edward Kinney; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; John LeRose; Nilanga Liyanage; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; J. Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Paul Reimer; Bodo Reitz; Arunava Saha; Elaine Schulte; Charles Seely; Simon Sirca; Steffen Strauch; Vincent Sulkosky; Branislav Vlahovic; Lawrence Weinstein; Krishni Wijesooriya; Claude Williamson; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Hong XIANG; Wang Xu; J. Zeng

    2003-08-01

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the fundamental process {gamma} n {yields} {pi}{sup -} p in {sup 4}He. These measurements were performed at Jefferson Lab in the photon energy range of 1.6 to 4.5 GeV and at {theta}{sub cm}{sup {pi}} = 70{sup o} and 90{sup o}. These measurements are the first of their kind in the study of nuclear transparency in photoreactions. They also provide a benchmark test of Glauber calculations based on traditional models of nuclear physics. The transparency results suggest deviations from the traditional nuclear physics picture. The momentum transfer dependence of the measured nuclear transparency is consistent with Glauber calculations which include the quantum chromodynamics phenomenon of color transparency.

  13. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Yang, M. S.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2002-05-01

    In this study, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology for DUPIC pellet and element satisfying the standard specification was verified through (1) the improvement of fabrication technology and equipment, (2) remote operation of fuel manufacturing and inspection equipment installed at DFDF and (3) the study on the material properties of DUPIC fuel. The blending process was newly developed for making DUPIC powder composition homogeneous, and mixing process was added to the DUPIC process flow for fabricating crack-free pellets. A series of fabrication experiments were carried out in terms of various process conditions. Based on these experimental results, the optimal process flow and conditions for DUPIC fuel fabrication were established. 6 DUPIC elements and 6 mini-elements for irradiation test in HANARO was successfully fabricated using 7.4 kg of spent PWR fuel in 2000. The process qualification tests has been performed using 10 kg of spent PWR fuel since May 2001. The optimal DUPIC fuel fabrication process meeting AECL's quality requirements has been established and qualified. Quality assurance system for DUPIC fuel fabrication was also established in cooperation of AECL.

  14. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  15. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2006-07-20

    The objectives of our research were to develop the first automated radiochemical process analyzer including sample pretreatment methodoology, and to initiate work on new detection approaches, especially using modified diode detectors.

  16. Cost tradeoffs in consequence management at nuclear power plants: A risk based approach to setting optimal long-term interdiction limits for regulatory analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.

    1995-05-01

    The consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can be limited by various protective actions, including emergency responses and long-term measures, to reduce exposures of affected populations. Each of these protective actions involve costs to society. The costs of the long-term protective actions depend on the criterion adopted for the allowable level of long-term exposure. This criterion, called the ``long term interdiction limit,`` is expressed in terms of the projected dose to an individual over a certain time period from the long-term exposure pathways. The two measures of offsite consequences, latent cancers and costs, are inversely related and the choice of an interdiction limit is, in effect, a trade-off between these two measures. By monetizing the health effects (through ascribing a monetary value to life lost), the costs of the two consequence measures vary with the interdiction limit, the health effect costs increasing as the limit is relaxed and the protective action costs decreasing. The minimum of the total cost curve can be used to calculate an optimal long term interdiction limit. The calculation of such an optimal limit is presented for each of five US nuclear power plants which were analyzed for severe accident risk in the NUREG-1150 program by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  17. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  18. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  19. GALILEE: A nuclear data processing system for transport, depletion and shielding codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COSTE-DELCLAUX, Mireille [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LLPR, 91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Nuclear Data Processing System for Transport, Depletion and Shielding Codes GALILEE is part of a CEA global development program dedicated to fine modelling of nuclear systems. The other projects contributing to this aim are APOLLO3 inherited from DESCARTES (Calvin and Fedon-Magnaud, 2007) which treats deterministic transport, TRIPOLI-4 (Diop et al., 2006) which treats Monte Carlo transport and DARWIN3 (Tsilanizara et al., 1999) which solves all fuel cycle problems. GALILEE aims are: - To provide to application codes (deterministic or Monte Carlo transport codes, shielding codes or depletion codes), a tool-box allowing a consistent processing for nuclear data coming from any evaluation given in ENDF-6 format, - To carry out an automatic chain for creating application libraries, - To provide consistent application libraries for modelling a nuclear system. GALILEE project is carried out in synergy with application codes in order to be able to share 'objects' but also 'tools'. (author)

  20. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent

  1. Nuclear regulation and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  2. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  3. The impact of individual nuclear properties on $r$-process nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, M R; McLaughlin, G C; Aprahamian, A

    2015-01-01

    The astrophysical rapid neutron capture process or `$r$ process' of nucleosynthesis is believed to be responsible for the production of approximately half the heavy element abundances found in nature. This multifaceted problem remains one of the greatest open challenges in all of physics. Knowledge of nuclear physics properties such as masses, $\\beta$-decay and neutron capture rates, as well as $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities are critical inputs that go into calculations of $r$-process nucleosynthesis. While properties of nuclei near stability have been established, much still remains unknown regarding neutron-rich nuclei far from stability that may participate in the $r$ process. Sensitivity studies gauge the astrophysical response of a change in nuclear physics input(s) which allows for the isolation of the most important nuclear properties that shape the final abundances observed in nature. This review summarizes the extent of recent sensitivity studies and highlights how these studies play ...

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  6. Reverse engineering nuclear properties from rare earth abundances in the $r$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, M R; Surman, R; Steiner, A W

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of the rare earth elements are believed to be synthesized in the rapid neutron capture process or $r$ process of nucleosynthesis. The solar $r$-process residuals show a small peak in the rare earths around $A\\sim 160$, which is proposed to be formed dynamically during the end phase of the $r$ process by a pileup of material. This abundance feature is of particular importance as it is sensitive to both the nuclear physics inputs and the astrophysical conditions of the main $r$ process. We explore the formation of the rare earth peak from the perspective of an inverse problem, using Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses to investigate the unknown nuclear properties required to best match rare earth abundance sector of the solar isotopic residuals. When nuclear masses are changed, we recalculate the relevant $\\beta$-decay properties and neutron capture rates in the rare earth region. The feedback provided by this observational constraint allows for the reverse engineering of nuclear properties far from ...

  7. Nuclear autophagy: An evolutionarily conserved mechanism of nuclear degradation in the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Majing; Zhao, Xueya; Song, Ying; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2016-11-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a catabolic process that is essential for cellular homeostasis. Studies on autophagic degradation of cytoplasmic components have generated interest in nuclear autophagy. Although its mechanisms and roles have remained elusive, tremendous progress has been made toward understanding nuclear autophagy. Nuclear autophagy is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes that may target various nuclear components through a series of processes, including nuclear sensing, nuclear export, autophagic substrate encapsulation and autophagic degradation in the cytoplasm. However, the molecular processes and regulatory mechanisms involved in nuclear autophagy remain largely unknown. Numerous studies have highlighted the importance of nuclear autophagy in physiological and pathological processes such as cancer. This review focuses on current advances in nuclear autophagy and provides a summary of its research history and landmark discoveries to offer new perspectives.

  8. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  9. Mock Nuclear Processing Facility-Safeguards Training Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hasty, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johns, Rissell [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-31

    This document outlines specific training requirements in the topical areas of Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and Physical Protection(PP) which are to be used as technical input for designing a mock Integrated Security Facility (ISF) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The overall project objective for these requirements is to enhance the ability to deliver training on Material Protection Control and Accounting (MC&A) concepts regarding hazardous material such as irradiated materials with respect to bulk processing facilities.

  10. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Application of telerobotic control to remote processing of nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.D.; Grasz, E.L.; Herget, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Addis, R.B.; DeMinico, G.A.

    1991-07-08

    In processing radioactive material there are certain steps which have customarily required operators working at glove box enclosures. This can subject the operators to low level radiation dosages and the risk of accidental contamination, as well as generate significant radioactive waste to accommodate the human interaction. An automated system is being developed to replace the operator at the glove box and thus remove the human from these risks, and minimize waste. Although most of the processing can be automated with very little human operator interaction, there are some tasks where intelligent intervention is necessary to adapt to unexpected circumstances and events. These activities will require that the operator be able to interact with the process using a remote manipulator in a manner as natural as if the operator were actually in the work cell. This robot-based remote manipulation system, or telerobot, must provide the operator with an effective means of controlling the robot arm, gripper and tools. This paper describes the effort in progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to achieve this capability. 8 refs.

  12. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  13. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-99SF21902, Am. M004) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley E. Ritterbusch, et. al.

    2003-01-29

    OAK-B135 Research under this project addresses the barriers to long term use of nuclear-generated electricity in the United States. It was agreed that a very basic and significant change to the current method of design and regulation was needed. That is, it was believed that the cost reduction goal could not be met by fixing the current system (i.e., an evolutionary approach) and a new, more advanced approach for this project would be needed. It is believed that a completely new design and regulatory process would have to be developed--a ''clean sheet of paper'' approach. This new approach would start with risk-based methods, would establish probabilistic design criteria, and would implement defense-in-depth only when necessary (1) to meet public policy issues (e.g., use of a containment building no matter how low the probability of a large release is) and (2) to address uncertainties in probabilistic methods and equipment performance. This new approach is significantly different from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current risk-informed program for operating plants. For our new approach, risk-based methods are the primary means for assuring plant safety, whereas in the NRC's current approach, defense-in-depth remains the primary means of assuring safety. The primary accomplishments in the first year--Phase 1 were (1) the establishment of a new, highly risk-informed design and regulatory framework, (2) the establishment of the preliminary version of the new, highly risk-informed design process, (3) core damage frequency predictions showing that, based on new, lower pipe rupture probabilities, the design of the emergency core cooling system equipment can be simplified without reducing plant safety, and (4) the initial development of methods for including uncertainties in a new integrated structures-systems design model. Under the new regulatory framework, options for the use of ''design basis accidents

  14. HRP-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins Q and R, is an alternative splicing factor that binds to UCUAUC splicing regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Jennifer L; Barberan-Soler, Sergio; Zahler, Alan M

    2009-10-16

    Alternative splicing is regulated by cis sequences in the pre-mRNA that serve as binding sites for trans-acting alternative splicing factors. In a previous study, we used bioinformatics and molecular biology to identify and confirm that the intronic hexamer sequence UCUAUC is a nematode alternative splicing regulatory element. In this study, we used RNA affinity chromatography to identify trans factors that bind to this sequence. HRP-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins Q and R, binds to UCUAUC in the context of unc-52 intronic regulatory sequences as well as to RNAs containing tandem repeats of this sequence. The three Us in the hexamer are the most important determinants of this binding specificity. We demonstrate, using RNA interference, that HRP-2 regulates the alternative splicing of two genes, unc-52 and lin-10, both of which have cassette exons flanked by an intronic UCUAUC motif. We propose that HRP-2 is a protein responsible for regulating alternative splicing through binding interactions with the UCUAUC sequence.

  15. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  16. A STUDY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS PROCESSES AT MIDDLE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Sadovyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the problem of new technology usage for the physics’ experiment in the quantum physics modeling. Currency of investigation consists in the need of physics experiment organization and realization in high energy physics with the consistent usage of activity method in middle education institutions. This kind of method considerably stirs up the process of model usage and modeling, abstracting, idealization and analogy. Idealized objects’ creation, elementary part transmutation, in particular, that does not exist in the objective reality, but possesses definite prototypes in the real world that help in their first approximation to the truth. The program Macromedia Flesh has been used in the article. This program has a range of advantages comparing to other possible software according to their possibilities and usage simplicity. The program uses all kinds of computer graph (raster, vectorial, which gives great opportunities for graphic objects’ creation, and prepared files take minimum of the constant memory. A part of developed experiments of the modeling character is given in the article. Demonstrations are done in dynamic rate.

  17. Shields calculations for teletherapy equipment. Regulatory approach of the National Center of Nuclear Safety; Calculos de blindajes para equipos de teleterapia, enfoque regulatorio del Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente P, A. de la; Dumenigo G, C.; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7 Ave. Miramar, Playa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: andres@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The evaluation of applications of construction licenses for the new services of radiotherapy has occupied a significant space in the activity developed by the National Center of Nuclear Safety (CNSN) in the last 2 years. Presently work the experiences of the authors in the evaluation of the required shield for the local where cobalt therapy equipment and lineal accelerators of medical use are used its are exposed, the practical problems detected are approached during the application of the methodologies recommended in both cases and its are discussed which have been the suppositions of items accepted by the Regulatory Authority for the realization of these shield calculations. The accumulated experience allows to assure that the realistic application of the item data and the rational use of the engineering logic makes possible to design local for radiotherapy equipment that fulfill the established dose restrictions in the in use legislation in Cuba, without it implies an excessive expense of construction materials. (Author)

  18. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation.

  19. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on r-process abundance predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumpower M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid neutron capture or ‘r-process’ nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on r-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms errors of current mass models are large so that current r-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in r-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below 100 keV will allow for more robust r-process predictions.

  20. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry.

  1. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  2. Exemption from registration for persons authorized under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission or agreement state medical use licenses or permits and administering the drug product DaTscan(TM). Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-25

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is amending its regulations to waive the requirement of registration for persons who are authorized under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State medical use licenses or permits and administer the drug product DaTscan(TM).

  3. A sensitivity study of s-process: the impact of uncertainties from nuclear reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, N.; Serenelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow neutron capture process (s-process) is responsible for the production of about half the elements beyond the Fe-peak. The production sites and the conditions under which the different components of s-process occur are relatively well established. A detailed quantitative understanding of s-process nucleosynthesis may yield light in physical processes, e.g. convection and mixing, taking place in the production sites. For this, it is important that the impact of uncertainties in the nuclear physics is well understood. In this work we perform a study of the sensitivity of s-process nucleosynthesis, with particular emphasis in the main component, on the nuclear reaction rates. Our aims are: to quantify the current uncertainties in the production factors of s-process elements originating from nuclear physics and, to identify key nuclear reactions that require more precise experimental determinations. In this work we studied two different production sites in which s-process occurs with very different neutron exposures: 1) a low-mass extremely metal-poor star during the He-core flash (nn reaching up to values of ∼ 1014cm-3); 2) the TP-AGB phase of a M⊙, Z=0.01 model, the typical site of the main s-process component (nn up to 108 — 109cm-3). In the first case, the main variation in the production of s-process elements comes from the neutron poisons and with relative variations around 30%-50%. In the second, the neutron poison are not as important because of the higher metallicity of the star that actually acts as a seed and therefore, the final error of the abundances are much lower around 10%-25%.

  4. Presentation of the process External communications on the nuclear facilities operation of the Adjunct Head Office of Nuclear Safety of Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias; Presentacion del proceso Comunicaciones externas sobre el funcionamiento de instalaciones nucleares de la Direccion General Adjunta de Seguridad Nuclear de la Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J. M., E-mail: jmespinosa@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in use of their attributions granted by the Regulation Law of the constitutional Art. 27 in nuclear matter began the development of the called process External communications on the nuclear facilities operation, with the purpose of negotiating the evaluation of the concerns related with the safety of the nuclear facilities received these of external people to the CNSNS. The process External communications on the nuclear facilities operation will allow to the public's members and the workers that carry out activities inside the mark regulator imposed by the CNSNS that report to this Commission their concerns related with safety for several means (for example, directly to the personnel of the assigned Office, official and public statements, phone communication, electronic mail, etc.) The present article presents the legal mark confers the CNSNS the attributions to develop the mentioned process and exposes the most important elements that compose it. The term External communication on the nuclear facilities operation is defined and also is described how these communications are received, evaluated and closed by the assigned Office. Of equal way the objectives that intents to reach this process are indicated. The intention of the mentioned process is to strengthen the actions that the CNSNS carries out in the execution of its functions to maintain the safety standards in the operation of the nuclear facilities in Mexico. (Author)

  5. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified.

  6. Participation of local citizens groups in the Swedish nuclear waste process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrand, O. [The Waste Network, Lerum (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Network's conclusions and views on the nuclear waste issue are summarised in the following points: The management of the nuclear waste is not solved. In order to minimise the amount of waste, the further operating of nuclear reactors should be questioned. The choice of method should be made before the siting. The deadlock to the KBS method must come to an end. The choice of method must be based on clearly expressed functional conditions formulated in advance. The siting must be based on considerations to environment and security, not political acceptance. The pilot studies in municipalities must cease and should be replaced by a clear and understandable sieving process at a national scale. An independent authority must control and supervise the EIA process instead of the nuclear industry. A well performed EIA process is the necessary condition to give the choice of method and site enough legitimacy and acceptance. Environmental organisations being the representatives of the public must be given reasonable conditions and resources to take part in the EIA process to handle the question.

  7. A computational tool for selective pyrochemical processes based on molten salts in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walle, Eric [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France)]. E-mail: eric.walle@edf.fr; Finne, Jorgen [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Picard, Gerard [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sanchez, Sylvie [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Boursier, Jean-Marie [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France); Noel, Didier [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France)

    2005-09-01

    In the framework of the development of pyrochemical techniques for future nuclear systems, we propose to investigate the development of computational tools in order to optimise the control of chemical parameters for pyrochemical processes (electrodeposition, oxide selective precipitation, liquid/liquid reductive extraction). This paper discusses how potential-oxoacidity diagrams can be automatically constructed and gives illustrative examples on how these diagrams may help in the choice and the optimisation of pyrochemical processes.

  8. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  9. Trust, regulatory processes and NICE decision-making: Appraising cost-effectiveness models through appraising people and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Hashem, Ferhana; Calnan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an ethnographic study of regulatory decision-making regarding the cost-effectiveness of expensive medicines at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England. We explored trust as one important mechanism by which problems of complexity and uncertainty were resolved. Existing studies note the salience of trust for regulatory decisions, by which the appraisal of people becomes a proxy for appraising technologies themselves. Although such (dis)trust in manufacturers was one important influence, we describe a more intricate web of (dis)trust relations also involving various expert advisors, fellow committee members and committee Chairs. Within these complex chains of relations, we found examples of both more blind-acquiescent and more critical-Investigative forms of trust as well as, at times, pronounced distrust. Difficulties in overcoming uncertainty through other means obliged trust in some contexts, although not in others. (Dis)trust was constructed through inferences involving abstract systems alongside actors' oral and written presentations-of-self. Systemic features and 'forced options' to trust indicate potential insidious processes of regulatory capture.

  10. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit``. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes.

  11. Nuclear DNA replication initiation in kinetoplastid parasites: new insights into an ancient process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiengwe, Calvin; Marques, Catarina A; McCulloch, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DNA replication is, arguably, the central cellular process in eukaryotes, because it drives propagation of life and intersects with many other genome reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, our understanding of nuclear DNA replication in kinetoplastids was limited until a clutch of studies emerged recently, revealing new insight into both the machinery and genome-wide coordination of the reaction. Here, we discuss how these studies suggest that the earliest acting components of the kinetoplastid nuclear DNA replication machinery - the factors that demarcate sites of the replication initiation, termed origins - are diverged from model eukaryotes. In addition, we discuss how origin usage and replication dynamics relate to the highly unusual organisation of transcription in the genome of Trypanosoma brucei.

  12. Personality reflected in a coherent idiosyncratic interplay of intra- and interpersonal self-regulatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Carolyn C

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses a framework that conceptualizes personality in terms of a unique pattern of interacting intra- and interpersonal self-regulatory mechanisms employed in the service of constructing and maintaining a desired self. These personal goals motivate the individuals' self-construction efforts and give direction, organization, and coherence to the self-regulatory dynamics--both within the person and in the social world in which they play out. The framework is illustrated through research on construct validation of the narcissistic personality type and extended by brief applications to dependency and rejection sensitivity to show how it may help us understand the complex signatures that are the expressions of a personality type. It offers a guide for where to look for and how to organize the unique features and idiosyncratic dynamics of different self-construction types and to make sense of their otherwise often seemingly paradoxical expressions. In so doing, the framework speaks to basic goals of personality psychology by providing an approach for capturing trait-like individual differences while simultaneously shedding light on the psychological mechanism that underlies them.

  13. Webinar Presentation: Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Childhood Obesity

  14. Simulation modeling of nuclear steam generator water level process--a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao; Ou; Du

    2000-01-01

    Simulation modeling of the nuclear steam generator (SG) water level process in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) is described in this paper. A practical methodology was adopted so that the model is both simple and accurate for control engineering implementation. The structure of the model is in the form of a transfer function, which was determined based on first-principles analysis and expert experience. The parameters of the model were obtained by taking advantage of the recorded historical response curves under the existing closed-loop control system. The results of process dimensional data verification and experimental tests demonstrate that the simulation model depicts the main dynamic characteristics of the SG water level process and is in accordance with the field recorded response curves. The model has been successfully applied to the design and test of an advanced digital feedwater control system in QNPP.

  15. Processing of mixed uranium/refractory metal carbide fuels for high temperature space nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    2000-01-01

    Single phase, solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides have been proposed as an advanced nuclear fuel for high performance, next generation space power and propulsion systems. These mixed carbides such as the pseudo-ternary, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise because of their high melting points (typically greater than 3200 K), thermochemical stability in a hot hydrogen environment, and high thermal conductivity. However, insufficient test data exist under nuclear thermal propulsion conditions of temperature and hot hydrogen environment to fully evaluate their performance. Various compositions of (U, Zr, Nb)C were processed with 5% and 10% metal mole fraction of uranium. Stoichiometric samples were processed from the constituent carbide powders while hypostoichiometric samples with carbon-to-metal (C/M) ratios of 0.95 were processed from uranium hydride, graphite, and constituent refractory carbide powders. Processing techniques of cold pressing, sintering, and hot pressing were investigated to optimize the processing parameters necessary to produce dense (low porosity), homogeneous, single phase, solid-solution mixed carbide nuclear fuels for testing. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate and characterize the performance of these mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for space power and propulsion applications. .

  16. The modernization of the process computer of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant; Modernizacion del ordenador de proceso de la Central Nuclear de Trillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Aparicio, J.; Atanasio, J.

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes the modernization of the Process computer of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant. The process computer functions, have been incorporated in the non Safety I and C platform selected in Trillo NPP: the Siemens SPPA-T2000 OM690 (formerly known as Teleperm XP). The upgrade of the Human Machine Interface of the control room has been included in the project. The modernization project has followed the same development process used in the upgrade of the process computer of PWR German nuclear power plants. (Author)

  17. Processes in regulatory systems during development of various adaptational reactions and evaluation of functional state dynamics in the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Zhukova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some concepts on processes occurring in the neuroendocrine and immune systems during development of general unspecific adaptational reactions. The concepts are based on the known evidence on the changes in the regulatory systems and the previously identified peculiarities in correlations between the levels of biogenic amines in blood and the organs, respectively, under various adaptational reactions, as well as the known effects of biogenic amines. A number of practical consequences significant for the correct evaluation of the functional state in humans and animals are also considered herein.

  18. 75 FR 54917 - Criteria for Nominating Materials Licensees for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... annual Agency Action Review Meeting (AARM). The AARM is an integral part of the evaluative process used... investigation team (IIT) or augmented inspection team (AIT)); or (3) Performance Trend-- Licensee has...

  19. Seawater desalination plant using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A small size plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, China. This seawater desalination plant was designed to supply potable water demand to some coastal location or island where both fresh water and energy source are severely lacking. It is also recommended as a demonstration and training facility for seawater desalination using nuclear energy. The design of small size of seawater desalination plant couples two proven technologies: Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR) and Multi-Effect Destination (MED) process. The NHR design possesses intrinsic and passive safety features, which was demonstrated by the experiences of the project NHR-5. The intermediate circuit and steam circuit were designed as the safety barriers between the NHR reactor and MED desalination system. Within 10~200 MWt of the power range of the heating reactor, the desalination plant could provide 8000 to 150,000 m3/d of high quality potable water. The design concept and parameters, safety features and coupling scheme are presented.

  20. The nuclear OXPHOS genes in insecta: a common evolutionary origin, a common cis-regulatory motif, a common destiny for gene duplicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When orthologous sequences from species distributed throughout an optimal range of divergence times are available, comparative genomics is a powerful tool to address problems such as the identification of the forces that shape gene structure during evolution, although the functional constraints involved may vary in different genes and lineages. Results We identified and annotated in the MitoComp2 dataset the orthologs of 68 nuclear genes controlling oxidative phosphorylation in 11 Drosophilidae species and in five non-Drosophilidae insects, and compared them with each other and with their counterparts in three vertebrates (Fugu rubripes, Danio rerio and Homo sapiens and in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, taking into account conservation of gene structure and regulatory motifs, and preservation of gene paralogs in the genome. Comparative analysis indicates that the ancestral insect OXPHOS genes were intron rich and that extensive intron loss and lineage-specific intron gain occurred during evolution. Comparison with vertebrates and cnidarians also shows that many OXPHOS gene introns predate the cnidarian/Bilateria evolutionary split. The nuclear respiratory gene element (NRG has played a key role in the evolution of the insect OXPHOS genes; it is constantly conserved in the OXPHOS orthologs of all the insect species examined, while their duplicates either completely lack the element or possess only relics of the motif. Conclusion Our observations reinforce the notion that the common ancestor of most animal phyla had intron-rich gene, and suggest that changes in the pattern of expression of the gene facilitate the fixation of duplications in the genome and the development of novel genetic functions.

  1. Physiological and receptor-selective retinoids modulate interferon gamma signaling by increasing the expression, nuclear localization, and functional activity of interferon regulatory factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin M; Ross, A Catharine

    2005-10-28

    Synergistic actions between all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma) on modulation of cellular functions have been reported both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of atRA-mediated regulation of IFNgamma signaling is poorly understood. In this study, we have used the human lung epithelial cell line A549 to examine the effect of atRA on IFNgamma-induced expression of IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), an important transcription factor involved in cell growth and apoptosis, differentiation, and antiviral and antibacterial immune responses. At least 4 h of pretreatment with atRA followed by suboptimal concentrations of IFNgamma induced a faster, higher, and more stable expression of IRF-1 than IFNgamma alone. Actinomycin D completely blocked the induction of IRF-1 by the combination, suggesting regulation at the transcriptional level. Further, we found that activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 was induced more dramatically by atRA and IFNgamma than by IFNgamma alone. Expression of IFNgamma receptor-1 on the cell surface was also increased upon atRA pretreatment. Experiments using receptor-selective retinoids revealed that ligands for retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha), including atRA, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and Am580, sequentially increased the levels of IFNgamma receptor-1, activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, and IRF-1 and that an RARalpha antagonist was able to inhibit the effects of atRA and Am580. In addition, atRA pretreatment affected the transcriptional functions of IFNgamma-induced IRF-1, increasing its nuclear localization and DNA binding activity as well as the transcript levels of IRF-1 target genes. These results suggest that atRA, an RARalpha ligand, regulates IFNgamma-induced IRF-1 by affecting multiple components of the IFNgamma signaling pathway, from the plasma membrane to the nuclear transcription factors.

  2. The r-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: Astrophysics and nuclear physics achievements and mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Takahashi, K.

    2007-09-01

    The r-process, or the rapid neutron-capture process, of stellar nucleosynthesis is called for to explain the production of the stable (and some long-lived radioactive) neutron-rich nuclides heavier than iron that are observed in stars of various metallicities, as well as in the solar system. A very large amount of nuclear information is necessary in order to model the r-process. This concerns the static characteristics of a large variety of light to heavy nuclei between the valley of stability and the vicinity of the neutron-drip line, as well as their beta-decay branches or their reactivity. Fission probabilities of very neutron-rich actinides have also to be known in order to determine the most massive nuclei that have a chance to be involved in the r-process. Even the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter may enter the problem. The enormously challenging experimental and theoretical task imposed by all these requirements is reviewed, and the state-of-the-art development in the field is presented. Nuclear-physics-based and astrophysics-free r-process models of different levels of sophistication have been constructed over the years. We review their merits and their shortcomings. The ultimate goal of r-process studies is clearly to identify realistic sites for the development of the r-process. Here too, the challenge is enormous, and the solution still eludes us. For long, the core collapse supernova of massive stars has been envisioned as the privileged r-process location. We present a brief summary of the one- or multidimensional spherical or non-spherical explosion simulations available to-date. Their predictions are confronted with the requirements imposed to obtain an r-process. The possibility of r-nuclide synthesis during the decompression of the matter of neutron stars following their merging is also discussed. Given the uncertainties remaining on the astrophysical r-process site and on the involved nuclear physics, any confrontation between predicted r-process

  3. The r-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: Astrophysics and nuclear physics achievements and mysteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: marnould@astro.ulb.ac.be; Goriely, S.; Takahashi, K. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The r-process, or the rapid neutron-capture process, of stellar nucleosynthesis is called for to explain the production of the stable (and some long-lived radioactive) neutron-rich nuclides heavier than iron that are observed in stars of various metallicities, as well as in the solar system. A very large amount of nuclear information is necessary in order to model the r-process. This concerns the static characteristics of a large variety of light to heavy nuclei between the valley of stability and the vicinity of the neutron-drip line, as well as their beta-decay branches or their reactivity. Fission probabilities of very neutron-rich actinides have also to be known in order to determine the most massive nuclei that have a chance to be involved in the r-process. Even the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter may enter the problem. The enormously challenging experimental and theoretical task imposed by all these requirements is reviewed, and the state-of-the-art development in the field is presented. Nuclear-physics-based and astrophysics-free r-process models of different levels of sophistication have been constructed over the years. We review their merits and their shortcomings. The ultimate goal of r-process studies is clearly to identify realistic sites for the development of the r-process. Here too, the challenge is enormous, and the solution still eludes us. For long, the core collapse supernova of massive stars has been envisioned as the privileged r-process location. We present a brief summary of the one- or multidimensional spherical or non-spherical explosion simulations available to-date. Their predictions are confronted with the requirements imposed to obtain an r-process. The possibility of r-nuclide synthesis during the decompression of the matter of neutron stars following their merging is also discussed. Given the uncertainties remaining on the astrophysical r-process site and on the involved nuclear physics, any confrontation between predicted r-process

  4. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  5. Process for estimating likelihood and confidence in post detonation nuclear forensics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craft, Charles M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) must provide answers to questions of concern to the broader community, including an estimate of uncertainty. There is significant uncertainty associated with post-detonation TNF. The uncertainty consists of a great deal of epistemic (state of knowledge) as well as aleatory (random) uncertainty, and many of the variables of interest are linguistic (words) and not numeric. We provide a process by which TNF experts can structure their process for answering questions and provide an estimate of uncertainty. The process uses belief and plausibility, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

  6. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  7. Dynamic flowgraph modeling of process and control systems of a nuclear-based hydrogen production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dabbagh, Ahmad W. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Lu, Lixuan [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Modeling and analysis of system reliability facilitate the identification of areas of potential improvement. The Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is an emerging discrete modeling framework that allows for capturing time dependent behaviour, switching logic and multi-state representation of system components. The objective of this research is to demonstrate the process of dynamic flowgraph modeling of a nuclear-based hydrogen production plant with the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. Modeling of the thermochemical process of the Cu-Cl cycle in conjunction with a networked control system proposed for monitoring and control of the process is provided. This forms the basis for future component selection. (author)

  8. 77 FR 16278 - License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License renewal application; intent...

  9. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 353 - Memorandum of Understanding Between Federal Emergency Management Agency and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Permit process; (3) adoption of FEMA exercise time-frames; (4) incorporation of FEMA definition of... responsibility, NRC will recognize FEMA as the interface with State and local governments for interpreting... interpretations of agreed joint guidance) prior to adoption as formal agency guidance. F. Support for...

  10. 75 FR 1416 - Final Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... defense and security of the USA. NERC's primary focus is on the reliability of the bulk power system (BPS...). Processing of Safeguards Information on Electronic Systems SGI may not be transmitted by unprotected... an electronic system that ensures the integrity of the information and prevents the...

  11. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  12. Response to Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ten questions pertaining to site-specific models for use in the license termination rule: Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; McDonald, J.P.; Castleton, K.J.; Pelton, M.A.; Gelston, G.M.; Taira, R.Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This paper is in response to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ten questions posed at the Modeling Workshop held November 13 and 14, 1997. The ten questions were developed in advance of the workshop to allow model developers to prepare a presentation at the Workshop. This paper is an expanded version of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) presentation given at the Modeling Workshop by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. This paper is organized by the ten questions asked by the NRC, each section devoted to a single question. The current version of methodology is MEPAS 3.2 (NRC 1997) and the discussion in this paper will pertain to that version. In some cases, MEPAS 4.0, which is currently being developed under the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) (Whelan et al. 1997), will be referenced to inform the reader of potential capabilities in the near future. A separate paper is included in the document that discusses the FRAMES concept.

  13. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Arzu Alpan, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  14. Excitation of the isomeric ^{229m}Th nuclear state via an electronic bridge process in ^{229}Th^+

    CERN Document Server

    Porsev, S G; Peik, E; Tamm, Chr

    2010-01-01

    We consider the excitation of the nuclear transition ^{229g}Th - ^{229m}Th near 7.6 eV in singly ionized thorium via an electronic bridge process. The process relies on the excitation of the electron shell by two laser photons whose sum frequency is equal to the nuclear transition frequency. This scheme allows to determine the nuclear transition frequency with high accuracy. Based on calculations of the electronic level structure of Th^+ which combine the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory, we estimate that a nuclear excitation rate in the range of 10 s^{-1} can be obtained using conventional laser sources.

  15. The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: astrophysics and nuclear physics status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.

    2003-09-01

    The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis is aimed at explaining the production of the stable neutron-deficient nuclides heavier than iron that are observed up to now in the solar system exclusively. Various scenarios have been proposed to account for the bulk p-nuclide content of the solar system, as well as for deviations (`anomalies') with respect to the bulk p-isotope composition of some elements discovered in primitive meteorites. The astrophysics of these models is reviewed, and the involved nuclear physics is discussed, including a brief account of recent experimental efforts. Already published results are complemented with new ones. A specific attention is paid to the very rare odd-odd nuclides 138La and 180Tam, as well as to the puzzling case of the light Mo and Ru isotopes. Astrophysics and nuclear physics prospects of improvements in the p-process modeling are presented.

  16. The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: astrophysics and nuclear physics status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S

    2003-09-01

    The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis is aimed at explaining the production of the stable neutron-deficient nuclides heavier than iron that are observed up to now in the solar system exclusively. Various scenarios have been proposed to account for the bulk p-nuclide content of the solar system, as well as for deviations ('anomalies') with respect to the bulk p-isotope composition of some elements discovered in primitive meteorites. The astrophysics of these models is reviewed, and the involved nuclear physics is discussed, including a brief account of recent experimental efforts. Already published results are complemented with new ones. A specific attention is paid to the very rare odd-odd nuclides {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta{sup m}, as well as to the puzzling case of the light Mo and Ru isotopes. Astrophysics and nuclear physics prospects of improvements in the p-process modeling are presented.

  17. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, John Howard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hildebrandt, Philip Clay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baker, Suzanne Hobbs [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  18. Measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Guillermo; Golzarri, Jose I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, Mexico D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Castano, Victor M., E-mail: castano@fata.unam.m [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2010-08-15

    Energy spectra of fission fragments were determined using a Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) supported by digital image analysis and numerical data processing using a standard personal computer. The analysis of a californium ({sup 252}Cf) spectrum with this approach shows improvement compared with the values reported previously using the standard procedure, in terms of resolution and accuracy. This new method adds full automation to the technical advantages and cost effectiveness of an NTM.

  19. Lanthanides extraction processes in molten fluoride media. Application to nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Taxil, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Nourry, Christophe; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Chamelot, Pierre; Cassayre, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes four techniques of extraction of lanthanides elements (Ln) from molten salts in the general frame of reprocessing nuclear wastes; One of them is chemical: the precipitation of Ln ions in insoluble compounds (oxides or oxifluorides); the others use electrochemical methodology in molten fluorides for extraction and measurement of the progress of the processes: first electrodeposition of pure Ln metals on an inert cathode material was proved to be incomplete and cause probl...

  20. The impact of nuclear mass models on r-process nucleosynthesis network calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kelly

    2002-10-01

    An insight into understanding various nucleosynthesis processes is via modelling of the process with network calculations. My project focus is r-process network calculations where the r-process is nucleosynthesis via rapid neutron capture thought to take place in high entropy supernova bubbles. One of the main uncertainties of the simulations is the Nuclear Physics input. My project investigates the role that nuclear masses play in the resulting abundances. The code tecode, involves rapid (n,γ) capture reactions in competition with photodisintegration and β decay onto seed nuclei. In order to fully analyze the effects of nuclear mass models on the relative isotopic abundances, calculations were done from the network code, keeping the initial environmental parameters constant throughout. The supernova model investigated by Qian et al (1996) in which two r-processes, of high and low frequency with seed nucleus ^90Se and of fixed luminosity (fracL_ν_e(0)r_7(0)^2 ˜= 8.77), contribute to the nucleosynthesis of the heavier elements. These two r-processes, however, do not contribute equally to the total abundance observed. The total isotopic abundance produced from both events was therefore calculated using equation refabund. Y(H+L) = fracY(H)+fY(L)f+1 applicability of the P-Scheme in relation to the other mass models to the r-process network calculations. 02 Pscheme Aprahamian,A., Gadala-Maria,A. & Cuka,N. 1996, Revista Mexicana de Fisica,42,1 code Surman,R. & Engel,J. 1998, Phys.Rev. C,54,4 thebibliography

  1. The evolutionary processes of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes differ from those of nuclear genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Helena

    2004-11-01

    This paper first introduces our present knowledge of the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and the organization and inheritance patterns of their genomes, and then carries on to review the evolutionary processes influencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. The differences in evolutionary phenomena between the nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes are highlighted. It is emphasized that varying inheritance patterns and copy numbers among different types of genomes, and the potential advantage achieved through the transfer of many cytoplasmic genes to the nucleus, have important implications for the evolution of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Cytoplasmic genes transferred to the nucleus have joined the more strictly controlled genetic system of the nuclear genome, including also sexual recombination, while genes retained within the cytoplasmic organelles can be involved in selection and drift processes both within and among individuals. Within-individual processes can be either intra- or intercellular. In the case of heteroplasmy, which is attributed to mutations or biparental inheritance, within-individual selection on cytoplasmic DNA may provide a mechanism by which the organism can adapt rapidly. The inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes is not universally maternal. The presence of a range of inheritance patterns indicates that different strategies have been adopted by different organisms. On the other hand, the variability occasionally observed in the inheritance mechanisms of cytoplasmic genomes reduces heritability and increases environmental components in phenotypic features and, consequently, decreases the potential for adaptive evolution.

  2. A statistical approach for identifying nuclear waste glass compositions that will meet quality and processability requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.

    1990-09-01

    Borosilicate glass provides a solid, stable medium for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes resulting from the production of nuclear materials for United States defense needs. The glass must satisfy various quality and processability requirements on properties such as chemical durability, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. These properties depend on the composition of the waste glass, which will vary during production due to variations in nuclear waste composition and variations in the glass-making process. This paper discusses the experimentally-based statistical approach being used in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Composition Variability Study (CVS). The overall goal of the CVS is to identify the composition region of potential HWVP waste glasses that satisfy with high confidence the applicable quality and processability requirements. This is being accomplished by melting and obtaining property data for simulated nuclear waste glasses of various compositions, and then statistically developing models and other tools needed to meet the goal. 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Beta processes in a high-temperature field and nuclear multibeta decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopytin, I. V., E-mail: kopytin@yandex.ru; Hussain, Imad A. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Sources of the temperature dependence of rates of nuclear beta processes in matter of massive stars are systematized. Electron and positron beta decays and electron capture (K capture and the capture of unbound electrons) fromexcited nuclear states (thermal decays) are considered along with the photobeta decays from ground and excited nuclear states. The possible quantum degeneracy of an electron gas in matter and the degree of ionization of an atomic K shell in a high-temperature field are taken into account. For a number of multidecay odd-nuclei, the temperature dependences of the ratios of the total rates of their {beta}{sup -} decays to the sum of the total rates over all of decay modes for the same nuclei are calculated in the range of nuclear temperature from 2 to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K. It is shown that the deviation of this ratio from the experimental value obtained at 'normal' temperature may be quite sizable. This circumstance should be taken into account in models that consider the problem of synthesis of nuclei in matter of massive stars.

  4. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  5. Manager's Discretionary Power and Comparability of Financial Reports: An Analysis of the Regulatory Transition Process in Brazilian Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mussoi Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to directly evaluate the impact of the accounting regulatory flexibility movement on the comparability of financial reports. The country chosen for the analysis was Brazil, because it was one of the few countries in the world where a process of regulatory change from a completely rule-based standard with a strong link to tax accounting (Lopes, 2011 to a principle-based standard with greater need for decision by managers who prepare the financial reports took place. To measure comparability, the accounting function similarity model developed by DeFranco, Kothari and Verdi (2011 was used. The companies analyzed were all listed ones with full data for the period concerned having, at least, a pair company within the same economic activity sector. To obtain the research results, we adopted a panel data model where the years 2005 to 2012 were compared to the year 2004. The results obtained prove that, on average, there was no significant decrease in the comparability level within country during the regulatory transition period in Brazil. On the contrary, there was an increase in genuine comparability in the year 2012 when compared to 2004. In the model adjusted by stepwise, the years 2011 and 2012 had a significantly higher average comparability when compared to 2004. The results found corroborate other researches addressing the quality of accounting information (Collins, Pasewark, & Riley, 2012; Psaros & Trotman, 2004; Agoglia, Doupnik, & Tsakumis, 2011 and prove the superiority of the principle-based standard also over the comparability of financial reports. The main conclusion of this research is that increasing manager's discretionary power through flexibility of accounting standards does not decrease the comparability of financial reports.

  6. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Carvalho, A. [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); Chaves, P.C. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Reis, M.A., E-mail: mareis@ctn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 10{sup 3} barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing {sup 57}Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  7. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 103 barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing 57Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  8. Electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels: An overview of oxide reduction in pyroprocessing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical reduction process has been used to reduce spent oxide fuel to a metallic form using pyroprocessing technology for a closed fuel cycle in combination with a metal-fuel fast reactor. In the electrochemical reduction process, oxides fuels are loaded at the cathode basket in molten Li2O–LiCl salt and electrochemically reduced to the metal form. Various approaches based on thermodynamic calculations and experimental studies have been used to understand the electrode reaction and efficiently treat spent fuels. The factors that affect the speed of the electrochemical reduction have been determined to optimize the process and scale-up the electrolysis cell. In addition, demonstrations of the integrated series of processes (electrorefining and salt distillation with the electrochemical reduction have been conducted to realize the oxide fuel cycle. This overview provides insight into the current status of and issues related to the electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  9. Recent advances of annular centrifugal extractor for hot test of nuclear waste partitioning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeXiang-Ming; YanYu-Shun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Advances are being made in the design of the annular centrifugal extractor fornuclear fuel reprocessing extraction process studies.The extractors have been built and tested.Twelve stages of this extractor and 50 stages are used toimplement the TRPO process for the cleanup ofcommercial and defense nuclear waste liquids,respectively.Following advances are available:(1) simple way of assembly and disassembly between rotor part and housing part of extractor,ease of manipulator operation;(2)automatic sampling from housing of extractor in hot cell;(3) compact multi-stage housing system;(4) easy interstage link;(5) computer data acquisition and monitoring system of speed.

  10. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  11. The Role of Fe and Ni for S-process Nucleosynthesis and Innovative Nuclear Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Giubrone, G; Perkowski, J; Andriamonje, S; Carrapico, C; Wallner, A; Vannini, G; Quesada, J M; Lederer, C; Tarrio, D; Berthier, B; Lozano, M; Krticka, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Chiaveri, E; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Massimi, C; Avrigeanu, V; Martinez, T; Guerrero, C; Andrzejewski, J; Karadimos, D; Mendoza, E; Ganesan, S; Vlachoudis, V; Milazzo, P M; Cortes, G; Becares, V; Tain, J L; Variale, V; Quinones, J; Calvino, F; Kappeler, F; Gunsing, F; Gramegna, F; Colonna, N; Marrone, S; Lebbos, E; Paradela, C; Mastinu, P F; Vaz, P; Tassan-Got, L; Kadi, Y; Dillman, I; Cano-Ott, D; Brugger, M; Audouin, L; Fernandez-Ordonez, M; Sarmento, R; Becvar, F; Goncalves, I F; Martin-Fuertes, F; Cerutti, F; Pina, G; Mosconi, M; Tagliente, G; Duran, I; Berthoumieux, E; Praena, J; Ioannides, K; Weiss, C; Mirea, M; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Vlastou, R; Calviani, M; Nolte, R; Mengoni, A; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Marganiec, J; Leeb, H; Heil, M; Meaze, M H; Pavlik, A; Belloni, F; Harrispopulos S

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of neutron capture cross sections of all Fe and Ni isotopes is important for disentangling the contribution of the s-process and the r-process to the stellar nucleosynthesis of elements in the mass range 60 < A < 120. At the same time, Fe and Ni are important components of structural materials and improved neutron cross section data is relevant in the design of new nuclear systems. With the aim of obtaining improved capture data on all stable iron and nickel isotopes, a program of measurements has been launched at the CERN Neutron Time of Flight Facility n_TOF.

  12. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year... issuance of a license for hydropower development at non-powered dams and closed-loop pumped storage projects in compliance with section 6 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The workshop...

  13. The architectural organization of nuclear metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, J A; Blencowe, B J; Penman, S

    1995-01-01

    Nucleic acid metabolism is structurally organized in the nucleus. DNA replication and transcription have been localized to particular nuclear domains. Additional domains have been identified by their morphology or by their composition; for example, by their high concentration of factors involved in RNA splicing. The domain organization of the nucleus is maintained by the nuclear matrix, a nonchromatin nuclear scaffolding that holds most nuclear RNA and organizes chromatin into loops. The nuclear matrix is built on a network of highly branched core filaments that have an average diameter of 10 nm. Many of the intermediates and the regulatory and catalytic factors of nucleic acid metabolism are retained in nuclear matrix preparations, suggesting that nucleic acid synthesis and processing are structure-bound processes in cells. Tissue-specific and malignancy-induced variations in nuclear structure and metabolism may result from altered matrix architecture and composition.

  14. Proof of concept experiments of the multi-isotope process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near real-time monitor for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R., E-mail: christopher.orton@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Fraga, Carlos G., E-mail: carlos.fraga@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Christensen, Richard N., E-mail: christensen.3@osu.edu [The Ohio State University, 201W. 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Schwantes, Jon M., E-mail: jon.schwantes@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the multi-isotope process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to monitoring and safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-}1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  15. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  16. Proof of concept experiments of the multi-isotope process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near real-time monitor for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-01

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the multi-isotope process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to monitoring and safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of ±1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  17. hARACNe: improving the accuracy of regulatory model reverse engineering via higher-order data processing inequality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Sock; Margolin, Adam; Califano, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    A key goal of systems biology is to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with physiologic and pathologic phenotypes based on the systematic and genome-wide understanding of cell context-specific molecular interaction models. To this end, reverse engineering approaches have been used to systematically dissect regulatory interactions in a specific tissue, based on the availability of large molecular profile datasets, thus improving our mechanistic understanding of complex diseases, such as cancer. In this paper, we introduce high-order Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Network (hARACNe), an extension of the ARACNe algorithm for the dissection of transcriptional regulatory networks. ARACNe uses the data processing inequality (DPI), from information theory, to detect and prune indirect interactions that are unlikely to be mediated by an actual physical interaction. Whereas ARACNe considers only first-order indirect interactions, i.e. those mediated by only one extra regulator, hARACNe considers a generalized form of indirect interactions via two, three or more other regulators. We show that use of higher-order DPI resulted in significantly improved performance, based on transcription factor (TF)-specific ChIP-chip data, as well as on gene expression profile following RNAi-mediated TF silencing.

  18. User input verification and test driven development in the NJOY21 nuclear data processing code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Amelia Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-21

    Before physically-meaningful data can be used in nuclear simulation codes, the data must be interpreted and manipulated by a nuclear data processing code so as to extract the relevant quantities (e.g. cross sections and angular distributions). Perhaps the most popular and widely-trusted of these processing codes is NJOY, which has been developed and improved over the course of 10 major releases since its creation at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970’s. The current phase of NJOY development is the creation of NJOY21, which will be a vast improvement from its predecessor, NJOY2016. Designed to be fast, intuitive, accessible, and capable of handling both established and modern formats of nuclear data, NJOY21 will address many issues that many NJOY users face, while remaining functional for those who prefer the existing format. Although early in its development, NJOY21 is quickly providing input validation to check user input. By providing rapid and helpful responses to users while writing input files, NJOY21 will prove to be more intuitive and easy to use than any of its predecessors. Furthermore, during its development, NJOY21 is subject to regular testing, such that its test coverage must strictly increase with the addition of any production code. This thorough testing will allow developers and NJOY users to establish confidence in NJOY21 as it gains functionality. This document serves as a discussion regarding the current state input checking and testing practices of NJOY21.

  19. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  20. Pyrometallurgical separation processes of radionuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cordoba, Guadalupe; Caravaca, Concha; Quinones, Javier; Gonzalez de la Huebra, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the new options for the high level waste management, the ''Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T)'' of the radio nuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel appear as a promising option from different points of view, such as environmental risk, radiotoxic inventory reduction, economic, etc.. The present work is part of a research project called ''PYROREP'' of the 5th FWP of the EU that studied the feasibility of the actinide separation from the rest of fission products contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel by pyrometallurgical processes with the aim of their transmutation. In order to design these processes it is necessary to determine basic thermodynamic and kinetic data of the radionuclides contained in the nuclear fuel in molten salt media. The electrochemical study of uranium, samarium and molybdenum in the eutectic melt LiCl - KCl has been performed at a tungsten electrode in the temperature range of 450 - 600 deg C in order to obtain these basic properties. (Author)

  1. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  2. Regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance to the regulatory analyst to promote preparation of quality regulatory analysis documents and to implement the policies of the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/BR-0058 Rev. 2). This Handbook expands upon policy concepts included in the NRC Guidelines and translates the six steps in preparing regulatory analyses into implementable methodologies for the analyst. It provides standardized methods of preparation and presentation of regulatory analyses, with the inclusion of input that will satisfy all backfit requirements and requirements of NRC`s Committee to Review Generic Requirements. Information on the objectives of the safety goal evaluation process and potential data sources for preparing a safety goal evaluation is also included. Consistent application of the methods provided here will result in more directly comparable analyses, thus aiding decision-makers in evaluating and comparing various regulatory actions. The handbook is being issued in loose-leaf format to facilitate revisions. NRC intends to periodically revise the handbook as new and improved guidance, data, and methods become available.

  3. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  4. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  5. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  6. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  7. Stress-induced Nuclear Bodies Are Sites of Accumulation of Pre-mRNA Processing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) HAP (hnRNP A1 interacting protein) is a multifunctional protein with roles in RNA metabolism, transcription, and nuclear structure. After stress treatments, HAP is recruited to a small number of nuclear bodies, usually adjacent to the nucleoli, which consist of clusters of perichromatin granules and are depots of transcripts synthesized before stress. In this article we show that HAP bodies are sites of accumulation for a subset of RNA processing factors and are related to Sam68 nuclear bodies (SNBs) detectable in unstressed cells. Indeed, HAP and Sam68 are both present in SNBs and in HAP bodies, that we rename “stress-induced SNBs.” The determinants required for the redistribution of HAP lie between residue 580 and 788. Different portions of this region direct the recruitment of the green fluorescent protein to stress-induced SNBs, suggesting an interaction of HAP with different components of the bodies. With the use of the 580–725 region as bait in a two-hybrid screening, we have selected SRp30c and 9G8, two members of the SR family of splicing factors. Splicing factors are differentially affected by heat shock: SRp30c and SF2/ASF are efficiently recruited to stress-induced SNBs, whereas the distribution of SC35 is not perturbed. We propose that the differential sequestration of splicing factors could affect processing of specific transcripts. Accordingly, the formation of stress-induced SNBs is accompanied by a change in the splicing pattern of the adenovirus E1A transcripts. PMID:11694584

  8. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  9. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession.

  10. Upgrade in the CNSNS of the determination process about the importance for the impact evaluation to the safety of defaults or violations in the national nuclear facilities; Actualizacion en la CNSNS del proceso de determinacion de la importancia para la evaluacion de impacto a la seguridad de incumplimientos o violaciones en las instalaciones nucleares mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J. M.; Jauregui Ch, V., E-mail: jmespinosa@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Inside the process of Impact Evaluation to the Safety of the Direccion General Adjunta de Seguridad Nuclear of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) the Significance Determination Process (SDP) is used, developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), to evaluate the violations or defaults to the regulatory framework and to determine its importance to the risk by means of a fixed color: Green (Very low impact to the safety), White (Low impact to moderate to the safety), Yellow (Substantial impact to the safety) or Red (High impact to the safety). All this inside the seven safety foundations of the Reactor Oversight Process: Initiator Events, Mitigation Systems, Integrity of the Barriers, Preparation for Emergencies, Occupational Radiological Safety, Radiological Safety of the Public and Physical Safety. At present the US NRC has developed a new version of the SDP, which presents changes in its structure and the opportunity of carrying out informed evaluations in risk, with more detail about the violations or defaults that happen in different areas. The CNSNS carries out the adaptation of this last version of the SDP in order to have an updated tool for the violations and defaults characterization to the regulatory framework happened in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. In this article is mentioned the legal framework that confers the CNSNS the attributions to impose urgency measures and administrative sanctions to its licensees, also is established the definition of the different colors that the SDP contemplates in function of the increased risk (ΔCdf), a description of the SDP objectives and the elements that conform it is presented, in the same way some examples to illustrate its application are raised. Finally, the steps to continue for their implementation are mentioned. (Author)

  11. Contaminants of the bismuth phosphate process as signifiers of nuclear reprocessing history.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2012-10-01

    Reagents used in spent nuclear fuel recycling impart unique contaminant patterns into the product stream of the process. Efforts are underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to characterize and understand the relationship between these patterns and the process that created them. A main challenge to this effort, recycling processes that were employed at the Hanford site from 1944-1989 have been retired for decades. This precludes direct measurements of the contaminant patterns that propagate within product streams of these facilities. In the absence of any operating recycling facilities at Hanford, we have taken a multipronged approach to cataloging contaminants of U.S. reprocessing activities using: (1) historical records summarizing contaminants within the final Pu metal button product of these facilities; (2) samples of opportunity that represent intermediate products of these processes; and (3) lab-scale experiments and model simulations designed to replicate contaminant patterns at each stage of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report provides a summary of the progress and results from Fiscal Year (April 1, 2010-September 30) 2011.

  12. Medical Image Processing Server applied to Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, C.; Graffigna, J. P.; Marino, E.; Omati, S.; Holleywell, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is framed within the area of medical image processing and aims to present the process of installation, configuration and implementation of a processing server of medical images (MIPS) in the Fundación Escuela de Medicina Nuclear located in Mendoza, Argentina (FUESMEN). It has been developed in the Gabinete de Tecnologia Médica (GA.TE.ME), Facultad de Ingeniería-Universidad Nacional de San Juan. MIPS is a software that using the DICOM standard, can receive medical imaging studies of different modalities or viewing stations, then it executes algorithms and finally returns the results to other devices. To achieve the objectives previously mentioned, preliminary tests were conducted in the laboratory. More over, tools were remotely installed in clinical enviroment. The appropiate protocols for setting up and using them in different services were established once defined those suitable algorithms. Finally, it’s important to focus on the implementation and training that is provided in FUESMEN, using nuclear medicine quality control processes. Results on implementation are exposed in this work.

  13. The r-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: Astrophysics and nuclear physics achievements and mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M; Takahashi, K

    2007-01-01

    The r-process, or the rapid neutron-capture process, of stellar nucleosynthesis is called for to explain the production of the stable (and some long-lived radioactive) neutron-rich nuclides heavier than iron that are observed in stars of various metallicities, as well as in the solar system. A very large amount of nuclear information is necessary in order to model the r-process. This concerns the static characteristics of a large variety of light to heavy nuclei between the valley of stability and the vicinity of the neutron-drip line, as well as their beta-decay branches or their reactivity. The enormously challenging experimental and theoretical task imposed by all these requirements is reviewed, and the state-of-the-art development in the field is presented. Nuclear-physics-based and astrophysics-free r-process models of different levels of sophistication have been constructed over the years. We review their merits and their shortcomings. For long, the core collapse supernova of massive stars has been envi...

  14. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed.

  15. Review of the International Atomic Energy Agency International database on reactor pressure vessel materials and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Oak Ridge National Laboratory embrittlement data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1998-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has supported neutron radiation effects information exchange through meetings and conferences since the mid-1960s. Through an International Working Group on Reliability of Reactor Pressure Components, information exchange and research activities were fostered through the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) sponsored by the IAEA. The final CRP meeting was held in November 1993, where it was recommended that the IAEA coordinate the development of an International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (IDRPVM) as the first step in generating an International Database on Aging Management. The purpose of this study was to provide special technical assistance to the NRC in monitoring and evaluating the IAEA activities in developing the IAEA IDRPVM, and to compare the IDRPVM with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) and provide recommendations for improving the PR-EDB. A first test version of the IDRPVM was distributed at the First Meeting of Liaison Officers to the IAEA IDRPVM, in November 1996. No power reactor surveillance data were included in this version; the testing data were mainly from CRP Phase III data. Therefore, because of insufficient data and a lack of power reactor surveillance data received from the IAEA IDRPVM, the comparison is made based only on the structure of the IDRPVM. In general, the IDRPVM and the EDB have very similar data structure and data format. One anticipates that because the IDRPVM data will be collected from so many different sources, quality assurance of the data will be a difficult task. The consistency of experimental test results will be an important issue. A very wide spectrum of material characteristics of RPV steels and irradiation environments exists among the various countries. Hence the development of embrittlement prediction models will be a formidable task. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  17. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  18. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in {sup 30}P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized {gamma}-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary.

  19. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1996-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers parts of the second and third year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas: precision test of parity-invariance violation in resonance neutron scattering at LANSCE/LANL; parity violation measurements using charged-particle resonances in A = 20--40 targets and the A = 4 system at TUNL; chaotic behavior in the nuclei {sup 30}P and {sup 34}Cl from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; search for anomalies in the level density (pairing phase transition) in 1f-2p shell nuclei using GEANIE at LANSCE/LANL; parity-conserving time-reversal noninvariance tests using {sup 166}Ho resonances at Geel, ORELA, or LANSCE/LANL; nuclear astrophysics; few-body nuclear systems; Nuclear Data evaluation for A = 3--20 for which TUNL is now the international center. Developments in technology and instrumentation are vital to the research and training program. Innovative work was continued in: polarized beam development; polarized target development; designing new cryogenic systems; designing new detectors; improving high-resolution beams for the KN and FN accelerators; development of an unpolarized Low-Energy Beam Facility for radiative capture studies of astrophysical interest. Preliminary research summaries are presented.

  20. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program Results of the Environmental Impact Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Charles D.; Kristensen, David H.; McCulloch, William H.

    1994-07-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program initiated an environmental impact analysis process (EIAP) in March of 1992 to support design and construction of a nuclear thermal rocket engine ground testing facility. The `` Notice of Intent'' appeared in the Federal Register on March 12, 1992 and Scoping Meetings occurred during April 1992. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was publicly available on August 21, 1993 and public hearings were conducted during September 1992. Comments were resolved and the Final EIS `` Notice of Availability'' appeared in the Federal Register on May 14, 1993. Although program termination negated the need for a Record of Decision, completion of this EIAP demonstrates that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) provides an adequate framework for involving the general public in all governmental decisions irrespective of either the technical complexities or the potential for nonacceptance. This paper discusses the SNTP EIAP and the associated analyses which indicated that ground testing of nuclear rocket engine concepts could be accomplished without significantly affecting the surrounding environment.

  1. Staffing decision processes and issues: Case studies of seven US Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.; Roussel, A.; Baker, K.; Durbin, N.; Hunt, P.; Hauth, J.; Forslund, C.; Terrill, E. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, WA (United States); Gore, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this report is to identify how decisions are made regarding staffing levels and positions for a sample of U.S. nuclear power plants. In this report, a framework is provided for understanding the major forces driving staffing and the implications of staffing decisions for plant safety. The focus of this report is on driving forces that have led to changes in staffing levels and to the establishment of new positions between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Processes used at utilities and nuclear power plants to make and implement these staffing decisions are also discussed in the report. While general trends affecting the plant as a whole are presented, the major emphasis of this report is on staffing changes and practices in the operations department, including the operations shift crew. The findings in this report are based on interviews conducted at seven nuclear power plants and their parent utilities. A discussion of the key findings is followed by a summary of the implications of staffing issues for plant safety.

  2. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  3. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  4. Prioritizing the countries for BOT nuclear power project using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Woo; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper proposes factors influencing the success of BOT nuclear power projects and their weighting method using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to find the optimal country which developer intends to develop. To summarize, this analytic method enable the developer to select and focus on the country which has preferable circumstance so that it enhances the efficiency of the project promotion by minimizing the opportunity cost. Also, it enables the developer to quantify the qualitative factors so that it diversifies the project success strategy and policy for the targeted country. Although the performance of this study is insufficient due to the limitation of time, small sampling and security of materials, it still has the possibility to improve the analytic model more systematically through further study with more data. Developing Build-Own(or Operate)-Transfer (BOT) nuclear power project carrying large capital in the long term requires initially well-made multi-decision which it prevents sorts of risks from unexpected situation of targeted countries. Moreover, the nuclear power project in most case is practically implemented by Government to Government cooperation, so the key concern for such nuclear power project would be naturally focused on the country situation rather than project viability at planning stage. In this regard, it requires the evaluation of targeted countries before involving the project, comprehensive and proper decision making for complex judgment factors, and efficient integration of expert's opinions, etc. Therefore, prioritizing and evaluating the feasibility of country for identification of optimal project region is very meaningful study.

  5. Limitation of the EIA Process for the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Kuhn, R.G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1999-12-01

    The Canadian environmental impact assessment process for the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management and Disposal Concept was completed in 1994. Almost four years later, in February 1998, the Review Panel released its report. The viewpoints of those who participated in the assessment process is archived in the thousands of pages of hearing testimony, meeting transcripts and written briefs. One of the most contentious issues raised, and one that continues to plague management in Canada, is the debate surrounding how the problem of NFW waste management should be defined. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the problem frame of the Canadian NFW management disposal concept EIS. This will be accomplished through an analysis of stakeholder participation and views, and through an evaluation of the range and nature of the information considered legitimate or constrained in the Canadian process.

  6. A Spectroscopic Study of Nuclear Processing and Production of Anomalously Strong Lines in the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    MacAlpine, G M; Lester, W R; Vanderveer, S J; Strolger, L G

    2006-01-01

    We present and discuss correlations for optical and near-infrared (5500-10030 angstroms) line intensity measurements at many positions in the Crab Nebula. These correlations suggest the existence of gas produced by a range of nuclear processing, from material in which synthesis ended with the CNO-cycle, to some helium-burning and nitrogen depletion, to regions containing enriched products of oxygen-burning. The latter exhibit a gradual, linear rise of [Ni II] emission with increasing argon enrichment, whereas gas with less nuclear processing shows markedly different [Ni II] emission characteristics, including the highest derived abundances. This suggests two origins for stable, neutron-rich nickel in the nebula: a type of "alpha-rich freezeout" in the more highly processed material, and possibly removal of ions from the neutron star in other regions. In addition, the data indicate that anomalously strong observed [C I] emission comes from broad, low-ionization zones. Although the strongest He I emission could...

  7. Model description of non-Maxwellian nuclear processes in the solar interior

    CERN Document Server

    Voronchev, Victor T; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2016-01-01

    A consistent model for the description of non-Maxwellian nuclear processes in the solar core triggered by fast reaction-produced particles is formulated. It essentially extends an approach to study suprathermal solar reactions discussed previously [Phys. Rev. C 91, 028801 (2015)] and refines its predictions. The model is applied to examine in detail the slowing-down of 8.7-MeV alpha particles produced in the 7Li(p,alpha)alpha reaction of the pp chain, and to study suprathermal processes in the solar CNO cycle induced by them. The influence of electron degeneracy and electron screening on suprathermal reactions through in-flight reaction probability and fast particle emission rate is clarified. In particular, these effects account for a 20% increase of the 14N(alpha,p)17O reaction rate at R 18F of nuclear flow transforms to abnormal sequential flow 14N --> 17O --> 18F, and the 14N(alpha,p)17O reaction rate exceeds the rate of 17O burn up through conventional 17O(p,alpha)14N and 17O(p,gamma)18F processes. It i...

  8. Lab-scale demonstration of the UREX+1a process using spent nuclear fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Regalbuto, M. C.; Bakel, A.; Bowers, D.; Gelia, A. V.; Hebden, A. S.; Maggos, L. E.; Stepinski, D.; Tsai, Y.; Laidler, J. J.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing technologies to greatly expand repository capacity, improve proliferation resistance, and recover valuable energy that would otherwise be discarded; thus assuring a stable energy supply for the future. An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides followed by either superior waste-disposal forms and/or transmutation of long-lived isotopes. To that end, the GNEP is developing advanced fuel reprocessing systems that separate key radionuclides from spent fuel. One of these systems is the UREX+1a process. The UREX+1a process is a series of four solvent-extraction flowsheets that perform the following operations: (1) recovery of U and Tc (UREX), (2) recovery of Cs and Sr (CCD-PEG), and (3) recovery of TRU and rare earth elements (TRUEX), and (4) separation of TRU elements from the rare earths (TALSPEAK). This paper discusses the results of the demonstration of the UREX, TRUEX, and TALSPEAK processes using spent nuclear fuel, as well as future development needs and plans.

  9. Regulatory forum opinion piece: Clarification and simplification of the pathology peer review documentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael J; Leininger, Joel R

    2014-01-01

    The transparency and documentation of the peer review process have been discussed recently. Our position is that transparency is best achieved when peer review is a collaborative process, in which both parties are open-minded but both also realize that the study pathologist retains complete control over the findings (raw data) and over the content of the pathology report. For these reasons, we believe that histopathology raw data should be defined as the observations made by the study pathologist (printed and/or electronic formats) rather than as the tissue slides recommended by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Also, because the study pathologist retains control over the histopathology raw data, any notes or tabulations of findings by the study pathologist and peer review pathologist during the peer review are interim notes and should not be included as an appendix to the pathology report though they may be retained if desired, as currently recommended. Because the histopathology raw data have not been created until completion of the peer review, the performance of a peer review should be documented in the study report, as currently recommended, but that it not be a GLP-compliant process.

  10. Recent Advances in Computational Methods for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Processing

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2013-01-11

    Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.

  11. Nuclear Effects in Polarized Proton-Deuteron Drell-Yan Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; SHI Li-Jie; SHEN Peng-Nian; LI Guang-Lie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The longitudinally polarized Drell- Yan process is one of the most powerful tools to probe the structure of hadrons.By means of the recent formalism of the polarized proton-deuteron (pd) Drell-Yan, we calculate the ratio of the proton-deuteron Drell-Yan cross section to the proton-proton (pp) one △σpd/2△σpp in the polarized case. The theoretical results can be compared with future experimental data to confirm the nuclear effect due to the 6-quark cluster in deuteron.

  12. Accumulative effects of regulatory actions. Exercise of analysis of CER, consideration of the cumulative Effects of regulation in the rulemaking process in Spanish NPP; Efectos acumulativos de la ccion reguladora. ejercicio de analisis del CER, Consideration of the cummulative Effects of Regulation in the rulemaking process en una central espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ayestaran, P.; Castella, L.

    2014-02-01

    Through its interaction with the American industry, the NRC has been aware for a number of years of the concern about the impact of the accumulative effect of some regulatory actions. In response to this concern, which was highlighted by the industry, the NRC has carried out initiative to review a number of regulatory requirements order to ensure that NRC regulation and practices dno not lead to an unnecessary regulatory load. The foregoing was in response to what has become commonly known as the CER. Cumulative Effects of Regulation in the Rulemaking Process. In view of the regulatory actuation by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and, in particular after the events which occurred in Japan, a pilot study has been carried out to examine the CER on a Spanish plant in order to analyse the cumulative effects of regulation and to propose improvements to the management of regulation in line with that set our by the NRC in various documents (SECY-02-081, SECY-11-0032 among others). (Authors)

  13. Genetic Code Expansion as a Tool to Study Regulatory Processes of Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Moritz; Summerer, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of the genetic code with noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) enables the chemical and biophysical properties of proteins to be tailored, inside cells, with a previously unattainable level of precision. A wide range of ncAA with functions not found in canonical amino acids have been genetically encoded in recent years and have delivered insights into biological processes that would be difficult to access with traditional approaches of molecular biology. A major field for the development and application of novel ncAA-functions has been transcription and its regulation. This is particularly attractive, since advanced DNA sequencing- and proteomics-techniques continue to deliver vast information on these processes on a global level, but complementing methodologies to study them on a detailed, molecular level and in living cells have been comparably scarce. In a growing number of studies, genetic code expansion has now been applied to precisely control the chemical properties of transcription factors, RNA polymerases and histones, and this has enabled new insights into their interactions, conformational changes, cellular localizations and the functional roles of posttranslational modifications.

  14. Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

  15. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  16. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  17. Simulation of coupled THM process in surrounding rock mass of nuclear waste repository in argillaceous formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋中明; 陈永贵

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and analyze the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupling phenomena of a surrounding rock mass in an argillaceous formation, a nuclear waste disposal concept in drifts was represented physically in an in-situ test way. A transversely isotropic model was employed to reproduce the whole test process numerically. Parameters of the rock mass were determined by laboratory and in-situ experiments. Based on the numerical simulation results and in-situ test data, the variation processes of pore water pressure, temperature and deformation of surrounding rock were analyzed. Both the measured data and numerical results reveal that the thermal perturbation is the principal driving force which leads to the variation of pore water pressure and deformations in the surrounding rock. The temperature, pore pressure and deformation of rock mass change rapidly at each initial heating stage with a constant heating power. The temperature field near the heater borehole is relatively steady in the subsequent stages of the heating phase. However, the pore pressure and deformation fields decrease gradually with temperature remaining unchanged condition. It also shows that a transversely isotropic model can reproduce the THM coupling effects generating in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository in an argillaceous formation.

  18. The Optimization of Radioactive Waste Management in the Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents a basic characterization of nuclear installation decommissioning process especially in the term of radioactive materials management. A large amount of solid materials and secondary waste created after implementation of decommissioning activities have to be managed considering their physical, chemical, toxic and radiological characteristics. Radioactive materials should be, after fulfilling all the conditions defined by the authorities, released to the environment for the further use. Non-releasable materials are considered to be a radioactive waste. Their management includes various procedures starting with pre-treatment activities, continuing with storage, treatment and conditioning procedures. Finally, they are disposed in the near surface or deep geological repositories. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of all possible ways of releasing the material from nuclear installation area, optimization of the material management process should be done. Emphasis is placed on the radiological parameters of materials, availability of waste management technologies, waste repositories and on the radiological limits and conditions for materials release or waste disposal. Appropriate optimization of material flow should lead to the significant savings of money, disposal capacities or raw material resources. Using a suitable calculation code e.g. OMEGA, the evaluation of the various material management scenarios and selection of the best one, based on the multi-criterion analysis, should be done. (authors)

  19. Transient boundary conditions in the frame of THM-processes at nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanz Tom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear waste repositories, initially unsaturated buffer is subjected to constant heat emitted by waste canister in conjunction with peripheral hydration through water from host rock. The transient hydration process can be potraied as transformation of initial heterogeneity towards homogeneity as final stage. In this context, this paper addresses the key issue of hydro mechanical behaviour of compacted buffer in context of clay microstructure and its evolution under repository relevant loading paths and material heterogeneity. This paper also introduces a unique column experiment facility available at Ruhr Universität Bochum, Germany. The facility has been designed as a forerunner of field scale testing program to simulate the transient hydration process of compacted buffer as per German reference disposal concept. The device is unique in terms of having proficiency to capture the transient material response under various possible repository relevant loading paths with higher precision level by monitor the key parameters like temperature, total suction, water content and axial & radial swelling pressure at three different sections along the length of compacted soil sample. In general, a larger spectrum of loading paths/scenarios, which may arise in the nuclear repository, can be covered precisely with existing device.

  20. Experiment on the improvement of OREOX process for fabrication of dry recycling nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Park, G. I. [and others

    2004-01-01

    The OREOX(Oxidation and REduction of OXide fuel) process has been performed to fabricate dry recycling(DUPIC ; Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) nuclear fuel pellets by using spent PWR fuel. Generally, sinterable DUPIC powder has been manufactured from spent PWR fuel pellets by the 3 cycles of oxidation and reduction treatment. The OREOX process is one of the most important processes for DUPIC pellet fabrication. A lot of time more than 37 hours as well as a lot of reaction gas is required to perform 3 cycles of OREOX treatments. In this experiment, 1 cycle OREOX process was adopted to improve the powdering process of DUPIC pellet manufacturing processes. As a result of experiment, the densities of pellets sintered at 1800 .deg. C for 10 hours ranged from 10.15 to 10.22 g/cm{sup 3}(93.8{approx}94.5 % of T.D.). The pellets were sintered again to increase the sintered density. The sintered densities of pellets re-sintered at 1850 .deg. C for 7 hours ranged from 10.27 to 10.33 g/cm{sup 3}(94.9{approx} 95.5 % of T.D)

  1. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  2. How to Avoid Stereotypes? Evaluation of a Strategy based on Self-Regulatory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, María; Montes-Berges, Beatriz

    2016-06-10

    Based on research on the motivational processes involved in preventing and controlling stereotypes, we aimed to assess whether temporary activation of egalitarian goals - by means of a task that gives respondents exposure to a text on gender inequality - can prevent stereotyped answers on the task. The task asks participants to place women and men into a hierarchical organizational structure. Two specific objectives were established: first, to control the effect of prejudice and egalitarian commitment on the dependent variable; and second, to study gender differences in task responses. The study included 474 college students, 153 men and 321 women. Their mean age was 20.04 (SD = 4.43). ANCOVA indicated main effects of condition, F(1) = 4.15, p = .042, η2 = .081 (control condition without goal activation vs. experimental condition with goal activation) and sex, F(1) = 40.46, p stereotyped answers more than participants in the control condition. Furthermore, women's performance on the task was more egalitarian than men's. Finally, there was a significant interaction effect of condition and type of organization, F(2) = 3.97, p = .019, η2 = .017; participants assigning candidates to the feminized organization differed the most across conditions.

  3. Duval Corporation application study: nuclear process energy from PE-CNSG. [Sulfur mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The technical and economic studies were performed to examine the possible installation of a small, integral pressurized water reactor as an industrial energy source in the Duval Corporation's Frasch Process sulfur mining operation located in Culberson County, Texas. Since this is the first industrial application study attempted for this type of reactor, it has been a learning process on the nuclear plant side as well as the industrial side, particularly in the area of economic analysis. The importance of considering inflationary effects, the significance of plant financing form, and the annualized, after-tax cash flow and incremental rate-of-return methods of comparison in determing energy costs have all been recognized during the course of the study.

  4. Perturbation of MicroRNA-370/Lin-28 homolog A/nuclear factor kappa B regulatory circuit contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Ping; Yi, Min; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Cong, Wen-Ming; Yang, Yuan; Ning, Bei-Fang; Yin, Chuan; Huang, Zhao-Wei; Wang, Jian; Qian, Hui; Jiang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Yue-Xiang; Xia, Chun-Yan; Wang, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Wei-Fen

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNA 370 (miR-370) is located within the DLK1/DIO3 imprinting region on human chromosome 14, which has been identified as a cancer-associated genomic region. However, the role of miR-370 in malignances remains controversial. Here, we report that miR-370 was repressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and hepatoma cell lines. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrated that miR-370 inhibited the malignant phenotype of HCC cells in vitro. Overexpression of miR-370 inhibited growth and metastasis of HCC cells in vivo. Moreover, the RNA-binding protein, LIN28A, was identified as a direct functional target of miR-370, which, in turn, blocked the biogenesis of miR-370 by binding to its precursor. LIN28A also mediated the suppressive effects of miR-370 on migration and invasion of HCC cells by post-transcriptionally regulating RelA/p65, which is an important effector of the canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-known NF-κB downstream inflammatory molecule, reduced miR-370 but increased LIN28A levels in HCC. Furthermore, miR-370 levels were inversely correlated with LIN28A and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, whereas LIN28A mRNA expression was positively correlated with IL-6 expression in human HCC samples. Interestingly, reduction of miR-370 expression was associated with the development of HCC in rats, as well as with aggressive tumor behavior and short survival in HCC patients. These data demonstrate the involvement of a novel regulatory circuit consisting of miR-370, LIN28A, RelA/p65 and IL-6 in HCC progression. Manipulating this feedback loop may have beneficial effect in HCC treatment. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods.

  6. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  7. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  8. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of the Waste Mass from a Pyro-Process of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Pyro-Process is now developing to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a nuclear power plant. In this situation, it is strongly required for the estimation of expected masses and their physical properties of the wastes. In this report, the amount of wastes and their physical properties are presupposed through some assumptions in regard to 10MTHM of Oxide Fuel with 4.5wt% U-235, 45,000 MWD/MTU, and 5yrs cooling. The produced wastes can be divided into three categories such as metal, CWF(Ceramic Waste Form), and VWF(Vitrified Waste Form). The 42 nuclrides in a spent nuclear fuel are distributed into the waste categories on the their physical and thermodynamic properties when they exist in metal, oxide, or chloride forms. The treated atomic groups are Uranium, TRU, Noble metal, Rare earth, Alkali metal, Halogens, and others. The mass of each waste is estimated by the distribution results. The off-gas waste is included into a CWF. The heat generations by the wastes in this Pyro-Process are calculated using a ORIGEN-ARP program. It is possible to estimate the amounts of wastes and their heat generation rates in this Pyro-Process analysis. These information are very helpful to design a waste container and its quantity also can be determined. The number of container and its heat generation rate will be key factor for the construction of interim storage facilities including a underground disposal site.

  10. Vanishing current hysteresis under competing nuclear spin pumping processes in a quadruplet spin-blockaded double quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaha, S., E-mail: s-amaha@riken.jp [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Functional System Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, T. [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Tarucha, S. [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Functional System Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G. [National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-04-27

    We investigate nuclear spin pumping with five-electron quadruplet spin states in a spin-blockaded weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Two types of hysteretic steps in the leakage current are observed on sweeping the magnetic field and are associated with bidirectional polarization of nuclear spin. Properties of the steps are understood in terms of bias-voltage-dependent conditions for the mixing of quadruplet and doublet spin states by the hyperfine interaction. The hysteretic steps vanish when up- and down-nuclear spin pumping processes are in close competition.

  11. Pentagalloylglucose Blocks the Nuclear Transport and the Process of Nucleocapsid Egress to Inhibit HSV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fujun; Ma, Kaiqi; Chen, Maoyun; Zou, Muping; Wu, Yanting; Li, Feng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a widespread virus, causes a variety of human viral diseases worldwide. The serious threat of drug-resistance highlights the extreme urgency to develop novel antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with significant anti-HSV activity; however, the mechanisms underlying its antiviral activity need to be defined by further studies. In this study, we found that PGG treatment delays the nuclear transport process of HSV-1 particles by inhibiting the upregulation of dynein (a cellular major motor protein) induced by HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, PGG treatment affects the nucleocapsid egress of HSV-1 by inhibiting the expression and disrupting the cellular localization of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34, which are indispensable for HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress from the nucleus. However, the over-expression of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34 could decrease the antiviral effect of PGG. In this study, for the first time, the antiviral activity of PGG against acyclovir-resistant virus was demonstrated in vitro, and the possible mechanisms of its anti-HSV activities were identified based on the inhibition of nuclear transport and nucleocapsid egress in HSV-1. It was further confirmed that PGG could be a promising candidate for HSV therapy, especially for drug-resistant strains.

  12. Industrial Qualification Process for Optical Fibers Distributed Strain and Temperature Sensing in Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delepine-Lesoille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and strain monitoring will be implemented in the envisioned French geological repository for high- and intermediate-level long-lived nuclear wastes. Raman and Brillouin scatterings in optical fibers are efficient industrial methods to provide distributed temperature and strain measurements. Gamma radiation and hydrogen release from nuclear wastes can however affect the measurements. An industrial qualification process is successfully proposed and implemented. Induced measurement uncertainties and their physical origins are quantified. The optical fiber composition influence is assessed. Based on radiation-hard fibers and carbon-primary coatings, we showed that the proposed system can provide accurate temperature and strain measurements up to 0.5 MGy and 100% hydrogen concentration in the atmosphere, over 200 m distance range. The selected system was successfully implemented in the Andra underground laboratory, in one-to-one scale mockup of future cells, into concrete liners. We demonstrated the efficiency of simultaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering measurements to provide both strain and temperature distributed measurements. We showed that 1.3 μm working wavelength is in favor of hazardous environment monitoring.

  13. Systematic and correlated nuclear uncertainties in the i-process at the neutron shell closure N = 82

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolli, M G; Pignatari, M; Kawano, T

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics simulations aiming to study the origin of the elements in stars require a multitude of nuclear physics input. Both systematic model dependent and statistically correlated uncertainties need to be considered. An application where realistic uncertainty assessments are especially important is the intermediate neutron capture process or i process: a neutron capture regime with neutron densities intermediate between the slow and rapid processes. Accordingly, the main network flux proceeds on the neutron-rich unstable isotopes up to 4-5 species off the valley of stability. The i process has been clearly identified to be active in post-AGB stars during the Very Late Thermal Pulse H-ingestion event, and a recent work infers about its important role in early generations of stars. Here we demonstrate the effect of propagating systematic nuclear uncertainties from different theoretical models to final abundances for a region around the 2$^\\mathrm{nd}$ peak at $A-Z=80$ for elemental ratio predictions...

  14. Innovation in the processes of formation and training of nuclear professionals; La innovacion en los procesos de formacion y entranamiento de los profesionales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Martinez, F. J.; Lambistos Agustin, A.

    2015-07-01

    Innovation is the intoduction of new products and services, new processes, new sources of supply and changes in industrial organization, and continuous customer, consumer or user oriented (J. A. Schumpeter). According to this idea, three mental restrictions usually apply to the innovative break: not only are new products, not only are technological developments, not only are revolutionary ideas so also. From the innovative tradition of Tecnatom Formacion Nuclear materailized in examples like the SGI or Human Factors simulators, in recent years has made considerable progress in the function with innovative solutions to improve the results of nuclear power plants, made available to our customers, as significant as the Training Programs for Shift Supervisors, the OJT/TPE processes, seminars Diagnostic Techniques, EDMG Simulator or ROI and ROIF projects. (Author)

  15. Modeling Electronic-Nuclear Interactions for Excitation Energy Transfer Processes in Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Coker, David F

    2016-08-18

    An accurate approach for computing intermolecular and intrachromophore contributions to spectral densities to describe the electronic-nuclear interactions relevant for modeling excitation energy transfer processes in light harvesting systems is presented. The approach is based on molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of classical correlation functions of long-range contributions to excitation energy fluctuations and a separate harmonic analysis and single-point gradient quantum calculations for electron-intrachromophore vibrational couplings. A simple model is also presented that enables detailed analysis of the shortcomings of standard MD-based excitation energy fluctuation correlation function approaches. The method introduced here avoids these problems, and its reliability is demonstrated in accurate predictions for bacteriochlorophyll molecules in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex, where excellent agreement with experimental spectral densities is found. This efficient approach can provide instantaneous spectral densities for treating the influence of fluctuations in environmental dissipation on fast electronic relaxation.

  16. Radiolytic and Thermal Processes Relevant to Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Theodore E. Madey

    2001-10-01

    Characterize the effects of temperature and radiation processes on the interactions of H20 with oxide surfaces. Our experiments focused on the fundamental interaction of H20 molecules with surfaces of U02. We characterized the surface chemistry of adsorbed H2O using thermal desorption methods and radiotracer methods, as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). In parallel with these measurements of thermal effects, we examined the effects of secondary electrons and high-energy photons on hydrogen and oxygen generation and, and how this related to corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. These studies concentrated on neutral and ionic (cation and anion) desorption products of low-energy electron irradiation of water-covered UO2.

  17. Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear magnetic resonance: Use of quadrupolar and dipolar couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar; K V Ramanathan; T S Mahesh; Neeraj Sinha; K V R Murali

    2002-08-01

    Use of dipolar and quadrupolar couplings for quantum information processing (QIP) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. In these cases, instead of the individual spins being qubits, the 2 energy levels of the spin-system can be treated as an -qubit system. It is demonstrated that QIP in such systems can be carried out using transition-selective pulses, in CH3CN, 13CH3CN, 7Li ( = 3/2) and 133Cs ( = 7/2), oriented in liquid crystals yielding 2 and 3 qubit systems. Creation of pseudopure states, implementation of logic gates and arithmetic operations (half-adder and subtractor) have been carried out in these systems using transition-selective pulses.

  18. Production of small uranium dioxide microspheres for cermet nuclear fuel using the internal gelation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL; Patton, Kaara K [ORNL; Hickman, Robert [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a uranium dioxide (UO2)/tungsten cermet fuel for potential use as the nuclear cryogenic propulsion stage (NCPS). The first generation NCPS is expected to be made from dense UO2 microspheres with diameters between 75 and 150 m. Previously, the internal gelation process and a hood-scale apparatus with a vibrating nozzle were used to form gel spheres, which became UO2 kernels with diameters between 350 and 850 m. For the NASA spheres, the vibrating nozzle was replaced with a custom designed, two-fluid nozzle to produce gel spheres in the desired smaller size range. This paper describes the operational methodology used to make 3 kg of uranium oxide microspheres.

  19. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  20. Performance based seismic qualification of reinforced concrete nuclear materials processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.E.; Loceff, F.; Houston, T.; Rauls, G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Mulliken, J. [LPA Group Inc., SC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A seismic qualification of a reinforced concrete nuclear materials processing facility using performance based acceptance criteria is presented. Performance goals are defined in terms of a minimum annual seismic failure frequency. Pushover analyses are used to determine the building`s ultimate capacity and relate the capacity to roof drift and joint rotation. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are used to quantify the building`s drift using a suite of ground motion intensities representing varying soil conditions and levels of seismic hazard. A correlation between joint rotation and building drift to damage state is developed from experimental data. The damage state and seismic hazard are convolved to determine annual seismic failure frequency. The results of this rigorous approach is compared to those using equivalent force methods and pushover techniques recommended by ATC-19 and FEMA-273.

  1. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... (10 CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  2. 77 FR 7184 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee)...

  3. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee) is...

  4. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  5. Process Management Development for Quality Monitoring on Resistance Weldment of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Tae Hyung; Yang, Kyung Hwan; Kim, In Kyu [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The current, welding force, and displacement are displayed on the indicator during welding. However, real-time quality control is not performed. Due to the importance of fuel rod weldment, many studies on welding procedures have been conducted. However, there are not enough studies regarding weldment quality evaluation. On the other hand, there are continuous studies on the monitoring and control of welding phenomena. In resistance welding, which is performed in a very short time, it is important to find the process parameters that well represent the weld zone formation and the welding process. In his study, Gould attempted to analyze melt zone formation using the finite difference method. Using the artificial neural network, Javed and Sanders, Messler Jr et al., Cho and Rhee, Li and Gong et al. estimated the size of the melt zone by mapping a nonlinear functional relation between the weldment and the electrode head movement, which is a typical welding process parameter. Applications of the artificial intelligence method include fuzzy control using electrode displacement, fuzzy control using the optimal power curve, neural network control using the dynamic resistance curve, fuzzy adaptive control using the optimal electrode curve, etc. Therefore, this study induced quality factors for the real-time quality control of nuclear fuel rod end plug weldment using instantaneous dynamic resistance (IDR), which incorporates the instantaneous value of secondary current and voltage of the transformer, and using instantaneous dynamic force (IDF), obtained real-time during welding.

  6. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-07-13

    An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.013 g kg(-1)) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.0063 g kg(-1)) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg(-1) for foods (and 0.0063 g kg(-1) for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method.

  7. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  8. Image processing analysis of nuclear track parameters for CR-39 detector irradiated by thermal neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jobouri, Hussain A.; Rajab, Mustafa Y.

    2016-03-01

    CR-39 detector which covered with boric acid (H3Bo3) pellet was irradiated by thermal neutrons from (241Am - 9Be) source with activity 12Ci and neutron flux 105 n. cm-2. s-1. The irradiation times -TD for detector were 4h, 8h, 16h and 24h. Chemical etching solution for detector was sodium hydroxide NaOH, 6.25N with 45 min etching time and 60 C˚ temperature. Images of CR-39 detector after chemical etching were taken from digital camera which connected from optical microscope. MATLAB software version 7.0 was used to image processing. The outputs of image processing of MATLAB software were analyzed and found the following relationships: (a) The irradiation time -TD has behavior linear relationships with following nuclear track parameters: i) total track number - NT ii) maximum track number - MRD (relative to track diameter - DT) at response region range 2.5 µm to 4 µm iii) maximum track number - MD (without depending on track diameter - DT). (b) The irradiation time -TD has behavior logarithmic relationship with maximum track number - MA (without depending on track area - AT). The image processing technique principally track diameter - DT can be take into account to classification of α-particle emitters, In addition to the contribution of these technique in preparation of nano- filters and nano-membrane in nanotechnology fields.

  9. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi, E-mail: ohtsuki@nihs.go.jp [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method using qHNMR was applied and validated to determine SA in processed foods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method has good accuracy, precision, selectiveness, and linearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method is more rapid and simple than the conventional method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that the proposed method is reliable for the accurate determination of SA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method can be used for the monitoring of SA in processed foods. - Abstract: An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg{sup -1} (beverage: 0.013 g kg{sup -1}) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg{sup -1} (beverage: 0.0063 g kg{sup -1}) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg{sup -1} for foods (and 0.0063 g kg{sup -1} for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method.

  10. Explosive Nuclear Burning in the pp-Chain Region and the Breakout Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubono S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear reactions in the pp-chain region and on the breakout process from the pp-chain region under very high temperature conditions are reviewed, and some possibilities for experimental investigation are discussed. The reactions discussed could play an important role typically for the primordial nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis. Specifically, I discuss here the reactions starting from the two key nuclei, 7Be and 7Li. The 7Be(n,α reaction, which destroys 7Be, is considered to have a large impact to the primordial 7Li problem. Our recent estimate of the reaction rate indicates that the reaction rate can be about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate currently adopted, suggesting this channel has a minor effect for the 7Li problem. Under a proton-rich environment at high temperature like the νp-process, the 7Be(α,γ11C(α,p14N pathway is expected to play a majpr role for heavy element synthesis, comparable to the triple alpha process. These two reactions on the pathway were investigated by using low-energy, high-intensity RI beams of 7Be and 11C. The results support the theoretical prediction of heavy nucleus production at around mass 90-100 by the νp-process, where the anomalously abundant p-nuclei exist. The reactions on the breakout sequence of 7Li(n,γ8Li(α,n11B are also discussed which could paly a crucial role in nuetron-rich envirnments, like in the primirdial universe as well as the early stage of the r-process. The cross sections of the first step reaction 7Li(n,γ8Li seems well confirmed, but the second step reaction 8Li(α,n11B still is not well known yet, whose status of the study is discussed.

  11. Elements of a nuclear criticality safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States are quite successful, as compared with other safety disciplines, at protecting life and property, especially when regarded as a developing safety function with no historical perspective for the cause and effect of process nuclear criticality accidents before 1943. The programs evolved through self-imposed and regulatory-imposed incentives. They are the products of conscientious individuals, supportive corporations, obliged regulators, and intervenors (political, public, and private). The maturing of nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States has been spasmodic, with stability provided by the volunteer standards efforts within the American Nuclear Society. This presentation provides the status, relative to current needs, for nuclear criticality safety program elements that address organization of and assignments for nuclear criticality safety program responsibilities; personnel qualifications; and analytical capabilities for the technical definition of critical, subcritical, safety and operating limits, and program quality assurance.

  12. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  13. Energy analysis of a desalination process of sea water with nuclear energy; Analisis energetico de un proceso de desalinizacion de agua de mar con energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez L, G.; Valle H, J., E-mail: julfi_jg@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard acceso a Tolcayuca No. 1009, Ex-hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, is theoretically proven that the residual heat, removed by the chillers in the stage prior to the compression of the recuperative Brayton cycle with which nuclear power plants operate with high temperature gas reactors (HTGR), can be used to produce stem and desalinate seawater. The desalination process selected for the analysis, based on its operating characteristics, is the Multi-Stage Distillation (Med). The Med process will use as energy source, for the flash evaporation process in the flash trap, the residual heat that the reactor coolant dissipates to the environment in order to increase the compression efficiency of the same; the energy dissipated depends on the operating conditions of the reactor. The Med distillation process requires saturated steam at low pressure which can be obtained by means of a heat exchanger, taking advantage of the residual heat, where the relative low temperatures with which the process operates make the nuclear plants with HTGR reactors ideal for desalination of sea water, because they do not require major modifications to their design of their operation. In this work the energy analysis of a six-stage Med module coupled to the chillers of an HTGR reactor of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor type is presented. Mathematical modeling was obtained by differential equations of mass and energy balances in the system. The results of the analysis are presented in a table for each distillation stage, estimating the pure water obtained as a function of the heat supplied. (Author)

  14. Technical Letter Report - Analysis of Ultrasonic Data on Piping Cracks at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Before and After Applying a Mechanical Stress Improvement Process, JCN-N6319, Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.

    2008-02-26

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in piping systems previously analyzed for leak-before-break (LBB). Part of this work involves determining whether inspections alone are sufficient or if inspections plus mitigation techniques are needed. The work described in this report addresses the reliability of ultrasonic phased-array (PA) examinations for inspection of cracks that have been subjected to the mitigation method of mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). It is believed that stresses imparted during MSIP may make ultrasonic crack responses in piping welds more difficult to detect and accurately characterize. To explore this issue, data were acquired, both before and after applying MSIP, and analyzed from cracked areas in piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. This work was performed under NRC Project JCN-N6319, PWSCC in Leak-Before-Break Systems.

  15. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  16. Evolutionary processes acting on candidate cis-regulatory regions in humans inferred from patterns of polymorphism and divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Torgerson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of polymorphism and divergence in the non-coding portion of the human genome yields crucial information about factors driving the evolution of gene regulation. Candidate cis-regulatory regions spanning more than 15,000 genes in 15 African Americans and 20 European Americans were re-sequenced and aligned to the chimpanzee genome in order to identify potentially functional polymorphism and to characterize and quantify departures from neutral evolution. Distortions of the site frequency spectra suggest a general pattern of selective constraint on conserved non-coding sites in the flanking regions of genes (CNCs. Moreover, there is an excess of fixed differences that cannot be explained by a Gamma model of deleterious fitness effects, suggesting the presence of positive selection on CNCs. Extensions of the McDonald-Kreitman test identified candidate cis-regulatory regions with high probabilities of positive and negative selection near many known human genes, the biological characteristics of which exhibit genome-wide trends that differ from patterns observed in protein-coding regions. Notably, there is a higher probability of positive selection in candidate cis-regulatory regions near genes expressed in the fetal brain, suggesting that a larger portion of adaptive regulatory changes has occurred in genes expressed during brain development. Overall we find that natural selection has played an important role in the evolution of candidate cis-regulatory regions throughout hominid evolution.

  17. A Validation Process for the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Faultless Nuclear Test at Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2003-01-01

    Many sites of groundwater contamination rely heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport to develop closure plans. This has created a need for tools and approaches that can be used to build confidence in model predictions and make it apparent to regulators, policy makers, and the public that these models are sufficient for decision making. This confidence building is a long-term iterative process and it is this process that should be termed ''model validation.'' Model validation is a process not an end result. That is, the process of model validation cannot always assure acceptable prediction or quality of the model. Rather, it provides safeguard against faulty models or inadequately developed and tested models. Therefore, development of a systematic approach for evaluating and validating subsurface predictive models and guiding field activities for data collection and long-term monitoring is strongly needed. This report presents a review of model validation studies that pertain to groundwater flow and transport modeling. Definitions, literature debates, previously proposed validation strategies, and conferences and symposia that focused on subsurface model validation are reviewed and discussed. The review is general in nature, but the focus of the discussion is on site-specific, predictive groundwater models that are used for making decisions regarding remediation activities and site closure. An attempt is made to compile most of the published studies on groundwater model validation and assemble what has been proposed or used for validating subsurface models. The aim is to provide a reasonable starting point to aid the development of the validation plan for the groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The review of previous studies on model validation shows that there does not exist a set of specific procedures and tests that can be easily adapted and

  18. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeau, J.-P.; Durret, L.-F.

    1995-12-31

    Three main features of the globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and discussed. The first is an increase in the scale of the nuclear fuel cycle materials and services markets in the past 20 years. This has been accompanied by a growth in the sophistication of the fuel cycle. Secondly, the nuclear industry is now more vulnerable to outside pressures; it is no longer possible to make strategic decisions on the industry within a country solely on national considerations. Thirdly, there are changes in the decision-making process at the political, regulatory, operational and industrial level which are the consequence of global factors. (UK).

  19. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process.

  20. Rho family GTP binding proteins are involved in the regulatory volume decrease process in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Stine F; Beisner, Kristine H; Hougaard, Charlotte; Willumsen, Berthe M; Lambert, Ian H; Hoffmann, Else K

    2002-06-15

    The role of Rho GTPases in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process following osmotic cell swelling is controversial and has so far only been investigated for the swelling-activated Cl- efflux. We investigated the involvement of RhoA in the RVD process in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, using wild-type cells and three clones expressing constitutively active RhoA (RhoAV14). RhoAV14 expression resulted in an up to fourfold increase in the rate of RVD, measured by large-angle light scattering. The increase in RVD rate correlated with RhoAV14 expression. RVD in wild-type cells was unaffected by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin. The maximal rates of swelling-activated K+ (86 Rb+ as tracer) and taurine ([3H]taurine as tracer) efflux after a 30 % reduction in extracellular osmolarity were increased about twofold in cells with maximal RhoAV14 expression compared to wild-type cells, but were unaffected by Y-27632. The volume set points for activation of release of both osmolytes appeared to be reduced by RhoAV14 expression. The maximal taurine efflux rate constant was potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na(3)VO(4), and inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. The magnitude of the swelling-activated Cl- current (I(Cl,swell) ) was higher in RhoAV14 than in wild-type cells after a 7.5 % reduction in extracellular osmolarity, but, in contrast to 86Rb+ and [3H]taurine efflux, similar in both strains after a 30 % reduction in extracellular osmolarity. I(Cl,swell) was inhibited by Y-27632 and strongly potentiated by the myosin light chain kinase inhibitors ML-7 and AV25. It is suggested that RhoA, although not the volume sensor per se, is an important upstream modulator shared by multiple swelling-activated channels on which RhoA exerts its effects via divergent signalling pathways.