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Sample records for nuclear reactions section

  1. Nuclear reactions cross section measurement using Z-pinch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, T; Bystritskij, V; Mesyats, G A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Electrophysics; and others

    1997-12-31

    Direct experimental estimate of the upper limit of the d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n cross-section at deuteron energies below the keV region was obtained for the first time. The experiment was performed at the Pulsed Ion Beam Accelerator of the High-Current Electronics Institute in Tomsk, using high intensity, radially converging deuteron beams, generated during implosion of liner plasma. A two-jet liner made of 17% D{sub 2} + 83% N{sub 2} gas was used, with the inner jet serving as the target. The dd-fusion neutrons were registered by time-of-flight scintillator spectrometers and BF{sub 3} detectors of thermal neutrons placed in a polyethylene moderator. The upper limit obtained for the d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n cross-section for a deuteron energy of 440 eV is {sigma} < 2 x 10{sup -34} cm{sup 2} at the 90% confidence level. The result demonstrates that the liner implosion technique can be used in the investigation of nuclear reactions between light nuclei at infra low energies, previously not accessible in experiments with classical beam accelerators. (author). 7 refs.

  2. Nuclear structure effects on calculated fast neutron reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrigeanu, V.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of accurate low-lying level schemes for reaction cross section calculation and need for microscopically calculated levels are proved with reference to fast neutron induced reactions in the A = 50 atomic mass range. The uses of the discrete levels both for normalization of phenomenological level density approaches and within Hauser-Feshbach calculations are discussed in this respect. (Author)

  3. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  4. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coupled-channels optical model code OPTMAN is used as an alternative to experimental approach to evaluate the total reaction cross section for four different isotopes of Plutonium as an example of heavy rotational nuclei of the transuranium elements over an energy range of 10 to 20 MeV. The selected isotopes are the ...

  5. Use of nuclear reaction models in cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    1975-03-01

    The design of fusion reactors will require information about a large number of neutron cross sections in the MeV region. Because of the obvious experimental difficulties, it is probable that not all of the cross sections of interest will be measured. Current direct and pre-equilibrium models can be used to calculate non-statistical contributions to neutron cross sections from information available from charged particle reaction studies; these are added to the calculated statistical contribution. Estimates of the reliability of such calculations can be derived from comparisons with the available data. (3 tables, 12 figures) (U.S.)

  6. Cross sections of nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles. Pt.6. Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobailem, Jacques.

    1981-11-01

    Cross sections are reviewed for nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles on phosphorus targets. When necessary, published experimental data are corrected, and, when possible, excitation functions are proposed [fr

  7. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-10-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparancy is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determing σ sub(R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  8. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparency is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determining σ(sub R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  9. Experimental cross-sections for proton-induced nuclear reactions on Mo-nat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenák, Jaroslav; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, AUG (2016), s. 32-49 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross-sections * excitation functions * proton-induced nuclear reactions * natural molybdenum * Mo-99 * Tc-99m * Tc96m+g * Tc-95m * thick target yields * U-120M cyclotron Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  10. Cross Sections Calculations of ( d, t) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Yiğit, M.; Tanır, G.

    2013-04-01

    In nuclear fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In contrast with fission power, the fusion reaction processes does not produce radioactive nuclides. The fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2. So the fusion energy will not contribute to environmental problems such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. Fusion powered electricity generation was initially believed to be readily achievable, as fission power had been. However, the extreme requirements for continuous reactions and plasma containment led to projections being extended by several decades. In 2010, more than 60 years after the first attempts, commercial power production is still believed to be unlikely before 2050. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. In the fusion reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. Therefore, for self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( d, t) nuclear reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. Since the experimental data of charged particle induced reactions are scarce, self-consistent calculation and analyses using nuclear theoretical models are very important. In this study, ( d, t) cross sections for target nuclei 19F, 50Cr, 54Fe, 58Ni, 75As, 89Y, 90Zr, 107Ag, 127I, 197Au and 238U have been investigated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy. The excitation functions for ( d, t) reactions have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in

  11. Activation cross-section data for -particle-induced nuclear reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M ALI

    2018-02-20

    particle-induced nuclear reactions on natural vanadium up to 20 MeV. It should be mentioned that this study represents a part of (a supplement) systematical study of charged particles-induced nuclear reactions. Earlier studies were.

  12. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. Th...

  13. Measuring nuclear reaction cross sections to extract information on neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Agodi, C.; Acosta, L.; Auerbach, N.; Bellone, J.; Bijker, R.; Bonanno, D.; Bongiovanni, D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Boztosun, I.; Branchina, V.; Bussa, M. P.; Calabrese, S.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Calvo, D.; Carbone, D.; Chávez Lomelí, E. R.; Coban, A.; Colonna, M.; D'Agostino, G.; De Geronimo, G.; Delaunay, F.; Deshmukh, N.; de Faria, P. N.; Ferraresi, C.; Ferreira, J. L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fisichella, M.; Foti, A.; Gallo, G.; Garcia, U.; Giraudo, G.; Greco, V.; Hacisalihoglu, A.; Kotila, J.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lanzalone, G.; Lavagno, A.; La Via, F.; Lay, J. A.; Lenske, H.; Linares, R.; Litrico, G.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Lubian, J.; Medina, N.; Mendes, D. R.; Muoio, A.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Pakou, A.; Pandola, L.; Petrascu, H.; Pinna, F.; Reito, S.; Rifuggiato, D.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santagati, G.; Santopinto, E.; Sgouros, O.; Solakci, S. O.; Souliotis, G.; Soukeras, V.; Spatafora, A.; Torresi, D.; Tudisco, S.; Vsevolodovna, R. I. M.; Wheadon, R. J.; Yildirin, A.; Zagatto, V. A. B.

    2018-02-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0vββ) is considered the best potential resource to access the absolute neutrino mass scale. Moreover, if observed, it will signal that neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles). Presently, this physics case is one of the most important research “beyond Standard Model” and might guide the way towards a Grand Unified Theory of fundamental interactions. Since the 0vββ decay process involves nuclei, its analysis necessarily implies nuclear structure issues. In the NURE project, supported by a Starting Grant of the European Research Council (ERC), nuclear reactions of double charge-exchange (DCE) are used as a tool to extract information on the 0vββ Nuclear Matrix Elements. In DCE reactions and ββ decay indeed the initial and final nuclear states are the same and the transition operators have similar structure. Thus the measurement of the DCE absolute cross-sections can give crucial information on ββ matrix elements. In a wider view, the NUMEN international collaboration plans a major upgrade of the INFN-LNS facilities in the next years in order to increase the experimental production of nuclei of at least two orders of magnitude, thus making feasible a systematic study of all the cases of interest as candidates for 0vββ.

  14. The AEP Barnbook DATLIB. Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections and Reactivity Parameter Library and Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldbacher, R.

    1987-10-01

    Nuclear reaction data for light isotope charged particle reactions (Z<6) have been compiled. This hardcopy contains file headers, plots and an extended bibliography. Numerical data files and processing routines are available on tape at IAEA-NDS. (author). Refs

  15. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  16. Obtention of differential sections in nuclear reactions using a thick target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez R, R.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique is used mainly for detecting the presence and concentration of light elements of great importance such as: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This work has the objective to obtain the differential sections of 16 O and 14 N starting from the irradiation with deuterons of TiSrO 3 samples, of AIN and AIN 2 at energies of 2000 KeV and 1800 KeV respectively. The present work have four chapters; chapter 1 is focused to the physical aspects which takes part in the NRA technique. The technical requirements as well as the necessary equipment for developing the techniques are described in the chapter 2. In chapter 3 it is described the algorithm developed for to obtain the differential sections starting from experimental data, and finally, in chapter 4 are given the results and conclusions. (Author)

  17. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the {sup 110,113g,117m}Sn, {sup 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117g}In, and {sup 111m,115g}Cd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  18. CRSEC: a general purpose Hauser--Feshbach code for the calculation of nuclear cross-sections and thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.; Fowler, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    CRSEC is a FORTRAN IV computer code designed for the efficient calculation of average nuclear cross sections in situations where a statistical theory of nuclear reactions is applicable and where compound nuclear formation is the dominant reaction mechanism. This code generates cross sections of roughly factor of 2 accuracy for incident particle energies in the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV for most target nuclei from magnesium to bismuth. Exceptions usually involve reactions that enter the compound nucleus at such a low energy that fewer than 10 levels are present in the ''energy window of interest.'' The incident particle must be a neutron, proton, or alpha particle, and only binary reactions resulting in the emission of a single n, p, α, or γ (cascade) are calculated. CRSEC is quite fast, a complete calculation of 12 different reactions over a grid of roughly 150 energy points and the generation of Maxwellian averaged rates taking about 30 seconds of CDC7600 time. Also the semi-empirical parameterization of nuclear properties contained in CRSEC is very general. Greater accuracy may be obtained, however, by furnishing specific low-lying excited states, level density parameterization, and nuclear strength functions. A more general version of CRSEC, called CRSECI, is available that conserves isospin properly in all reactions and allows the user to specify a given degree of isospin mixing in the highly excited states of the compound nucleus. Besides the cross section as a function of center-of-mass energy, CRSEC also generates the Maxwell--Boltzmann averaged thermonuclear reaction rate and temperature dependent nuclear partition function for a grid of temperatures from 10 8 to 10 10 0 K. Sections of this report describe in greater detail the physics employed in CRSEC and how to use the code. 2 tables

  19. The application of nuclear cross section measurements to spallation reactions in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects and implications of nuclear transformations of the comic ray particles themselves, and how those transformations are simulated in the laboratory are dealt with. Thus, although the majority of cosmic rays are protons and alpha particles, it is the small fraction of heavier species that is the main concern here. These nuclides interact with the interstellar matter (again mostly hydrogen and helium) in which they propagate, and thus can undergo nuclear reactions. For the cosmic ray physicist the effects of these reactions are both favourable and unfavourable. The unfavourable aspect arises from the fact that the composition of the cosmic ray is significantly altered, thus tending to mask an important indication as to their origin. Counterbalancing this is the fact that the effects left by the nuclear reactions are one of the most valuable links with the propagation process itself. A careful unravelling of these effects can thus reveal important information on where and how this propagation takes place. The type of nuclear information needed and techniques that are used to obtain it are considered. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  1. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  2. Determination of nuclear cross-section of 81Br (n,,,) Br82 reaction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flux of 4.2 x 1013 n cm-2 s-1. The BaBr2 was chemically processed and measured as Hydrogen Bromide (HBr82). The value of nuclear cross-section was determined to be 2.1 0.2 barns, which falls within the range of values as previously reported elsewhere. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 6(1-2): 4-6) ...

  3. Analytical total reaction cross-section calculations via Fermi-type functions. I. Fermi-step nuclear densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Talib aly al Hinai, M.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of Glauber's multiple scattering theory we propose a closed form expression for the total nucleus-nucleus reaction cross-section. We adopt the Gaussian and the two-parameter Fermi step radial shapes to describe the nuclear density distributions of the projectile and the target, respectively. The present formula is used to study different systems over a wide energy range including low energy reactions, where the role of the Coulomb repulsion is taken into account. The present predictions reasonably reproduce experiment

  4. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on neodymium up to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental excitation function of deuteron induced reactions on natural Nd. • Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2012). • Physical yield calculation and comparison. • Discussion of medical and industrial applications. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rare earths, the reactions on neodymium for production of therapeutic radionuclides were measured for the first time. The excitation functions of the nat Nd(d,x) 151,150,149,148m,148g,146,144,143 Pm, 149,147,139m Nd, 142 Pr and 139g Ce nuclear reactions were assessed by using the stacked foil activation technique and high resolution γ-spectrometry. The experimental excitation functions were compared to the theoretical predictions calculated with the modified model codes ALICE-IPPE-D and EMPIRE-II-D and with the data in the TENDL-2012 library based on latest version of the TALYS code. The application of the data in the field of medical isotope production and nuclear reaction theory is discussed

  5. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  6. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Haba, H; Komori, Y; Aikawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. The radioisotope 117m Sn is a very important theranostic (therapeutic + diagnostic) radioisotope, so special care was taken to the results for that isotope. The well-established stacked foil technique followed by gamma-spectrometry with HPGe gamma spectrometers were used. The target and monitor foils in the stack were commercial high purity metal foils. From the irradiated targets 117m Sn, 113 Sn, 110 Sn, 117m,g In, 116m In, 115m In, 114m In, 113m In, 111 In, 110m,g In, 109m In, 108m,g In, 115g Cd and 111m Cd were identified and their excitation functions were derived. The results were compared with the data of the previous measurements from the literature and with the results of the theoretical nuclear reaction model code calculations TALYS 1.8 (TENDL-2015) and EMPIRE 3.2 (Malta). From the cross section curves thick target yields were calculated and compared with the available literature data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extension of activation cross section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rhodium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-11-01

    In the frame of the systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions on monoisotopic {sup 103}Rh were extended to 50 MeV incident energy. Excitation functions were measured in the 49.8–36.6 MeV energy range for the {sup 103}Rh(d,xn){sup 100,101}Pd, {sup 103}Rh(d,pxn){sup 99m,99g,100,101m,101g,102m,102g}Rh and {sup 103}Rh(d,x){sup 97,103}Ru reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and off-line high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental results are compared to our previous results and to the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 library (TALYS 1.6 code).

  8. Effect of different level density prescriptions on the calculated neutron nuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of different level density prescriptions on the computed neutron nuclear data of Ni-58 in the energy range 5-25 MeV. Calculations are performed in the framework of the multistep Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory including the Kalbach exciton model and Brink-Axel giant dipole resonance model for radiative capture. Level density prescriptions considered in this investigation are based on the original Gilbert-Cameron, improved Gilbert-Cameron, backshifted Fermi-gas and the Ignatyuk, et al. approaches. The effect of these prescriptions is discussed, with special reference to (n,p), (n,2n), (n,alpha) and total particle-production cross sections. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs

  9. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  10. First Year Report: Nuclear Reaction Measurements with Radioactive Beams and Targets- Progress in Measurements of the 89Zr (n,xnyp) Reaction Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Cerny; Dennis Moltz; Sylvia La; Ed Morse; Larry Ahle; Lee Bernstein; Ken Moody; Kevin Roberts; Margaret Moody; James Powell; Jim O'Neil; Anthony Belian

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 During the underground nuclear tests in Nevada, some of the most important information was obtained by radiochemical analysis of post-test excavations. By adding small samples of refractory and rare earth elements not commonly present in the surrounding soil to the device, a detailed look could be had of the actual event. In order to properly analyze these data, several hundred cross sections are needed at a neutron energy of 14 MeV (a d-t-burn product). Although it has always been assumed that these calculations are correct, insufficient experimental data exist to corroborate this assumption. The purpose of this experiment is to measure two reaction cross sections, namely the 89 Zr (n, 2n) 88 Zr and 89 Zr (n, np) 88 Y reactions. Although the former reaction has been measured in an unpublished report ( A. A. Delucchi and W. Goishi, LANL Report LA-7841-C (1977) pp. 33-36), we intend to reduce the experimental error in this cross section. The latter cross section has not been measured. This case is much simplified because these reaction products have half-lives ∼100 days compared with ∼3 days for the target nuclide. Therefore the assay can be accomplished long after the target nuclei have decayed away

  11. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is revised the nuclear reactions which present an interest in astrophysics regarding the explanation of some problems such as the relative quantity of the elements, the structure and evolution of the stars. The principal object of the study is the determination of the experimental possibilities in the field of astrophysics, of an accelerator Van de Graaff's 700 KeV type. Two hundred nuclear reactions approximately, were found, and nothing or very little has been done in the intervals of energy which are of interest. Since the bombardment energies and the involved sections are low in some cases, there are real possibilities, for the largest number of stars to obtain important statistical data with the above mentioned accelerator, taking some necessary precautions. (author)

  12. Computing the cross sections of nuclear reactions with nuclear clusters emission for proton energies between 30 MeV and 2.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Maksimushkina, A. V., E-mail: AVMaksimushkina@mephi.ru; Frolova, T. A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The cross sections of nuclear reactions involving emission of clusters of light nuclei in proton collisions with a heavy-metal target are computed for incident-proton energies between 30 MeV and 2.6 GeV. The calculation relies on the ALICE/ASH and CASCADE/INPE computer codes. The parameters determining the pre-equilibrium cluster emission are varied in the computation.

  13. Determination of cross sections of nuclear reactions to use Al as monitoring foil in heavy ion irradiation with 20Ne projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Guin, R.; Verma, R.

    2009-01-01

    The beam current is generally accurately measured using monitoring foils during the irradiation of thick samples by high energy ion beams. The cross sections of many nuclear reactions induced by light particles are available in literature for use as monitoring foil. However, such cross sections of heavy ion induced reactions are not reported much for their use in applied works. We have determined cross sections of two nuclear reactions, 27 Al ( 20 Ne,2p2n) 43 Sc and 27 Al ( 20 Ne, 2pn) 44m Sc, to use Al as monitoring foil for the irradiation with 20 Ne heavy ion beam. (author)

  14. Investigation of Activation Cross-Sections of Alpha-Induced Nuclear Reactions on Natural Silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Zaman, Muhammad; Kang, Sinchul; Huh, Changgi; Kim, Guinyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to study the production route of some radioisotopes applicable in medicine and industry. The measured results were compared with literature data and theoretical values. The nat Ag(α,x) reaction has already been studied for different energy ranges. However, the literature data needed new data set to increase the reliability of the reported results. The current experimental work will be helpful to make the literature data more reliable and to modify the theoretical models. The literature data needed new data set to increase the reliability of the reported results. The current experimental work is helpful to make the literature data more reliable and to modify the theoretical models

  15. Rational fraction application for continuation of differential cross sections of nuclear reactions into the nonphysical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.; Nichitiu, F.

    1975-01-01

    We propose to apply rational fraction approximations instead of polynomial ones for analytic continuation of the differential cross section. On the example of p-d scattering it is demonstrated that the spectroscopic in-formation extracted in this way is more reliable

  16. Determination and theoretical analysis of the differential cross sections of the 2H(d,p) reaction at energies and detection angles suitable for NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Gastis, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R.; Kontos, A.; Mayer, M.; Misaelides, P.; Perdikakis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of deuteron depth profile presents a strong analytical challenge for all the principal IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) techniques. As far as NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) is concerned, the 2 H(d,p) reaction, seems to be a promising candidate, especially in the case of complex matrices, or for the study of deep-implanted deuteron layers. In the present work differential cross-section values for the 2 H(d,p) reaction have been determined at 140, 160 and 170 degrees, for E d (lab) = 900-1600 keV, with an energy step of 50 keV, using a well-characterized, thin C:D target deposited on a polished Si wafer. The detection system consisted of 3 silicon surface barrier (SSB) detectors (thickness of 1000 μm) placed at a distance of about 11-13 cm from the target, at the appropriate angles. The experimental results were analyzed using the R-matrix calculations code AZURE. The results, in graphical and tabular form, will soon be available to the scientific community through IBANDL

  17. Cross-sections of (p, xn) nuclear reactions on Pb and Bi by 100 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Jung, Nam Suk; Oh, Joo Hee; Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong Hyun; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The development of high-intensity and high-energy accelerator is gaining interest in Korea, in recent years. Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP), Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL), Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) facilities are being designed. In the frame of above projects, for the safety issue and shielding analysis of the accelerator facility, extensive studies including experimental and simulation on the production yields of residual nuclei induced in the accelerator materials such as Pb, Cu and Bi by protons and heavy ions are in progress. In this work, we measured cross-sections of {sup na}'tPb(p,xn){sup 206,205,204,20{sup ,202}}Bi and {sup 209}Bi(p, xn){sup 207,206,205,204},{sup 203}Po nuclear reactions by the 100-MeV protons. The present experimental data are in good agreement with the results of Titarenkoet al. and Gloris et al.. Experimental data were higher than theoretical data. In other words, results of TALYS code and data in TENDL library underestimated the measured crosss sections and library of TALYS code and TENDL need to be improved.

  18. Statistical nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the statistical model of nuclear reactions is presented. The main relations are described, together with the ingredients necessary to perform practical calculations. In addition, a substantial overview of the width fluctuation correction factor is given. (author)

  19. Obtention of differential sections in nuclear reactions using a thick target; Obtencion de secciones diferenciales en reacciones nucleares usando un blanco grueso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez R, R

    2000-07-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique is used mainly for detecting the presence and concentration of light elements of great importance such as: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This work has the objective to obtain the differential sections of {sup 16} O and {sup 14} N starting from the irradiation with deuterons of TiSrO{sub 3} samples, of AIN and AIN{sub 2} at energies of 2000 KeV and 1800 KeV respectively. The present work have four chapters; chapter 1 is focused to the physical aspects which takes part in the NRA technique. The technical requirements as well as the necessary equipment for developing the techniques are described in the chapter 2. In chapter 3 it is described the algorithm developed for to obtain the differential sections starting from experimental data, and finally, in chapter 4 are given the results and conclusions. (Author)

  20. Introduction to nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)

  1. The cross sections of reactions resulting in transmutation of long-lived radionuclides of exhausted nuclear fuel exposed to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konodeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Erview, K.

    1993-01-01

    Research is at present concerned with the possible transmutation of long-lived radionuclides of spent nuclear fuel in the flux of fast neutrons from neutron generators which are distinguished by their energy spectrum and density of the flux generated. For this purpose one must know the cross sections of the nuclear reactions resulting in the transmutation and formation of new long-lived radionuclides due to the irradiation. The transmutation rate of radioisotope irradiated with neutrons have a known energy spectrum is determined by calculating the transmutation cross section which is equal to the sum of the cross sections of neutron reactions causing conversion of a particular isotope into another after the decay of short-lived residual nuclei. The presently available neutron cross section data of long-lived radionuclides, i.e., the products of the fission of nuclear fuel, are insufficient for research on these effects as transmutations occur in a flux of high-energy neutrons. This paper presents the cross sections of reactions accounting for the transmutation of the most important long-lived radionuclides of exhausted nuclear fuel during its irradiation with neutron having energies of up to 100 MeV. The neutron cross sections were calculated for 79 Se, 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs and 137 Cs with a half-life ≥30 years

  2. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  3. Calibration of the cross section of the 18O(p, [alpha])15N nuclear reaction at Ep = 1700-1775 keV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Stap, C.A.M.; Habraken, F.H.P.M.; Weg, W.F. van der

    1988-01-01

    The differential cross section of the 18O(p, α)15N nuclear reaction has been calibrated at proton energies between 1700 and 1775 keV and at a detection angle of 155°. For the calibration, two silicon reference samples and a nickel sample were partially oxidized in enriched 18O. The absolute

  4. Total cross-sections assessment of neutron reaction with stainless steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto

    2002-01-01

    The integral testing of neutron cross-sections for Stainless Steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files have been performed. The shielding benchmark calculations for Stainless Steel SUS-310 has been analysed through ORNL-Broomstick Experiment calculation which performed by MAERKER, R.E. at ORNL - USA ( 1) . Assessment with JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI nuclear data files and data from GEEL have also been carried out. The overall calculation results SUS-310 show in a good agreement with the experimental data, although, underestimate results appear below 3 MeV for all nuclear data files. These underestimation tendencies clearly caused by presented of iron nuclide which more than half in Stainless Steel compound. The total neutron cross-sections of iron nuclide contained in various nuclear data files relatively lower on that energy ranges

  5. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  6. UNUSUAL ENERGY-DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL NUCLEAR-REACTION CROSS-SECTION FOR A SECONDARY ISOMERIC NUCLEAR BEAM (F-18(M), J(PI)=5(+), E(X)=1.1 MEV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTS, DA; BECCHETTI, FD; BROWN, JA; JANECKE, J; PHAM, K; ODONNELL, TW; WARNER, RE; RONNINGEN, RM; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    A primary O-17 beam has been used to produce a 22.3 MeV/nucleon F-18(m) isomeric secondary beam via a single nucleon transfer reaction on a carbon target. The total nuclear reaction cross sections for F-18(m) and F-18(g.s.) in silicon were measured in a stack of seven silicon solid-state detectors.

  7. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2014-03-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and

  8. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental

  9. Nuclear fission and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fission research programs are designed to elucidate basic features of the fission process. Specifically, (1) factors determining how nucleons of a fissioning nucleus are distributed between two fission fragments, (2) factors determining kinetic energy and excitation energies of fragments, and (3) factors controlling fission lifetimes. To these ends, fission studies are reported for several heavy elements and include investigations of spontaneous and neutron-induced fission, heavy ion reactions, and high energy proton reactions. The status of theoretical research is also discussed. (U.S.)

  10. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e,e'K+) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuruzzaman; Dutta, D.; Arrington, J.; Fassi, L. El; Zheng, X. C.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H. C.; Gaskell, D.; Jones, M. K.; Lung, A. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from A(e,e ' K + ) measurements on 12 C, 63 Cu, and 197 Au targets. The measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory and span a range in four-momentum-transfer squared Q 2 =1.1-3.0 GeV 2 . The nuclear transparency was defined as the ratio of measured kaon electroproduction cross sections with respect to deuterium (σ A /σ D ). We further extracted the atomic number (A) dependence of the transparency as parametrized by T=(A/2) α-1 and, within a simple model assumption, the in-medium effective kaon-nucleon cross sections. The effective cross sections extracted from the electroproduction data were found to be smaller than the free cross sections determined from kaon-nucleon scattering experiments, and the parameter α was found to be significantly larger than those obtained from kaon-nucleus scattering. We have included similar comparisons between pion- and proton-nucleon effective cross sections as determined from electron-scattering experiments and pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus scattering data.

  11. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on manganese up to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Hermanne, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study on activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions experimental excitation functions on 55 Mn were measured with the activation method using the stacked foil irradiation technique up to 40 MeV. By using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry, cross-section data for the production of 56,54,52 Mn and 51 Cr were determined. Comparison with the earlier published data and with the results predicted by the ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE-II theoretical codes - improved for more reliable calculations for d-induced reactions - and with data in the TENDL 2010 libraries are also included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and implications for practical applications in industrial (Thin Layer Activation) accelerator technology are discussed.

  12. Catalysis of Nuclear Reactions by Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoglavšek, Matej

    2018-01-01

    Electron screening enhances nuclear reaction cross sections at low energies. We studied the nuclear reaction 1H(19F,αγ)16O in inverse kinematics in different solid hydrogen targets. Measured resonance strengths differed by up to a factor of 10 in different targets. We also studied the 2H(p,γ)3He fusion reaction and observed electrons emitted as reaction products instead of γ rays. In this case electron screening greatly enhances internal conversion probability.

  13. Solar nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, G

    1978-04-01

    The current state of neutrino solar astrophysics is outlined, showing the contradictions between the experimental results of solar neutrino detection and the standard solar models constructed on the basis of the star structure and development theory, which give values for high-energy neutrino fluxes considerably exceeding the upper experimental limit. A number of hypotheses interpreting the experimental results are summarized. The hypotheses are critically assessed and experiments are recommended for refining or verifying experimental data. Also dealt with are nuclear reactions in the Sun, as is the attempt to interpret the anomalous by high /sup 3/He fluxes from the Sun and the relatively small amounts of solar neutrinos and gamma quanta. The importance is emphasized of the simultaneous and complex measurement of the fluxes of neutrons, gamma radiation, and isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and boron from the Sun as indicators of nuclear reactions in the Sun.

  14. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  15. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross sections for optimization of production of the emerging diagnostic radionuclide "5"5Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjed, N.; Hussain, M.; Aslam, M.N.; Tárkányi, F.; Qaim, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    The excitation functions of the "5"4Fe(d,n)"5"5Co, "5"6Fe(p,2n)"5"5Co and "5"8Ni(p,α)"5"5Co reactions were analyzed with relevance to the production of the β"+-emitter "5"5Co (T_½=17.53 h), a promising cobalt radionuclide for PET imaging. The nuclear model codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS were used to check the consistency of the experimental data. The statistically fitted excitation function was employed to calculate the integral yield of the product. The amounts of the radioactive impurities "5"6Co and "5"7Co were assessed. A comparison of the three investigated production routes is given. - Highlights: • Evaluation of "5"4Fe(d,n)"5"5Co, "5"6Fe(p,2n)"5"5Co and "5"8Ni(p,α)"5"5Co reactions. • Detailed nuclear model calculations (TALYS and EMPIRE) and statistical fitting of the selected data. • Estimation of integral yield and impurity level in the production of "5"5Co. • Comparison of major production routes of "5"5Co.

  16. The nuclear reaction model code MEDICUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibishia, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    The new computer code MEDICUS has been used to calculate cross sections of nuclear reactions. The code, implemented in MATLAB 6.5, Mathematica 5, and Fortran 95 programming languages, can be run in graphical and command line mode. Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been built that allows the user to perform calculations and to plot results just by mouse clicking. The MS Windows XP and Red Hat Linux platforms are supported. MEDICUS is a modern nuclear reaction code that can compute charged particle-, photon-, and neutron-induced reactions in the energy range from thresholds to about 200 MeV. The calculation of the cross sections of nuclear reactions are done in the framework of the Exact Many-Body Nuclear Cluster Model (EMBNCM), Direct Nuclear Reactions, Pre-equilibrium Reactions, Optical Model, DWBA, and Exciton Model with Cluster Emission. The code can be used also for the calculation of nuclear cluster structure of nuclei. We have calculated nuclear cluster models for some nuclei such as 177 Lu, 90 Y, and 27 Al. It has been found that nucleus 27 Al can be represented through the two different nuclear cluster models: 25 Mg + d and 24 Na + 3 He. Cross sections in function of energy for the reaction 27 Al( 3 He,x) 22 Na, established as a production method of 22 Na, are calculated by the code MEDICUS. Theoretical calculations of cross sections are in good agreement with experimental results. Reaction mechanisms are taken into account. (author)

  17. Measurements and Evaluation of Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections Leading to Various Practical Applications in Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik

    2008-07-15

    This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found.

  18. Measurements and Evaluation of Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections Leading to Various Practical Applications in Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik

    2008-07-01

    This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found

  19. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Rayet, M.

    1990-01-01

    At all times and at all astrophysical scales, nuclear reactions have played and continue to play a key role. This concerns the energetics as well as the production of nuclides (nucleosynthesis). After a brief review of the observed composition of various objects in the universe, and especially of the solar system, the basic ingredients that are required in order to build up models for the chemical evolution of galaxies are sketched. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the stellar yields through an overview of the important burning episodes and nucleosynthetic processes that can develop in non-exploding or exploding stars. Emphasis is put on the remaining astrophysical and nuclear physics uncertainties that hamper a clear understanding of the observed characteristics, and especially compositions, of a large variety of astrophysical objects

  20. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  1. Extension of activation cross section data of long lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on platinum up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural platinum up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison with the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Cross section of Au, Pt and Ir radioisotopes. • Application for Thin Layer Activation (TLA). - Abstract: In the frame of a systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions on platinum, activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions were investigated. Excitation functions were measured in the 20.8–49.2 MeV energy range for the {sup nat}Pt(d,xn){sup 191,192,193,194,195,196m2,196g,198g,199}Au, {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 188,189,191,195m,197m,197g}Pt and {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 189,190,192,194m2}Ir reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with previous results from the literature and with the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries. The applicability of the produced radio-tracers for wear measurements has been presented.

  2. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  3. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  4. Extension of activation cross-section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on cadmium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The excitation functions for {sup 109,110g,111m+g,113m,114m,115m}In, {sup 107,109,115m,115g}Cd and {sup 105g,106m,110g,111}Ag are presented for stacked foil irradiations on {sup nat}Cd targets in the 49–33 MeV deuteron energy domain. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by determining incident particle flux and energy scale relative to re-measured monitor reactions {sup nat}Al(d,x){sup 22,24}Na. The results were compared to our earlier studies on {sup nat}Cd and on enriched {sup 112}Cd targets. The merit of the values predicted by the TALYS 1.6 code (resulting from a weighted combination of reaction cross-section data on all stable Cd isotopes as available in the on-line libraries TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015) is discussed. Influence on optimal production routes for several radionuclides with practical applications ({sup 111}In, {sup 114m}In, {sup 115}Cd, {sup 109,107}Cd….) is reviewed.

  5. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10 19 W/cm 2 . In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62 Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10 19 Wcm -2

  6. Statistical theory of precompound nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show the application of the Grassmann-integration method (or the graded-symmetry method) to a pre-equilibrium process in nuclear reactions. The Grassmann-integration method for random systems was first introduced by Efetov and later largely extended and applied to nuclear physics by Verbaarschot, Weidenmuller and Zirnbauer (referred to as VWZ). They have applied it to the equilibrium nuclear reactions; namely; the compound-nucleus reactions. It will be shown in this paper that this method is also applicable to non-equilibrium nuclear reactions. Applying this method to precompound nuclear reactions, the authors have obtained the same expression of the cross-section as Agassi, Weidenmuller and Mantzouranis (referred to as AWM) in the weak-coupling limit. In the general case their results show an important modification to AWM

  7. Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Eyyup; Kavun, Yusuf; Sarpün, Ismail Hakki

    2017-09-01

    Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.

  8. Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel Eyyup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.

  9. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Fe up to 16 MeV, with emphasis on radiochemical determination of low cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5); Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5); Shariff, Md. Asad [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    Excitation functions for the formation of the radionuclides {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58m+g}Co and {sup 54}Mn via proton induced reactions on natural iron target were measured from their respective thresholds up to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique and HPGe detector γ-ray spectroscopy. In the threshold energy range, the low cross sections for {sup 54}Mn were measured radiochemically. All the measured values were compared with available experimental data and with theoretical calculations reproduced in TENDL-2015 nuclear data library. New data for the formation of {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co and {sup 54}Mn were obtained near their reaction thresholds. Other data obtained strengthen the database. Polynomial fittings of the data measured in this work as well as of all data sets (including the present data) were performed. The present data appear to be closer to theoretical calculations than the literature data.

  11. Statistical theory of neutron nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The statistical theory of average neutron nucleus reaction cross sections is reviewed with emphasis on the justification of the Hauser Feshbach formula and its modifications for situations including isolated compound nucleus resonances, overlapping and interfering resonances, the competition of compound and direct reactions, and continuous treatment of residual nuclear states. (author)

  12. Statistical theory of neutron nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1978-02-01

    The statistical theory of average neutron nucleus reaction cross sections is reviewed with emphasis on the justification of the Hauser Feshbach formula and its modifications for situations including isolated compound nucleus resonances, overlapping and interfering resonances, the competition of compound and direct reactions, and continuous treatment of residual nuclear states

  13. Statistical theory of neutron nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The statistical theory of average neutron nucleus reaction cross sections is reviewed with emphasis on the justification of the Hauser Feshbach formula and its modifications for situations including isolated compound nucleus resonances, overlapping and interfering resonances, the competition of compound and direct reactions, and continuous treatment of residual nuclear states. 3 figures

  14. Determination of the cross-sections of some nuclear reactions occurring as a result of cosmic radiation (1963); Determination des sections efficaces de quelques reactions nucleaires intervenant dans les effets ou rayonnement cosmique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamers, M A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The high energy reactions studied during this research are reactions liable to occur as a result of cosmic radiation. On the one hand the reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C was studied and its cross-section measured between 65 MeV and 2.7 GeV; a value of 2.3 mb {+-} 0.5 was found. These values have mode it possible to forecast measurable quantities of carbon-14 in meteorites and also to measure them. On the other hand the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) have been studied and an attempt has been made to explain the mechanism of these reactions. (author) [French] Les reactions a hautes energies qui ont ete etudiees au court de ce travail sont des reactions susceptibles de se produire sous l'effet du rayonnement cosmique. Il s'agit d'une part de la reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C dont on a mesure la section efficoce egale a 2,3 mb {+-} 0,5 entre 65 MeV et 2,7 GeV. Ces valeurs ont permis de prevoir des quantites mesurables de carbone 14 dans les meteorites et par suite de les determiner. D'autre part les reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) et {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) ont ete etudiees et on a tente d'expliquer le mecanisme de ces reactions. (auteur)

  15. Nuclear reaction data and nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paver, N [University of Trieste (Italy); Herman, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Gandini, A [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-15

    These two volumes contain the lecture notes of the workshop 'Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety', which was held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in the Spring of 2000. The workshop consisted of five weeks of lecture courses followed by practical computer exercises on nuclear data treatment and design of nuclear power systems. The spectrum of topics is wide enough to timely cover the state-of-the-art and the perspectives of this broad field. The first two weeks were devoted to nuclear reaction models and nuclear data evaluation. Nuclear data processing for applications to reactor calculations was the subject of the third week. On the last two weeks reactor physics and on-going projects in nuclear power generation, waste disposal and safety were presented.

  16. Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 148, SI (2018), s. 338-382 ISSN 0090-3752 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron induced reactions * proton induced reactions * cross sections Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.146, year: 2016

  17. Nuclear reactions as structure probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Bernard; Cugnon, Joseph; Roussel-Chomaz, Patricia; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Oliveira Santos, Francois de; Bauge, Eric; Poves, Alfredo; Keeley, Nicholas; Simenel, Cedric; Avez, Benoit; Lacroix, Denis; Baye, Daniel; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Pons, Alexandre

    2007-09-01

    This publication gathers courses which aim at giving a view on new experiments which are performed by using radioactive beams, notably low intensity beams, in different accelerators, and allow the structure of very exotic nuclei to be characterized. Experimental as well as theoretical aspects are thus addressed. The contributions propose: a brief history of nuclear reactions and of instruments used to study them from the discovery of nucleus to the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation); an overview of nuclear reactions; experimental techniques; the theory of collisions at low energy; resonant elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and astrophysical reactions; to probe nuclear structure with nucleons; shell model and spectroscopic factors; analysis of transfer reactions and determination of spectroscopic factors; microscopic approaches of nuclear dynamics; theoretical aspects of dissociation reactions; experimental aspects of knockout reactions; research in oenology with the chemical characterisation of defective ageing of dry white wines

  18. Preequilibrium Nuclear Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmaier, B.

    1988-01-01

    After a survey on existing experimental data on precompound reactions and a description of preequilibrium reactions, theoretical models and quantum mechanical theories of preequilibrium emission are presented. The 25 papers of this meeting are analyzed separately

  19. Department of Nuclear Reaction - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: This year 1999 can be considered as very successful. Not only that we have published 33 papers in journals listed by the Philadelphia Institute of Science but because our hard work allowed us to obtain new and exciting results. A group of theoretical papers concerned with application of correlation among random matrices elements developed for statistical aspects of nuclear coupling into continuum to study of the collective effects in brain activity and stock market dynamics. These papers arose quite an interest and got several citations. Studies of the nonpartonic components in the nucleon structure function led to better understanding of the higher-twist effects. It was shown that inclusion of the terms of the order of 1/Q 4 improves fits to the experimental data. A review paper summarizing results on the role of the leading baryon in high energy reactions appeared in Progress on Nuclear and Particle Physics. Studies on multistep transfer reactions of light heavy ions in collaboration with the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev have explained angular distributions of many reactions using the coupled channel theory. We have shown that it is possible to determine energy dependence of the optical model potential for such unstable nuclei like 8 Be. Further studies of mechanism of near threshold light meson production in collaboration with Juelich and Jagiellonian University were performed. Within COSY 10 and COSY 11 collaborations new data on the isospin symmetry breaking in pionic reactions and strange meson accompanied by hyperons emission were obtained. Together with colleagues from the Flerov Nuclear Reaction Laboratory we have started experiments with radioactive beams. Using magnetic separator COMBAS velocity distributions of isotopes with 2 ≤Z≤11 in reactions induced by 16 O on 9 Be were obtained. At the high resolution radioactive beam channel ACCULINA reactions induced by 6 He and 8 He nuclei were studied

  20. Nuclear reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ''hot'' nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ''flow'' measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study 40 Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs

  1. Multistep processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The theories of nuclear reactions are reviewed with particular attention to the recent work on multistep processes. The evidence for compound nucleus and direct interaction reactions is described together with the results of comparisons between theories and experimental data. These theories have now proved inadequate, and there is evidence for multistep processes that take place after the initial direct stage but long before the attainment of the statistical equilibrium characteristic of compound nucleus processes. The theories of these reactions are described and it is shown how they can account for the experimental data and thus give a comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactions. (author)

  2. Nuclear reactions in ultra-magnetized supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, V.N.

    2002-06-01

    The statistical model is employed to investigate nuclear reactions in ultrastrong magnetic fields relevant for supernovae and neutron stars. For radiative capture processes the predominant mechanisms are argued to correspond to modifications of nuclear level densities, and γ-transition energies due to interactions of the field with magnetic moments of nuclei. The density of states reflects the nuclear structure and results in oscillations of reaction cross sections as a function of field strength, while magnetic interaction energy enhances radiative neutron capture process. Implications in the synthesis of r-process nuclei in supernova site are discussed. (author)

  3. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The last year of the twentieth-century was productive for our Department. Although the name of the Department suggests that we are all involved in investigations of nuclear reactions, in fact our activities are spread over three major domains: nuclear, atomic and material physics. Some of the projects we were involved in the last year have been realized using national facilities and accelerators, like the Van de Graaff accelerator of our Department at 69 Hoza Street, Warsaw Cyclotron U-200P of Warsaw University, and compact C30 cyclotron of our Institute at Swierk. Other projects were done abroad, using facilities of the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Institute de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay, and Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg in Erlangen. We carried out our work in close collaborations with physicists from many laboratories, Polish and foreign. - Low energy nuclear reactions. In collaboration with scientists from Ukraine experiments, using heavy ion beam provided by the Warsaw Cyclotron, were started. The aim of the experiments is to study nuclear reactions leading to the exotic light nuclei in exit channels and energy dependence of the nucleus - nucleus interaction. Efforts were made to develop a multistep direct model of nuclear reactions. In the model contributions due to the low energy collective excitations were taken into account. Good agreement with the experimental data was achieved. - Multifragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. ALADIN Collaboration studied multifragmentation reactions induced by relativistic heavy ions. The main activities of our scientists concentrated on an upgrade of the detecting system in order to replace photo multipliers with large area avalanche photodiodes in the central section of the TOF-wall. Some tests of the photodiodes manufactured by Advanced Photonix Inc. were performed using standard β - and γ-sources. - Structure of a nucleon. Decay properties of the Roper resonance were studied. A

  4. Britain's nervous nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the nuclear energy business in the United Kingdom, with emphasis on the management of the industry. A brief history is given of the development of the nuclear power programme and the creation of UKAEA and BNFL. BNFL is responsible for reprocessing at Sellafield, fuel element manufacture at Springfields, fuel reprocessing at Thorp, and uranium enrichment at Caperhurst. The development and management of these projects are discussed with respect to export markets, competition in international markets, commercial skills, and public opinion. (U.K.)

  5. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The year 1998 can be considered as very successful both in harvesting important results from the existing collaborations as well as establishing new ones. In the frame of the COSY-11 collaboration cross section for η' production in p-p collision close to the threshold has been measured. In the region of excess energy between 1.5 and 4.1 MeV the η' cross sections are much lower than those of the π 0 and η production. There seems to be no indication that N * resonance doorway-like state governs the reaction mechanisms. The determined coupling constant g η'pp appears to be consistent with the prediction of the simple quark model. Results were published in Phys. Rev. Letters. Using the GEM detector, investigations of the isospin symmetry breaking were performed. Two reactions channels 3 Heπ 0 and 3 Hπ + from the reaction at proton momenta 700, 767, and 825 MeV/c were measured. Data analysis is in progress. The model of the meson cloud in the nucleon which is a speciality of our department has been successfully applied to explain the leading proton and neutron cross sections from the e + or e - proton collisions at the HERA ring. General formulas to calculate polarization of the particles with spin transmitted through the barrier in the presence of strong magnetic fields were obtained. New collaboration between our laboratory and the Institute for Nuclear Research in Kiev has been established. One PhD thesis was completed in the frame of this collaboration. We joined the new collaboration with Lund University concerning studies of hot nuclear matter properties using heavy ions from CELSIUS ring. First test of the phoswich detector for the forward wall was performed in Uppsala. Isoscalar giant dipole resonance strength distribution 3 ℎω has been evaluated in 208 Pb in the space of 1p1h and 2p2h excitation. The centroid energy of this state can directly be related to the nuclear incompressibility module. Our result indicates rather large values of

  6. BNL325 - Nuclear reaction data display program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    A computer code for the graphical display of nuclear reaction data is described. The code, which works on a computer with VMS operating system, can overlay experimental data from an EXFOR/CSISRS table-computation format with evaluated data from ENDF formatted data libraries. Originally, this code has been used at the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center to produce the well-known neutron cross-section atlas published as report BNL-325. (author). 3 tabs

  7. BNL325 - Nuclear reaction data display program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, C L

    1994-11-27

    A computer code for the graphical display of nuclear reaction data is described. The code, which works on a computer with VMS operating system, can overlay experimental data from an EXFOR/CSISRS table-computation format with evaluated data from ENDF formatted data libraries. Originally, this code has been used at the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center to produce the well-known neutron cross-section atlas published as report BNL-325. (author). 3 tabs.

  8. Department of Nuclear Reaction - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    2002-01-01

    a Ph.D. thesis of M. Wojcik. The Random Matrix Theory was successfully applied to the analysis of behaviour of the complex systems like human brain and stock exchange. It was found that the dynamics of the financial correlations can be treated by the matrix representation in analogy to the collective states in nuclear systems. Shell model calculations extended to the continuum were performed for neutron-rich oxygen and fluorine isotopes. Calculations were made for mirror decays 17 N(β + ) 17 F and 17 N(β - ) 17 O. Influence of the dd μ and dt μ resonance states on the rate of thermofusion reactions was estimated. New experiments performed by the KEK-RIKEN-RAL confirmed the predicted by us effect of the difference in deuteron fussion in condensed ortho-D 2 and para-D 2 . Studies of the pion-pion interaction above resonance region were performed. Both soft (nonperturbative) and hard (perturbative) processes were studied. It was shown that the assumption of Regge factorization leads to a good description of the total cross section data for π + π + and π - π - scattering. The onset of pQCD effects was carefully analysed. We have published over 50 papers in respectable international journals. Our staff member participated to 30 international conferences. Our main collaboration partners were: JINR (Dubna), FZ Juelich, BNL Brookhaven, GSI Darmstadt and University of Lund as well as Jagiellonian University and Technical University of Mining and Metallurgy (Cracow). (author)

  9. Light ion reaction mechanisms and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Of the many contributions to the subject 'Light ion reaction mechanism and nuclear structure', a few are selected and reviewed which highlight the present state of the field. Some contributions to the conference dealing with nuclear interactions are briefly outlined in the second section following an introductory section. Lane model calculations are compared with data for 9 Be and results are given showing angular distributions of the cross sections, the analyzing powers and the spin-rotation parameters for p - 40 Ca. Real central potential for d + 32 s resulting from the FB-analysis are compared with frozen density folding and delta-function folding. The third section deals with reaction mechanism. Data are cited which show near-side and far-side contributions to the calculated analyzing powers in the 116 Sn(d,p) 117 Sn (11.2 - ) transition. Calculations are compared with experimental A y and -(A yy + 2)/3. Also given are measurements of the cross sections and analyzing powers of the continuum energy spectra for the 58 Ni(p,p'x), along with relations between the analyzing powers and momentum transfer. The fourth section addresses nuclear structure. Cross sections and analyzing powers measured at 22 MeV for the reaction 208 Pb(p,t) 206 Pb(3 2 + ) are cited and considered. (Nogami, K.)

  10. ENDF/B-VIII.0: The 8th Major Release of the Nuclear Reaction Data Library with CIELO-project Cross Sections, New Standards and Thermal Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Capote, R.; Kahler, A. C.; Trkov, A.; Herman, M. W.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Danon, Y.; Carlson, A. D.; Dunn, M.; Smith, D. L.; Hale, G. M.; Arbanas, G.; Arcilla, R.; Bates, C. R.; Beck, B.; Becker, B.; Brown, F.; Casperson, R. J.; Conlin, J.; Cullen, D. E.; Descalle, M.-A.; Firestone, R.; Gaines, T.; Guber, K. H.; Hawari, A. I.; Holmes, J.; Johnson, T. D.; Kawano, T.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Koning, A. J.; Kopecky, S.; Leal, L.; Lestone, J. P.; Lubitz, C.; Márquez Damián, J. I.; Mattoon, C. M.; McCutchan, E. A.; Mughabghab, S.; Navratil, P.; Neudecker, D.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Noguere, G.; Paris, M.; Pigni, M. T.; Plompen, A. J.; Pritychenko, B.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Roubtsov, D.; Rochman, D.; Romano, P.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Simakov, S.; Sin, M.; Sirakov, I.; Sleaford, B.; Sobes, V.; Soukhovitskii, E. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Thompson, I.; van der Marck, S.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Wiarda, D.; White, M.; Wormald, J. L.; Wright, R. Q.; Zerkle, M.; Žerovnik, G.; Zhu, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We describe the new ENDF/B-VIII.0 evaluated nuclear reaction data library. ENDF/B-VIII.0 fully incorporates the new IAEA standards, includes improved thermal neutron scattering data and uses new evaluated data from the CIELO project for neutron reactions on 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235U, 238U and 239Pu described in companion papers in the present issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. The evaluations benefit from recent experimental data obtained in the U.S. and Europe, and improvements in theory and simulation. Notable advances include updated evaluated data for light nuclei, structural materials, actinides, fission energy release, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray spectra, thermal neutron scattering data, and charged-particle reactions. Integral validation testing is shown for a wide range of criticality, reaction rate, and neutron transmission benchmarks. In general, integral validation performance of the library is improved relative to the previous ENDF/B-VII.1 library.

  11. ENDF/B-VIII.0: The 8 th Major Release of the Nuclear Reaction Data Library with CIELO-project Cross Sections, New Standards and Thermal Scattering Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Capote, R.; Kahler, A. C.; Trkov, A.; Herman, M. W.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Danon, Y.; Carlson, A. D.; Dunn, M.; Smith, D. L.; Hale, G. M.; Arbanas, G.; Arcilla, R.; Bates, C. R.; Beck, B.; Becker, B.; Brown, F.; Casperson, R. J.; Conlin, J.; Cullen, D. E.; Descalle, M. -A.; Firestone, R.; Gaines, T.; Guber, K. H.; Hawari, A. I.; Holmes, J.; Johnson, T. D.; Kawano, T.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Koning, A. J.; Kopecky, S.; Leal, L.; Lestone, J. P.; Lubitz, C.; Márquez Damián, J. I.; Mattoon, C. M.; McCutchan, E. A.; Mughabghab, S.; Navratil, P.; Neudecker, D.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Noguere, G.; Paris, M.; Pigni, M. T.; Plompen, A. J.; Pritychenko, B.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Roubtsov, D.; Rochman, D.; Romano, P.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Simakov, S.; Sin, M.; Sirakov, I.; Sleaford, B.; Sobes, V.; Soukhovitskii, E. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Thompson, I.; van der Marck, S.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Wiarda, D.; White, M.; Wormald, J. L.; Wright, R. Q.; Zerkle, M.; Žerovnik, G.; Zhu, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We describe the new ENDF/B-VIII.0 evaluated nuclear reaction data library. ENDF/B-VIII.0 fully incorporates the new IAEA standards, includes improved thermal neutron scattering data and uses new evaluated data from the CIELO project for neutron reactions on 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235U, 238U and 239Pu described in companion papers in the present issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. The evaluations benefit from recent experimental data obtained in the U.S. and Europe, and improvements in theory and simulation. Notable advances include updated evaluated data for light nuclei, structural materials, actinides, fission energy release, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray spectra, thermal neutron scattering data, and charged-particle reactions. Integral validation testing is shown for a wide range of criticality, reaction rate, and neutron transmission benchmarks. In general, integral validation performance of the library is improved relative to the previous ENDF/B-VII.1 library.

  12. Integral cross-section measurements for investigating the emission of complex particles in 14 MeV neutron-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the off-line techniques used for the determination of integral cross-section data are reviewed and, as a critical check, some typical data sets are compared. The systematic trends reported in the cross-section data for (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He) and (n,α) reactions are discussed. A brief discussion of the possible reaction mechanisms is given. Some of the applications of the data are outlined. (author)

  13. Rapid nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Beer, G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the completion of blocks 3 and 4 in Mochovce were subject to some discussion, the building of a new unit at Jaslovske Bohunice has remained unnoticed. Not even environmentalists objected. And so far the plans to build a new power plant seem to have been approved without any major discussion about whether Slovakia really needs or does not need a new nuclear power unit. Political statements about a possible future shortage of electricity were enough. The plans of private companies to build their own power plants or the possibility of decreasing the use of energy by savings were disregarded. But a clear answer to the question whether this new power unit will generate electricity for export to other countries has not yet been given. But by the end of this year the government wants to decide whether the new power plant which will cost an estimated 100 billion Slovak crowns (3.3 billions EUR) will be built from public funds in tandem with a private investor or fully financed by private capital. The name of the private investor should become known by the end of this year. (authors)

  14. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  15. Microscopic description of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The genealogical series method has been extended to the continuous spectrum of the many-body systems. New nonlinear integral equations have been formulated to perform the microscopical description of the nuclear reactions with arbitrary number of particles. The way to solve them numerically is demonstrated

  16. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrain, R.

    1984-08-01

    Projectile and nuclear fragmentation are defined and processes referred to are recalled. The two different aspects of fragmentation are considered but the emphasis is also put on heavy ion induced reactions. The preliminary results of an experiment performed at GANIL to study peripheral heavy ions induced reactions at intermediate energy are presented. The results of this experiment will illustrate the characteristics of projectile fragmentation and this will also give the opportunity to study projectile fragmentation in the transition region. Then nuclear fragmentation is considered which is associated with more central collisions in the case of heavy ion induced reactions. This aspect of fragmentation is also ilustrated with two heavy ion experiments in which fragments emitted at large angle have been observed

  18. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Department of Nuclear Reactions has had a very productive year. We have carried out our work in close collaborations with physicists from many laboratories, home and foreign. The following reports cover three major domains of our activities: nuclear, material and atomic physics. * Nuclear physics: In collaboration with scientists from Ukraine experimental studies of nuclear reaction induced by heavy ions from the Warsaw Cyclotron have been performed. The aim of the experiments is to study nuclear reactions leading to the exotic light nuclei in exit channels and energy dependence of the nucleus - nucleus interactions. Proton induced charge-exchange reactions were investigated theoretically by means of multistep-direct model. Good agreement with the experimental data was achieved. A novel approach to the problem of the nuclear liquid → gas phase transition was proposed, based on synergetics - a domain of science dealing with self-organization in macroscopic systems. Decay properties of the Roper resonance were studied. Final analysis of the analysing powers for the polarized deuterons scattered on protons was accomplished. Experimental programme of the near-threshold meson production in proton - proton scattering has been started in collaboration with Forschungszentrum. Juelich. * Atomic physics: Spectra of the X-rays emitted by energetic sulphur ions scattered off carbon atoms were analysed in order to study the role of the multiple charge states of the inner shells in the dynamics of the collision process. Ionization probabilities in collision of oxygen ions with gold atoms were measured. The observed disagreement of the experimental data with the theoretical predictions suggest a strong effect generated by the sub-shell couplings. * Materials research: Ion channelling method was applied to investigate transformation of the defects in Al x Ga 1-x As crystalline layers. Activities of our colleagues in didactics have grown considerably. Lectures

  19. Nuclear Data Section status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) related activity of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) for the period October 1998 to September 2000. It covers both online NSDD user service either Telnet or Web services, and offline NSDD service. The NSDD development programs and projects are related to NDS contribution to the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services program, Coordinated Research Project on nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation, Coordinated Research Project on updating of x-ray and gamma-ray decay data standards for detector calibration, and Coordinated Research Project on development of database for prompt gamma-neutron activation analysis

  20. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: It is surprising how so few under-paid scientists could do so much. During 2004 the number of papers published or being in press exceeded fifty, making almost three papers per person employed in our department. Furthermore, among these papers one was published in Nature, the World's highest-ranked scientific journal. This is a result that will be difficult to beat. It is my pleasure to mention that one of our PhD students, Mr Sergiy Mezhevych, won a prestigious Heavy Ion Laboratory Prize founded by Prof. Inamura, for his experimental work using a beam from the Warsaw Cyclotron. Thanks to the effort of our colleagues the Hermes Collaboration Meeting organized by IPJ in Kazimierz Dolny (June 25 - July 1) turned out a success. The following short reports cover the three major domains of our scientific activities: nuclear, materials and atomic physics. -Nuclear physics - The structure of light nuclei, including exotic radioactive isotopes, was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Some experimental studies were performed at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University in collaboration with scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Research in Kiev, Ukraine. The two reports present interesting results for the rare carbon isotope, 14 C. In the framework of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin theory the multistep emission of one particle as well as more complicated direct processes were studied. It was found that these more complex processes play an important role in proton induced reactions. Experimental data from projectile-multifragmentation experiments with stable and radioactive beams were analysed. Some preliminary results are presented. Using a proton beam provided by the C-30 compact cyclotron at Swierk, detectors consisting of a PWO scintillator coupled to avalanche photodiodes were tested. The aim of these tests was to find the best detectors for the large electromagnetic calorimeter which will be used in future PANDA Collaboration experiments

  1. Cross sections measurement of isomeric states formation in nuclear reactions induced by neutrons of 14 Mev and comparison with statistical theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bardouni, T.

    1989-01-01

    Excitation functions of some (n,2n), (n,p) and (n,alpha) reactions on isotopes taken in different mass regions have been measured around 14 Mev. We give more interest to reactions leading to residual nucleus in isomeric states. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons are produced via the T(d,n)alpha reaction and activation technique is combined to high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. In the measurement of samples activities, we have scanned carefully the different origins of uncertainties and taken into account all necessary corrections. We have also carried out a detailed study about the nuclear reactions theory (compound nucleus and Geometry Dependent Hybrid Models) in order to compare our measurements results and theoretical calculations. The EMPIRE code (based on compound nucleus and Geometry Dependent Hybrid Models), that we have adapted on IBM Personal Computer, allows us to reproduce with great satisfaction the measured excitation functions without adjusting the models parameters. So we can rely on the EMPIRE code, as it is done in its work, in the prediction of some nuclear reactions excitation functions that cannot be determined by means of activation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. 88 refs., 43 figs., 16 tabs., 1 chart. (author)

  2. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  3. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In spite of reduced personnel the number of papers published and in press exceeded fifty, almost ten more than a year ago. Another good sign is the growing number of PhD students. The following short reports cover the three major domains of our scientific activities: nuclear, material and atomic physics. Nuclear physics: The structure of light nuclei was investigated, and studies of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions were performed including experiments at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University. The experiments were carried out in collaboration with scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Research from Kiev, Ukraine. Proton induced reactions on zirconium were investigated theoretically by means of a multistep-direct model extended for the unbound particle - hole states. Good agreement with the experimental data was achieved. Isospin effects in multifragmentation of relativistic heavy ions were studied by the ALADIN Collaboration. Elements of a new generation detector PANDA were tested experimentally using a proton beam provided by the C-30 compact cyclotron at Swierk. Evidence of a narrow baryon state was found in a quasi - real photoproduction on the deuterium target by the HERMES Collaboration. Atomic physics: Ionisation of selected heavy elements by sulphur ions was investigated in collaboration with the Swietokrzyska Academy, Kielce. Materials research: Hydrogen release from ultrahigh molecular weight polythene was investigated by means of an α - particle beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator of our Department. Last but not least, many of our colleagues have been involved in education. Lectures on nuclear physics, accelerators, detectors used in nuclear research as well as nuclear methods applied in solid state studies for students from many high schools of Warsaw and for students of Warsaw University were given by Dr. Andrzej Korman and Dr. Lech Nowicki. Also, our Department made a significant contribution to the 7 th Science

  4. Nuclear reaction studies: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A principal focus of recent research has been the three-body problem. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the creation of a computer program to calculate physical observables in the three body problem below 1 GeV. Successful results have been obtained for the triton. Additional work concerns scattering of K + mesons from nuclei, antinucleon physics, relativistic nuclear physics and inclusive reactions

  5. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In 2002, the Department has been involved in two new experimental programmes. Our colleagues led by Prof. Pawel Zupranski joined a large international collaboration HERMES and took part in experiments at DESY devoted to the study of the spin structure of the nucleon. Another group directed by Associate Prof. Bogdan Zwieglinski has worked on a conceptual design of a new generation detector PANDA (Proton-Antiproton Detection) which will be used in future experiments at GSI. Moreover, the experimental programmes covering three major domains of our scientific activities: nuclear physics, materials research and atomic physics were continued. - Nuclear physics: Experimental studies of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions provided by the Warsaw U-200P Cyclotron were performed in collaboration with scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Studies in Kiev, Ukraine. The aim of the experiments was to investigate isotopic effects in the scattering of 11 B from carbon nuclides. Also, excited states of 6 Li predicted theoretically but never seen in experiments were investigated by means of one-neutron transfer reactions. Proton induced reactions were investigated theoretically by means of the multistep-direct model. Good agreement with the experimental data was achieved. The mechanism of fragments production in collisions of 197 Au with a gold target in the wide range of energies was studied by ALADIN and INDRA Collaborations. The production of η mesons from proton - proton collisions was investigated experimentally at the Juelich Cooler Synchrotron COSY. - Atomic physics: The ionisation of Au, Bi, Th and U atoms by Si ions was investigated in collaboration with the Swietokrzyska Academy, Kielce, and the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg. - Materials research: The sensitivity of the Solid State Nuclear Track PM-355 detectors was tested against intensive gamma and electron radiation. Moreover, using a monoenergetic sulphur ion beam from the Warsaw Cyclotron, the

  6. Direct nuclear reaction experiments for stellar nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades indirect methods where proposed and used in many experiments in order to measure nuclear cross sections between charged particles at stellar energies. These are among the lowest to be measured in nuclear physics. One of these methods, the Trojan Horse method, is based on the Quasi- Free reaction mechanism and has proved to be particularly flexible and reliable. It allowed for the measurement of the cross sections of various reactions of astrophysical interest using stable beams. The use and reliability of indirect methods become even more important when reactions induced by Radioactive Ion Beams are considered, given the much lower intensity generally available for these beams. The first Trojan Horse measurement of a process involving the use of a Radioactive Ion Beam dealt with the "1"8F(p,α)"1"5O process in Nova conditions. To obtain pieces of information on this process, in particular about its cross section at Nova energies, the Trojan Horse method was applied to the "1"8F(d,α "1"5O)n three body reaction. In order to establish the reliability of the Trojan Horse method approach, the Treiman-Yang criterion is an important test and it will be addressed briefly in this paper.

  7. Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Furutachi, Naoya; Kato, Kiyoshi; Makinaga, Ayano; Devi, Vidya; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Tsubakihara, Kohsuke; Katayama, Toshiyuki; Otuka, Naohiko

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reaction data are essential for research and development in nuclear engineering, radiation therapy, nuclear physics and astrophysics. Experimental data must be compiled in a database and be accessible to nuclear data users. One of the nuclear reaction databases is the EXFOR database maintained by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Recently, collaboration among the Asian NRDC members is being further developed under the support of the Asia-Africa Science Platform Program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We report the activity for three years to develop the Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation. (author)

  8. Sequential series for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Ko

    1975-01-01

    A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)

  9. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: During last year the physicists of the Department of Nuclear Reactions were involved in many experiments and projects: -Low energy nuclear reactions: For the first time a heavy ion beam from the Warsaw Cyclotron C-200 was used to investigate elastic and inelastic scattering of 12 C ions from 12 C target. The experiment is a part of a long range programme devoted to study the energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interactions. -Multifragmentation of relativistic heavy ions: Multifragmentation reactions induced by 12 C on different heavy targets and at different energies were studied in experiments performed at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung by the ALADIN Collaboration. These asymmetric systems were investigated in order to study the interplay between preequilibrium and equilibrium phenomena in the nuclear liquid - gas phase transition. -The structure of nucleons: A novel, two-structure description of the Roper resonance was proposed on the basis of the α-p scattering data reanalysed by means of a T-matrix formalism. -Atomic physics: Emission of the X-rays by fast heavy ions (S, Ti, Fe) as they traverse the matter (thin carbon or other light element foil) was investigated in a series of experiments performed at University of Erlangen. It was demonstrated, that the characteristic K α X-rays emitted by a heavy ion can serve as a tool for Z-value control of the ion. -Material research: Semiconductor heterostructures were investigated by means of Rutherford Back Scattering and Channeling methods using the 2 MeV α particles from the Van de Graaff accelerator ''Lech'' at the Department. The following reports present the results and major successes which were achieved in 1999. (author)

  10. Nuclear reaction matrix and nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Sinobu; Bando, Hiroharu; Akaishi, Yoshinori.

    1979-01-01

    An essentially exact method of solution is presented for the reaction- matrix (G-matrix) equation defined with the orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate spectrum for high-lying two-particle states. The accuracy is examined for introduced truncations and also in comparison with the Tsai-Kuo and Sauer methods. Properties of the G-matrix are discussed with emphasis on the relation with the saturation mechanism, especially overall saturation from light to heavy nuclei. Density and starting-energy dependences of the G-matrix are separately extracted and discussed. It is demonstrated that the triplet-even tensor component of the nuclear force is principally responsible for these dependences and hence for the saturation mechanism. In this context different nuclear potentials are used in the renormalized Brueckner calculation for energies of closed-shell nuclei in the harmonic oscillator basis. A semi-phenomenological ''two-body potential'' is devised so that it can reproduce the saturation energies and densities of nuclear matter and finite nuclei in the lowest-order Brueckner treatment. It is composed of a realistic N-N potential and two additional parts; one incorporates the three-body force effect and the other is assumed to embody higher-cluster correlations in G. The tensor component in the triplet-even state of this potential is enhanced by the three-body force effect. The G-matrix is represented in the effective local form and decomposed into central, LS and tensor components. (author)

  11. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, G.; Roesel, F.; Trautmann, D.; Shyam, R.

    1983-10-01

    Fragmentation processes in nuclear collisions are reviewed. The main emphasis is put on light ion breakup at nonrelativistic energies. The post- and prior-form DWBA theories are discussed. The post-form DWBA, appropriate for the ''spectator breakup'' describes elastic as well as inelastic breakup modes. This theory can also account for the stripping to unbound states. The theoretical models are compared to typical experimental results to illustrate the various possible mechanisms. It is discussed, how breakup reactions can be used to study high-lying single particle strength in the continuum; how it can yield information about momentum distributions of fragments in the nucleus. (orig.)

  12. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Nuclear Reactions had a very productive year. The following reports cover three major domains of our activities: nuclear, material and atomic physics. One of the current questions in modern nuclear physics is question of the phase transitions in nuclear matter. Our physicists, the members of the ALADIN Collaboration at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, participated in new experiments exploring properties of highly excited nuclear matter and the phenomenon of the liquid - gas phase transition. The experiments yielded a number of important results. Details can be found in the three short reports presented in this volume. Structure of a nucleon is another important subject of nuclear science research. In the last year energy region of Δ resonance has been investigated by means of charge exchange reaction. The experiment was performed at Laboratory National Saturne in Saclay by SPESIV-π collaboration consisting of physicist from Institute of Nuclear Physics Orsay, Niels Bohr Institute Copenhagen and from our Department. The main achievement of the experiment was evidence for a Δ - hole attraction in the spin longitudinal channel. Reactions induced by radioactive ion beams such as 6 He recently attract a lot of interest. There exist some evidences that the 6 He nucleus has a two-neutron halo structure similar to that well established for 11 Li. An analysis of 6 He + 4 He scattering data reported in this volume revealed some similarities between the loosely bound 6 Li nucleus and the neutron rich 6 He. Research in material physics has focused on two basic topics: a crystallographic model of uranium dioxide, a material currently used as a nuclear fuel and transformations of defects in GaAs crystals at low temperature. The investigations have been carried out in a wide collaboration with scientists from the University of Jena, Research Center Karlsruhe and Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire Orsay. Some experiments have been performed at

  13. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the ... For many years, the disadvantage in these investigations ... fusion or breakup reaction, preferred with large forward-peaked cross-sections. To transfer the ...

  14. Lin's theory of flux and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping-Wha Lin

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical development of Lin's theory of flux is presented. Based on the Theory, when a chemical reaction system is subjected to a high time rate of temperature change, it changes from equilibrium to non-equilibrium conditions. It is proved mathematically that, when a gas system is subjected to a high time rate of temperature increase, the activities of particles (molecules, atoms or nuclei, and electrons) are increased: the particles are accelerated; frequencies and amplitudes of electron and atomic vibrations in a molecule increased; average kinetic energy of the particles increased; atomic bonds are ruptured; electrons are caused to leave their orbits. If most or all of the electrons leave their orbits, the gas fluid becomes plasma, which is very active chemically. The acceleration of nuclei in the dynamic condition can lead to nuclear reactions. In the pilot plant studies conducted at Research Triangle, NC, USA, for SO 2 conversion to SO 3 by rapid heating, a 10-ft high vertically fired combustor (VFC) was used. Air containing 0.5% SO 2 is forced continuously through the VFC, where it is heated by burners for conversion of SO 2 to SO 3 . During the idle period of operation, no external heat is added to the system by turning off the burners. It is observed that, as the air passing through the VFC during the idle period of sixteen hours, the temperature of the flowing air consistently rises up rapidly from ambient temperature (90 deg F) at inlet of the VFC to an average temperature as high as 582 deg F (in the range of 840 deg F to 455 deg F) at one section of the VFC, an increase of about 500 deg F. The air flow temperature increase of such large magnitude and long duration clearly indicates that nuclear reactions are present in VFC. It is also found that the water vapour in the air stream has completely disappeared in the VFC, for no sulphuric acid formation resulting from the reaction of water and SO 3 is detected there. Presumably, the water vapour in the

  15. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  16. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  17. Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions on cadmium: production feasibility of no-carrier-added 103Pd in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, I.A.; Subhani, M.S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic studies on fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions like (n, p) and (n, α) on cadmium were carried out using the activation technique in combination with radiochemical separations and high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the formation of 103 Pd via the 106 Cd(n,a α) 103 Pd reaction since it is an important therapeutic radionuclide. At a fast flux neutron density of 7.5 x 10 13 cm 2 s -1 and an irradiation time of 120 h, using 100% enriched 106 Cd target 340 MBq of no-carrier-added 103 Pd per batch could be produced. The method is thus suitable for medium-scale production of this radionuclide. (orig.)

  18. Department of Nuclear Reactions: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) During the last year our activities were spread over the three major domains: nuclear, atomic and material physics. The nuclear physics experimental programme covered a broad range of nuclear reactions induced by light and heavy ions. New experiments were performed at the compact C-30 cyclotron at Swierk, at University of Jyvaeskylae, GSI Darmstadt, LN Saturne. Prospects for future experiments on nucleon structure at Forschungszentrum Juelich were open. The collaboration with INR Kiev was tightened and work was done in order to prepare experiments at the C-200 heavy ion cyclotron in Warsaw. An effort to install the ion guide isotope separator on line (IGISOL) at the C-200 cyclotron has also to be mentioned A half a year stay of Dr. Nicholas Keeley in the Department, who received The Royal Society/Polish Academy of Science grant, resulted in many interesting results on breakup of light nuclei. Details can be found in the short abstracts presented in this report. As far as atomic physics is concerned, the activity of a group lead by Prof. Marian Jaskola yielded various new results. The experiments were performed at the University of Erlangen, in close collaboration with the Pedagogical University in Kielce and the University of Basel. Fast neutrons generated in the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction induced by the 2 MeV deuteron beam from the Van der Graaff accelerator at the Department were used to calibrate solid state-nuclear-track detectors. This was a very good year for material physics research: Jan Kaczanowski and Slawomir Kwiatkawski received Ph.D. degrees based on dissertation research performed in the material physics research programme, while Pawel Kolodziej completed his MSc. thesis in collaboration with the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology in Warsaw, Research Center Karlsruhe, University of Jena and CSNSM Orsay many results were obtained. Lech Nowicki and Prof. Andrzej Turos were awarded by the Director of the IPJ prizes for their scientific

  19. Table of cross section (n,p), (n,α) and (n, 2n) reactions in steel components and other nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.

    1972-01-01

    Reactions (n,p) and (n, α ) produce in the materials large amount of hydrogen and helium atoms. The presence, specially of helium, changes the physical properties of materials and particularly reduce the ductility of irradiated stainless steel cladding above 500 degree centigree. Cross sections of all isotopes which constitute the S.S. and other clad materials, have been completed. Experimental available data were obtained from BNL (1956, 64 and 68), and the rest, from J.C, ROY and J . J . HAWTON calculations in a fission neutron spectrum (1960). (Author)

  20. Measurement of activation cross-section of long-lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on palladium in the 30-50MeV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-10-01

    Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the nat Pd(d,xn) 111,110m,106m,105,104g,103 Ag, nat Pd(d,x) 111m,109,101,100 Pd, nat Pd(d,x), 105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g Rh and nat Pd(d,x) 103,97 Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Third international workshop on compound nuclear reactions and related topics. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The conference was divided into the following sections: Fission; Surrogate reactions; Heavy ion reactions; Neutron-induced reactions; Gamma-ray strength functions; Nuclear astrophysics; Superheavy nuclei; Nuclear level density; Various nuclear reactions; Optical model simulations; and Pre-equilibrium. The publication contains 82 abstracts. (P.A.)

  2. The unified theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobocman, W.

    A unified nuclear reaction theory is a formalism for the scattering reactions of many-body nuclear systems which is capable of describing both direct interaction and compound nucleus formation processes. The Feshbach projection operator formalism is the original unified nuclear reaction theory. An alternative unified nuclear reaction theory called the X-matrix formalism is described. The X-matrix formalism is a generalization of the Brown-de Dominicis formalism. It does not require projection operators and is readly applied to rearrangement collisions

  3. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S.; Peru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000 s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2008-01-01

    . Jaskola joined a collaboration of many Polish institutions and performed a series of experiments at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University devoted to a study of cell survival after irradiation by ions from the Warsaw Cyclotron. Finally, I would like to warmly welcome drs H.P. Morsch and N. Keeley who joined us last year. Dr Morsch is collaborating with Assoc. Prof. P. Zupranski on a multi-gluon field approach within Quantum Chromodynamics. Dr Keeley's interest is in low energy nuclear reactions. I would also like to welcome our new PhD students, Ms I. Strojek, Mr l. Standylo and Mr Shaaban Abd El Aal. With Mr Abd El Aal we are opening a new field of applications of nuclear methods, studying ancient Egyptian frescos by means of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). As every year, apart from purely scientific activities, a few of our colleagues have been involved in education, giving lectures to students from highs Schools in Warsaw and to students of Warsaw University. (author)

  5. Nuclear Reaction Data File for Astrophysics (NRDF/A) in Hokkaido University Nuclear Reaction Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Masaaki; Furutachi, Naoya; Makinaga, Ayano; Togashi, Tomoaki; Otuka, Naohiko

    2010-01-01

    The activities of the Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre is explained. The main task of the centre is data compilation of Japanese nuclear reaction data in collaboration of the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres. As one of recent activities, preparation of a new database (NRDF/A) and evaluation of astronuclear reaction data are reported. Collaboration in the nuclear data activities among Asian countries is proposed.

  6. Nuclear halo and its related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huanqiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to search proton halo, the reaction cross sections of 27,28 P, 29 S and the corresponding isotones on Si target were measured at intermediate energies. The measured reaction cross sections of the N=12 and 13 isotones show an abrupt increase at Z=15. The experimental results for the isotones with Z=14 as well as 28 P can be well described by the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit approach. The enhancement of the reaction cross sections for 28 P could be explained in the modified Glauber theory with an enlarged core. Theoretical analysis with the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit and few-body approaches underpredicted the experimental data of 27 P. Our theoretical analysis shows that an enlarged core together with proton halo is probably the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the cross sections for the reaction of 27 P+ 28 Si. In addition, we find from the experimental results that 29 S may have a moderate proton halo structure. Except the nuclei near or at drop-lines, halo may appear in the excited states of stable nuclei. By means of the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) extracted from transfer reactions of 11 B(d, p) 12 B, 12 C(d, p) 13 C, and H( 6 He, n) 6 Li, we have verified that the second ( Jπ = 2 - ) and third (Jπ = 1 - ) excited states in 12 B and the first (Jπ =1/2 + ) excited state in 13 C are the neutron halo states, while the second excited state (3.56 MeV, Jπ = 0 + ) in 6 Li is a proton-neutron halo state. We have proposed a procedure to extract the probability for valence particle being out of the binding potential from the measured nuclear asymptotic normalization coefficients. With this procedure, available data regarding the nuclear halo candidates are systematically analyzed and a number of halo nuclei are confirmed. Based on these results we have got a much relaxed condition for nuclear halo occurrence. Furthermore, we have presented the scaling laws for the dimensionless quantity 2 >/R 2 of

  7. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1991-05-01

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Hadronic structure; hadrons in nuclei; hot hadronic matter; relativistic nuclear physics and NN interaction; leptonic emissions from high-Z heavy ion collisions; theoretical studies of heavy ion dynamics; nuclear pre-equilibrium reactions; classical chaotic dynamics and nuclear structure; and, theory of nuclear fission

  8. Shape nuclei and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental methods for obtaining the nucleus shape parameters are reviewed throughout the period of 1955-1975. Spatial properties of a nucleus, which can be directly or indirectly measured, are determined. They include: parameters of nucleus localization in space; parameters characterizing the nucleus nonsphericity; parameters of the nucleus nonaxiality. Dimensional parameters of a nucleus, namely, radius R and surface ΔR are derived from electron scattering. The deformation sign is indirectly obtained in the experiments. Parameters of the nucleus shape, namely, the sign and magnitude of nuclear deformation are derived from the mean energy proton scattering by a coupled channels method. The only direct way of deriving the nucleus surface deformation signs is the method of the Blaire phase shift. Results on scattering of electrons, protons, and α-particles on light and medium nuclei are reported. Data on the nucleus shape can be also obtained from reactions with heavy ions. A difference between strong absorptions of incident particles of high and average energy by a nucleus is noted. Numerous diagrams illustrate experimental and theoretical results

  9. Nuclear structure in deep-inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concentrates on recent deep inelastic experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory and the nuclear structure effects evident in reactions between super heavy nuclei. Experiments indicate that these reactions evolve gradually from simple transfer processes which have been studied extensively for lighter nuclei such as 16 O, suggesting a theoretical approach connecting the one-step DWBA theory to the multistep statistical models of nuclear reactions. This transition between quasi-elastic and deep inelastic reactions is achieved by a simple random walk model. Some typical examples of nuclear structure effects are shown. 24 refs., 9 figs

  10. Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, O.; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, 3He- and 4He-particles. Recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.

  11. Nuclear reaction database on Meme Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    We have developed the system of charged particle nuclear reaction data (CPND) on the IntelligentPad architecture. We called the system CONTIP, which is an abbreviation of 'Creative, Cooperative and Cultural Objects for Nuclear data and Tools'. NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File), which is a kind of CPND compilation, is applied as an application example. Although CONTIP is currently applied to NRDF, the framework can be generalized to use the other nuclear database. We will develop CONTIP to give the framework for effective utilization of nuclear data. (author)

  12. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirdt, J.A. [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, St. Joseph' s College, Patchogue, NY 11772 (United States); Brown, D.A., E-mail: dbrown@bnl.gov [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  13. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirdt, J.A.; Brown, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  14. Nuclear reactions of high energy deuterons with medium mass targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Oki, Yuichi

    1994-01-01

    Formation cross sections of product nuclides in the nuclear reactions of medium mass targets by 10 GeV deuterons were measured with a gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured data were compared with the cross sections of 12 GeV protons. (author)

  15. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: 2007 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of low energy nuclear reactions, a subset of the field of condensed matter nuclear science. Condensed matter nuclear science studies nuclear effects in and/or on condensed matter, including low energy nuclear reactions, an entirely new branch of science that gained widespread attention and notoriety beginning in 1989 with the announcement of a previously unrecognized source of energy by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that came to be known as cold fusion. Two branches of LENR are recognized. The first includes a set of reactions like those observed by Fleischmann and Pons that use palladium and deuterium and yield excess heat and helium-4. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain these reactions, however there is no consensus for, or general acceptance of, any of the theories. The claim of fusion is still considered speculative and, as such, is not an ideal term for this work. The other branch is a wide assortment of nuclear reactions that may occur with either hydrogen or deuterium. Anomalous nuclear transmutations are reported that involve light as well as heavy elements. The significant questions that face this field of research are: 1) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? 2) If so, is there a release of excess energy? 3) If there is, is the energy release cost-effective?

  16. Astrophysical Nuclear Reaction Rates in the Dense Metallic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ali Ihsan

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear reaction rates can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude in dense and relatively cold astrophysical plasmas such as in white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, and giant planets. Similar conditions are also present in supernova explosions where the ignition conditions are vital for cosmological models. White dwarfs are compact objects that have both extremely high interior densities and very strong local magnetic fields. For the first time, a new formula has been developed to explain cross section and reaction rate quantities for light elements that includes not only the nuclear component but also the material dependence, magnetic field, and crystal structure dependency in dense metallic environments. I will present the impact of the developed formula on the cross section and reaction rates for light elements. This could have possible technological applications in energy production using nuclear fusion reactions.

  17. Dispersion Theory of Direct Nuclear Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, I.S.

    1963-01-01

    reasons for the agreement if it is not accidental. In short, the theory behaves like an unpredictable person. A major success in the application of perturbation theory to direct processes in the Butler theory of deuteron stripping ((d, p), (d, n)) and pick-up ((p, d), (n, d)). The Butler theory satisfactorily predicts the position of the first maximum (by the increase of the angle) in the angular distribution of reaction products as a function of the orbital momentum of the nucleon captured by the nucleus (stripping reaction) or picked up by an incident particle (pick- up reaction). This result permitted the use of stripping and pick-up reactions in nuclear spectroscopy. At the same time this led to the problem of understanding the true meaning of the Butler approximation. This problem was also essential because the Butler theory inadequately describes several other features of the stripping and pick-up reactions (such as the change of angular distribution with the energy of incident particles, the relation of intensities at the maxima of angular distributions, absolute values of. cross-sections and, sometimes, the relative probabilities for the excitation of different states of residual nuclei). A new method in direct process theory was offered not so long ago (in 1961). The method is based on fairly general properties of the reaction amplitudes and is free from the un-justified assumptions, of the form er theory, in particular the application of perturbation theory. This method makes it possible to obtain several new results and obtain a uniform description cf a great variety of processes (such as direct reactions of the conventional type at low and medium energies, the transfer of nucleons in the bombardment of nuclei by multi-charged ions and the processes of fragmentation at high energies). At the same time the new approach explains, with surprising simplicity, the causes of the form erly enigmatic success of the Butler theory and indicates the limits of its

  18. Dispersion Theory of Direct Nuclear Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, I. S. [Institute Of Theoretical And Experimental Physics, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-01-15

    reasons for the agreement if it is not accidental. In short, the theory behaves like an unpredictable person. A major success in the application of perturbation theory to direct processes in the Butler theory of deuteron stripping ((d, p), (d, n)) and pick-up ((p, d), (n, d)). The Butler theory satisfactorily predicts the position of the first maximum (by the increase of the angle) in the angular distribution of reaction products as a function of the orbital momentum of the nucleon captured by the nucleus (stripping reaction) or picked up by an incident particle (pick- up reaction). This result permitted the use of stripping and pick-up reactions in nuclear spectroscopy. At the same time this led to the problem of understanding the true meaning of the Butler approximation. This problem was also essential because the Butler theory inadequately describes several other features of the stripping and pick-up reactions (such as the change of angular distribution with the energy of incident particles, the relation of intensities at the maxima of angular distributions, absolute values of. cross-sections and, sometimes, the relative probabilities for the excitation of different states of residual nuclei). A new method in direct process theory was offered not so long ago (in 1961). The method is based on fairly general properties of the reaction amplitudes and is free from the un-justified assumptions, of the form er theory, in particular the application of perturbation theory. This method makes it possible to obtain several new results and obtain a uniform description cf a great variety of processes (such as direct reactions of the conventional type at low and medium energies, the transfer of nucleons in the bombardment of nuclei by multi-charged ions and the processes of fragmentation at high energies). At the same time the new approach explains, with surprising simplicity, the causes of the form erly enigmatic success of the Butler theory and indicates the limits of its

  19. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  20. Advanced modeling of reaction cross sections for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The shell model/R-matrix technique of calculating nuclear reaction cross sections for light projectiles incident on light nuclei is discussed, particularly in the application of the technique to thermonuclear reactions. Details are presented on the computational methods for the shell model which display how easily the calculations can be performed. Results of the shell model/R-matrix technique are discussed as are some of the problems encountered in picking an appropriate nucleon-nucleon interaction for the large model spaces which must be used for current problems. The status of our work on developing an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for use in large-basis shell model calculations is presented. This new interaction is based on a combination of global constraints and microscopic nuclear data. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Nuclear fission, chain reaction and criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Criticality is, notably for nuclear reactors, the status which separates the case of a fission chain reaction which inexorably decays, from that of a reaction which grows faster and faster until a counter-reaction occurs. If this status is an objective in nuclear reactors, it must not be reached or exceeded in any case in other types of installations in which fissile materials are handled (fabrication, transports, nuclear fuel processing). The author proposes an insight into this notion of criticality, discusses elements of neutron science which allow the multiplication factor to be assessed, analyses accidental scenarios which may happen, and presents associated experiments and computation codes

  2. International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Naohiko; Dunaeva, Svetlana

    2010-11-01

    The activities of fourteen nuclear data centres are summarized, and their cooperation under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency is described. Each of the centres provides coverage for different geographical zones and/or specific types of nuclear data, thus together providing a complete service for users worldwide. The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) was established with the objective of providing nuclear physics databases that are required for nuclear technology (encompassing energy and non-energy applications) by coordinating the collection, compilation and dissemination of nuclear data on an international scale. (author)

  3. Nuclear reaction database on Meme Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Division of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed the system of charged particle nuclear reaction data (CPND) on the IntelligentPad architecture. We called the system CONTIP, which is an abbreviation of 'Creative, Cooperative and Cultural Objects for Nuclear data and Tools'. NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File), which is a kind of CPND compilation, is applied as an application example. Although CONTIP is currently applied to NRDF, the framework can be generalized to use the othernuclear database. We will develop CONTIP to give the framework for effective utilization of nuclear data. (author)

  4. A study on the hierarchy model of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Sekiya, Tamotsu

    1975-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy model of nuclear reaction is discussed, and the hierarchy model means that the compound nucleus state is formed after several steps, at least, one step of reaction. This model was applied to the analysis of the observed cross sections of 235 U and some other elements. Neglecting exchange scattering effect, the equations for the total neutron cross section of 235 U were obtained. One of these equations describes explicitly the hierarchy of the transition from intermediate reaction state Xm into the compound nucleus state Xs, and another one describes the cross section averaged over an energy interval larger than the average level spacing of compound nucleus eigenvalues. The hierarchy of reaction mechanism was investigated in more detail, and the hierarchy model was applied to the case of unresolved energy region. It was not tried to evaluate the strength function in the mass region (A>140), since the effect of nuclear deformation was neglected in the task. (Iwase, T.)

  5. Theoretical study of cross sections of proton-induced reactions on cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yiğit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion may be among the strongest sustainable ways to replace fossil fuels because it does not contribute to acid rain or global warming. In this context, activated cobalt materials in corrosion products for fusion energy are significant in determination of dose levels during maintenance after a coolant leak in a nuclear fusion reactor. Therefore, cross-section studies on cobalt material are very important for fusion reactor design. In this article, the excitation functions of some nuclear reaction channels induced by proton particles on 59Co structural material were predicted using different models. The nuclear level densities were calculated using different choices of available level density models in ALICE/ASH code. Finally, the newly calculated cross sections for the investigated nuclear reactions are compared with the experimental values and TENDL data based on TALYS nuclear code. Keywords: Cobalt, Nuclear Structural Materials, Reaction Cross Section, TENDL Database

  6. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a 6 He nuclear radioactive beam (β emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction 6 + 209 Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  7. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzoon, M H; Charity, R J; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2014-04-25

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus Ca40 is generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. The introduction of nonlocality in the absorptive potentials yields equivalent elastic differential cross sections as compared to local versions but changes the absorption profile as a function of angular momentum suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential to allow for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e'p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly incorporated, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum nucleons, as experimentally determined by data from Jefferson Lab. These high-momentum nucleons provide a substantial contribution to the energy of the ground state, indicating a residual attractive contribution from higher-body interactions for Ca40 of about 0.64  MeV/A.

  9. Department of Nuclear Reaction - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    2001-01-01

    asymmetry. The same effects can be crucial for the extraction of polarized quark distributions (spin puzzle) from semi-inclusive production of pions in DIS. It was carefully studied how production of dijets in real and virtual photoproduction provides new information on unintegrated gluon distribution. We have completed the construction of the Forward Wall detector for the CHICSi experiment at the Celsius synchrotron. First tests with 20 Ne beam at 200 MeV/nucleon on 40 Ar and 14 N targets were performed. New results on the formation of dtμ, Muonic Molecule in Solid Hydrogen Target were obtained. First tests of the low energy spallation apparatus for measuring low energy spallation products emitted in proton induced reactions were performed using accelerator facilities at Catania (Italy). Further studies of statistical aspects of nuclear coupling to continuum were pursued. It was found that in the region of higher density of states the coupling to continuum is consistent with the statistical model. One Ph.D. thesis was completed under the supervision of Prof. Drozdz. The newly born doctor J. Kwapien was awarded The Henryk Niewodniczanski prize for his scientific achievement in studying the brain function. (author)

  10. A comprehensive survey of nuclear reactions; Panorama des reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugnon, J. [Liege Univ., IFPA, AGO Dept. (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The various mechanisms of nuclear reactions are surveyed and classified in different regimes, based on the notions of coherent mechanisms and hard versus soft processes. The emphasis is put on the concepts at the basis of the understanding of these regimes and on the elements of nuclear structure which are involved in these different regimes, as well as the on the possibility of extracting this information. Due to lack of space and for pedagogical reasons, the discussion is limited to nucleon-induced and light-ion-induced reactions. However, a few remarks are given concerning some specific probes, such as weakly bound projectiles or neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  11. Index of Nuclear Data Libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document lists more than 100 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. The data libraries include neutron cross-sections, resonance parameters, fission-product yields, nuclear structure and decay data, gamma-rays from radionuclides, data of nuclear reactions induced by charged particles or heavy ions, photonuclear data, photoatomic interaction data, and many others, partly with related data processing computer codes. All data and documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge on magnetic tape, PC diskettes, or through the online Nuclear Data Information System (NDIS). (author)

  12. Verification of cold nuclear fusion reaction, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zenko; Aratono, Yasuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    1991-01-01

    Can cold nuclear fusion reaction occur as is expected? If it occurs, what extent is its reaction probability? At present after 2 years elapsed since its beginning, the clear solution of these questions is not yet obtained. In many reaction systems employing different means, the experiments to confirm the cold nuclear fusion reaction have been attempted. In order to confirm that the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium mutually has occurred, the neutrons, He-3, protons, tritium or generated heat, which were formed by the reaction and released from the system, are measured. Since it is considered that the frequency of the occurrence at normal temperature of the reaction is very low, it is necessary to select the most suitable method upon evaluating the limit of detection peculiar to the measuring methods. The methods of measuring neutrons, protons, gamma ray and generated heat, and the reaction systems by electrolytic process and dry process are explained. The detection of plural kinds of the reaction products and the confirmation of synchronism of signals are important. (K.I.)

  13. Induced isospin mixing in direct nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenske, H.

    1979-07-01

    The effect of charge-dependent interactions on nuclear reactions is investigated. First, a survey is given on the most important results concerning the charge dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The isospin symmetry and invariance principles are discussed. Violations of the isospin symmetry occuring in direct nuclear reactions are analysed using the soupled channel theory, the folding model and microscopic descriptions. Finally, induced isospin mixing in isospin-forbidden direct reactions is considered using the example of the inelastic scattering of deuterons on 12 C. (KBE)

  14. Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin Weinberg, and others who participated in the first chain reaction experiments. The proceedings reflect differences of opinion among the scientists as well as the general public. References, slides, and tables used to illustrate the individual talks are included with the papers

  15. KAPSIES: A program for the calculation of multi-step direct reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    We present a program for the calculation of continuum cross sections, sepctra, angular distributions and analyzing powers according to various quantum-mechanical theories for statistical multi-step direct nuclear reactions. (orig.)

  16. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma

  17. Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)

  18. Status of CONRAD, a nuclear reaction analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Jean, C. de; Habert, B.; Litaize, O.; Noguere, G.; Suteau, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a software tool (CONRAD) was initiated at CEA/Cadarache to give answers to various problems arising in the data analysis of nuclear reactions. This tool is then characterized by the handling of uncertainties from experimental values to covariance matrices for multi-group cross sections. An object oriented design was chosen allowing an easy interface with graphical tool for input/output data and being a natural framework for innovative nuclear models (Fission). The major achieved developments are a data model for describing channels, nuclear reactions, nuclear models and processes with interface to classical data formats, theoretical calculations for the resolved resonance range (Reich-Moore) and unresolved resonance range (Hauser-Feshbach, Gilbert-Cameron,...) with nuclear model parameters adjustment on experimental data sets and a Monte Carlo method based on conditional probabilities developed to calculate properly covariance matrices. The on-going developments deal with the experimental data description (covariance matrices) and the graphical user interface. (authors)

  19. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  20. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianski, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Our scientific activities in 2009 concentrated on four subjects: low energy nuclear physics, high energy nuclear physics, materials science and applications. · Low energy nuclear physics experiments were continued at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University in collaboration with foreign institutions: University of Jyvaskyla, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Ukrainian Academy of Science and Institut de Recherches Subatomique in Strasbourg. Dr Eryk Piasecki was nominated to full professor. · A group of our colleagues, involved in the Hermes collaboration which comprises 32 institutions from eleven countries at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron ( DESY) in Hamburg, have continued the analysis of Spin Density Matrix Elements and asymmetry moments in ρ, φ, ω vector meson production. We hope that these studies will provide important constraints on the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). Prof. B. Zwieglinski and his team are involved in the large-scale international collaboration PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). They worked on the project of an electromagnetic calorimeter for the Panda detector at FAIR. Dr Dmytro Melychuk. a member of this team. defended his PhD thesis '' Development of electromagnetic calorimeter detectors and simulations for spectroscopic measurements of charmonium with PANDA ''. Grzegorz Kapica, a student in this team defended his master's thesis '' lnvestigating the energetic and time response of PWO scintillator with cooled photodiode readout in the gamma energy range 4 - 20 MeV '' · Materials science studies focused on semiconductor compounds that could be used in electronic and optoelectronic devices. This was done in close collaboration with the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. In particular, a determination of the thermal stability of ohmic contacts in SiC monocrystals was performed. Beams from our Van de Graaff accelerator LECH were used in particle - induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies

  1. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marianski, B [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Our scientific activities in 2009 concentrated on four subjects: low energy nuclear physics, high energy nuclear physics, materials science and applications. centre dot Low energy nuclear physics experiments were continued at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University in collaboration with foreign institutions: University of Jyvaskyla, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Ukrainian Academy of Science and Institut de Recherches Subatomique in Strasbourg. Dr Eryk Piasecki was nominated to full professor. centre dot A group of our colleagues, involved in the Hermes collaboration which comprises 32 institutions from eleven countries at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron ( DESY) in Hamburg, have continued the analysis of Spin Density Matrix Elements and asymmetry moments in rho, phi, omega vector meson production. We hope that these studies will provide important constraints on the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). Prof. B. Zwieglinski and his team are involved in the large-scale international collaboration PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). They worked on the project of an electromagnetic calorimeter for the Panda detector at FAIR. Dr Dmytro Melychuk, a member of this team, defended his PhD thesis ' Development of electromagnetic calorimeter detectors and simulations for spectroscopic measurements of charmonium with PANDA '. Grzegorz Kapica, a student in this team defended his master's thesis ' lnvestigating the energetic and time response of PWO scintillator with cooled photodiode readout in the gamma energy range 4 - 20 MeV ' centre dot Materials science studies focused on semiconductor compounds that could be used in electronic and optoelectronic devices. This was done in close collaboration with the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. In particular, a determination of the thermal stability of ohmic contacts in SiC monocrystals was performed. Beams from our Van de Graaff accelerator LECH were used in particle - induced X

  2. Nuclear reactions video (knowledge base on low energy nuclear physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Kozhin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The NRV (nuclear reactions video) is an open and permanently extended global system of management and graphical representation of nuclear data and video-graphic computer simulation of low energy nuclear dynamics. It consists of a complete and renewed nuclear database and well known theoretical models of low energy nuclear reactions altogether forming the 'low energy nuclear knowledge base'. The NRV solves two main problems: 1) fast and visualized obtaining and processing experimental data on nuclear structure and nuclear reactions; 2) possibility for any inexperienced user to analyze experimental data within reliable commonly used models of nuclear dynamics. The system is based on the realization of the following principal things: the net and code compatibility with the main existing nuclear databases; maximal simplicity in handling: extended menu, friendly graphical interface, hypertext description of the models, and so on; maximal visualization of input data, dynamics of studied processes and final results by means of real three-dimensional images, plots, tables and formulas and a three-dimensional animation. All the codes are composed as the real Windows applications and work under Windows 95/NT

  3. Nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons on a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Khaydarov, A.; Barsukova, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons and of the detection possibility of the various chemical elements with the use of these secondary nucleus reactions were investigated. The recoil protons are produced on a nuclear reactor in the result of (n, p) inelastic and elastic scattering interaction of fast neutrons with nuclei of hydrogen. It is well known that the share of fast neutrons in energetic spectrum of reactor's neutrons in comparison with the share of thermal neutrons is small. . Consequently, the share of recoil protons produced in the result of fast neutron interaction with nuclei of light elements, capable to cause the nuclear reactions, is also small, des, due to Coulomb barrier of nuclei the recoil protons can cause the nuclear reactions only on nuclei of light and some middle elements. Our studies show that observable yields have radio nuclides excited in the result of nuclear reactions on Li, B, O, V and Cu. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proton activation analysis based on the application of secondary nuclear reactions is useful technique to determine large contents of various light and medium chemical elements. Detection limits for studied chemical elements are estimated better than 10 ppm

  4. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific activity of our department is traditionally focused on nuclear physics, atomic physics and material research. Our interest in nuclear physics is broad, ranging from the structure of a nucleon to the structure of the nucleus. The spin structure of a nucleon has been investigated within the HERMES Collaboration which comprises 32 institutions from 11 countries. The collaboration performs experiments at Deutches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg. Another large-scale international collaboration we are participating in is PANDA. The PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will be installed at the High Energy Storage Ring for antiprotons of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. Our colleagues, led by Dr. B. Zwieglinski, have been working on the concept of a calorimeter, testing different scintillators. Many experiments in low energy nuclear physics were performed in collaboration with University of Jyvaeskylae, the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Ukrainian Academy of Science and Heavy Ion Laboratory of the Warsaw University. They were devoted to studying nucleus-nucleus interactions near the Coulomb barrier. This year, atomic studies focused on the L-shell ionisation of some heavy elements by silicon ions accelerated to the energy of 8.5-36 MeV. The results are presented in this report and are compared to different model calculations. Finally, I take great pleasure in congratulating Dr. L. Nowicki, whose study of uranium oxide structure, performed in collaboration with Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse in Orsay, was chosen as an important scientific achievement of our Institute in 2006. Apart from purely scientific activities, a few of our colleagues have been involved in education, giving lectures to students from high schools in Warsaw and Warsaw University. R. Ratajczak contributed to the 10 th Science Festival, an event organized for the general public every year

  5. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  6. Progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for the years 2000-2001. The paper comprises the following topics: Budget and staff summary, nuclear data compilations, nuclear data services, development of new generation databases, the network co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centres and of the nuclear structure and decay data evaluators. (a.n.)

  7. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the Department held a steady course. Topics of nuclear physics, atomic physics and materials research that started in previous years were continued. Although our team was smaller than years ago, the scientific activity, estimated by number of published papers is still very high. Scientists of the Department are co-authors or authors of more than 50 papers. Nuclear physics, which is our main-stream activity, covered a wide energy range. It started close to the Coulomb barrier, where 6 He breakup on heavy nuclei were studied, and ended at zones of tens of GeV; such high energies were used to investigate spin structure of deuterons and to explore hadron leptoproduction. Traditionally, experimental investigations in the fields of atomic physics and of physics of materials completed the scene. Our old Van de Graaff accelerator Lech was used for studies of M-shell ionisation of heavy elements, for hardening of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene and for characterisation of materials with RBS and NRA techniques. The VdG runs perfectly although it is over 40 years old. Two Ph.D. students finished their theses and were promoted. Izabela Fijal's work concerned multi-ionization and intrashell coupling effects for L-shell x-ray emission induced by heavy ions, while Sergiy Mezhevych showed studies on scattering of 11 B from carbon isotopes. It is obvious that contemporary works on physics do not arise in a single lab. Our contributions to many papers were possible due owing to collaborations involving many institutions. Some of them are listed: GSI, Darmstadt (PANDA Collaboration) DESY, Hamburg (HERMES Collaboration) Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich Forschungszentrum Rossendorf CSNSM, Orsay GANIL, Caen University of Huelva Institute of Nuclear Research, Kiev SLCJ, Warsaw ITME, Warsaw Some of our colleagues traditionally gave lectures and made physical demonstrations on Warsaw informal learning events: 9 th Science Picnic and 9 th Science Festival

  8. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    This Progress Report describes the work of the Brown University Nuclear Theory Group for the period 1 August 1988--31 July 1989 under Grant FG02-87ER40334. Completed and on-going research includes various theoretical and numerical studies on: virtual photons, electric polarizability, the Cabibo-Radicati sum rule, photon scattering, electron scattering, electron scattering sum rules, muon catalyzed fusion, few body collisions and breakup phenomena. Since it accompanies the three-year Renewal Proposal of the Group, it goes into more detail than our typical one-year reports

  9. The first nuclear chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The author offers his recollections of the experimental efforts beginning in 1939 which culminated in the Chain Reaction in the squash court on December 2, 1942. Recalled are Columbia University experiments which did much to establish the feasibility of the chain in natural uranium and which stimulated the creation of the Manhattan District. The Columbia group moved to the University of Chicago, where, in early summer of 1942, construction and analysis of a number of subcritical reactors (piles) gave assurance with a high probability that only a reasonable amount of uranium and moderator would be required

  10. Neutron and gamma-ray emission double differential cross sections for the nuclear reaction by 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji; Shigyo, Nobuhiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray production double differential cross sections were measured for iron by the use of 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} mesons. The measured cross sections were compared with the calculated values by HETC-KFA2. For the neutrons, the calculated results deviate from the experimental data in the neutron energy region below 30 MeV. The calculated values of gamma-ray production agree with the experimental data at gamma-ray energies from 1 to 7 MeV within a factor of three. (author)

  11. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    The main theme of this report is the study and interpretation of the sequence of events that occur during the collisions of nuclear particles. Some of the processes discussed in parts A and B involve short range interactions; others involve interactions of long range. In most of part A one of the particles in the initial or in the final state (or in both) is a photon, which serves as a probe of the second particle, which may be a nucleus, a proton, a pion or any other hadron. The complexity of the processes taking place during the collisions makes it necessary to simplify some aspects of the physical problem. This leads to the introduction of modals which are used to describe a limited number of features in as much detail as possible. The main interest is the understanding of the hadronic excitations which result from the absorption of a photon and the determination of the fundamental structure constants of the target particle. In part B, all the particles are hadrons. The purpose here is to develop and apply optimal quantal methods appropriate for describing the interacting systems. Of particular interest are three-particle collision systems in which the final state consists of three free particles. Part B also considers the process of nuclear fusion as catalyzed by bound muons

  12. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Our activity in 2008 has focused on well-established domains of research: nuclear and atomic physics, and applications. · As far as nuclear physics is concerned; our interests are very broad, ranging from the structure of the nucleon to the structure of the nucleus including high-energy multifragmentation studies. Our colleagues led by Prof. Pawel Zupranski, members of the HERMES collaboration that comprises 32 institutions from eleven countries at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, worked last year on the extraction of Spin Density Matrix Elements of vector mesons from scattering experiments on hydrogen targets. They also studied the distribution of quarks and gluons in nucleon. A team led by Prof. B. Zwieglinski was involved in the large-scale international collaboration PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). They studied the response of cooled PWO scintillators irradiated by gammas in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. The gammas were produced radiative proton capture on light by nuclei using a proton beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator of our Department. As a result, an important extrapolation of measurements performed by another group of physicists at much higher γ-ray energies was obtained. Low energy nuclear physics experiments were continued at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University in collaboration with foreign institutions: the University of Jyvaeskylae, the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Ukrainian Academy of Science and the Institute de Recherches Subatomique in Strasbourg. At high energies, a study of the isospin - dependence of the caloric curve was performed by the ALADIN Collaboration in a series of experiments at GSI - Darmstadt using radioactive beams of Sn and La. It was found that the asymmetry due to isospin is very weak. · Atomic physics studies were devoted to ionisation of heavy atoms by oxygen ions from the tandem accelerator of Erlangen-Nuernberg University. X-rays generated in the

  13. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusek, K [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Our activity in 2008 has focused on well-established domains of research: nuclear and atomic physics, and applications. {center_dot} As far as nuclear physics is concerned; our interests are very broad, ranging from the structure of the nucleon to the structure of the nucleus including high-energy multifragmentation studies. Our colleagues led by Prof. Pawel Zupranski, members of the HERMES collaboration that comprises 32 institutions from eleven countries at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, worked last year on the extraction of Spin Density Matrix Elements of vector mesons from scattering experiments on hydrogen targets. They also studied the distribution of quarks and gluons in nucleon. A team led by Prof. B. Zwieglinski was involved in the large-scale international collaboration PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). They studied the response of cooled PWO scintillators irradiated by gammas in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. The gammas were produced radiative proton capture on light by nuclei using a proton beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator of our Department. As a result, an important extrapolation of measurements performed by another group of physicists at much higher {gamma}-ray energies was obtained. Low energy nuclear physics experiments were continued at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University in collaboration with foreign institutions: the University of Jyvaeskylae, the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Ukrainian Academy of Science and the Institute de Recherches Subatomique in Strasbourg. At high energies, a study of the isospin - dependence of the caloric curve was performed by the ALADIN Collaboration in a series of experiments at GSI - Darmstadt using radioactive beams of Sn and La. It was found that the asymmetry due to isospin is very weak. {center_dot} Atomic physics studies were devoted to ionisation of heavy atoms by oxygen ions from the tandem accelerator of Erlangen-Nuernberg University. X

  14. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2005-01-01

    The review of possible stimulation mechanisms of LENR (low energy nuclear reaction) is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - the universal resonance synchronization principle [1] and based on its different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes [2]. The excitation and ionization of atoms may play role as a trigger for LENR. Superlow energy o...

  15. Is the relativistic approach really useful to nuclear reactions?

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K

    2003-01-01

    We have reconsidered the non-relativistic distorted-wave t-matrix approximation (NR-DWTA) for proton knockout (p,2p) reaction using modern high-quality phenomenological optical potentials and NN t-matrix. We have calculated 40Ca(p,2p) reactions at T_LAB=200MeV and compared the results with the relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation (RDWIA) calculations. It is found that the NR-DWTA is superior to the RDWIA in consistent description of the cross section and the analyzing power. An immediate relativistic extension of the DWIA to the nuclear reaction has a problem.

  16. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  17. Experimental (Network) and Evaluated Nuclear Reaction Data at NDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, N.; Semkova, V.; Simakov, S.P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Dr Simakov of Nuclear Data Services Unit in the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) gave a brief overview of the data compilation and evaluation activities in the nuclear data community: experimental nuclear reaction data (EXFOR, http://www-nds.iaea.org/exfor/) and evaluated nuclear reaction data (ENDF, http://www-nds.iaea.org/endf). The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) coordinated by NDS includes 14 Centres in 8 Countries (China, Hungary, India, Japan, Korea, Russian, Ukraine, USA) and 2 International Organizations (NEA, IAEA). It had the first meeting of four core centres (Brookhaven, Saclay, Obninsk, Vienna) in 1966 and the EXFOR was adopted as an official data exchange format. In 2000, IAEA implemented the EXFOR database as a relational multiform database and the EXFOR is a trusted, increasing and living database with 19100 experimental works (as of September 2011) and 141600 data tables. The EXFOR provides a compilation control system for selection of articles and compilation of data and the NRDC home page provides manuals, documents and codes. The nuclear data can be retrieved by the web-retrieval system or distributed on a DVD on request. The EXFOR data play a critical role in the development of evaluated nuclear reaction data. There are several major general purpose libraries: ENDF (US), CENDL (China), JEFF (EU), JENDL (Japan) and RUSFOND (Russia). In addition, there are special libraries for particular applications: EAF (European Activation File), FENDL (Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for ITER neutronics), IBANDL (Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library for surface analysis of solids), IRDF, DXS (Dosimetry, radiation damage and gas production data) and Medical portal. Dr V. Zerkin of NDS demonstrated the data retrieval from the EXFOR database and the ENDF library.

  18. Experimental (Network) and Evaluated Nuclear Reaction Data at NDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, N; Semkova, V; Simakov, S P; Zerkin, V [Nuclear Data Services Unit, Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    Dr Simakov of Nuclear Data Services Unit in the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) gave a brief overview of the data compilation and evaluation activities in the nuclear data community: experimental nuclear reaction data (EXFOR, http://www-nds.iaea.org/exfor/) and evaluated nuclear reaction data (ENDF, http://www-nds.iaea.org/endf). The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) coordinated by NDS includes 14 Centres in 8 Countries (China, Hungary, India, Japan, Korea, Russian, Ukraine, USA) and 2 International Organizations (NEA, IAEA). It had the first meeting of four core centres (Brookhaven, Saclay, Obninsk, Vienna) in 1966 and the EXFOR was adopted as an official data exchange format. In 2000, IAEA implemented the EXFOR database as a relational multiform database and the EXFOR is a trusted, increasing and living database with 19100 experimental works (as of September 2011) and 141600 data tables. The EXFOR provides a compilation control system for selection of articles and compilation of data and the NRDC home page provides manuals, documents and codes. The nuclear data can be retrieved by the web-retrieval system or distributed on a DVD on request. The EXFOR data play a critical role in the development of evaluated nuclear reaction data. There are several major general purpose libraries: ENDF (US), CENDL (China), JEFF (EU), JENDL (Japan) and RUSFOND (Russia). In addition, there are special libraries for particular applications: EAF (European Activation File), FENDL (Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for ITER neutronics), IBANDL (Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library for surface analysis of solids), IRDF, DXS (Dosimetry, radiation damage and gas production data) and Medical portal. Dr V. Zerkin of NDS demonstrated the data retrieval from the EXFOR database and the ENDF library.

  19. Nuclear fission: reaction to the discovery in 1939

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badash, L.; Hodes, E.; Tiddens, A.

    1985-01-01

    Historical aspects of the behavior of scientists in the aftermath of the discovery of nuclear fission are presented. An extensive background section is given which documents the worldwide discussion of atomic energy over the preceding four decades. A second section briefly surveys the research highlights of 1939. The third section examines the reactions of scientists, primarily in the United States, and includes coverage by newspapers, magazines and radio. The final section includes a number of themes to explain why there was little acknowledgment of the potential of the bomb to affect personal morality, the scientific community and international relations

  20. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  1. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  2. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e + e - problem and heavy ion dynamics

  3. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams; Medicion de secciones eficaces nucleares usando haces radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a {sup 6} He nuclear radioactive beam ({beta} emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction {sup 6} + {sup 209} Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  4. Investigation of activation cross section data of alpha particle induced nuclear reaction on molybdenum up to 40 MeV: Review of production routes of medically relevant {sup 97,103}Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The main goals of this investigations were to expand and consolidate reliable activation cross-section data for the {sup nat}Mo(α,x) reactions in connection with production of medically relevant {sup 97,103}Ru and the use of the {sup nat}Mo(α,x){sup 97}Ru reaction for monitoring beam parameters. The excitation functions for formation of the gamma-emitting radionuclides {sup 94}Ru, {sup 95}Ru, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 93m}Tc, {sup 93g}Tc(m+), {sup 94m}Tc, {sup 94g}Tc, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 95g}Tc, {sup 96g}Tc(m+), {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 93m}Mo, {sup 99}Mo(cum), {sup 90}Nb(m+) and {sup 88}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha-particle energy by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. Data of our earlier similar experiments were re-evaluated and resulted in corrections on the reported results. Our experimental data were compared with critically analyzed literature data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE 3.1 (Rivoli) and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011 and TENDL-2015 on-line libraries). Nuclear data for different production routes of {sup 97}Ru and {sup 103}Ru are compiled and reviewed.

  5. Theoretical studies in nuclear reaction and nuclear structure. Final report, January 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    Progress in theoretical research is reported under the following readings: (1) few nuclear reactions, Eikonal approximations, and optical models; (2) pion reactions; (3) nuclear structure by reaction studies; (4) nuclear dynamics

  6. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, C.T. de

    1959-01-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [fr

  7. Statistical theory of neutron-nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    In addition to the topics dealt with by the author in his lectures at the Joint IAEA/ICTP Course held at Trieste in 1978, recent developments in the statistical theory of multistep reactions are reviewed as well as the transport theory and intranuclear cascade approaches to the description of nuclear multi-step processes. (author)

  8. The role of nuclear reaction theory and data in nuclear energy and safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear data requirements for nuclear fission reactor design and safety computations are so large that they cannot be satisfied by experimental measurements alone. Nuclear reaction theories and models have recently been developed and refined to the extent, that, with suitable parametrisation and fitting to accurately known experimental data, they can be used for filling gaps in the available experimental nuclear data base as well as for bulk computations of nuclear reaction, e.g. activation cross sections. The concurrent rapid development of ever more powerful mainframe and personal computers has stimulated the development of comprehensive nuclear model computer codes. A representative selection of such codes will be presented in the lectures and computer exercises of this Workshop. In order to fulfill nuclear data requirements of the nineties and, at the same time, develop improved tools for nuclear physics teaching at developing country universities it will be required and a major future task of the IAEA nuclear data programme to develop computer files of ''best'' sets of nuclear parameters for standardised input to nuclear model computations of nuclear data. Nuclear scientists from developing countries can make substantial contributions to this project. (author). 25 refs

  9. Table of nuclear reactions and subsequent radioactive dacays induced by 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Kineo

    1977-09-01

    Compilation of the data on nuclear reactions and subsequent radioactive decays induced by 14-MeV neutrons is presented in tabular form for most of the isotopes available in nature and for some of the artificially-produced isotopes, including the following items: Nuclide (isotopic abundance), type of nuclear reaction, reaction Q-value, reaction product, type of decay, decay Q-value, half-life of reaction product, decay product, maximum reaction cross section, neutron energy for maximum cross section, reaction cross section for 14 MeV neutrons, saturated radioactivity induced by irradiation of a neutron flux of 1 n/cm 2 sec for a mol of atoms, and reference for the cross section. The mass number dependence of (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), (n, d), (n, t), (n, 3 He) and (n, α) reaction cross sections for 14-MeV neutrons is given in figures to show general trends of the cross sections

  10. Manual on usage of the Nuclear Reaction Data File (NRDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In the computer in the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, there is set up a Nuclear Reaction Data File (NRDF) which has been built in Hokkaido University. While the data base is growing year after year, its trial usage is for the purpose of joint utilization by educational institutions. In section 1, examples of the retrieval are presented to have the user familiarize with NRDF. In section 2, the terms used in retrieval are given in table. Then, in section 3, as a summary of the examples, structure of the retrieval commands is explained. In section 4, for the retrieval results on a CRT, cautions in reading are given. Finally, in section 5, general cautions in usage of NRDF are given. (Mori, K.)

  11. Neutron-induced capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Meot, V.; Bail, A.; Bauge, E.; Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Gaudefroy, L.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Theroine, C.; Burke, J.T.; Companis, I.; Derkx, X.; Gunsing, F.; Matea, I.; Tassan-Got, L.; Porquet, M.G.; Serot, O.

    2011-01-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique enables neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for nuclear reactions on short-lived unstable nuclei that otherwise can not be measured. This technique has been successfully applied to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of several short-lived nuclei. In this work, we investigate whether this powerful technique can also be used to determine of neutron-induced capture cross sections. For this purpose we use the surrogate reaction 174 Yb( 3 He, pγ) 176 Lu to infer the well known 175 Lu(n, γ) cross section and compare the results with the directly measured neutron-induced data. This surrogate experiment has been performed in March 2010. The experimental technique used and the first preliminary results will be presented. (authors)

  12. Improved predictions of nuclear reaction rates for astrophysics applications with the TALYS reaction code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reaction rates for astrophysics applications are traditionally determined on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach reaction codes, like MOST. These codes use simplified schemes to calculate the capture reaction cross section on a given target nucleus, not only in its ground state but also on the different thermally populated states of the stellar plasma at a given temperature. Such schemes include a number of approximations that have never been tested, such as an approximate width fluctuation correction, the neglect of delayed particle emission during the electromagnetic decay cascade or the absence of the pre-equilibrium contribution at increasing incident energies. New developments have been brought to the reaction code TALYS to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates of astrophysics relevance. These new developments give us the possibility to calculate with an improved accuracy the reaction cross sections and the corresponding astrophysics rates. The TALYS predictions for the thermonuclear rates of astrophysics relevance are presented and compared with those obtained with the MOST code on the basis of the same nuclear ingredients for nuclear structure properties, optical model potential, nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength. It is shown that, in particular, the pre-equilibrium process significantly influences the astrophysics rates of exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The reciprocity theorem traditionally used in astrophysics to determine photo-rates is also shown no to be valid for exotic nuclei. The predictions obtained with different nuclear inputs are also analyzed to provide an estimate of the theoretical uncertainties still affecting the reaction rate prediction far away from the experimentally known regions. (authors)

  13. SkyNet: Modular nuclear reaction network library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-10-01

    The general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. Any list of isotopes can be evolved and SkyNet supports various different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular, permitting new or existing physics, such as nuclear reactions or equations of state, to be easily added or modified.

  14. Nuclear reaction studies using inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reaction studies with reversed kinematics refer to studies of nuclear reactions induced by a heavy projectile colliding with lighter target nuclei. The technique of using reversed kinematics is costly in terms of the available center-of-mass energy. Most of the projectile's energy goes into forward motion of the reaction products in the laboratory system. Examples are presented where the use of reversed kinematics techniques has provided new information on certain reaction processes. A list of kinematic properties and advantages they may afford is shown. Clearly the possible studies listed can be done without using reversed kinematics but because of the difficulty associated with some of these studies they were never performed until more energetic heavier beams have become available and the reversed kinematics technique was utilized

  15. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.

    2005-03-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross sections for five different sizes of the solid angles in steps from 99.1 to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  16. New methods in nuclear reaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redish, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Standard nuclear reaction methods are limited to treating problems that generalize two-body scattering. These are problems with only one continuous (vector) degree of freedom (CDOF). The difficulty in extending these methods to cases with two or more CDOFs is not just the additional numerical complexity: the mathematical problem is usually not well-posed. It is hard to guarantee that the proper boundary conditions (BCs) are satisfied. Since this is not generally known, the discussion is begun by considering the physics of this problem in the context of coupled-channel calculations. In practice, the difficulties are usually swept under the rug by the use of a highly developed phenomenology (or worse, by the failure to test a calculation for convergence). This approach limits the kind of reactions that can be handled to ones occurring on the surface of where a second CDOF can be treated perturbatively. In the past twenty years, the work of Faddeev, the quantum three-body problem has been solved. Many techniques (and codes) are now available for solving problems with two CDOFs. A method for using these techniques in the nuclear N-body problem is presented. A set of well-posed (connected kernal) equations for physical scattering operators is taken. Then it is shown how approximation schemes can be developed for a wide range of reaction mechanisms. The resulting general framework for a reaction theory can be applied to a number of nuclear problems. One result is a rigorous treatment of multistep transfer reactions with the possibility of systematically generating corrections. The application of the method to resonance reactions and knock-out is discussed. 12 figures

  17. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  18. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Reaction Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-22

    In the intense neutron flux of a nuclear explosion the production of isotopes may occur through successive neutron induced reactions. The pathway to these isotopes illustrates both the complexity of the problem and the need for high quality nuclear data. The growth and decay of radioactive isotopes can follow a similarly complex network. The Bateman equation will be described and modified to apply to the transmutation of isotopes in a high flux reactor. A alternative model of growth and decay, the GD code, that can be applied to fission products will also be described.

  19. Multiple scattering in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekou, A.

    1980-09-01

    It is shown that the multiple scattering mechanism is very important in the transfer of the large momenta involved in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy. In contrast to the usual belief, the reaction cross-section is not very sensitive to the high momenta components of the nuclear wave function. The multiple scattering mechanism is especially important in 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction around 800 MeV. Here the collisions involving two nucleons of the target nucleus are dominant. The triple collisions contribution is also important. The four collision contribution is negligible in the forward direction and sizeable at large angles. Thus, using the K.M.T. approach in DWBA calculations, the second order term of the optical potential must be included. So, is it not well established that the second term of the K.M.T. optical potential is important for the proton elastic scattering on light nuclei. (author)

  20. Novel Role of Superfluidity in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierski, Piotr; Sekizawa, Kazuyuki; Wlazłowski, Gabriel

    2017-07-28

    We demonstrate, within symmetry unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, the existence of new effects in low-energy nuclear reactions which originate from superfluidity. The dynamics of the pairing field induces solitonic excitations in the colliding nuclear systems, leading to qualitative changes in the reaction dynamics. The solitonic excitation prevents collective energy dissipation and effectively suppresses the fusion cross section. We demonstrate how the variations of the total kinetic energy of the fragments can be traced back to the energy stored in the superfluid junction of colliding nuclei. Both contact time and scattering angle in noncentral collisions are significantly affected. The modification of the fusion cross section and possibilities for its experimental detection are discussed.

  1. Low energy nuclear reaction polyplasmon postulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, John L. [201 Heritage Drive, Apt. 208, Canton, GA 30093 (United States)], E-mail: RUSSELLJL@aol.com

    2008-11-15

    An explanation is proposed for the nuclear reactions that occur in the electrolysis class of LENR processes. The proposed explanation postulates that a proton, or deuteron, dissolved in the hydrogen bearing metal cathode, absorbs its associated atomic electron to become a short lived state of the neutron with the resulting neutrino in a singular wave function centered on the neutron. The energy required to initiate this endothermic reaction is supplied either by the ion current during electrolysis type experiments, or by ion bombardment in plasma type experiments. It is the energy of this bombardment of the cathode with heavy ions that creates a coherent polyplasmon field within crystalline metallic grains that are present in the metal cathode of typical active electrolysis cells. The LENR process consists of a second order reaction mediated by a coherent plasmon field excited in the conduction electrons in a hydrogen bearing metal that is in the form of crystalline grains of the order of a few microns in dimension. The coherent plasmon field in each grain is called a polyplasmon. The metallic grains typically form during solidification of a metal, the impurities being forced to the grain surfaces. The resulting grain thus forms a resonant structure that can be filled with a number of coherent plasmons, i.e., a polyplasmon. Energy from the polyplasmon is coupled to the nucleus via electron capture by hydrogen. Because the neutrino has mass, its wave function has a second class of solutions. This description can take the form of a short lived pairing with the neutron that results from electron capture by the hydrogen nucleus. This short-lived compound particle is named the 'dion' and in the case of deuterium results in a 'dineutron'. Because the dion and dineutron are formed with essentially thermal kinetic energy, they can capture in nearby nuclei, either in hydrogen or in the host metal. Most of the resulting exothermic nuclear energy is

  2. Low energy nuclear reaction polyplasmon postulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, John L.

    2008-01-01

    An explanation is proposed for the nuclear reactions that occur in the electrolysis class of LENR processes. The proposed explanation postulates that a proton, or deuteron, dissolved in the hydrogen bearing metal cathode, absorbs its associated atomic electron to become a short lived state of the neutron with the resulting neutrino in a singular wave function centered on the neutron. The energy required to initiate this endothermic reaction is supplied either by the ion current during electrolysis type experiments, or by ion bombardment in plasma type experiments. It is the energy of this bombardment of the cathode with heavy ions that creates a coherent polyplasmon field within crystalline metallic grains that are present in the metal cathode of typical active electrolysis cells. The LENR process consists of a second order reaction mediated by a coherent plasmon field excited in the conduction electrons in a hydrogen bearing metal that is in the form of crystalline grains of the order of a few microns in dimension. The coherent plasmon field in each grain is called a polyplasmon. The metallic grains typically form during solidification of a metal, the impurities being forced to the grain surfaces. The resulting grain thus forms a resonant structure that can be filled with a number of coherent plasmons, i.e., a polyplasmon. Energy from the polyplasmon is coupled to the nucleus via electron capture by hydrogen. Because the neutrino has mass, its wave function has a second class of solutions. This description can take the form of a short lived pairing with the neutron that results from electron capture by the hydrogen nucleus. This short-lived compound particle is named the 'dion' and in the case of deuterium results in a 'dineutron'. Because the dion and dineutron are formed with essentially thermal kinetic energy, they can capture in nearby nuclei, either in hydrogen or in the host metal. Most of the resulting exothermic nuclear energy is absorbed in the plasmon

  3. Measurement of the effective thermal cross section of {sup 134}Cs by triple neutron capture reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}) of the {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs reaction was measured by the activation method and the {gamma}-ray spectroscopic method in order to obtain fundamental data for research on the transmutation of nuclear wastes. The effective thermal cross section of the reaction {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs was found to be 140.6{+-}8.5 barns. (author)

  4. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using hyperons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotanch, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report details research progress and results obtained during the 12 month period from January 1991 through 31 December 1991. The research project, entitled ''Theoretical Nuclear Reaction and Structure Studies Using Hyperons and Photons,'' is supported by grant DE-FG05-88ER40461 between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Energy. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator, Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, has conducted a research program addressing theoretical investigations of reactions involving hyperons and photons. The new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following sections

  5. Puzzle of the folding potential on the nuclear halo reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Atef; Lee, Yen Cheong; Mahmoud, Z.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Folding potentials of the elastic scattering drip-line nuclei at various incident energies is one method to study nuclear matter density distributions and nuclear radii. The nuclei with density distributions consisting of a bulk (core) and an outer layer (halo), dilute and spatially extended are called the halo nuclei caused for the weak particle binding. Several halo nuclei are studied and many potential candidates are identified. All the cross-sections of the elastic scattering for the drip-line nuclei 11 Be and 6 He, are calculated to understand the exotic properties of these nuclei starting from its structure, extended radius, nuclear size till the large total reaction cross-sections for these nuclei when it interacts with a stable target 12 C. (author)

  6. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of 16 O(e,e'p), 12 C(e,e'pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in 12 C(e,e'p 0 ) and 16 O(e,e'p 0 ), comparison of the 12 C(e, e'p 0 ) and 16 O(e,e'p 3 ) reactions, quadrupole strength in the 16 O(e,e'α 0 ) reaction, quadrupole strength in the 12 C(e,e'α) reaction, analysis of the 12 C(e,e'p 1 ) and 16 O(e,e'p 3 ) angular distributions, analysis of the 40 Ca(e,e'x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q 12 C(e,e'x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments)

  7. NMTC/JAM, Simulates High Energy Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear-Meson Transport Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furihata, Shiori

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code system NMTC/JAERI97. NMTC/JAERI97 simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nucleon-meson transport processes. It implements an intra-nuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the pre-equilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the secondary particle transport in the intermediate energy region from 20 MeV to 3.5 GeV by the use of the Monte Carlo technique. The code has been employed in combination with the neutron-photon transport codes available to the energy region below 20 MeV for neutronics calculation of accelerator-based subcritical reactors, analyses of thick target spallation experimented and so on. 2 - Methods: High energy nuclear reactions induced by incident high energy protons, neutrons and pions are simulated with the Monte Carlo Method by the intra-nuclear nucleon-nucleon reaction probabilities based on an intra-nuclear nucleon cascade model followed by the particle evaporation including high energy fission process. Jet-Aa Microscopic transport model (JAM) is employed to simulate high energy nuclear reactions in the energy range of GeV. All reaction channels are taken into account in the JAM calculation. An intra-nuclear cascade model (ISOBAR code) taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects

  8. Results of the Nonelastic Reaction Code Brieff for Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent changes in our nonelastic reaction code BRIEFF and especially in the fast stage of reaction described by the intranuclear cascade (INC) code BRIC. Distributions and excitation functions of residual nuclei production cross sections are shown for proton-induced reaction on target nuclei. Slight improvements are seen in the proton-induced reaction on light nuclei with a closed shell when the energy levels are taken into account in the INC stage. On the other hand, fission gives poor results in the current version. To compare to other nuclear models and LA150 libraries, BRIEFF has been incorporated into MCNPX 2.5.0. Examples of neutron production from thick target irradiation by proton beams between 30 and 350 MeV are presented. Except for some discrepancies, a good agreement with data is obtained on average. (authors)

  9. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The experimental activities in nuclear physics have in 1988 mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. The CACTUS multidetector system has been realised and will soon be operating. With 8 particle telescopes, 28 NaI detectors and 2 Ge detectors this experimental arrangement represents a major improvement compared to earlier set-ups in the laboratory. Theoretical studies of many-body problems, nuclear structure and reactions have continued. The study of problems related to the foundations of quantum mechanics has also been persued

  10. Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG), Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we review the activities of Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG) since the last NRDC meeting in 2011. Our main objectives are as follows: a) Compilation of nuclear reaction data for two databases, NRDF and EXFOR b) Evaluation of astrophysical nuclear reaction data c) Development of software and systems d) Development of collaboration among Asian countries. (author)

  11. Hauser*5, a computer code to calculate nuclear cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1979-07-01

    HAUSER*5 is a computer code that uses the statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) model, the pre-equilibrium model, and a statistical model of direct reactions to predict nuclear cross sections. The code is unrestricted as to particle type, includes fission and capture, makes width-fluctuation corrections, and performs three-body calculations - all in minimum computer time. Transmission coefficients can be generated internally or supplied externally. This report describes equations used, necessary input, and resulting output. 2 figures, 4 tables

  12. Nuclear reactions: Science and trans-science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a collection of essays written by Weinberg over the span of his scientific and administrative career. A sound theorist, he was introduced to nuclear physics as part of the Manhattan project, and assumed administrative responsibilities during that project. His career has allowed him to make valuable contributions in a broad range of fields. These essays touch on topics of interest to him, concern to the country, and of profound import for society as it exists today. They are grouped into five sections: science and trans-science; scientific administration; strategic defense and arms control; time, energy and resources; nuclear energy

  13. Images of mycobacterium for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.T.S.; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis is responsible for 2.9 million deaths annually worldwide. The necessity for optimizing time to detect the tuberculosis bacillus (mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the sputum samples of affected individuals (TB patients) led to the development of a methodology based on the doping with boron of the bacillus, submission of the samples to thermal neutron beam and ionizing particles, generating nuclear reactions of the types: 10 B (n,α) 7 Li and 10 B(α, p) 13 C. Images of these bacilli are obtained by means of the nuclear tracks produced in the CR-39 detector for particles products of these nuclear reactions, α and p. When the CR-39 is submitted to a chemical attack the traces are developed and the images of the microorganisms registered in the detector can be observed with a conventional light microscope, characterizing them by morphology. The use of this methodology results in images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis becoming more defined and enlarged than those obtained by bacilloscopy, in which the sample is submitted to the method of coloration of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and observed in light microscopy. (author)

  14. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA nuclear data section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-11-01

    This document lists more than 100 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. The data libraries include neutron cross-sections, resonance parameters, fission-product yields, nuclear structure and decay data, gamma-rays from radionuclides, data of nuclear reactions induced by charged particles or heavy ions, photonuclear data, photoatomic interaction data, and many others, partly with related data processing computer codes. All data and documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge on magnetic tape, PC diskettes, or online through www or INTERNET: either menu driven within the Nuclear Data Information System (NDIS), or through FTP file transfer. (author)

  15. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document lists more than 100 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. The data libraries include neutron cross-sections, resonance parameters, fission-product yields, nuclear structure and decay data, gamma-rays from radionuclides, data of nuclear reactions induced by charged particles or heavy ions, photonuclear data, photoatomic interaction data, and many others, partly with related data processing computer codes. All data documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge on magnetic tape, PC diskettes, or online through the INTERNET computer network: either menu driven within the Nuclear Data Information System (NDIS), or through FTP file transfer. (author)

  16. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schwerer, O.

    1997-01-01

    This document lists more than 100 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. The data libraries include neutron cross-sections, resonance parameters, fission-product yields, nuclear structure and decay data, gamma-rays from radionuclides, data of nuclear reactions induced by charged particles or heavy ions, photonuclear data, photoatomic interaction data, and many others, partly with related data processing computer codes. All data and documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge on magnetic tape, PC diskettes, CD-ROM or online through WWW, Telnet (menu driven within the Nuclear Data Information System NDIS), or through FTP file transfer. (author)

  17. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document lists more than 100 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. The data libraries include neutron cross-sections, resonance parameters, fission-product yields, nuclear structure and decay data, gamma-rays from radionuclides, data of nuclear reactions induced by charged particles or heavy ions, photonuclear data, photoatomic interaction data, and many others, partly with related data processing computer codes. All data and documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge on magnetic tape, PC diskettes, or online through the INTERNET computer network: either menu driven within the Nuclear Data Information System (NDIS), or through FTP file transfer. (author)

  18. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  19. EMPIRE-II statistical model code for nuclear reaction calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-12-15

    EMPIRE II is a nuclear reaction code, comprising various nuclear models, and designed for calculations in the broad range of energies and incident particles. A projectile can be any nucleon or Heavy Ion. The energy range starts just above the resonance region, in the case of neutron projectile, and extends up to few hundreds of MeV for Heavy Ion induced reactions. The code accounts for the major nuclear reaction mechanisms, such as optical model (SCATB), Multistep Direct (ORION + TRISTAN), NVWY Multistep Compound, and the full featured Hauser-Feshbach model. Heavy Ion fusion cross section can be calculated within the simplified coupled channels approach (CCFUS). A comprehensive library of input parameters covers nuclear masses, optical model parameters, ground state deformations, discrete levels and decay schemes, level densities, fission barriers (BARFIT), moments of inertia (MOMFIT), and {gamma}-ray strength functions. Effects of the dynamic deformation of a fast rotating nucleus can be taken into account in the calculations. The results can be converted into the ENDF-VI format using the accompanying code EMPEND. The package contains the full EXFOR library of experimental data. Relevant EXFOR entries are automatically retrieved during the calculations. Plots comparing experimental results with the calculated ones can be produced using X4TOC4 and PLOTC4 codes linked to the rest of the system through bash-shell (UNIX) scripts. The graphic user interface written in Tcl/Tk is provided. (author)

  20. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  1. Kinematical program package for nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Nengxiong; Xie Ying

    1988-01-01

    A FORTRAN package is designed to provide users as many conveniences as possible. Besides adopting man-machine interaction mode and setting nuclide mass file, there are still some other features which are, for examples, the functions of offering the initial values for some transcendental equations and evaluating all the kinematic variables in nuclear reactions at low energies of the form of T (p,1)2, T (p,12)3 and T (p,12)34. All these make the users much easier to use the package

  2. Transport description of damped nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1983-04-01

    Part I is an elementary introduction to the general transport theory of nuclear dynamics. It can be read without any special knowledge of the field, although basic quantum mechanics is required for the formal derivation of the general expression for the transport coefficients. The results can also be used in a wider context than the present one. Part II gives the student an up-to-date orientation about recent progress in the understanding of the angular-momentum variables in damped reactions. The emphasis is here on the qualitative understanding of the physics rather than the, at times somewhat tedious, formal derivations

  3. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.; Arendse, G.J.; Auce, A.; Cox, A.J.; Foertsch, S.V.; Jacobs, N.M.; Johansson, R.; Nyberg, J.; Peavy, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Sundberg, O.; Stander, J.A.; Steyn, G.F.; Tibell, G.; Zorro, R.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  4. Nuclear reaction data for IBA applications to cultural heritage diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maino, G.; Menapace, E.

    2008-01-01

    Main aspects are discussed concerning nuclear reaction cross-sections for PIXE and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission) analyses, especially referring to cultural heritage diagnostics, within the framework of ion beam analysis (IBA) methods, also reviewing recent results from international Conferences on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology and from NEANSC meetings and IAEA initiatives on the matter.To sum up this work, it is then worth remarking the following items: IBA techniques are powerful tools to derive unique information as for corrosion, degradation and, generally, conservation conditions of materials. Careful analyses of specific systems require accurate evaluations and establishment of complete databases, in particular for stopping powers and relevant cross sections. The physical parameters to be accurately determined are, therefore, nuclear reaction cross sections of importance for NRA analysis of light elements and stopping powers and ranges of light and heavy ions in various matrices. Light elements (H, Li, B, C, N, O, etc.) play an important role as constituents of many important organic as well inorganic materials in historical and artistic objects. To a large extent these materials occur in the near-surface area of a material with altered or degraded composition

  5. Nuclear reaction data for IBA applications to cultural heritage diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maino, G.; Menapace, E. [Bologna Univ., ENEA (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Main aspects are discussed concerning nuclear reaction cross-sections for PIXE and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission) analyses, especially referring to cultural heritage diagnostics, within the framework of ion beam analysis (IBA) methods, also reviewing recent results from international Conferences on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology and from NEANSC meetings and IAEA initiatives on the matter.To sum up this work, it is then worth remarking the following items: IBA techniques are powerful tools to derive unique information as for corrosion, degradation and, generally, conservation conditions of materials. Careful analyses of specific systems require accurate evaluations and establishment of complete databases, in particular for stopping powers and relevant cross sections. The physical parameters to be accurately determined are, therefore, nuclear reaction cross sections of importance for NRA analysis of light elements and stopping powers and ranges of light and heavy ions in various matrices. Light elements (H, Li, B, C, N, O, etc.) play an important role as constituents of many important organic as well inorganic materials in historical and artistic objects. To a large extent these materials occur in the near-surface area of a material with altered or degraded composition.

  6. Charged-particle transfer reactions and nuclear astrophysics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, S.V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Burtebaev, N.; Duysebaev, A.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the report a review of the recent results of calculation of the astrophysical S-factors S(E) for the D(α, γ) 6 Li, 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 Be, 12,13 C(p, γ) 13, 14 N and 12 C(p,γ) 16 O* reactions at extremely low energies E, including value E=0 , performed within the framework of a new method taking into account the additional information about the nuclear vertex constant (Nc) (or the respective asymptotic normalization coefficient) are presented. The required values of Nc can be obtained from an analysis of measured differential cross-sections of proton and α-particle transfer reactions (for example A( 3 He,d)B, 6 Li(d, 6 Li)d, 6 Li(α, 6 Li)α, 12 C( 6 Li, d) 16 O* etc.). A comparative analysis between the results obtained by different authors is also done. Taking into account an important role of the NVC's values for the nuclear astrophysical A(p, γ)B and A(α, γ)B reactions, a possibility of obtaining the reliable NVC values for the virtual decay B→A+p and B→A+α from the analysis of differential cross sections both sub- and above-barrier A( 3 He, d) and A( 6,7 Li, 2,3 H)B reactions is discussed in detail. In this line the use the isochronous cyclotron U-150 M, the 'DC-60' heavy ion machine and electrostatic charge-exchanging accelerator UKP-2-1 of Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan for carrying out the needed experiments is considered and the possibility of the obtained data application for the astrophysical interest is also discussed

  7. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  8. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  9. Atlas of giant dipole resonances. Parameters and graphs of photonuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, A.V.; Varlamov, V.V.; Rudenko, D.S.; Stepanov, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of giant dipole resonances (GDR) observed in photonuclear reaction cross sections using various beams of incident photons are presented. Data, given for 200 stable isotopes from 2 H to 243 Am including their natural compositions, were collected from papers published over the years 1951-1996. GDR parameters, such as energy positions, amplitudes and widths, are included into the table and organized by element, isotope and reaction. Graphs of the majority of the photonuclear reaction cross sections, included in the international nuclear data library EXFOR by the end of 1998, are presented. The graphs are provided for 182 stable isotopes and natural compositions. (author)

  10. Microscopic approach to the theory of light nuclei and to simple nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baz', L.I.; Filippov, G.F.

    1976-01-01

    The results of calculations for the properties of light nuclei and simple nuclear reactions using the Schrodinger multinucleon equation involving the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction are reviewed. It is noted that the theory for the A(<=)4 nuclei is practically complete at present. The reasons for the good agreement between the theoretical and experimental cross sections of nuclear reactions are given. The programme of a correct separation of the nuclear collective degree of freedom are discussed in detail

  11. Nuclear spectroscopy using the neutron capture reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental methods using neutron spectroscopy as a means to study the nucleus structure are described. Since reactions of neutron capture (n, γ) are non-selective, they permit to study the nature of excitation (monoparticle and collective) of nuclear levels, the nature of vibrational excitations, to check the connection between shell model and liquid drop model etc. In many cases (n, γ) reactions are the only way to check the forecast of nuclear models. Advantages of (n, γ) spectroscopy, possessing a high precision of measurement and high sensitivity, are underlined. Using neutron spectroscopy on facilities with a high density of neutron flux the structures of energy levels of a large group of nuclei are studied. In different laboratories complete schemes of energy levels of nuclei are obtained, a great number of new levels are found, the evergy level densities are determined, multipolarities of γ-transitions, spins, level parities are considered. StrUctures of rotational bands of heavy deformed nuclei are studied. The study of the structure of high-spin states is possible only using the methods of (n, γ) spectroscopy Investigation results of the nuclei 24 Na, 114 Cd, 154 Eu, 155 Cd, 155 Sm, 233 Th are considered as examples. The most interesting aspects of the investigations using neutron spectroscopy are discUssed

  12. Transport description of damped nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1984-01-01

    This lecture series is concerned with the transport description of damped nuclear reactions. Part 1 is an elementary introduction to the general transport theory of nuclear dynamics. It can be read without any special knowledge of the field, although basic quantum mechanics is required for the formal derivation of the general expressions for the transport coefficients. The results can also be used in a wider context than the present one. Part 2 gives the student an up-to-date orientation about recent progress in the understanding of the angular-momentum variables in damped reactions. The emphasis is here on the qualitative understanding of the physics rather than the, at times somewhat tedious, formal derivations. More detailed presentations are due to be published soon. By necessity entire topics have been omitted. For example, no discussion is given of the calculation of the form factors, and the several instructive applications of the theory to transport of mass and change are not covered at all. For these topics they refer to the literature. It is hoped that the present notes provide a sufficient basis to make the literature on the subject accessible to the student

  13. A detailed test of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkervet, Andreas Lambertus

    1978-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions are governed by two principal kinds of mechanisms: direct reaction mechanisms characterized by reaction times of the order of the transit time of the bombarding particle through the nucleus , and compound nucelar reaction mechanisms. The reaction times ot the latter are

  14. Nuclear Analytical Applications within the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, supports Member States development of nuclear techniques through a number of targeted actions and projects. The Section fulfills this role by organizing Coordinated Research Projects, or through less formal Data Development Projects and/or Technical Meetings. Training workshops are also regularly organized in conjunction with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. A number of projects relating to materials analysis techniques have been recently undertaken, e.g. neutron activation analysis, ion beam analysis, and proton induced X- or γ-ray emission. In particular, details of the Coordinated Research Project focusing on the nuclear data requirements for the k 0 method of neutron activation analysis are given. The paper illustrates how the IAEA strives to bring together relevant partners and provides a unique and structured basis for international collaboration.

  15. Low energy nuclear reactions: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivit, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an overview of the field of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR), a branch of condensed matter nuclear science. It explains some of the various terminologies that have been used to describe this field since it debuted as 'cold fusion' in 1989. The paper also reviews some of the most interesting news and developments regarding low energy nuclear reaction experiments and theory, and some of the sociological and political trends that have affected the field over the last 18 years. It concludes with a list of resources and information for scientists, journalists and decision makers. Understanding the Nature of the Reactions The worldwide LENR research effort includes 200 researchers in 13 nations. Over the last 18 years, 12 international conferences have been held, as well as 7 regional conferences in Italy, 14 in Russia and 7 in Japan. The significant questions that face this field of research are: a) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? b) If so, is there a release of excess energy? and c) Are transmutations possible? If the answers to these questions turn out to be positive, the next questions will be: d) Is the energy release cost-effective? and e) Are the transmutations useful? Despite the fact that repeatability and reproducibility are challenging, the required parameters for achieving the excess heat effect are well understood. First, a high atomic loading ratio of D into Pd is required. In most conditions, 0.90 is the minimum threshold required to produce an excess heat effect. Second, a high electrical current density in the cathode is needed, 250 mA/cm 2 under most conditions. The third requirement is for some kind of dynamic trigger to impose a deuterium flux in, on or around the cathode. The challenge that researchers face is how to achieve these conditions. Some of the Most Interesting Research Developments Work by Stanislaw Szpak, Pamela Boss and Frank Gordon at the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center in San Diego has

  16. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Morcelle, V.

    2010-06-01

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range 6 Li- 238 U, and 158 projectile nuclei from 2 H up to 84 Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  17. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  18. Use of SSNTD for measuring nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakr, M H [Division of Baic Nucl. Sc., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) technique in nuclear reactions is reviewed. Special attention is given to the study of Makrofol-E films using a proposed optimum etching solution. The etching rate was 10.5 Mm/ hour. The energy resolution was measured and estimated to be 600 and 400 KeV in the energy ranges 1-2 MeV and 2-3 MeV respectively. Based on these results, the sensitivity threshold for gamma-particles in Makrofol-E is shifted up to 1 MeV, otherwise, there will be no discrimination between the etch - pits of gamma- particles with energies ranging from 0 to 1 MeV. The full angular distribution of the gamma-groups were measured in one run by means of a SSNTD sheel surrounding the target. A scattering chamber designed for gamma-particle angular distribution measurements is described. An example of the influence of energy loss in degrading Al foils in eliminating the energy angle dependence is given. The numerous curves of the range -energy dependence of gamma - particles in Makrofol - E after passing Al foils of different thicknesses are scaled in one schematic normograph. The later simplifies the process of choosing the suitable Al foil thickness or of determining the range- energy relation. The angular distributions of five gamma- groups from the {sup 56} Co (P, gamma) {sup 56} Fe reaction in the proton energy 1.6 -2.4 MeV have been measured using the designed chamber. A Makrofol - E film of 200 Mm thickness was exposed to the reaction products for 5 hours. This time was enough to get the angular distribution for (d/d) in the range 5-72 Mm barn/ster.

  19. MODESTY, Statistical Reaction Cross-Sections and Particle Spectra in Decay Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattes, W.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Code MODESTY calculates all energetically possible reaction cross sections and particle spectra within a nuclear decay chain. 2 - Method of solution: It is based on the statistical nuclear model following the method of Uhl (reference 1) where the optical model is used in the calculation of partial widths and the Blatt-Weisskopf single particle model for gamma rays

  20. Nuclear Data and Reaction Rate Databases in Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas

    2018-06-01

    Astrophysical simulations and models require a large variety of micro-physics data, such as equation of state tables, atomic opacities, properties of nuclei, and nuclear reaction rates. Some of the required data is experimentally accessible, but the extreme conditions present in many astrophysical scenarios cannot be reproduced in the laboratory and thus theoretical models are needed to supplement the empirical data. Collecting data from various sources and making them available as a database in a unified format is a formidable task. I will provide an overview of the data requirements in astrophysics with an emphasis on nuclear astrophysics. I will then discuss some of the existing databases, the science they enable, and their limitations. Finally, I will offer some thoughts on how to design a useful database.

  1. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchopár, Martin; Wagner, Vladimír; Svoboda, Ondřej; Vrzalová, Jitka; Chudoba, Petr; Kugler, Andrej; Adam, Jindřich; Závorka, L.; Baldine, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M. G.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 344, FEB (2015), s. 63-69 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : relativistic deuteron reactions * cross-sections * copper Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  2. (n,2n) reaction cross-sections at 14 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The need for fast neutron-induced reaction cross-section data has been increasing in several applied fields; for example, biomedical applications such as production of radioisotopes and cancer therapy, accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclear wastes to short-lived or stable isotopes by secondary ...

  3. Cross section measurements of proton capture reactions on Se isotopes relevant to the astrophysical p process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinou, V.; Harissopulos, S.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Provatas, G.; Spyrou, A.; Perdikakis, G.; Zarkadas, Ch.; Demetriou, P.

    2018-03-01

    Cross sections of proton capture reactions on 74Se, 78Se, and 80Se have been measured at incident beam energies from 2 to 6 MeV, 1.7 to 3 MeV, and 1.5 to 3.5 MeV, respectively. In the case of Se,8078, cross sections were obtained from in-beam γ -angular distribution measurements, whereas for the 74Se isotope they were derived from off-beam activity measurements. The measured cross sections were compared with calculations performed with the nuclear reaction code talys (version 1.6). A good agreement between theory and experiment was found. Astrophysical S factors and reaction rates deduced from the experimental and calculated cross sections were also compared and the impact of different nuclear ingredients in the calculations on the reaction rates was investigated. It was found that, for certain combinations of nuclear input models, the reaction rates obtained at temperatures relevant to p -process nucleosynthesis differ by a factor 2 at the most, differences that are well within the acceptable deviations of calculated p -nuclei abundances and observations.

  4. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP)

  5. Annual report of the nuclear physics section of the institute of applied nuclear physics (July 1, 1976 - June 30, 1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, V.; Ottmar, H.

    1977-10-01

    The activities of the Nuclear Physics Section of the Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics from mid 1976 to mid 1977 are surveyed. The research program comprises both contributions to fundamental and applied nuclear research. The activities on the application of nuclear methods mainly concentrate on the measurements of cross sections of neutron-induced nuclear reactions for the fast breeder project, the application of gamma-ray spectrometry to nuclear fuel assay problems, the development of a proton microbeam for elemental analysis, and the production of 123 J for medical application. The study of nuclear reactions induced by α particles, 6 Li ions and fast neutrons, and the measurement of optical hyperfine structure using high-resolution laser spectroscopy form the major part of the fundamental research work. In addition, the operation of the two accelerators of the institute, an isochronous cyclotron and a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, are briefly reviewed. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical research is being conducted on the following topics: photon scattering, gauge invariance and the extension of Siefert's Theorem; retardation effects in photonuclear absorption and the Cabibbo Radicati Sum Rule; isovector transition densities, currents and response functions; the electric polarizability, the magnetic susceptibility and the distribution of oscillator strengths in some elementary systems; relativistic models and processes; properties of skyrmions; multiquark compound bags and the charge form factor of the A = 3 nuclei; nuclear reaction theory; three-particle scattering theory; deuteron-nucleus model calculations; asymptotia in three-particle scattering systems; and time-dependent approach to few-nucleon collisions. Progress in each of these areas is reviewed briefly. A list of invited talks and of publications for the fiscal year 1986 is included. 27 refs

  7. Nuclear reactions in Monte Carlo codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The physics foundations of hadronic interactions as implemented in most Monte Carlo codes are presented together with a few practical examples. The description of the relevant physics is presented schematically split into the major steps in order to stress the different approaches required for the full understanding of nuclear reactions at intermediate and high energies. Due to the complexity of the problem, only a few semi-qualitative arguments are developed in this paper. The description will be necessarily schematic and somewhat incomplete, but hopefully it will be useful for a first introduction into this topic. Examples are shown mostly for the high energy regime, where all mechanisms mentioned in the paper are at work and to which perhaps most of the readers are less accustomed. Examples for lower energies can be found in the references. (43 refs) .

  8. NRABASE 2.0. Charged-particle nuclear reaction data for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    For 30 targets between H-1 and Ag-109, differential cross sections for reactions induced by protons, deuterons, He-3 and alpha particles are given in tabular and graphical form. The data were compiled from original experimental references. The database was developed under a research contract with the IAEA Physics Section and is available on diskette from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  9. A method of simulating and visualizing nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.H.; Paul, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Teaching nuclear reactions to students is difficult because the mechanisms are complex and directly visualizing them is impossible. As a teaching tool, the authors have developed a method of simulating nuclear reactions using colliding water droplets. Videotaping of the collisions, taken with a high shutter speed camera and run frame-by-frame, shows details of the collisions that are analogous to nuclear reactions. The method for colliding the water drops and videotaping the collisions are shown

  10. Stochastic Nuclear Reaction Theory: Breit-Wigner nuclear noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the application of various statistical tests for the detection of the intermediate structure, which lies immersed in the Breit-Wigner ''noise'' arising from the superposition of many compound nucleus resonances. To this end, neutron capture cross sections are constructed by Monte-Carlo simulations of the compound nucleus, hence providing the ''noise'' component. In a second step intermediate structure is added to the Breit-Wigner noise. The performance of the statistical tests in detecting the intermediate structure is evaluated using mocked-up neutron cross sections as the statistical samples. Afterwards, the statistical tests are applied to actual nuclear cross section data. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Nuclear reaction rates and the nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.; Iliadis, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we examined the consequences of improving the nuclear reaction library on our simulations of TNRs on 1.25M, WD and 1.35M, WDS. We have found that the changes in the rates have affected the nucleosynthesis predictions of our calculations but not, to any great extent, the gross features. In addition, we have used a lower mass accretion rate than in our previous studies in order to accrete (and eject) more material. This has, as expected, caused the peak values of some important parameters to increase over our previous studies at the same WD mass. However, because some important reaction rates have declined in the new compilation this has not increased the abundances for nuclei above aluminum and, in fact, they have declined while the abundances of both 26 Al and 27 Al have increased at both WD masses. In contrast, the abundance of 22 Na has declined at both WD masses over the values predicted in our earlier work. This has important implications with respect to predictions of the observability of novae with INTEGRAL

  12. Cross sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl, and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar nuclear reactions below 8.4 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2012-02-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope (34m)Cl, along with (38)Cl and (41)Ar, using deuteron bombardments of (36)Ar and (40)Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross Sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar Nuclear Reactions below 8.4 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope 34mCl, along with 38Cl and 41Ar, using deuteron bombardments of 36Ar and 40Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. PMID:22041299

  14. Comparison of Neutron Cross-Sections Using IAEA Nuclear Codes ''ABAREX'' and ''SCAT2''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Myint Moe; Win Sin; Sein Htoon

    2004-05-01

    Moel calculations can be used to provide nuclear data for applications in science and technology. The energy averaged neutron induced nuclear reaction cross-sections particular for Al-27, Mg-24, Cr-52, Mn-55, Zn-64 and U-238 with neutrons of energy (0.005 to 10 MeV) are calculated using IAEA nuclear codes ''ABAREX'' and ''SCAT2''. The results are compared with those given in ENDF- 3 nuclear data

  15. On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to be assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability for geometric reaction cross sections are determined

  16. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  17. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassan-Got L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  18. Dynamical calculations of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    With the goal of determining the magnitude and mechanism of nuclear dissipation from comparisons of predictions with experimental data, we describe recent calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach to large-amplitude collective nuclear motion such as occurs in fission and heavy-ion reactions. We describe the time dependence of the distribution function in phase space of collective coordinates and momenta by a generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is calculated as the sum of repulsive Coulomb and centrifugal energies and an attractive Yukawa-plus-exponential potential, the inertia tensor is calculated for a superposition of rigid-body rotation and incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by use of the Werner-Wheeler method, and the dissipation ensor that describes the conversion of collective energy into single-particle excitation energy is calculated for two prototype mechanisms that represent opposite extremes of large and small dissipation. We solve the generalized Hamilton equations of motion for the first moments of the distribution function to obtain the mean translational fission-fragment kinetic energy and mass of a third fragment that sometimes forms between the two end fragments, as well as dynamical thresholds, capture cross sections, and ternary events in heavy-ion reactions. 33 references

  19. Spatial dose and microdose distribution in tissues. Ionization, nuclear reactions, multiple scattering simulation of beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, C.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation and nuclear emulsion and gelatin techniques enabled to give the total elastic and inelastic cross sections and to forecast the spatial microdose distributions in cells, nuclei and molecules. For this purpose, the transport of a beam into tissues having a given composition is calculated, the nuclear reactions are generated and the energy depositions in standard planes perpendicular to the beam are recorded

  20. Nuclear transfer in peripheral heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the whole thesis is to understand the experimental results of N. Frascaria et al. (1980), namely structures in the cross section as function of the excitation energy for the reaction 40 Ca + 40 Ca at 400 MeV incident energy. We present therefore in chapter 1 a simple model of two identical potentials with only two energy levels. On the base of statistically independent T-L excitations and by fitting a two parameters to the experiments it succeeds to reproduce sufficiently the experimental results. The next step is a microscopical treatment of these parameters for the understanding and the foundation of the fitted values. For this we develop in chapter 2 a theory of collective variables in the framework of TDHF which allows to perform in chapter 3 in a very transparent way microscopical calculations and especially to understand the transfer behaviour in peripheral heavy ion reactions. This transfer behaviour will also be the key for the understanding of the experimental structures. (orig.) [de

  1. Proton capture reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikstra, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies are described of the structure of 40 Ca and 42 Sc with measurements at proton-capture of (p, gamma) reactions. Where possible, an attempt has been made to interpret the results of the measurements in termsof existing models. The 40 Ca and 42 Sc nuclides were excited by bombarding 39 K and 41 Ca targets, respectively with low energy protons (E p = 0.3-3.0 MeV), that were produced by the Utrecht 3MV van de Graaff accelerator. From the measured energy and intensity of the gamma-rays created in the subsequent decay of the cuclei, information was obtained on the existence and properties of their excited states. In addition properties of two T = 3/2 levels at high excitation energy of the 9 Be nucleus were investigated. These levels were excited by the resonant absorption of gamma-rays from the 11 B(p, gamma) 12 C reaction. The results of the measurements are interpreted by a comparison to the analoque β-decay of 9 Li and to shell model calculations. The total decay energy of the superallowed O + → O + transition between the ground states of 42 Sc and 42 Ca was determined by measurements in Utrecht of the proton separation energy S p of 42 Sc and in Oak Ridge of S n of 42 Sc and 42 Ca. The results were used for verification of the conserved vector current hypothesis, which implies that the ft values of all superallowed O + → O + β-decays are the same. An attempt was made to describe properties of odd-parity states of A = 37-41 nuclei with a variant of the Warburton, Becker, Millener and Brown (WBMB) interaction.Finally a new method for the assignment of nuclear spins by a simple statistical analysis of spectroscopic information is proposed. (author). 169 refs.; 22 figs.; 24 schemes; 29 tabs

  2. 2010 ANNUAL MEETING ON NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY. Pt. 4. Section reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlepsch, Thilo v.; Hering, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Summary report on 2 Sessions of Section: - New Build and Innovations (Section 12) of the ANNUAL MEETING On NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY held in Berlin on May 4 to 6, 2010. The other Sections 'Reactor Physics and Methods of Calculation (Section 1)', 'Thermodynamics and Fluid Dynamics (Section 2)', 'Safety of Nuclear Installations - Methods, Analysis, Results (Section 3)', 'Front End and Back End of the Fuel Cycle, Radioactive Waste, Storage (Section 4)', 'Front End of the Fuel Cycle, Fuel Elements and Core Components (Section 5)', 'Operation of Nuclear Installations (Section 6)', 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations (Section 7)', 'Fusion Technology (Section 8)', 'Energy Industry and Economics (Section 10)', 'Radiation Protection (Section 11)', 'New Build and Innovations (Session New Build and Innovations, Section 12)', and 'Education, Expert Knowledge, Know-how-Transfer (Section 13)' have been covered in atw issues 10, 11 and 12 (2010). (orig.)

  3. Cross Section Measurements of the Reaction 23Na(p, γ)24Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeltzig, Axel; Deboer, Richard James; Macon, Kevin; Wiescher, Michael; Best, Andreas; Imbriani, Gianluca; Gyürky, György; Strieder, Frank

    2017-09-01

    The reaction 23Na(p, γ)24Mg can provide a link from the NeNa to the MgAl cycle in stellar burning and is therefore of interest in nuclear astrophysics. To determine the reaction rates at stellar temperatures, new cross section measurements at low proton energies have been performed recently, and further experiments are underway. The current cross section data implies that the reaction rate up to temperatures of 1 GK is determined by a few narrow resonances and direct capture. Complementary to these experimental efforts at low proton energies, cross section measurements at higher energies can help to constrain the direct capture and broad resonance contributions to the cross section and reduce the uncertainty of the extrapolation towards stellar energies. In this paper we report an experiment to measure the 23Na(p, γ)24Mg cross section with a solid target setup at the St. ANA 5U accelerator at the University of Notre Dame. The experiment and the current status of data analysis will be described. This work benefited from support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA-CEE), the Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL), the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), and the Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI).

  4. Nuclear Waste Vitrification Efficiency: Cold Cap Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Pokorny, R.

    2011-01-01

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter

  5. Applications of Nuclear Reaction Analysis for Semiconductor Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luncun

    2003-01-01

    Many thin film samples used in the semiconductor industry contain C, N and O. The detection limits and accuracy obtained by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurement are limited due to the small cross section values. High energy non-Rutherford backscattering is often used to enhance the sensitivities. But non-Rutherford cross section values are irregular and can not be calculated as normal Rutherford backscattering values. It is also difficult to find an appropriate energy window that for all these elements, and high-energy ions are needed. In this paper, the Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method is used to simultaneously measure C, N and O. several applications in the semiconductor research, development, and manufacturing areas are presented

  6. Nuclear reaction rates and primordial 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nollett, K.M.; Schramm, D.N.; Lemoine, M.; Schramm, D.N.; Lemoine, M.; Schramm, D.N.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the possibility that big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) may produce nontrivial amounts of 6 Li. If a primordial component of this isotope could be observed, it would provide a new fundamental test of big-bang cosmology, as well as new constraints on the baryon density of the universe. At present, however, theoretical predictions of the primordial 6 Li abundance are extremely uncertain due to difficulties in both theoretical estimates and experimental determinations of the 2 H(α,γ) 6 Li radiative capture reaction cross section. We also argue that present observational capabilities do not yet allow the detection of primeval 6 Li in very metal-poor stars of the galactic halo. However, if the critical cross section is very high in its plausible range and the baryon density is relatively low, then improvements in 6 Li detection capabilities may allow the establishment of 6 Li as another product of BBN. It is also noted that a primordial 6 Li detection could help resolve current concerns about the extragalactic D/H determination. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y. [Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Cairo (Egypt); Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27 MeV, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Zn ({sup 3}He,xn) {sup 69}Ge, {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,xnp) {sup 66,67,68}Ga, and {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,x){sup 62,65}Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined. (orig.)

  8. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  9. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  10. Evaluation of the D(γ,n) reaction cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, T.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation was performed for the cross section of photo-disintegration of Deuteron in the photon energy range between the threshold energy of the reaction (2.224 MeV) and pion production threshold (140 MeV). Angular distributions of the emitted neutrons were also evaluated. (author)

  11. Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG) Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we give a brief review of the activities carried out by the ''Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG)'' since the last NRDC meeting in 2009. The main subjects of our activities are; (1) reaction data compilation, (2) evaluation of the astrophysical nuclear reaction data for light nuclei, and (3) cooperation of nuclear data activities in Asia. Our activities in detail are as follows. a) New reaction data compilation (NRDF and EXFOR) b) Conversion of old NRDF to EXFOR c) Bibliography compilation (CINDA) d) Evaluation of astrophysical nuclear reaction data based on theoretical calculations for light nuclei e) Collaboration among nuclear data physicists in Asia for the EXFOR compilation to form a stable base f) Database maintenance and services (NRDF, EXFOR/ENDF and CINDA) g) Development of software systems (GSYS) h) Customer services

  12. The experimental nuclear reaction data (EXFOR): Extended computer database and Web retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkin, V. V.; Pritychenko, B.

    2018-04-01

    The EXchange FORmat (EXFOR) experimental nuclear reaction database and the associated Web interface provide access to the wealth of low- and intermediate-energy nuclear reaction physics data. This resource is based on numerical data sets and bibliographical information of ∼22,000 experiments since the beginning of nuclear science. The principles of the computer database organization, its extended contents and Web applications development are described. New capabilities for the data sets uploads, renormalization, covariance matrix, and inverse reaction calculations are presented. The EXFOR database, updated monthly, provides an essential support for nuclear data evaluation, application development, and research activities. It is publicly available at the websites of the International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Data Section, http://www-nds.iaea.org/exfor, the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/exfor, and the mirror sites in China, India and Russian Federation.

  13. Atomic nuclei and nuclear reactions. Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.G.; Tartakovsky, V.K.; Kenjebaev, K.K.; Shunkeyev, K.Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.; Mukhammedov, S.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Djuraev, Sh.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The short description of the book preparation by the collective authors from Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Egypt is given. The present book is the expanded course of lectures on the theory of nuclei, nuclear reactions and their applications delivered by the authors for a number of years in the Ukrainian National University, Aktubinsk State University of the Kazakhstan Republic, Tashkent National University, Samarkand and Termez State Universities of Uzbekistan Republic, Egyptian National Universities (Al-Az'har, Menoufeya, Suez-Canal and Tanta) and the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The lectures present foundations of the modern concepts of the structure of nuclei, on the nature of nuclear processes and nuclear transformations. Main attention in the book was paid to the presentation of the basics and some modern achievements in the field of the theory of nuclei and nuclear reactions. A number of problems was investigated in original works and were not presented in the physics textbooks. The book presents the non-relativistic theory of nuclear reactions, questions of relativistic nuclear physics were not considered here. Non-relativistic theory of nuclear reactions is based on the notions of collision matrix or S-matrix. In absence of consequent microscopic theory, the scattering matrix can be found phenomenological based on definite assumptions on the character of nuclear interactions. Modern applications of nuclear reactions for the development of nuclear methods of analysis are presented. The delayed and nuclear techniques with nuclear reactor, accelerators and radioisotopic sources are considered. The book is designed as a textbook for bachelor and postgraduate students of physical faculties of universities and engineering-physical institutions, lecturers and researchers, working in the field of nuclear physics. The book gives an up-to-date list of references on nuclear reaction theory and

  14. Cross-sections of {sup 45}Sc(n,2n){sup 44m,g}Sc reaction from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, J. [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Peking Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology; Liu, R.; Jiang, L. [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry; Liu, Z.; Sun, G.; Ge, S. [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Cross sections of {sup 45}Sc(n,2n){sup 44m,g}Sc reactions and their isomeric cross section ratios {sigma}{sub m}/{sigma}{sub g} have been measured at three neutron energies between 13.5 and 14.8 MeV using the activation technique. The pure cross section of the groundstate was then obtained by utilizing the absolute cross section of the metastable state and analysis methods of residual nuclear decay. The monoenergetic neutron beam was produced via the {sup 3}H(d, n){sup 4}He reaction. The cross sections were also estimated with the TALYS-1.2 nuclear model code using different level density options, at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are also discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature. (orig.)

  15. Cross-sections of 45Sc(n,2n)44m,gSc reaction from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.; Peking Univ., Beijing; Liu, R.; Jiang, L.; Liu, Z.; Sun, G.; Ge, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cross sections of 45 Sc(n,2n) 44m,g Sc reactions and their isomeric cross section ratios σ m /σ g have been measured at three neutron energies between 13.5 and 14.8 MeV using the activation technique. The pure cross section of the groundstate was then obtained by utilizing the absolute cross section of the metastable state and analysis methods of residual nuclear decay. The monoenergetic neutron beam was produced via the 3 H(d, n) 4 He reaction. The cross sections were also estimated with the TALYS-1.2 nuclear model code using different level density options, at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are also discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature. (orig.)

  16. Overview of Light Hydrogen-Based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

  17. Overview. Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy. Section 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennel, J.W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research at the Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy of thr H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics covers three areas: magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance imaging and solid state physics by computer simulation. In first of the mentioned above research directions, we apply magnetic resonance method in studies of molecular rotation in solids. Two ways of rotation have been distinguished: tunneling through the potential barriers and random jumps between distinct orientations. In the second one, the magnetic resonance microscope based on a 6.3 T superconducting magnet was completed. Each part of this system was tested and appropriate software has been written in the Laboratory and used for testing, optimization and running the experiment. In the field of solid state physics the work was concentrated around consequences of tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition, experimentally observed in high temperature superconducting materials. In this section of the Annual Report, the detail descriptions of mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  18. Overview. Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy. Section 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennel, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Research at the Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy of thr H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics covers three areas: magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance imaging and solid state physics by computer simulation. In first of the mentioned above research directions, we apply magnetic resonance method in studies of molecular rotation in solids. Two ways of rotation have been distinguished: tunneling through the potential barriers and random jumps between distinct orientations. In the second one, the magnetic resonance microscope based on a 6.3 T superconducting magnet was completed. Each part of this system was tested and appropriate software has been written in the Laboratory and used for testing, optimization and running the experiment. In the field of solid state physics the work was concentrated around consequences of tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition, experimentally observed in high temperature superconducting materials. In this section of the Annual Report, the detail descriptions of mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  19. Nuclear reactions and self-shielding effects of gamma-ray database for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A database for transmutation and radioactivity of nuclear materials is required for selection and design of materials used in various nuclear reactors. The database based on the FENDL/A-2.0 on the Internet and the additional data collected from several references has been developed in NRIM site of 'Data-Free-Way' on the Internet. Recently, the function predicted self-shielding effect of materials for {gamma}-ray was added to this database. The user interface for this database has been constructed for retrieval of necessary data and for graphical presentation of the relation between the energy spectrum of neutron and neutron capture cross section. It is demonstrated that the possibility of chemical compositional change and radioactivity in a material caused by nuclear reactions can be easily retrieved using a browser such as Netscape or Explorer. (author)

  20. Nuclear reactions and self-shielding effects of gamma-ray database for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    A database for transmutation and radioactivity of nuclear materials is required for selection and design of materials used in various nuclear reactors. The database based on the FENDL/A-2.0 on the Internet and the additional data collected from several references has been developed in NRIM site of 'Data-Free-Way' on the Internet. Recently, the function predicted self-shielding effect of materials for γ-ray was added to this database. The user interface for this database has been constructed for retrieval of necessary data and for graphical presentation of the relation between the energy spectrum of neutron and neutron capture cross section. It is demonstrated that the possibility of chemical compositional change and radioactivity in a material caused by nuclear reactions can be easily retrieved using a browser such as Netscape or Explorer. (author)

  1. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses topics in nuclear theory. These general topics are: Quark physics, Quantum field theory, Relativistic nuclear physics, Nuclear dynamics, and Few-body problems and nonrelativistic methods

  2. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  3. Reaction mechanisms in coherent nuclear photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazard, C.

    Nuclear coherent pion photoproduction is studied. Pion rescattering and propagation effects inside nucleus and mesic exchange current effects are discussed. Influence of nuclear wave functions and Fermi motion is presented [fr

  4. From nuclear reactions to neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density-dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its ...

  5. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Induced Reactions: Quasi-Free Reactions and RIBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Coc, A.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; De Sereville, N.

    2010-01-01

    The use of quasi-free reactions in studying nuclear reactions between charged particles of astrophysical interest has received much attention over the last two decades. The Trojan Horse Method is based on this approach and it has been used to study a number of reactions relevant for Nuclear Astrophysics. Recently we applied this method to the study of nuclear reactions that involve radioactive species, namely to the study of the 18 F+p→ 15 O+α process at temperatures corresponding to the energies available in the classical novae scenario. Quasi-free reactions can also be exploited to study processes induced by neutrons. This technique is particularly interesting when applied to reaction induced by neutrons on unstable short-lived nuclei. Such processes are very important in the nucleosynthesis of elements in the sand r-processes scenarios and this technique can give hints for solving key questions in nuclear astrophysics where direct measurements are practically impossible.

  6. Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Actinide Targets Extracted from Surrogate Experiments: A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Lesher, S R; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J; Younes, W

    2009-10-01

    The Surrogate nuclear reactions method, an indirect approach for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving difficult-to-measure targets, is reviewed. Focusing on cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides, we review the successes of past and present applications of the method and assess its uncertainties and limitations. The approximations used in the analyses of most experiments work reasonably well for (n,f) cross sections for neutron energies above 1-2 MeV, but lead to discrepancies for low-energy (n,f) reactions, as well as for (n,{gamma}) applications. Correcting for some of the effects neglected in the approximate analyses leads to improved (n,f) results. We outline steps that will further improve the accuracy and reliability of the Surrogate method and extend its applicability to reactions that cannot be approached with the present implementation of the method.

  7. Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Actinide Targets Extracted from Surrogate Experiments: A Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, J.E.; Burke, J.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Lesher, S.R.; Scielzo, N.D.; Thompson, I.J.; Younes, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Surrogate nuclear reactions method, an indirect approach for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving difficult-to-measure targets, is reviewed. Focusing on cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides, we review the successes of past and present applications of the method and assess its uncertainties and limitations. The approximations used in the analyses of most experiments work reasonably well for (n,f) cross sections for neutron energies above 1-2 MeV, but lead to discrepancies for low-energy (n,f) reactions, as well as for (n,γ) applications. Correcting for some of the effects neglected in the approximate analyses leads to improved (n,f) results. We outline steps that will further improve the accuracy and reliability of the Surrogate method and extend its applicability to reactions that cannot be approached with the present implementation of the method.

  8. Effect of nuclear reaction rates on primordial abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. The effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight has been investigated. Also the study have been taken of these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. Here it has been found that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of 6 Li and 7 Li

  9. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the scientific work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The scientific work is concerned with the theory of nuclear and atomic processes with heavy ions, the experimental study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure studies, nuclear solid-state physics, atomic collisions, and the operation of VICKSI. (HSI)

  10. Co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centers. Report on an IAEA advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, O.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes the 1996 co-ordination meeting in Brookhaven, U.S.A., of the national and regional nuclear reaction data center, convened by the IAEA at regular intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ''EXFOR'' system, and the further development of this system; the ''CINDA'' system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable nuclear data compilation and data center services; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ''ENDF'' format; the rapid advances of online electronic information technologies, with the goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals, online services and printed materials. The scope of data covers microscopic cross-sections and related parameters of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles and photons. (author). Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Co-ordination of the nuclear reactions data centers. Report on an IAEA advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.G.; Schwerer, O.

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes the 1998 co-ordination meeting at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna of the regional, national and specialized nuclear reaction data centers, concerned by the IAEA at two-year intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ''EXFOR'' system, and the further development of this system; the ''CINDA'' system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable nuclear data compilation and data center services; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ''ENDF'' format; the rapid advances of online electronic information technologies, with goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals, online services and printed materials. The scope of data covers microscopic cross-sections and related parameters of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles and photons. (author)

  12. Co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centers. Report on an IAEA advisory group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwerer, O; Lemmel, H D [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes the 1996 co-ordination meeting in Brookhaven, U.S.A., of the national and regional nuclear reaction data center, convened by the IAEA at regular intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ``EXFOR`` system, and the further development of this system; the ``CINDA`` system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable nuclear data compilation and data center services; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ``ENDF`` format; the rapid advances of online electronic information technologies, with the goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals, online services and printed materials. The scope of data covers microscopic cross-sections and related parameters of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles and photons. (author). Refs, figs, tabs.

  13. Co-ordination of the nuclear reactions data centers. Report on an IAEA advisory group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronyaev, V G; Schwerer, O [eds.

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes the 1998 co-ordination meeting at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna of the regional, national and specialized nuclear reaction data centers, concerned by the IAEA at two-year intervals. The main topics are: the international exchange of nuclear reaction data by means of the ``EXFOR`` system, and the further development of this system; the ``CINDA`` system as an international index and bibliography to neutron reaction data; the sharing of the workload for speedy and reliable nuclear data compilation and data center services; the exchange and documentation of evaluated data libraries in ``ENDF`` format; the rapid advances of online electronic information technologies, with goal of rendering data center services to data users in IAEA Member States by means of computer retrievals, online services and printed materials. The scope of data covers microscopic cross-sections and related parameters of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles and photons. (author) Refs, figs, tabs

  14. High transfer cross sections from reactions with 254Es

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Bruegger, M.; Gaeggeler, H.; Moody, J.; Schardt, D.; Suemmerer, K.; Hulet, E.K.; Dougan, A.D.; Dougan, R.J.; Landrum, J.H.; Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; O'Kelly, G.D.

    1985-08-01

    We report radiochemically determined cross sections for the heaviest known actinides produced in transfer reactions of 101 MeV 16 O, 98 MeV 18 O and 127 MeV 22 Ne with 254 Es as a target. A comparison with data for similar transfers from 248 Cm targets is made. Transfer cross sections are extrapolated for the production of unknown, neutron-rich isotopes of elements 101 through 105, and the unique potential of 254 Es as a target to make these exotic nuclei accessible is demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. Unified formulation of the theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, C.

    The determination of the scattering matrix in the theory of nuclear reactions is essentially equivalent to the construction of the Green function for the Schroedinger equation in the internal region of the configuration space with proper boundary conditions at the nuclear surface. This Green function can be expressed as the inverse of an operator involving the sum of the Hamiltonian and of a ''boundary value operator'' which is different from zero only on the nuclear surface where it has a singularity of the same kind as a Dirac function. A general operator expression for the scattering matrix is derived. This expression can be transformed into a matrix expression by introducing an arbitrary basis of orthonormal functions in the internal region. The Wigner-Eisenbud and the Peierls-Kapur formulations are obtained by an appropriate choice of the internal functions. When a large number of resonances contribute to the cross section, the expansion of the scattering matrix in terms of resonances of the compound system is not useful, and a more appropriate starting point can be obtained from a perturbation expansion of the scattering matrix which is easily derived from the general operator expression. A simple statistical assumption is proposed in order to determine the dominant terms in such an expansion. It leads to the optical model for the elastic scattering and to the direct interactions for the inelastic scattering

  16. Cross-section and reaction rates for some reactions involved in explosive nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.

    1979-03-01

    Total proton-induced and alpha-induced reaction cross sections have been determined for the 24 Mg(α,n), 25 Mg(p,n), 26 Mg(p,n), 27 Al(p,n), 28 Si(α,n), 42 Ca(p,γ), 42 Ca(α,n) and 44 Ca(p,n) reactions from energies near threshold (except the exothermic (p,γ) reaction) to about 3 to 4 MeV above threshold. The product nuclei are all positron emitters with half-lives ranging from about 3 sec to about 4 hours. From the measured cross sections reaction rates have been calculated in the temperature range 1 9 9 =1, at which the discrepancy is large. Included also are analytic forms for (p,n), (α,n), and (p,γ) reactions which can be used to describe the reaction rate within the temperature range 1 9 <=6 and which agree with the experimental rates at the discrete temperatures where the reaction rates have been calculated

  17. Status report on cross-sections of monitor reactions for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, O.; Okamoto, K.

    1989-12-01

    The status of data on cross-sections of 19 monitor reactions, especially for cyclotron operation, is summarized. Most of the information was extracted from the data compiled in EXFOR (EXchange FORmat) which is a common format used by the co-operating nuclear data centres in the world. The EXFOR data were supplemented by a number of additional data sets found in the literature. For each reaction a brief status summary, graphical plots of the available experimental and evaluated data, and a table of all experimental data sorted by incident particle energy, are given

  18. Measurement of activation cross sections for quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced reactions of {sup 89}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Nadeem, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Lee, Manwoo [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The neutron induced cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(n, 2n){sup 88}Y, {sup 89}Y(n, 3n){sup 87}Y and {sup 89}Y(n, 4n){sup 86}Y reactions were measured in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV by using an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutrons used for the above reactions are based on a {sup 9}Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the neutron spectra from the Be target were done using the MCNPX 2.6.0 program. Theoretical calculations were performed for the {sup 89}Y(n, 2n){sup 88}Y, {sup 89}Y(n, 3n){sup 87}Y and {sup 89}Y(n, 4n){sup 86}Y reaction cross sections using nuclear model code Talys 1.8. The measured and calculated cross sections were compared with the literature data given in EXFOR and the TENDL-2015 data libraries. The present data of the {sup 89}Y(n, xn) reaction were also compared with the similar data of the {sup 89}Y(γ, xn) reaction to examine the effect of the entrance channel parameters as well as the role of projectiles and ejectiles. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear reactions and synthesis of new transuranium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this short review, I shall describe the special aspects of heavy ion nuclear reaction mechanisms operative in the transuranium region, the role of new techniques, possible nuclear reactions for the production of additional transuranium elements and nuclear species and the importance of work in this region for the development of nuclear models and theoretical concepts. This discussion should make it clear that a continuing supply of leements and isotopes, some fo them relatively short-lived, produced by the HFIR-TRU facilities, will be a requirement for future synthesis of new elements and isotopes

  20. Quantum shielding effects on the Gamow penetration factor for nuclear fusion reaction in quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-01-01

    The quantum shielding effects on the nuclear fusion reaction process are investigated in quantum plasmas. The closed expression of the classical turning point for the Gamow penetration factor in quantum plasmas is obtained by the Lambert W-function. The closed expressions of the Gamow penetration factor and the cross section for the nuclear fusion reaction in quantum plasmas are obtained as functions of the plasmon energy and the relative kinetic energy by using the effective interaction potential with the WKB analysis. It is shown that the influence of quantum screening suppresses the Sommerfeld reaction factor. It is also shown that the Gamow penetration factor increases with an increase of the plasmon energy. It is also shown that the quantum shielding effect enhances the deuterium formation by the proton-proton reaction in quantum plasmas. In addition, it is found that the energy dependences on the reaction cross section and the Gamow penetration factor are more significant in high plasmon-energy domains.

  1. Analysis of reaction cross-section production in neutron induced fission reactions on uranium isotope using computer code COMPLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Yihunie Hibstie; Mathuthu, Manny; Birhane, Marelgn Derso

    2018-04-22

    This study provides current evidence about cross-section production processes in the theoretical and experimental results of neutron induced reaction of uranium isotope on projectile energy range of 1-100 MeV in order to improve the reliability of nuclear stimulation. In such fission reactions of 235 U within nuclear reactors, much amount of energy would be released as a product that able to satisfy the needs of energy to the world wide without polluting processes as compared to other sources. The main objective of this work is to transform a related knowledge in the neutron-induced fission reactions on 235 U through describing, analyzing and interpreting the theoretical results of the cross sections obtained from computer code COMPLET by comparing with the experimental data obtained from EXFOR. The cross section value of 235 U(n,2n) 234 U, 235 U(n,3n) 233 U, 235 U(n,γ) 236 U, 235 U(n,f) are obtained using computer code COMPLET and the corresponding experimental values were browsed by EXFOR, IAEA. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR Data Bank. Computer code COMPLET has been used for the analysis with the same set of input parameters and the graphs were plotted by the help of spreadsheet & Origin-8 software. The quantification of uncertainties stemming from both experimental data and computer code calculation plays a significant role in the final evaluated results. The calculated results for total cross sections were compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR in the literature, and good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data. This comparison of the calculated data was analyzed and interpreted with tabulation and graphical descriptions, and the results were briefly discussed within the text of this research work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. On microscopic theory of radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerdzhiev, S. P. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Achakovskiy, O. I., E-mail: oachakovskiy@ippe.ru; Avdeenkov, A. V. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation); Goriely, S. [Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    A survey of some results in the modern microscopic theory of properties of nuclear reactions with gamma rays is given. First of all, we discuss the impact of Phonon Coupling (PC) on the Photon Strength Function (PSF) because it represents the most natural physical source of additional strength found for Sn isotopes in recent experiments that could not be explained within the standard HFB + QRPA approach. The self-consistent version of the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems in the Quasiparticle Time Blocking Approximation is applied. It uses the HFB mean field and includes both the QRPA and PC effects on the basis of the SLy4 Skyrme force. With our microscopic E1 PSFs, the following properties have been calculated for many stable and unstable even–even semi-magic Sn and Ni isotopes as well as for double-magic {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the reaction codes EMPIRE and TALYS with several Nuclear Level Density (NLD) models: (1) the neutron capture cross sections; (2) the corresponding neutron capture gamma spectra; (3) the average radiative widths of neutron resonances. In all the properties considered, the PC contribution turned out to be significant, as compared with the standard QRPA one, and necessary to explain the available experimental data. The results with the phenomenological so-called generalized superfluid NLD model turned out to be worse, on the whole, than those obtained with the microscopic HFB + combinatorial NLD model. The very topical question about the M1 resonance contribution to PSFs is also discussed.Finally, we also discuss the modern microscopic NLD models based on the self-consistent HFB method and show their relevance to explain the experimental data as compared with the phenomenological models. The use of these self-consistent microscopic approaches is of particular relevance for nuclear astrophysics, but also for the study of double-magic nuclei.

  3. Charged particle-induced nuclear fission reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nuclear fission phenomenon continues to be an enigma, even after nearly 75 years of its discovery. Considerable progress has been made towards understanding the fission process. Both light projectiles and heavy ions have been employed to investigate nuclear fission. An extensive database of the properties of ...

  4. IAEA nuclear data for applications: Cross section standards and the reference input parameter library (RIPL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Pronyaev, Vladimir G.

    2003-01-01

    An integral part of the activities of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section involves the development of nuclear data for a wide range of user applications. When considering low-energy nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, photons and charged particles, a detailed knowledge is required of the production cross sections over a wide energy range, spectra of emitted particles and their angular distributions. Two highly relevant IAEA data development projects are considered in this paper. Neutron reaction cross-section standards represent the basic quantities needed in nuclear reaction cross-section measurements and evaluations. These standards and the covariance matrices of their uncertainties were previously evaluated and released in 1987. However, the derived uncertainties were subsequently considered to be unrealistic low due to the effect of the low uncertainties obtained in fitting the light element standards to the R-matrix model; as a result, evaluators were forced to scale up the uncertainties to 'expected values'. An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements' was initiated in 2002 to improve the evaluation methodology for the covariance matrix of uncertainty in the R-matrix model fits, and to produce R-matrix evaluations of the important light element standards. The scope of this CRP has been substantially extended to include the preparation of a full set of evaluated standard reactions and covariance matrices of their uncertainties. While almost all requests for nuclear data were originally addressed through measurement programmes, our theoretical understanding of nuclear phenomena has reached a reasonable degree of reliability and nuclear modeling has become standard practice in nuclear data evaluations (with measurements remaining crucial for data testing and benchmarking). Since nuclear model codes require a considerable amount of numerical input, the IAEA has instigated extensive efforts to

  5. The nuclear structure and low-energy reactions (NSLER) collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D J

    2006-01-01

    The long-term vision of the Nuclear Structure and Low-Energy Reactions (NSLER) collaboration is to arrive at a comprehensive and unified description of nuclei and their reactions that is grounded in the interactions between the constituent nucleons. For this purpose, we will develop a universal energy density functional for nuclei and replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that will deliver maximum predictive power with minimal uncertainties that are well quantified. Nuclear structure and reactions play an essential role in the science to be investigated at rare isotope facilities, and in nuclear physics applications to the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship Program, next-generation reactors, and threat reduction. We anticipate an expansion of the computational techniques and methods we currently employ, and developments of new treatments, to take advantage of petascale architectures and demonstrate the capability of the leadership class machines to deliver new science heretofore impossible

  6. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  7. Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    2001-01-01

    A current bibliography based on INIS Atomindex with 78 references on Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations has been prepared for year 1998. References are arranged by first authors' name. (N.T.)

  8. Photoneutron Reaction Data for Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsunomiya Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the role of photoneutron reaction data in nuclear physics and astrophysics in conjunction with the Coordinated Research Project of the International Atomic Energy Agency with the code F41032 (IAEA-CRP F41032.

  9. Photopion reactions, a probe for nuclear critical opalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1980-07-01

    It is shown that photopion reactions are a good probe of the nuclear pion field for momenta characteristic of pion condensation. They are thus a direct detector of critical opalescence. Best conditions for experimental detection are discussed

  10. Photoneutron Reaction Data for Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Renstrøm, Therese; Tveten, Gry Merete; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan Mihai; Belyshev, Sergey; Stopani, Konstantin; Wang, Hongwei; Fan, Gongtao; Lui, Yiu-Wing; Symochko, Dmytro; Goriely, Stephane; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Siem, Sunniva; Varlamov, Vladimir; Ishkhanov, Boris; Glodariu, Tudor; Krzysiek, Mateusz; Takenaka, Daiki; Ari-izumi, Takashi; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the role of photoneutron reaction data in nuclear physics and astrophysics in conjunction with the Coordinated Research Project of the International Atomic Energy Agency with the code F41032 (IAEA-CRP F41032).

  11. Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Gilai, T. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1982-01-01

    Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs.

  12. Progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.; Schwerer, O.; Lammer, M.; Zerkin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The report summarises the work done in the field of nuclear data at the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA (Web: http://www-nds.iaea.org/, e-mail: services at iaeand.iaea.org) for the period 1 May 2000 - 30 April 2001. Data compilation activities are related to CINDA data collection. CINDA 2000 was published as a cumulative issue including literature published and data files compiled/updated between 1988 and 2000. After a working version of the EXFOR database updating program CSIMER was obtained and the dictionary maintenance programs DAN2X4 and MAKE B ACK were modified at NDS (to take care of last year's format change of the DANIEL dictionaries), a backlog in processing incoming TRANS files could be worked up and dictionary transmission 9077 was implemented and distributed in spring 2001 (following dictionary transmission 9076 of Summer 2000). New evaluated data libraries, files and data processing codes are advertised for distribution to the NDS customers. Some of these products were obtained through the network of co-operating centres, others comprise the results of the IAEA/NDS CRP projects. They include: IAEA Photonuclear Library; Charged-Particle Cross Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production; FENDL/A in Pictures Presentation; PREPRO2000: 2000 ENDF/B Pre-processing Codes; Reference Neutron Activation Library (RNAL); POINT2000: A temperature Dependent ENDF/B-VI, Release 7 Cross Section Library. The EXFOR CD-ROM relational database under ACCESS-97 was finalized with a further improvement of the functionality, an acceleration of the data search, gathering statistics, simplification of the installation procedure of the plotting utility, CD-ROM Start up utility. An enhanced search facility on reaction products, including fission products specified only in data table, was developed (April 2001 EXFOR/Access version). The collaboration with other centres in the development of new approaches to the nuclear database management and data dissemination was

  13. On nuclear reaction duration at the range of overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reaction duration above the threshold of overlapping resonances is investigated and its importance to obtain a new information on a collision mechanism is evidenced. It is shown also that the duration of resonant nuclear reactions is asymptotically decreasing according to the law[E 2 n(E)] -1 when the energy E and the number of open channels n(E) are increasing [ru

  14. Report on the consultants` meeting on technical aspects of the co-operation of nuclear reaction data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmel, H D; Schwerer, O; Wienke, H [eds.

    1995-10-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convenes in annual intervals coordination meetings of the Network of the Nuclear Reaction Data Center. The present meeting dealt with technical matters of the nuclear data compilation and exchange by means of the jointly operated computerized systems CINDA, EXFOR, ENDF and others. Refs, figs and tabs.

  15. Report on the consultants' meeting on technical aspects of the co-operation of nuclear reaction data centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schwerer, O.; Wienke, H.

    1995-10-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convenes in annual intervals coordination meetings of the Network of the Nuclear Reaction Data Center. The present meeting dealt with technical matters of the nuclear data compilation and exchange by means of the jointly operated computerized systems CINDA, EXFOR, ENDF and others. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  17. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  18. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation

  19. Evaluation of the nuclear cross sections for the reactions: /sup 93/Nb(n,2n)sup(92M)Nb and /sup 93/Nb(n,2n)/sup 92/Nb from threshold to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philis, C; Young, P G

    1975-07-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the nuclear cross section for the reactions /sup 93/Nb(n,2n)sup(92M)Nb and /sup 93/Nb(n,2n)/sup 92/Nb has been completed from threshold to 20 MeV. The evaluation is based entirely on experimental results. The recommended values were determined after analysis, selection, and normalization of the measurements to a consistent set of standards. The evaluated data are discussed and compared with theoretical values and estimates of the uncertainty in the adopted data are provided.

  20. Report of the nuclear data section to the international nuclear data committee September 1981 - February 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1983-02-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period September 1981 to February 1983. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services. (author)

  1. Report of the Nuclear Data Section to the International Nuclear Data Committee. September 1978 - February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1980-03-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period September 1978 to February 1980. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services

  2. Report of the Nuclear Data Section to the International Nuclear Data Committee March 1980 - August 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1981-07-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period March 1980 to August 1981. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services. (author)

  3. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  4. Nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Collatz, R; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Folger, H; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Blunt, D; Durell, JL; Varley, BJ; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; JONES, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Amzal, N; Meliani, Z; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Passoja, A; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    The main features of nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers used in nuclear spectroscopic investigations involving in-beam multi-e-gamma spectrometers are discussed. The relative importance of the F-ray background due to the accelerated ion-target and the recoil-ion-target

  5. A workshop report on nuclear reaction and cluster structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A work shop was held in June 1984 at RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University, to discuss theory of nuclear reactions based on studies from microscopic or cluster structure viewpoints. About forty researchers participated in this work shop and 27 paperes were presented. All these papers with English abstracts are gathered in this collective report. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  7. International conference: Features of nuclear excitation states and mechanisms of nuclear reactions. 51. Meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure. The book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Results of the LI Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear Structure are presented. Properties of excited states of atomic nuclei and mechanisms of nuclear reactions are considered. Studies on the theory of nucleus and fundamental interactions pertinent to experimental study of nuclei properties and mechanisms of nuclear reactions, technique and methods of experiment, application of nuclear-physical method, are provided [ru

  8. The Glauber model and heavy ion reaction and elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Ajay [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Shukla, Prashant, E-mail: pshukla@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-05-15

    We revisit the Glauber model to study the heavy ion reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions at low and intermediate energies. The Glauber model takes nucleon–nucleon cross sections and nuclear densities as inputs and has no free parameter and thus can predict the cross sections for unknown systems. The Glauber model works at low energies down to Coulomb barrier with very simple modifications. We present new parametrization of measured total cross sections as well as ratio of real to imaginary parts of the scattering amplitudes for pp and np collisions as a function of nucleon kinetic energy. The nuclear (charge) densities obtained by electron scattering form factors measured in large momentum transfer range are used in the calculations. The heavy ion reaction cross sections are calculated for light and heavy systems and are compared with available data measured over large energy range. The model gives excellent description of the data. The elastic scattering angular distributions are calculated for various systems at different energies. The model gives good description of the data at small momentum transfer but the calculations deviate from the data at large momentum transfer.

  9. Neutron halo in 14B studied via reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Tanaka, M.; Iwamoto, K.; Wakabayashi, S.; Yaguchi, M.; Ohno, J.; Morita, Y.; Kamisho, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Nishimura, D.; Suzuki, S.; Nagashima, M.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ogura, T.; Abe, K.; Kikukawa, N.; Sakai, T.; Sera, D.; Takechi, M.; Izumikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sato, K.; Furuki, H.; Miyazawa, S.; Ichihashi, N.; Kohno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Fukuda, S.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction cross sections (σ R ) for the neutron-rich nucleus 14 B on Be, C, and Al targets have been measured at several energies in the intermediate energy range of 45-120 MeV/nucleon. The present experimental σ R show a significant enhancement relative to the systematics of stable nuclei. The nucleon density distribution was deduced through the fitting procedure with the modified Glauber calculation. The necessity of a long tail in the density distribution was found, which is consistent with the valence neutron in 2s 1/2 orbital with the small empirical one-neutron separation energy in 14 B. (authors)

  10. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The experimental activities have in 1987, as in the previous years, mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Most of the nuclear physics experiments have been related to the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Theoretical studies of highly excited nuclei have continued, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists

  11. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute concerning theoretical physics, nuclear reactions, hyperfine structure, atomic collisions, and developments of the VICKSI accelerator together with a list of publications and talks. (HSI) [de

  12. Direct reactions for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Katherine Louise

    2014-01-01

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106 Sn at the NSCL, and on 131 Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  13. Direct Reactions for Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine Louise [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Experimental Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Group

    2014-12-18

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106Sn at the NSCL, and on 131Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  14. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-12-01

    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  15. Impact of phonon coupling on the radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achakovskiy Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pygmy dipole resonance and photon strength functions (PSF in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The approach includes phonon coupling (PC effects in addition to the standard QRPA approach. The Skyrme force SLy4 is used. A pygmy dipole resonance in 72Ni is predicted at the mean energy of 12.4 MeV exhausting 25.7% of the total energy-weighted sum rule. With our microscopic E1 PSFs in the EMPIRE 3.1 code, the following radiative nuclear reaction characteristics have been calculated for several stable and unstable even-even Sn and Ni isotopes: 1 neutron capture cross sections, 2 corresponding neutron capture gamma-spectra, 3 average radiative widths of neutron resonances. Here, three variants of the microscopic nuclear level density models have been used and a comparison with the phenomenological generalized superfluid model has been performed. In all the considered properties, including the recent experimental data for PSF in Sn isotopes, the PC contributions turned out to be significant, as compared with the QRPA one, and necessary to explain the available experimental data.

  16. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  17. IAEA Nuclear Data Section: Progress Report, 2010/11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, S.P.; Otsuka, N.; Zerkin, V.; Semkova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of Nuclear Data Activity by Staff of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section from April 2010 - May 2011 including Staff Changes, Data Compilations (EXFOR transmission, EXFOR quality control, EXFOR coverage control, Workshops and Meetings in 2010/2011 relevant to EXFOR, CINDA, Evaluated data libraries, files and programs), Services, software and Nuclear Data Developments

  18. Nuclear Reaction and Structure Databases of the National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Arcilla, R.; Herman, M. W.; Oblozinsky, P.; Rochman, D.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Tuli, J. K.; Winchell, D. F.

    2006-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic research and applied nuclear technologies. In 2004, the NNDC migrated all databases into modern relational database software, installed new generation of Linux servers and developed new Java-based Web service. This nuclear database development means much faster, more flexible and more convenient service to all users in the United States. These nuclear reaction and structure database developments as well as related Web services are briefly described

  19. Activation cross section and isomeric cross-section ratio for the (n,2n) reaction on {sup 132,134}Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Junhua [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). Inst. of New Energy; Wu, Chunlei; Jiang, Li [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry; Li, Suyuan [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). Inst. of New Energy

    2017-07-01

    Cross sections of the {sup 132}Ba(n,2n){sup 131m,g}Ba and {sup 134}Ba(n,2n){sup 133m,g}Ba reactions and their isomeric cross section ratios σ{sub m}/σ{sub g} have been measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. BaCO{sub 3} samples and Nb monitor foils were activated together to determine the reaction cross section and the incident neutron flux. The quasimonoenergetic neutrons beam were produced via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction at the Pd-300 Neutron Generator of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ ray spectroscopy. The pure cross section of the ground-state was derived from the absolute cross section of the metastable state and the residual nuclear decay analysis. Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical nuclear model code, TALYS-1.8 with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  20. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1993. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects nd work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics. In theoretical physics the group is concerned with the many-body description of nuclear properties as well as with the foundation of quantum physics

  1. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as {sup 86,88,89g}Zr, {sup 86g,87m,87g,88}Y, {sup 83g,85g}Sr, and {sup 83,84g}Rb in the {sup 89}Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  2. TOTAL NUCLEAR-REACTION PROBABILITY OF 270 TO 390 N-14 IONS IN SI AND CSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARNER, RE; CARPENTER, CL; FETTER, JM; WAITE, WF; WILSCHUT, HW; HOOGDUIN, JM

    A magnetic spectrograph and position-sensitive detectors were used to measure the total nuclear reaction probability eta(R) for alpha + CsI at 116 MeV, N-14 + CsI at 265 and 385 MeV, and N-14 + Si at 271 and 390 MeV. From these eta(R)'s, average reaction cross sections sigma(R) were deduced for

  3. Determination of minor actinides fission cross sections by means of transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Boyer, S.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Grosjean, C.; Guiral, A.; Haas, B.; Osmanov, B.; Petit, M. [CENBG - UMR 5795 CNRS/IN2P3-Univ. Bordeaux 1- Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan (France); Berthoumieux, E.; Gunsing, F.; Perrot, L.; Theisen, Ch. [CEN Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Bauge, E. [CEA, SPhN, BP12 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Michel-Sendis, F. [IPN, 15 rue G. Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Billebaud, A. [LPSC, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Wilson, J. N. [IPN, 15 rue G. Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); LPSC, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Ahmad, I.; Greene, J.P.; Janssens, R. V. F. [ANL, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    We present an original method that allows to determine neutron-induced cross sections of very short-lived minor actinides. This indirect method, based on the use of transfer reactions, has already been applied with success for the determination of the neutron-induced fission and capture cross section of {sup 233}Pa, a key nucleus in the {sup 232}Th - {sup 233}U fuel cycle. A recent experiment using this technique has been performed to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 242,243,244}Cm and {sup 241}Am which are present in the nuclear waste of the current U-Pu fuel cycle. These cross sections are highly relevant for the design of reactors capable to incinerate minor actinides. The first results will be illustrated. (authors)

  4. Total reaction cross section and foward glory for 12C + 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, A.C.C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaler Filho, R.; Portezan Filho, O.; Obuti, M.M.

    1988-12-01

    A model-independent method is proposed for the determination of the total reaction cross section from elastic angular distributions. This method based on the generalized optical theorem, was applied to 16 complete elastic angular distributions of the system 12 C + 16 O at energies between E CM =8.55 MeV and E CM = 26.74 MeV. Some of the angular distributions were measured at the Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory. Angular distributions measured by the Erlangen and Saclay groups were also used. The reaction cross section is compared with fusion measurements and with σ R obtained by indirect methods. The existence and conditions for the observation of the nuclear forward glory scattering are investigated. (author) [pt

  5. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    James, G D; Michaudon, A; Michaudon, A; Cierjacks, S W; Chrien, R E

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Fission and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross-Sections is the first volume in a series on Neutron Physics and Nuclear Data in Science and Technology. This volume serves the purpose of providing a thorough description of the many facets of neutron physics in different fields of nuclear applications. This book also attempts to bridge the communication gap between experts involved in the experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear properties and those involved in the technological applications of nuclear data. This publication will be invaluable to those interested in studying nuclear fis

  6. Enhancement mechanisms of low energy nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; Ratis, Yu.L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, 6 Joliot Curie Street, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The full review of Russian low energy nuclear reactors is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies, LENR, is possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - excitation and ionization of atoms and universal resonance synchronization principle are responsible for it. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics. The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor reproducibility of experimental data is due to the fact that LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical reproducibility principle should be reconsidered for LENR experiments. Poor reproducibility and unexplained results do not means that the experiment is wrong.

  7. Enhancement mechanisms of low energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; Ratis, Yu.L.

    2006-01-01

    The full review of Russian low energy nuclear reactors is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies, LENR, is possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - excitation and ionization of atoms and universal resonance synchronization principle are responsible for it. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics. The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor reproducibility of experimental data is due to the fact that LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical reproducibility principle should be reconsidered for LENR experiments. Poor reproducibility and unexplained results do not means that the experiment is wrong

  8. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes activities of the Nuclear Theory Group at Brown University during the period 1 August 1987-31 July 1988, under Grant FG02-87ER40334. Completed and on-going research includes various theoretical and numerical studies on: parity non-conserving interactions in a relativistic system, processes involving virtual photons and real photons, deuteron-nucleus and neutron-deuteron collisions systems, and muon-catalyzed fusion

  9. Standard and Nonstandard Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions Cross Sections and Event Rates to Neutrino Detection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Papoulias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore ν-nucleus processes from a nuclear theory point of view and obtain results with high confidence level based on accurate nuclear structure cross sections calculations. Besides cross sections, the present study includes simulated signals expected to be recorded by nuclear detectors and differential event rates as well as total number of events predicted to be measured. Our original cross sections calculations are focused on measurable rates for the standard model process, but we also perform calculations for various channels of the nonstandard neutrino-nucleus reactions and come out with promising results within the current upper limits of the corresponding exotic parameters. We concentrate on the possibility of detecting (i supernova neutrinos by using massive detectors like those of the GERDA and SuperCDMS dark matter experiments and (ii laboratory neutrinos produced near the spallation neutron source facilities (at Oak Ridge National Lab by the COHERENT experiment. Our nuclear calculations take advantage of the relevant experimental sensitivity and employ the severe bounds extracted for the exotic parameters entering the Lagrangians of various particle physics models and specifically those resulting from the charged lepton flavour violating μ-→e- experiments (Mu2e and COMET experiments.

  10. The nuclear structure dependence of (p,α) reactions on light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, W.

    1985-01-01

    As the theoretical predictions on nuclear structure and on nucleon-nucleon correlations implied by the nuclear wave functions are not subject to an immediate experimental verification the authors require a reaction theory connecting these state functions with observable quantities. The application of (rho,α) reactions as a spectroscopic tool has found widespread interest, as a number of microscopic descriptions of the reaction mechanism have facilitated the extraction of nuclear structure information. A microscopic formulation results in a strong dependence of the cross section on the nuclear structure of the reaction partners. The different basic configurations of the transferred nucleon system contribute coherently, thus causing a great sensitivity to the relative phases of the wave functions' amplitudes. A major disadvantage inherent to these microscopic theories of multinucleon-transfer reactions is based on the destruction of the transition amplitude's formal symmetry in the dynamic and in the nuclear structure part. In order to retain the factorization of the reaction amplitude, the authors applied the cluster ansatz to the microscopic theory of an earlier studies. The attractive features of this procedure are the conservation of the coherence properties of the structure term and the straightforward determination of transition strengths, independent of an elaborate DWBA treatment

  11. Improved predictions of nuclear reaction rates with the TALYS reaction code for astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J

    2008-01-01

    Context. Nuclear reaction rates of astrophysical applications are traditionally determined on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach reaction codes. These codes adopt a number of approximations that have never been tested, such as a simplified width fluctuation correction, the neglect of delayed or multiple-particle emission during the electromagnetic decay cascade, or the absence of the pre-equilibrium contribution at increasing incident energies. Aims. The reaction code TALYS has been recently updated to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates that are of astrophysical relevance. These new developments enable the reaction rates to be calculated with increased accuracy and reliability and the approximations of previous codes to be investigated. Methods. The TALYS predictions for the thermonuclear rates of relevance to astrophysics are detailed and compared with those derived by widely-used codes for the same nuclear ingredients. Results. It is shown that TALYS predictions may differ significantly from those of previous codes, in particular for nuclei for which no or little nuclear data is available. The pre-equilibrium process is shown to influence the astrophysics rates of exotic neutron-rich nuclei significantly. For the first time, the Maxwellian- averaged (n, 2n) reaction rate is calculated for all nuclei and its competition with the radiative capture rate is discussed. Conclusions. The TALYS code provides a new tool to estimate all nuclear reaction rates of relevance to astrophysics with improved accuracy and reliability. (authors)

  12. Section for nuclear physics annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The experimental activities have in 1986 as in the previous years mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Most of the nuclear physics experiments have been related to the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Experiments with the 3 He-beam up to a particle energy of 45 MeV have continued, and valuable information regarding the cooling process in highly excited nuclei has been obtained. Theoretical studies of highly excited nuclei have continued, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists

  13. Nuclear data libraries and online services. An introduction to the data types and services available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Schwerer, O.

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section provides convenient, cost-free access to the world's most comprehensive collection of numerical nuclear physics data. These nuclear data libraries result from a worldwide cooperation of nuclear data centres coordinated by the IAEA. An introduction is given to the various nuclear data types and libraries with particular emphasis to online services via the Internet. This paper summarizes a presentation for the IAEA Workshop on ''Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety'' held at ICTP Trieste, Italy, 23 February - 17 March 1998. (author)

  14. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The past year has seen continued progress in our efforts. On the experimental side, we completed data acquisition on our major remaining involvement at NIKHEF, the 12 C(e,e'pp) experiment. We advanced the analysis of most of projects in low lying nuclear structure and giant resonances, of which several were completed and published. We received approval for several new experiments, and have made major contributions to design and development of detectors to be used at Bates and CEBAF. Our data interpretation efforts have been extended and enhanced with the availability of our new computer cluster. In this paper we briefly report on most of these efforts

  15. Nuclear reactions: public attitudes and policies toward nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.; Baxter, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The declining public support for nuclear power has political costs. In the wake of the Three Mile Island accident, public trust in the nuclear industry has reached an all-time low. Recognition of this lack of trust sets up a counterweight to the industry pressures for relaxed regulation. The authors present the historical background behind the current debate, then summarize the available scientific survey data on the actual levels and trends in public attitudes. They find little reason for optimism. With the exception of gender, most demographic factors have only modest influence on nuclear power attitudes, which suggests that public uneasiness about the technology has become a fact of life. They conclude that a significant weakening of federal safety standards would not be consistent with public preferences. 49 references, 3 figures

  16. Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in materials: Principals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis for hydrogen in materials is difficult by most traditional analytic methods. Because hydrogen has no Auger transitions, no X-ray transitions, does not neutron activate, and does not backscatter ions, it is invisible in analytical methods based on these effects. In addition, since hydrogen is a universal contaminant in vacuum systems, techniques based on mass spectrometry are difficult unless extreme measures are taken to reduce hydrogen backgrounds. Because of this situation, methods have been developed for analyzing for hydrogen in solid materials based on nuclear reactions between bombarding ions and hydrogen atoms (protons) in the samples. The nuclear reaction methods are now practiced at laboratories around the world. The basic principals of nuclear reaction analysis will be briefly presented. This method will be illustrated by applications to problems ranging from basic physics, to geology, to materials science, and to art history and archeology

  17. Calculational tools for the evaluation of nuclear cross-section and spectra data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A technique based on discrete energy levels rather than energy level densities is presented for nuclear reaction calculations. The validity of the technique is demonstrated via theoretical and experimental agreement for cross sections, isomer-ratios and gamma-ray strength functions. 50 refs., 7 figs

  18. Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound-nucleus Hauser-Feshbach cross section, and the fluctuations in the intermediate channels result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in detail and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the development of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate-channel optical potentials

  19. Secondary standard neutron detector for measuring total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharan, K.K.; Laumer, H.; Gabbard, F.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and calibrated for the accurate measurement of total neutron-production cross sections. The detector consists of a polyethylene sphere of 24'' diameter in which 8- 10 BF 3 counters have been installed radially. The relative efficiency of this detector has been determined for average neutron energies, from 30 keV to 1.5 MeV by counting neutrons from 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be. By adjusting the radial positions of the BF 3 counters in the polyethylene sphere the efficiency for neutron detection was made nearly constant for this energy range. Measurement of absolute efficiency for the same neutron energy range has been done by counting the neutrons from 51 V(p,n) 51 Cr and 57 Fe(p,n) 57 Co reactions and determining the absolute number of residual nuclei produced during the measurement of neutron yield. Details of absolute efficiency measurements and the use of the detector for measurement of total neutron yields from neutron producing reactions such as 23 Na(p,n) 23 Mg are given

  20. Role amplification of the coulomb interaction in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok; Soni, S K; Pancholi, S K; Gupta, S L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Radiotekhnicheskij Inst.

    1976-10-01

    The genarally adopted estimate of coulomb interaction in nuclear reactions based on the comparison of relative energies of real particles participating in the reaction with the coulomb barrier has been shown to provide wrong presentation of the role of coulomb interaction in the reaction mechanism. The relative energy of particles participating in virtual processes forming the reaction mechanism and its relation to the coulomb barrier turn out to be tens of per cent less than for the particles in an inlet channel. This is the main reason of increasing the role of coulomb interaction in the reaction mechanism. This increase is particularly significant for nuclei with large charges, in particular, in heavy ion reaction.

  1. Quantitative surface analysis using deuteron-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afarideh, Hossein

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique consists of looking at the energies of the reaction products which uniquely define the particular elements present in the sample and it analysis the yield/energy distribution to reveal depth profiles. A summary of the basic features of the nuclear reaction analysis technique is given, in particular emphasis is placed on quantitative light element determination using (d,p) and (d,alpha) reactions. The experimental apparatus is also described. Finally a set of (d,p) spectra for the elements Z=3 to Z=17 using 2 MeV incident deutrons is included together with example of more applications of the (d,alpha) spectra. (author)

  2. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Fleming, Michael; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, to the local and total uncertainty in the simulated reactions rates (RRs), which usually only apply to one application at a time. This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment, and discusses correct handling of the RR uncertainty quantification and propagation, including details of the cross section components in the RR uncertainty estimates, which are verified for relevant applications. The methodology that rigorously captures the spectral shift and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR are discussed with quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment of the spectrum profile and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR and subsequent response functions. The recently developed inventory code FISPACT-II, when connected to the processed nuclear data libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u or JEFF-3.2, forms an enhanced multi-physics platform providing a wide variety of advanced simulation methods for modelling activation, transmutation, burnup protocols and simulating radiation damage sources terms. The system has extended cutting-edge nuclear data forms, uncertainty quantification and propagation methods, which have been the subject of recent integral and differential, fission, fusion and accelerators validation efforts. The simulation system is used to accurately and predictively probe, understand and underpin a modern and sustainable understanding

  3. Investigations of nuclear projectile break-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1986-10-01

    The cross sections for radiative capture of α-particles, deuterons and protons by light nuclei at very low relative energies are of particular importance for the understanding of the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements and for determining the relative elemental abundances in stellar burning processes at various astrophysical sites. As example we quote the reactions α+d → 6 Li+γ, α+ 3 He → 7 Be+γ, or α+ 12 C → 16 O+γ. As an alternative to the direct experimental study of these processes we consider the inverse process, the photodisintegration, by means of the virtual photons provided by a nuclear Coulomb field: Z+a → Z+b+c. The radiative capture process b+c → a+γ is related to the inverse process, the photodisintegration γ+a → b+c by the detailed balance theorem. Except for the extreme case very close to the threshold the phase space favours the photodisintegration cross section as compared to the radiative capture. The Coulomb dissociation cross section proves to be enhanced due to the large virtual photon number, seen by the passing projectile, and the kinematics of the process leads to particular advantages for studies of the interaction of the two break-up fragments at small relative energies E bc . The conditions of dedicated experimental investigations are discussed and demonstrated by recent experimental and theoretical studies of the break-up of 156 MeV 6 Li projectiles. In addition, a brief review about general features of break-up processes of light ions in the field of atomic nuclei is given. (orig.) [de

  4. Probing properties of neutron stars with terrestrial nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, C.M.; Steiner, Andrew W.; Yong Gaochan

    2006-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide the unique opportunity in terrestrial laboratories to constrain the nuclear symmetry energy Esym in a broad density range. A conservative constraint, 32(ρ/ρ0)0.7 < Esym(ρ) < 32(ρ/ρ0)1.1, around the nuclear matter saturation density ρ0 has recently been obtained from analyzing the isospin diffusion data within a transport model for intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions. This subsequently puts a stringent constraint on properties of neutron stars, especially their radii and cooling mechanisms

  5. Statistical methods of spin assignment in compound nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, H.; Johns, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Spin assignment to nuclear levels can be obtained from standard in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques and in the case of compound nuclear reactions can be complemented by statistical methods. These are based on a correlation pattern between level spin and gamma-ray intensities feeding low-lying levels. Three types of intensity and level spin correlations are found suitable for spin assignment: shapes of the excitation functions, ratio of intensity at two beam energies or populated in two different reactions, and feeding distributions. Various empirical attempts are examined and the range of applicability of these methods as well as the limitations associated with them are given. 12 references

  6. Statistical methods of spin assignment in compound nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, H.; Johns, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Spin assignment to nuclear levels can be obtained from standard in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques and in the case of compound nuclear reactions can be complemented by statistical methods. These are based on a correlation pattern between level spin and gamma-ray intensities feeding low-lying levels. Three types of intensity and level spin correlations are found suitable for spin assignment: shapes of the excitation functions, ratio of intensity at two beam energies or populated in two different reactions, and feeding distributions. Various empirical attempts are examined and the range of applicability of these methods as well as the limitations associated with them are given

  7. Development of nuclear reaction data retrieval system on Meme media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    A newly designed retrieval system of charged particle nuclear reaction data is developed on Meme media architecture. We designed the network-based (client-server) retrieval system. The server system is constructed on a UNIX workstation with a relational database, and the client system is constructed on Microsoft Windows PC using an IntelligentPad software package. The IntelligentPad is currently available as developing Meme media. We will develop the system to realize effective utilization of nuclear reaction data: I. 'Re-production, Re-edit, Re-use', II. 'Circulation, Coordination and Evolution', III. 'Knowledge discovery'. (author)

  8. EXFOR Systems Manual Nuclear reaction Data Exchange Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    2000-01-01

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format

  9. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  10. US nuclear reaction data program in support of basic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.; Chadwick, M.B.; Smith, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Information about the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN) such as its members, work in progress, summaries of meetings, and organizational details may be found in its WWW Homepage. This paper is an overview of the data support provided by the network for basic research in nuclear astrophysics, radioactive ion beams, high energy heavy-ion and electron interactions and related activities involving all aspects of data stewardship

  11. Recent developments in nuclear reaction theories and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of some recent developments in the fields of optical model potentials; level densities; and statistical model, precompound, and direct reaction codes and calculations. Significant developments have occurred in all of these fields since the 1977 Conference on Neutron Cross Sections, which will greatly enhance the ability to calculate high-energy neutron-induced reaction cross sections in the next few years. 11 figures, 3 tables

  12. Review of nuclear reaction data evaluation in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    The development of the nuclear reaction data evaluation activities in the US over the last 40 years is reviewed, starting with comments on several reports as early as 1944. The review moves on to the development of consortia to share the burden by interchanging sets of data and efforts toward putting together an encoding system and computer-oriented formats. It is predicted that future emphasis is likely to be on charged particle induced reactions. (LEW)

  13. Exclusive nuclear reactions: Can you count on the deuteron?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Three of the simplest nuclear reactions -- (1) electron-deuteron elastic scattering, (2) electro-disintegration of the deuteron near threshold and at high momentum transfer, and (3) photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy -- were believed to have unique signatures for OCD effects in nuclei. The progress in the past few years with regard to these reactions will be traced and the results will be compared with recent theoretical predictions. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  14. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  15. Review of nuclear reaction data evaluation in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    The development of the nuclear reaction data evaluation activities in the US over the last 40 years is reviewed, starting with comments on several reports as early as 1944. The review moves on to the development of consortia to share the burden by interchanging sets of data and efforts toward putting together an encoding system and computer-oriented formats. It is predicted that future emphasis is likely to be on charged particle induced reactions

  16. Calculation of the Reaction Cross Section for Several Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Vladuca, Gheorghita; Tudora, Anabella; Filipescu, Dan

    2005-01-01

    New, self-consistent, neutron-induced reaction cross-section calculations for 235,238U, 237Np, and 231,232,233Pa have been performed. The statistical model code STATIS was extended to take into account the multi-modality of the fission process. The three most dominant fission modes, the two asymmetric standard I (S1) and standard II (S2) modes, and the symmetric superlong (SL) mode have been taken into account. De-convoluted fission cross sections for these modes in 235,238U(n,f) and 237Np(n,f) based on experimental branching ratios, were calculated for the first time up to the second chance fission threshold. For 235U(n,f) and 233Pa(n,f), the calculations being made up to 50 MeV and 20 MeV incident neutron energy, respectively, higher fission chances have been considered. This implied the need for additional calculations for the neighbouring isotopes.As a side product also mass yield distributions could be calculated at energies hitherto not accessible by experiment. Experimental validation of the predictions is being envisaged

  17. Concrete alkali-silica reaction and nuclear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete by alkali-silica reaction of aggregates (ASR) and the effect of nuclear radiations on the ASR have been reviewed based on our studies on the mechanism of ASR and the effect of nuclear radiations on the resistivity of minerals to alkaline solution. It has been found that the ASR is initiated by the attack of alkaline solution in concrete to silicious aggregates to convert them into hydrated alkali silicate. The consumption of alkali hydroxide by the aggregates induces the dissolution of Ca 2+ ions into the solution. The alkali silicate surrounding the aggregates then reacts with Ca 2+ ions to convert to insoluble tight and rigid reaction rims. The reaction rim allows the penetration of alkaline solution but prevents the leakage of viscous alkali silicate, so that alkali silicate generated afterward is accumulated in the aggregate to give an expansive pressure enough for cracking the aggregate and the surrounding concrete. The effect of nuclear radiation on the reactivity of quartz and plagioclase, a part of major minerals composing volcanic rocks as popular aggregates, to alkaline solution has been examined for clarifying whether nuclear radiations accelerates the ASR. It has been found that the irradiation of these minerals converts them into alkali-reactive amorphous ones. The radiation dose for plagioclase is as low as 10 8 Gy, which suggests that the ASR of concrete surrounding nuclear reactors is possible to be accelerated by nuclear radiation. (author)

  18. [Research in heavy ion nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, E.H.; Liu, X.T.; Petitt, G.A.; Zhang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have been involved in several projects during the present contract period. These include participation in the RD93 test run performed last summer at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven, analysis of the data from this run, Monte Carlo simulations using the GEANT code of the performance of the calorimeter/absorber used in RD45, and simulations of the performance of the muon detector system for the PHENIX detector at RHIC using the PISA code. They have been preparing for tests to be performed this summer at the AGS of a prototype muon identifier using limited streamer tube detectors of the type selected for use in the muon arm of the PHENIX detector at RHIC. They have begun work on Monte Carlo simulations of particle detection in the presence of intense background events for the E864 experiment which is approved for running at the AGS. Finally, the authors have completed their work on leakage from the absorber/calorimeter and have submitted a paper to Nuclear Instruments and Methods

  19. Variational methods for chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1977-01-01

    All the variational functionals are derived which satisfy certain criteria of suitability for molecular and nuclear scattering, below the threshold energy for three-body breakup. The existence and uniqueness of solutions are proven. The most general suitable functional is specialized, by particular values of its parameters, to Kohn's taneta, Kato's cot(eta-theta), the inverse Kohn coeta, Kohn's S matrix, our S matrix, Lane and Robson's functional, and several new functionals, an infinite number of which are contained in the general expression. Four general ways of deriving algebraic methods from a given functional are discussed, and illustrated with specific algebraic results. These include equations of Lane and Robson and of Kohn, the fundamental R matrix relation, and new equations. The relative configuration space is divided as in the Wigner R matrix theory, and trial wavefunctions are needed for only the region where all the particles are interacting. In addition, a version of the general functional is presented which does not require any division of space

  20. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1982-02-01

    This document lists more than 50 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. All data and documentation references are available, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  1. Index of Nuclear Data Libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    This document lists more than 80 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. All data and documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge. (author)

  2. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This document lists more than 80 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. All data and documentation references are available upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge. (author)

  3. Index of nuclear data libraries available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1984-12-01

    This document lists more than 50 nuclear data libraries together with references that give more detailed information about these libraries. All data and documentation references are available, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  4. Nuclear reactions of medium and heavy target nuclei with high-energy projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, P.; Damdinsuren, C.

    1988-01-01

    The cross sections of a number of target fragmentation products formed in nuclear reactions of 3.65 AGeV 12 C-ions and 3.65 GeV protons with 197 Au have been measured. The measurements have been done by direct counting of irradiated targets with Ge(Li) gamma-spectrometers. Comparison between these and other data has been used to test the hypotheses of factorization and limiting fragmentation. The total cross section for residue production in both reactions indicates that target residues are formed mainly in central collisions

  5. Theory of nuclear reactions, with applications to heavy ion scattering reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear science to day, has gained its stature through the pioneer work of both theorists and experimentalists within its two main divisions, Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Structure theories. Our main interest in this theoretical work in nuclear reaction theory is focused on three topics, come under the headings of three parts which are the constituents of the present paper. Part 1 is concerned with ''Contributions to the theory of Threshold phenomena in nuclear reactions; cluster threshold states in heavy ion reactions''. Part II is devoted to ''Hermiticity of the Laplacian operator, R-matrix theories and direct interaction theory'', while part xII is ascribed to ''Heavy ion transfer reactions and scattering''. The aforementioned selected topics are the backbones of this thesis, which starts with general introduction giving a brief account about the material included in. In each part, investiqations are given in an extended manner through several chapters. Finally, the thesis is ended eith the chapter on ''General Discussions and Conclusions''. Appendices, references, and figure captions are found at the end of each part, the matter which we believe to facilitate much the reading through of the thesis. The first two parts are based (to some extent) on the same formal background (R-matrix, Kapur-Peierls-theories) and they converge to solve some physical problems originating from flux conservation laws in nuclear reactions, while the third part is indirect related to the first two; in principle it joins the other two parts under computational aspects. All of them after all, form the solidarity of the material included in the thesis. (author)

  6. Progress Report, Nuclear Reaction Data Group at ATOMKI (NRDC Meeting, 16-19 April 2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Szelecsenyi, F.; Kovacs, Z.; Szucs, Z.; Kiraly, B.; Csikai, J.

    2012-01-01

    The research program of the Atomki Nuclear Reaction Data Group consists of measurement, compilation, evaluation and application of low and medium energy charged particle induced nuclear reaction data. The work is done in international collaborations. The experiments, data compilation and data evaluation are mainly connected to running international projects. Every day applications at ATOMKI and collaborating institutes also initiate data measurements. One initiative is the systematic experimental study of activation cross sections of proton and deuteron induced reactions for comparison with the results of modern theoretical codes to establish a more reliable experimental database and to prepare of a general use activation file up to 100 MeV protons and 50 MeV deuterons. Second program is the systematic investigation of nuclear data for production of radioisotopes candidate for use in radiotherapy. The staff members are active referrers of different journals and conference proceedings reporting nuclear data related works (Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Journal of Radioanalytical and nuclear Chemistry, Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Annals of Nuclear Energy, etc)

  7. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada

  8. Exploratory study of nuclear reaction data utility framework of Japan charged particle reaction data group (JCPRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi; Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    Compilation, evaluation and dissemination are essential pieces of work for the nuclear data activities. We, Japan charged particle data group, have researched the utility framework for the nuclear reaction data on the basis of recent progress of computer and network technologies. These technologies will be not only for the data dissemination but for the compilation and evaluation assistance among the many corresponding researchers of all over the world. In this paper, current progress of our research and development is shown. (author)

  9. 2008 annual meeting on nuclear technology. Pt. 1. Section reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, Ron; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Faber, Wolfgang; Berlepsch, Thilo v.; Spann, Holger; Schaffrath, Andreas; Schubert, Bernd; Rieger, Udo; Christ, Bernhard G.; Gulden, Werner; Bogusch, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Summary report on these 5 - out of 11 - Sections of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Hamburg on May 27-29, 2008: - Reactor Physics and Methods of Calculation - Thermodynamics and Fluid Dynamics - Safety of Nuclear Installations - Methods, Analysis, Results - Front End and Back End of the Fuel Cycle, Radioactive Waste, Storage - Fusion Technology. Other Sections will be covered in reports in further issues of atw. (orig.)

  10. 'Level-level correlation and absorption in nuclear reactions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    Level-level correlation (LLC) in nuclear reactions is discussed in general and it is shown that in the presence of LLC, N sub(μ) = Σ/g μa/ 2 > divided by gamma μ T tilde, where T tilde is the average absorption in the eigen channels [pt

  11. Nuclear momentum distribution and relativistic heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.Y.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1980-01-01

    In terms of a direct fragmentation process and a hard-scattering process, the proton-inclusive data for the reaction α + 12 C → p + X have been successfully analyzed. The extracted semiempirical momentum distribution indicates possible evidence of nuclear correlations and final-state interactions. 4 figures

  12. From nuclear reactions to liquid-drop collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchaca R, A.; Huidobro, F.; Martinez D, A.; Michaelian, K.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, V.; Carjan, N.

    1997-01-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical situation in coalescence and fragmentation studies of binary liquid-drop collisions is given, putting in perspective our own contributions, which include experiments with mercury and oil drops and the application of a nuclear reaction model, specifically modified by us for the macroscopic case. (Author)

  13. N-body methods in the theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, Gy.

    1980-08-01

    The traditional method of applying two-body methods for the study of nuclear reactions is briefly reviewed. The recent developments in the N particle scattering theory are described in detail. The application of the methods in the study of effective two and few-body problems is also considered. (P.L.)

  14. Influence of vibrations of gas molecules on neutron reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. D.; Schrack, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The change in molecular vibrational energy upon absorption of a neutron by a nucleus bound in a free molecule can influence resonance shape and other aspects of neutron reaction cross sections. A formalism is developed for centrosymmetric molecules such as UF6 and applied to the shape of the 6.67 eV resonance in 238U. The ratio of the resonance shape for 238UF6 gas and for solid 238U3O8 has been measured and compared with the calculation. Reasonable agreement is obtained indicating the validity of the calculation and the necessity to include vibration effects to avoid large errors in measurements and calculations on gascontaining systems. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 238U(n,γ) measured at 6.67 eV resonance; Effect of molecular vibrations studied experimentally and theoretically.

  15. Dynamic screening in solar and stellar nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeppen, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mussack, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, XTD-2, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-02-15

    In the hot, dense plasma of solar and stellar interiors, Coulomb potentials are screened, resulting in increased nuclear reaction rates. Although Salpeter's approximation for static screening is widely accepted and used in stellar modeling, the question of screening in nuclear reactions was revisited in the 1990s. In particular the issue of dynamic effects was raised by Shaviv and Shaviv, who applied the techniques of molecular dynamics to the conditions in the Sun's core in order to numerically determine the effect of screening. By directly calculating the motion of ions and electrons due to Coulomb interactions, the simulations are used to compute the effect of screening without the mean-field assumption inherent in Salpeter's approximation. In the last few years, the USC group has first reproduced Shaviv and Shaviv's numerical analysis of the screening energy, showing an effect of dynamic screening. When the consequence for the reaction-rate was computed, a rather surprising resulted, which is contrary to that from static screening theory. Our calculations showed that dynamic screening does not significantly change the reaction rate from that of the bare Coulomb potential. If this can be independently confirmed, then the effects of dynamic screening are highly relevant and should be included in stellar nuclear reaction rates (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Measurement of cross-sections of yttrium (n,xn) threshold reactions by means of gamma spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chudoba, Petr; Wagner, V; Vrzalova, J; Svoboda, O; Majerle, M; Stefanik, M; Suchopar, M; Kugler, A; Bielewicz, M; Strugalska-Gola, E; Szuta, M; Hervas, D; Herman, T; Geier, B

    2014-01-01

    Neutron activation and gamma spectrometry are usable also f or the determination of cross-sections of different neutron reactions. We have studied the cross-sections of yttrium (n, x n) threshold reactions using quasi-monoenergetic neutron source based on the reaction on 7 Li target at Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR in Rez. Yttrium (n, x n) threshold reactions are suitable candidates for fast neutron field measurement by activation detectors. Fast neutron field monitoring is necessary already today at a wide range of accelerator facilities and will gain on importance in future fast reactors of generation IV, accelerator transmutation systems or fusion reactors. The knowledge of the cross-sections is crucial for such purpose. Unfortunately, the cross-section is sufficiently known only for 89 Y(n,2n) 88 Y reaction. For higher orders of reactions there are almost no experimental data. Special attention was paid to t he 89 Y(n,3n) 87 Y reaction. The cross-sections of both 89 Y(n,2n) 88 Y and 89 Y(n,3n) 87 Y re...

  17. Ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Doyle, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique for performing in-air d( 3 He, p) nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium using external 3 He ion beams ranging in energy from 0.3-2.0 MeV is presented. Variable on-target beam energies for the depth profiling of deuterium are obtained by varying the transmission distance of the external 3 He beam in air. The ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis (XNRA) apparatus is described, and unique aspects and limitations of in-air depth profiling of deuterium using the d( 3 He, p) reaction are discussed. Example analyses where XNRA has been used for the multidimensional measurement of deuterium in fusion reactor components are presented in order to illustrate the advantages of XNRA for deuterium. These advantages include nondestructive analysis of large targets, efficient depth profiling via variable air gap energy tuning, and rapid analysis of numerous samples in the absence of vacuum cycling. (orig.)

  18. High vacuum general purpose scattering chamber for nuclear reaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar; Ojha, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    To study the nuclear reactions induced by beam from medium energy accelerators, one of the most common facility required is a scattering chamber. In the scattering chamber, projectile collides with the target nucleus and the scattered reaction products are detected with various type of nuclear detector at different angles with respect to the beam. The experiments are performed under high vacuum to minimize the background reaction and the energy losses of the charged particles. To make the chamber general purpose various requirement of the experiments are incorporated into it. Changing of targets, changing angle of various detectors while in vacuum are the most desired features. The other features like ascertaining the beam spot size and position on the target, minimizing the background counts by proper beam dump, accurate positioning of the detector as per plan etc. are some of the important requirements

  19. Alpha-induced reaction cross section measurements on 151Eu for the astrophysical γ-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuerky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Farkas, J.; Fueloep, Zs.; Halasz, Z.; Kiss, G.G.; Somorjai, E.; Szuecs, T.; Gueraya, R.T.; Oezkana, N.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. The astrophysical γ-process is the main production mechanism of the p-isotopes, the heavy, proton-rich nuclei not produced by neutron capture reactions in the astrophysical sand r-processes. The γ-process is a poorly known process of nucleosynthesis, the models are not able to reproduce well the p-isotope abundances observed in nature. Experimental data on nuclear reactions involved in γ-process reaction networks are clearly needed to provide input for a more reliable γ-process network calculation. As a continuation of our systematic study of reactions relevant for the γ-process, the cross sections of the 151 Eu(α, γ) 155 Tb and 151 Eu(α,n) 154 Tb reactions have been measured. These reactions have been chosen because α-induced cross section data in the region of heavy p-isotopes are almost completely missing although the calculations show a strong influence of these cross section on the resulting abundances. Since the reaction products of both reactions are radioactive, the cross sections have been measured using the activation technique. The targets have been prepared by evaporating Eu 2 O 3 enriched to 99.2% in 151 Eu onto thin Al foils. The target thicknesses have been measured by weighing and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The targets have been irradiated by typically 1-2 μA intensity α-beams from the cyclotron of ATOMKI. The investigated energy range between 12 and 17 MeV was covered with 0.5 MeV steps. This energy range is somewhat higher than the astrophysically relevant one, but the cross section at astrophysical energies is so low that the measurements are not possible there. The γ- activity of the reaction products has been measured by a shielded HPGe detector. The absolute efficiency of the detector was measured with several calibration sources. Since 154 Tb has two long lived isomeric states, partial cross sections of the 151 Eu(α,n) 154 Tb reaction leading to the ground and isomeric states

  20. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The research program of our group touches five areas of nuclear physics: (1) Nuclear structure studies at high spin; (2) Studies at the interface between structure and reactions; (3) Production and study of hot nuclei; (4) Incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and (5) Development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. The papers from these areas are discussed in this report

  1. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental research on nuclear structure and reactions both published and in progress is summarized. Included are fusion reactions, strongly damped heavy ion collisions, and nuclear structure at high angular momentum. A list of publications is included

  2. Nuclear data for production of the therapeutic radionuclides {sup 32}P, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 9}Y and {sup 153}Sm via the (n,p) reaction: Evaluation of excitation function and its validation via integral cross-section measurement using a 14 MeV d(Be) neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Spahn, I. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Sudar, S. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Morsy, M. [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Comsan, M.N.H. [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Csikai, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Qaim, S.M. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: s.m.qaim@fz-juelich.de; Coenen, H.H. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Nuclear data for production of the therapeutic radionuclides {sup 32}P, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 9}Y and {sup 153}Sm via (n,p) reactions on the target nuclei {sup 32}S, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 67}Zn, {sup 89}Y, {sup 9}Zr and {sup 153}Eu, respectively, are discussed. The available information on each excitation function was analysed. From the recommended data set for each reaction the average integrated cross section for a standard 14 MeV d(Be) neutron field was deduced. The spectrum-averaged cross section was also measured experimentally. A comparison of the integrated value with the integral measurement served to validate the excitation function within about 15%. A fast neutron source appears to be much more effective than a fission reactor for production of the above-mentioned radionuclides in a no-carrier-added form via the (n,p) process. In particular, the possibility of production of high specific activity {sup 153}Sm is discussed.

  3. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.L.; Keffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  4. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1992. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed

  5. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1991. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed

  6. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals at Picometre Distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Jak C. Kelly

    2000-01-01

    A review is given for the explanation of the measurements of Miley (et al.) of a fully reproducible generation of nuclei of the whole periodic table by protons in host metals during a several-weeks reaction. Similar low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) were observed by other groups. The fact that the heavy nuclides are not due to pollution can be seen from the fact that such very rare elements as thulium and terbium were detected by unique K-shell X-ray spectra. The nuclear reaction energy goes into the heavy nuclei as measured from much bigger traces in CR39 than from alphas. The fact that any reaction of the protons results in stable daughter nuclei is confirmed by the fact that the highest energy gain is resulting with stable reaction products. This has been explained in Ref. 2, and the energy gain for the heavy element generation by a compound reaction was discussed. The explanation is based on the model of the authors from 1989 to assume free motion of the protons contrary to localized crystalline states. A relation of the reaction time U on distance d of the reacting nuclei by a power law with an exponent 34.8 was derived. Based on few reproducible D-D reactions, a reaction time near the range of megaseconds and a reaction distance of nanometers was concluded. A splendid confirmation of the picometre-megasecond reactions was achieved by Li (et al.) from his direct quantum mechanical calculations of the hot fusion D-T reactions based on a one-step selective resonance tunneling model. Li (et al.) were able for the first time to derive the cross sections of the hot fusion. Li's application to picometre distance showed megasecond reaction times with no neutron or gamma emission. Because of the imaginary part in the Schroedinger potential, the problem of the level width is reduced by damping

  7. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  8. Studies of nuclear second moments for pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Yoshida, S.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear second moments, important inputs to pre-equilibrium reaction theories, are evaluated by assuming a simple model. The positive definite nature of the second moments is examined, and the nuclear level densities are calculated using positive definite second moments. (orig.)

  9. Cross sections of (p, xn) reactions in the isotopes of lead and bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R E [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Skarsgard, H M [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Reactor Research Div., Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1956-07-01

    Measurements have been made by the activation method of cross sections of (p, xn) reactions in Bi{sup 209}, Pb{sup 206}, Pb{sup 207}, and Pb{sup 208}. The present results cover x = 3 to 7 in Bi{sup 209}, 2 to 6 in Pb{sup 206}, 2 to 4 in Pb{sup 207}, and 3 and 4 in Pb{sup 208}, over a total proton energy range from 12 to 85 Mev. The absolute accuracy is about 15%. Each cross section plotted as a function of proton energy rises above its threshold to a peak whose height is of the order of one barn, and then falls again to a low and fairly constant value. The results from x = 3 to 7 are consistent with a compound nucleus plus prompt nucleon-nucleon cascade model using reasonable nuclear parameters, but the experimental (p, 2n) cross section appears to be almost double the value so predicted. Since (p, xn) reactions are dominant in the energy range 10 to 40 Mev., their sum approximates the total reaction cross section; the experimental sum fluctuates around the smooth curve computed for the compound nucleus model with r{sub 0} = 1.3 X 10{sup -13} cm. The fluctuations are similar to, but more marked than, those in the total neutron cross section of heavy elements in the same energy range. A more detailed theoretical discussion of these results is given by Jackson in the paper immediately following. (author)

  10. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  11. Study of p-4He Total Reaction cross section using Glauber and Modified Glauber Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tag El Din, I.M.A.; Taha, M.M.; Hassan, S.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The total nuclear reaction cross-section for p - 4 He in the energy range from 25 to 1000 MeV is calculated within Glauber and modified Glauber models. The modified Glauber model is introduced via both Coulomb trajectory of the projectile and calculation of the effective radius of interaction. The effects of density dependent total cross-section and phase variation of nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude are studied. It is pointed out that the phase variation of the nucleon-nucleon amplitude plays a significant role in describing σR at E p 2 at e = e0 = 0 and γ=2fm 2 at e = e0 = 0.17fm -3 .

  12. Effect of the Pauli principle and channel coupling on the nuclear reactions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Tsuneo; Nomoto, Morikazu

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the Pauli principle on nuclear reactions of a six-nucleon system is investigated in the presence of a breakup channel, by using the resonating group method (RGM). The microscopic treatment with full exchange effects for the t( 3 He, d) 4 He reaction is examined together with the 3 He-t and d- 4 He elastic scattering. It is shown that the exchange effects (especially owing to the Pauli principle) play an important role in the differential cross section in the backward region. The t( 3 He, d) 4 He reaction is examined by decomposing the reaction processes into three terms, that is, proton stripping, neutron pick-up and residual processes. The asymmetry of the angular distribution for the t( 3 He, d) 4 He reaction is also discussed. (auth.)

  13. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The work concerns nuclear and atomic theory, heavy ion reactions, hyperfine-structure studies, ion collisions with atoms and solids, and developments on the VICKSI accelerator. (HSI)

  14. Nuclear Data for Reactor Physics: Cross sections and level densities in the actinide region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein L.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data in the actinide region are particularly important because they are basis behind all simulations of nuclear reactor core behaviour over both long time scales (fuel depletion and waste production and short time scales (accident scenarios. Nuclear reaction cross sections must be known as precisely as possible so that core reaction rates can be accurately calculated. Although cross section measurements in this region have been widely performed, for certain nuclei, particularly those with short half lives, direct measurements are either very difficult or impossible and thus reactor simulations must rely on theoretical calculations or extrapolations from neighbouring nuclei. The greatest uncertainty in theoretical cross section calculations comes from the lack of knowledge of level densities, for which predicted values can often be incorrect by a factor of two or more. Therefore there is a strong case for a systematic experimental study of level densities in the actinide region for the purpose of a providing a stringent test of theoretical cross section calculations for nuclei where experimental cross section data are available and b for providing better estimations of cross sections for nuclei in which no cross section data are available.

  15. Direct nuclear reactions and the structure of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterfeld, F.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis deals with two different aspects of direct nuclear reactions, namely on the one hand with the microscopic calculation of the imaginary optical potential for the elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering as well as on the other hand with the microscopic analysis of giant magnetic resonances in atomic nuclei which are excited by (p,n) charge-exchange reactions. In the first part of the thesis the imaginary part of the optical potential for the elastic proton- and neutron-nucleus scattering is microscopically calculated in the framework of the so called nuclear-structure approximation to the optical potential. The calculations are performed in the Feshbach formalism in second-order perturbation theory corresponding to an effective projectile-target-nucleon interaction. In the second part of this thesis in the framework of microscopic nuclear models a complete analysis of different A(p,n)B charge-exchange reactions at high incident energies 160 MeV 90 Zr(p,n) reaction three collective spin-isospin resonances could be uniquely identified. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Theoretical calculations of the reaction cross-sections for proton-induced reactions on natural copper using ALICE-IPPE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, A.A.; Azzam, A.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical study of the nuclear-reaction cross sections for proton-induced reactions on 63 Cu and 65 Cu was performed in the proton energy range from threshold values up to 50 MeV. The produced nuclei were different isotopes of Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Mn, some of which have important applications. The reaction cross-section calculations were performed using the ALICE-IPPE code, which depends on the pre-equilibrium compound nucleus model. This code is suitable for the studied energy and isotopic mass ranges. Approximately 14 excitation functions for the different reactions have been constructed from the calculated cross-section values. The excitation function curves for the proton reactions with natural copper targets have been constructed from those for enriched targets using the natural abundance of the copper isotopes. Comparisons between the calculated excitation functions with those previously experimentally measured are given whenever the experimental values were available. Some statistical parameters were introduced to control the quality of the fitting between both the experimental and the theoretical calculated cross-section values. - Highlights: ► We performed reaction cross section calculations using ALICE-IPPE code. ► We constructed 14 excitation functions for nat Cu(p,xn)Zn,Cu,Ni,Co,Mn reactions. ► The available experimental data were fitted to the performed ALICE-IPPE calculations. ► Statistical parameters were introduced to control the quality of the fitting. ► The code failed to fit the experimental data for reactions with large nucleon emissions.

  17. Report of seminar on relativistic approach to nuclear reaction and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    A seminar on 'Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Structure' was held in 1985 at Osaka University. This booklet includes twenty-four reports given at the seminar, which deal with: Conventional Nonrelativistic Description of Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Spin-Orbit Interactions; Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Structure; Atomic and Molecular Structure Calculations; Electromagnetic Interaction in Nucleus and Relativistic Effect; Nuclear Magnetic Moment in the Relativistic Mean Field Theory, Effective Mass and Particle-Vibration Coupling in the Relativistic σ-ω Model; Gauge Invariance in Relativistic Many-Body Theory; Relativistic Description of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction in Review; σ-Particle in NN Interaction; Nuclear Optical Potentials Based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach; Elastic Backscattering and Optical Potential; Description of Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Reactions; Dirac Phenomenology at E(p) = 65 MeV; Relativistic Impulse Approximation; Reaction Studies with Intermediate Energy Deuterons at SATURNE; Folding Model for Intermediate-Energy Deutron Scattering; Folding Model for Polarized Deutron Scattering at 700 MeV; Dirac Approach Problems and a Different Viewpoint; Relativistic Approach and EMC Effect; Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Response Function of Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Relativistic Hartree Response Function for Quasielastic Electron Scattering on 12 C and 40 Ca; Backflow-, Retardation- and Relativistic Effects on the Longitudinal Response Function of Nuclear Matter; Pion-Photoproduction in the σ-ω Model. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Theoretical and experimental cross sections for neutron reactions on 64Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the 64 Zn (n,2n) 64 Cu and 64 Zn (n,p) 63 Zn cross sections at 14.8 MeV have been made using a Texas Nuclear Neutron Generator and the activation technique. A NaI(T1) spectrometer (using two 6'' x 6'' NaI detectors/crystals) was used to measure the gamma radiation emitted in coincidence from the positron-emitting decay products. The measurements were made relative to 65 Cu (n,2n) /64/Cu and 63 Cu (n,2n) 62 Cu cross sections, which have similar half-lives, radiation emission, and were previously measured to high accuracy (2 percent). The value obtained for the (n,2n) measurement was 199 /+-/ 6 millibarns, and a value of 176 /+-/ 4.5 millibarns was obtained for the (n,p) measurement. In concert, a theoretical analysis of neutron induced reactions on /64/Zn was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory in the GNASH code over an energy range of 100 keV to 20 MeV. Calculations included width fluctuation corrections, direct reaction contributions, and preequilibrium corrections above 6 MeV. Neutron optical model potentials were determined for zinc. The theoretical values agree with the new 14.8 MeV measurements approximately within experimental error, with calculations of 201 millibarns for the (n,2n) cross section and 170 millibarns for the (n,p) cross section. Results from the analysis will be made available in National Evaluated Nuclear Data Format (ENDF/B) for fusion energy applications. 50 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Calculations of radiation defect formation cross sections in reactor materials in (n,p) and (n,α) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupchishin, A.A.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Omarbekova, Zh.

    2001-01-01

    In the work an experimental data analysis by integral σ(E 1 ) and differential [dσ(E 1 ,E 2 )]/dE 2 neutron interaction cross sections with reactor materials with the secondary protons and alpha particles generation as well as with the primarily knock-on atoms production in such reactions are carried out. It is shown, that in the (n,p) and (n',α) reactions the recoil nuclei receive essential energy portion and they are the patriarchs for atom-atom cascades in the substance. Nuclear reactions with formation of the secondary α-particles and and recoil nuclei are considered. It is shown, that these reactions are effectively proceeding within neutrons energy range 0.3-15 MeV. The nuclear reactions kinematics of above mentioned processes is studied. Energy conservation law for these reaction is applied. Deferential cross section conservation and transformation law for radiation defect formation in the (n,α) reaction are considered as well

  20. One-nucleon pickup reactions and compound-nuclear decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2018-05-01

    One-nucleon transfer reactions, long used as a tool to study the structure of nuclei, are potentially valuable for determining reaction cross sections indirectly. This is significant, as many reactions of interest to astrophysics and other applications involve short-lived isotopes and cannot be measured directly. We describe a procedure for obtaining constraints for calculations of neutron capture cross sections using observables from experiments with transfer reactions. As a first step toward demonstrating the method, we outline the theory developments used to properly describe the production of the compound nucleus 88Y* via the one-nucleon pickup reaction 89Y(p,d)88Y* and test the description with data from a recent experiment. We indicate how this development can be used to extract the unknown 87Y(n,γ) cross section from 89Y(p,dγ) data. The example illustrates a more generally applicable method for determining unknown cross sections via a combination of theory and transfer (or inelastic scattering) experiments.

  1. Report of the Nuclear Data Section to the International Nuclear Data Committee March 1983 - August 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1984-08-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period March 1983 - August 1984. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services and technology transfer

  2. Calculations and Evaluations of Cross Sections for n + 204,206,207,208,natPb Reactions in the En ≤ 250 MeV Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Zhang Zhengjun; Cai Chonghai

    2005-01-01

    The quality and reliability of the computational simulation of a macroscopic nuclear device are directly related to the quality of the underlying basic nuclear data. To meet these needs, according to advanced nuclear models that account for details of nuclear structure and the quantum nature of nuclear reaction and the experimental data of total, nonelastic, and elastic scattering cross sections, and elastic scattering angular distributions of Pb and its isotopes, all cross sections of neutron-induced reaction, angular distributions, energy spectra, especially the double-differential cross sections for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, helium, and alpha emissions are calculated and analyzed for n + 204,206,207,208,nat Pb at incident neutron energies below 20 MeV by using the UNF nuclear model code. At neutron incident energies 20 n ≤ 250 MeV, MEND codes are used. Theoretical calculations are compared with existing experimental data and other evaluated data from ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3

  3. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system. (author)

  4. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-03-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system.

  5. 1-4 Strangeness Production in Antiproton Induced Nuclear Reactions.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Zhaoqing[1

    2014-01-01

    More localized energy deposition is able to be produced in antiproton-nucleus collisions in comparison withheavy-ion collisions due to annihilation reactions. Searching for the cold quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with antiprotonbeamshas been considered as a hot topic both in experiments and in theretical calculations over the past severaldecades. Strangeness production and hypernucleus formation in antiproton-induced nuclear reactions are importancein exploring the hyperon (antihyperon)-nucleon (HN) potential and the antinucleon-nucleon interaction, whichhave been hot topics in the forthcoming experiments at PANDA in Germany.

  6. Neutron cross-sections for advanced nuclear systems: the n_TOF project at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagallo M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of neutron-induced reactions is of high relevance in a wide variety of fields, ranging from stellar nucleosynthesis and fundamental nuclear physics to applications of nuclear technology. In nuclear energy, high accuracy neutron data are needed for the development of Generation IV fast reactors and accelerator driven systems, these last aimed specifically at nuclear waste incineration, as well as for research on innovative fuel cycles. In this context, a high luminosity Neutron Time Of Flight facility, n_TOF, is operating at CERN since more than a decade, with the aim of providing new, high accuracy and high resolution neutron cross-sections. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, a rich experimental program relevant to nuclear technology has been carried out so far. The program will be further expanded in the near future, thanks in particular to a new high-flux experimental area, now under construction.

  7. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for nuclear physics and energy physics at the University of Oslo in 1990. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. The experimental activities in nuclear physics have, as in the previous years, mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Using the CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments in collaboration with the nuclear physics group at the University of Bergen have been completed. Some results have been published and were also presented at the international conference in Oak Ridge, USA, while more data remains to be analyzed

  8. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.D.; Lynn, J.E.; Michaudon, A.; Rowlands, J.; de Saussure, G.

    1981-01-01

    A general presentation of current knowledge of the fission process is given with emphasis on the low energy fission of actinide nuclei and neutron induced fission. The need for and the required accuracy of fission cross section data in nuclear energy programs are discussed. A summary is given of the steps involved in fission cross section measurement and the range of available techniques. Methods of fission detection are described with emphasis on energy dependent changed and detector efficiency. Examples of cross section measurements are given and data reduction is discussed. The calculation of fission cross sections is discussed and relevant nuclear theory including the formation and decay of compound nuclei and energy level density is introduced. A description of a practical computation of fission cross sections is given.

  9. Application of optimization numerical methods in calculation of the two-particle nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    An optimization packet of PEAK-OPT applied programs intended for solution of problems of absolute minimization of functions of many variables in calculations of cross sections of binary nuclear reactions is described. The main algorithms of computerized numerical solution of systems of nonlinear equations for the least square method are presented. Principles for plotting and functioning the optimization software as well as results of its practical application are given

  10. Alpha-decay within Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Silisteanu, I.; Wunsch, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the frame of Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions the alpha-decay widths are determined by the alpha-daughter nucleus optical potential and by the formation factors. It is shown that the calculated absolute values of the alpha widths for Po light isotopes are in good agreement with experimental data, if the real part of the optical potential with the parameters fitted by the low energy α-scattering is used

  11. Nuclear dynamics in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy ion induced fission and fission-like reactions evolve through a complex nuclear dynamics encountered in the medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the recent years, measurements of the fragment-neutron and fragment-charged particle angular correlations in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions, have provided new information on the dynamical times of nuclear deformations of the initial dinuclear complex to the fission saddle point and the scission point. From the studies of fragment angular distributions in heavy ion induced fission it has been possible to infer the relaxation times of the dinuclear complex in the K-degree of freedom and our recent measurements on the entrance channel dependence of fragment anisotropies have provided an experimental signature of the presence of fissions before K-equilibration. This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical status of the above studies with particular regard to the questions relating to dynamical times, nuclear dissipation and the effect of nuclear dissipation on the K-distributions at the fission saddle in completely equilibrated compound nucleus. (author). 19 refs., 9 figs

  12. Facility for the measurement of proton polarization in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slobodrian, R J; Irshad, M; Labrie, R; Rioux, C; Roy, R; Pigeon, R [Laval Univ., Quebec City (Canada). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire

    1979-02-15

    A polarimetry facility based on high resolution and high efficiency silicon polarimeters with on-line particle identification is described. It has proven its capability to measure polarization in (/sup 3/He, p(pol)) reaction with cross section levels of 40 ..mu..b/sr.

  13. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on CNO-cycle reactions and AGB nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cognata, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 100 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method and new experimental facilities such as deep underground laboratories have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results.

  15. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  16. Research on the display of nuclear cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shien; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin

    2008-01-01

    Minutely parsed the dot cross-section format (ACE format) data of the ENDF/ B-6.8 database, which is the foundation of the program that achieved the reading and related handling of ACE format data. This program achieved the plotting, zooming and comparing display functions of nuclear cross section-energy of ENDF/B-6.8 database. It also provides the standard picture formatting file output and/or standard text formatting file output of interesting nuclear data. It accomplished some appropriate validations of this program via the comparing between program results and reference data. (authors)

  17. Laboratory approaches of nuclear reactions involved in primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfs, C.; California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory-based studies of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis are reviewed, with emphasis on the nuclear reactions induced by charged particles. The analytical approach used to investigate nuclear reactions associated with stellar reactions is described, as well as the experimental details and procedures used to investigate nuclear reactions induced by charged particles. The present knowledge of some of the key reactions involved in primordial nucleosynthesis is discussed, along with the progress and problems of nuclear reactions involved in the hydrogen and helium burning phases of a star. Finally, a description is given of new experimental techniques which might be useful for future experiments in the field of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  18. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Mahir S. [DCTA, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, C. P. 72012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C. P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

  19. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Mahir S.

    2017-01-01

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

  20. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sublet Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, to the local and total uncertainty in the simulated reactions rates (RRs, which usually only apply to one application at a time. This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment, and discusses correct handling of the RR uncertainty quantification and propagation, including details of the cross section components in the RR uncertainty estimates, which are verified for relevant applications. The methodology that rigorously captures the spectral shift and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR are discussed with quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment of the spectrum profile and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR and subsequent response functions. The recently developed inventory code FISPACT-II, when connected to the processed nuclear data libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u or JEFF-3.2, forms an enhanced multi-physics platform providing a wide variety of advanced simulation methods for modelling activation, transmutation, burnup protocols and simulating radiation damage sources terms. The system has extended cutting-edge nuclear data forms, uncertainty quantification and propagation methods, which have been the subject of recent integral and differential, fission, fusion and accelerators validation efforts. The simulation system is used to accurately and predictively probe, understand and underpin a modern and

  1. Non extensive corrections to stellar nuclear reactions rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DCET/UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Silveira, F.E.M. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Stellar nucleosynthesis is widely accepted as the basic mechanism for creation of chemical elements in the Universe. In particular, nuclear reactions occurring in the Sun are recognized as responsible for its energy generation. The problem of to determine the energy generation mechanism in stars was firstly attacked by Gamow in the framework of his quantum mechanical theory of potential barrier penetration. According to that approach, the reactions rate is calculated by averaging the penetration factor over the velocity distribution of the plasma particles. A randomization of that distribution is expected as a consequence of the reactions. However, diffusion processes in the macroscopic environment should balance the resulting particles number depletion. Therefore, matter, energy, and momentum might steadily flow. In other words, a quasi-stationary equilibrium state must be attained. In this work, the potential barrier penetration approach to stellar nuclear reactions rate has been rediscussed with basis on Tsallis nonextensive statistics. The investigation has been restricted to non-resonant reactions, for which the S-factor can be regarded as a constant. It has been found that, within the extended formulation, the nonextensive q-parameter is constrained to a maximum value. Accordingly, the q-energy has been shown to exhibit a minimum. The q-Gamow peak has been derived and, in connection with the usual Gaussian approximation, the corresponding half q-width has been also estimated. Plots of the q-energy, q-Gamow peak and half q-width for some reactions with stellar physics interest have been produced. (author)

  2. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The experimental activities in nuclear physics have in 1989 mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the Scanditronic MC-35 cyclotron. The installation of the CACTUS multidetector system has been completed. With 8 particle telescopes, 28 NaI detectors and 2 Ge detectors, this experimental arrangement represents a major improvement compared to earlier set-ups in the laboratory. Theoretical studies of manybody problems, and nuclear structure and reactions have continued. The study of problems related to the foundations of quantum mechanics has also been persued

  3. Nuclear Reaction Data and Uncertainties for Radiation Damage. Summary Report of the Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Sjöstrand, H.; Simakov, S.P.

    2016-08-01

    This Meeting was organized to implement the recommendation of the second Research Coordinated Meeting (RCM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Primary Radiation Damage Cross Sections” to analyse the accuracy and consistency of the radiation damage-relevant nuclear data in the major nuclear data evaluations with the eventual goal of identifying the most reliable data and providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Participants have considered the status of the primary nuclear data, such as reaction recoils spectra in the latest releases of ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, FENDL, ROSFOND and TENDL nuclear data libraries, and the ways of deriving the damage quantities KERMA, NRT- or arc-dpa and gas production cross sections as well as the recipes for an assessment of their uncertainties. This report contains the contemporary view of the Meeting participants on these issues in the form of a consolidated set of statements, recommendations and individual summaries. (author)

  4. Investigating resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cognata, M., E-mail: lacognata@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Kiss, G. G. [ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Trippella, O. [Sezione di Perugia - INFN, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Resonances in nuclear cross sections dramatically change their trends. Therefore, the presence of unexpected resonances might lead to unpredicted consequences on astrophysics and nuclear physics. In nuclear physics, resonances allow one to study states in the intermediate compound systems, to evaluate their cluster structure, for instance, especially in the energy regions approaching particle decay thresholds. In astrophysics, resonances might lead to changes in the nucleosynthesis flow, determining different isotopic compositions of the nuclear burning ashes. For these reasons, the Trojan Horse method has been modified to investigate resonant reactions. Thanks to this novel approach, for the first time normalization to direct data might be avoided. Moreover, in the case of sub threshold resonances, the Trojan Horse method modified to investigate resonances allows one to deduce the asymptotic normalization coefficient, showing the close connection between the two indirect approaches.

  5. Nuclear reaction mechanisms. Progress report, June 1976--July 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.

    1977-01-01

    Research under the subject contract is on heavy ion induced reactions, both on experimental measurement and theoretical interpretation. Measurements have included determination of elastic scattering, evaporation residue, fission, quasi elastic and deep inelastic scattering cross sections. From these data we have extracted information on fusion barrier heights and radii, nucleus-nucleus potentials and fission parameterizations at high angular momenta. We have started investigating influence of excitation energies on inverse cross sections and of precompound decay in heavy ion reactions, and have investigated multidimensional potential energy surfaces for heavy ion collisions. Work which has been published is listed in the Publications Section; work not yet published and/or in progress is discussed herein.

  6. Nuclear reaction mechanisms. Progress report, June 1976--July 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1977-01-01

    Research under the subject contract is on heavy ion induced reactions, both on experimental measurement and theoretical interpretation. Measurements have included determination of elastic scattering, evaporation residue, fission, quasi elastic and deep inelastic scattering cross sections. From these data we have extracted information on fusion barrier heights and radii, nucleus-nucleus potentials and fission parameterizations at high angular momenta. We have started investigating influence of excitation energies on inverse cross sections and of precompound decay in heavy ion reactions, and have investigated multidimensional potential energy surfaces for heavy ion collisions. Work which has been published is listed in the Publications Section; work not yet published and/or in progress is discussed herein

  7. Nuclear reactions of neutron-rich Sn isotopes investigated at relativistic energies at R{sup 3}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Fabia; Aumann, Thomas; Horvat, Andrea [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany); Schrock, Philipp [CNS, University of Tokyo (Japan); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Nuclei with a large neutron excess are expected to form a neutron-rich surface layer which is often referred to as the neutron skin. The investigation of this phenomenon is of great interest in nuclear-structure physics and offers a possibility to constrain the equation-of-state of neutron-rich matter. Assuming a geometrical description of reaction processes as in the eikonal approximation, nuclear-induced reactions are a good tool to probe the neutron skin. Measured reaction cross sections can be used to constrain the density distributions of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and therefore the neutron-skin thickness. For this purpose, reactions of neutron-rich tin isotopes in the A=124-134 mass range have been measured on a carbon target at the R{sup 3}B-setup at GSI in inverse kinematics in a kinematically complete manner. Preliminary results for the reaction cross sections of {sup 124}Sn are presented.

  8. The K + - Nucleus Microscopic Optical Potential and Calculations of the Corresponding Differential Elastic and Total Reaction Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Hanna, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The microscopic optical potential (OP) is calculated for the K+-meson scattering on the 12 C and 40 Ca nuclei at intermediate energies. This potential has no free parameters and based on the known kaon-nucleon amplitude and nuclear density distribution functions. Then, the Klein-Gordon equation is written in the form of the relativistic Schrodinger equation where terms quadratic in the potential was estimated can be neglected. The latter equations adapted to the considered task and solved numerically. The effect of revitalization is shown to play a significant role. A good agreement with the experimental data on differential elastic cross sections is obtained. However, to explain the data on total reaction cross sections the additional surface term of OP was introduced to account for influence of the peripheral nuclear reaction channels

  9. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, W.S.; Andrew, E.R.; Bottomley, P.A.; Holland, G.N.; Moore, W.S.; Worthington, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonace (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique. (author)

  10. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, W S; Andrew, E R; Bottomley, P A; Holland, G N; Moore, W S

    1978-04-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique.

  11. Table of cross section (n,p), (n,{alpha}) and (n, 2n) reactions in steel components and other nuclear materials; Secciones eficaces (n, p), (n,{alpha}) y (n, 2n) de los componentes de los aceros y otros materiales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, J

    1972-07-01

    Reactions (n,p) and (n, {alpha} ) produce in the materials large amount of hydrogen and helium atoms. The presence, specially of helium, changes the physical properties of materials and particularly reduce the ductility of irradiated stainless steel cladding above 500 degree centigree. Cross sections of all isotopes which constitute the S.S. and other clad materials, have been completed. Experimental available data were obtained from BNL (1956, 64 and 68), and the rest, from J.C, ROY and J . J . HAWTON calculations in a fission neutron spectrum (1960). (Author)

  12. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan

    2017-10-01

    The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  13. GRAPhEME: a setup to measure (n, xn γ) reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Greg; Bacquias, A.; Capdevielle, O.; Dessagne, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A. [Nat. Inst. Of Phys. And Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Drohe, J.C.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Nyman, M. [EU/ JRC-IRMM, Geel (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Most of nuclear reactor developments are using evaluated data base for numerical simulations. However, the considered databases present still large uncertainties and disagreements. To improve their level of precision, new measurements are needed, in particular for (n, xn) reactions, which are of great importance as they modify the neutron spectrum, the neutron population, and produce radioactive species. The IPHC group started an experimental program to measure (n, xn gamma) reaction cross sections using prompt gamma spectroscopy and neutron energy determination by time of flight. Measurements of (n, xn gamma) cross section have been performed for {sup 235,238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup nat,182,183,184,186}W, {sup nat}Zr. The experimental setup is installed at the neutron beam at GELINA (Geel, Belgium). The setup has recently been upgraded with the addition of a highly segmented 36 pixels planar HPGe detector. Significant efforts have been made to reduce radiation background and electromagnetic perturbations. The setup is equipped with a high rate digital acquisition system. The analysis of the segmented detector data requires a specific procedure to account for cross signals between pixels. An overall attention is paid to the precision of the measurement. The setup characteristic and the analysis procedure will be presented along with the acquisition and analysis challenges. Examples of results and their impact on models will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Dynamics of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Large-amplitude collective motion in fission and heavy-ion reactions is studied by solving classical equations of motion for the time evolution of the nuclear shape. In the nuclear potential energy of deformation, the generalized surface energy was calculated by means of a double volume integral of a Yukawa-plus-exponential function, which was obtained by requiring that two semi-infinite slabs of constant-density nuclear matter have minimum energy at zero separation. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for nuclear flow that is a superposition of incompressible, nearly irrotational collective-shape motion and rigid-body rotation. Nuclear dissipation is included by means of the Rayleigh dissipation function, which depends upon the physical mechanism that converts collective energy into internal energy. For both ordinary two-body viscosity and a combined wall and window one-body dissipation, fission-fragment kinetic energies are calculated for the fission of nuclei throughout the periodic table and compare with experimental results. Finally, the one-body dynamics of nucleons inside a cylinder colliding with a moving piston is explicitly studied by solving exactly the collisionless Boltzmann equation for the distribution function. By examining the relative phases of the pressure at the piston and the piston's velocity, a dissipative force and an elastic restoring force can be separately identified. 9 references

  15. Rydberg phases of Hydrogen and low energy nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Sveinn; Holmlid, Leif

    2016-03-01

    For over the last 26 years the science of cold fusion/LENR has been researched around the world with slow pace of progress. Modest quantity of excess heat and signatures of nuclear transmutation and helium production have been confirmed in experiments and theoretical work has only resulted in a large flora of inadequate theoretical scenarios. Here we review current state of research in Rydberg matter of Hydrogen that is showing strong signature of nuclear processes. In the presentation experimental behavior of Rydberg matter of hydrogen is described. An extensive collaboration effort of surface physics, catalysis, atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum information is need to tackle the surprising experimental results that have so far been obtained. Rydberg matter of Hydrogen is the only known state of matter that is able to bring huge collection of protons to so short distances and for so long time that tunneling becomes a reasonable process for making low energy nuclear reactions. Nuclear quantum entanglement can also become realistic process at theses conditions.

  16. Complementarity between neutron capture and heavy-ion reactions in nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult, O.W.B.

    1978-01-01

    The study of the complementarity of certain nuclear reactions in nuclear structure studies includes spectroscopic methods, nuclear rotation and coupling of nucleons to the core, and the de-excitation and structure of high lying states. 23 references

  17. Report of scientific results 1976. Section nuclear chemistry and reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The report of the section Nuclear Chemistry and Reactor presents the results of R and D in the fields of neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace elements research in biomedicine, geochemistry, reactor operation, radioisotope production, and gives a survey of publications and lectures. (HK) [de

  18. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  19. Research at the Section of Experimental Nuclear Physics of ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Fenyes, T.; Dombradi, Zs.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Algora, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Gacsi, Z.; Gulyas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Nuclear physics research was started in Debrecen by Alexander Szalay (1909-1987) back in the 30's. He had been a postdoc of the Nobel-laureate biologist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi in Szeged and of Lord Rutherford in Cambridge. ATOMKI was founded in Debrecen later, in 1954. The Institute was meant to pursue scientific research in certain areas of experimental nuclear physics and to develop research instruments In the early years the country was pretty isolated, but the institute's state of isolation was gradually easing up from the mid-sixties. During the period 1962-1975 the research work was performed in collaboration with Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), where up-to-date high-energy accelerators were available for the production of desired isotopes. After finishing the construction of a home-made 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator (1972) and later on the installation of a K=20 light ion cyclotron (1985) the Institute has become the main centre of accelerator-based nuclear physics in Hungary. In the period 1975-1995 our group performed extensive nuclear structure studies in Debrecen by using γ and conversion electron spectroscopy. At the same time fruitful collaborations were initiated with Jyvaskyla (Finland), with University of Kentucky and University of Zagreb. In 1993 the former Nuclear Reaction Group (NRG) merged with our group. Parallel with this structural change, the main topics of our γ-spectroscopic work has also changed, which resulted that the location of our experiments were shifted from the home institute to foreign large-scale facilities. New topics were brought partly by the emerging NRG, partly by group members returning from postdoctoral fellowships. They also brought important non γ-spectroscopic topics, which enriched our research palette. These new topics have by now become joint endeavours involving more and more group members. The Nuclear Physics European Coordination Committee (NuPECC) has recently stated that the aim of

  20. Update of ENDF/B-V Mod 3 iron: neutron-producing reaction cross sections and energy-angle correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1986-07-01

    An update of the ENDF/B-V Mod-3 evaluation for natural iron is described. The cross sections of (n,n') and (n,2n) reactions are revised. Energy-angle correlations in the secondary (n,n') neutrons are introduced in the ENDF/B-V formats. Anisotropic angular distributions are provided for the secondary neutrons in (n,2n), (n,np), and (n,nα) reactions. Revelant integral results, microscopic data, and nuclear model calculations that influence the revised results are summarized. 54 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Isomeric cross-section ratios of some (n,2n) reactions at 14. 7 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K C; Khurana, C S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1979-08-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of (n,2n) reactions at 14.7 MeV leading to the millisecond isomeric levels have been calculated theoretically using the statistical theory of nuclear reactions and the spin distribution form due to Bethe and Bloch. The theoretical ratios have been compared with the experimentally measured values in order to evaluate the spin cut-off parameter sigma. This parameter has been used to calculate the effective moment of inertia of the nucleus to draw useful conclusions from the results of present calculations.

  2. The cross sections of fusion-evaporation reactions: the most promising route to superheavy elements beyond Z=118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of superheavy elements beyond oganesson (Og, which has atomic number Z = 118, is currently one of the main topics in nuclear physics. An absence of sufficient amounts of target material with atomic numbers heavier than californium (Z = 98 forces the use of projectiles heavier than 48Ca (Z = 20, which has been successfully used for the discoveries of elements with Z = 114 - 118 in complete fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections of 48Ca with actinide targets behave very differently to “cold” and “hot” fusion-evaporation reactions, where doubly-magic lead and deformed actinides are used as targets, respectively. The known cross sections of these reactions have been analysed compared to calculated fission barriers. It has been suggested that observed discrepancies between the cross sections of 48Ca-induced and other fusionevaporation reactions originate from the shell structure of the compound nucleus, which lies in the island of the stability. Besides scarcely known data on other reactions involving heavier projectiles, the most promising projectile for the synthesis of the elements beyond Og seems to be 50Ti. However, detailed studies of 50Ti, 54Cr, 58Fe and 64Ni-induced reactions are necessary to be performed in order to fully understand the complexities of superheavy element formation.

  3. The cross sections of fusion-evaporation reactions: the most promising route to superheavy elements beyond Z=118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadambaa, Khuyagbaatar

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of superheavy elements beyond oganesson (Og), which has atomic number Z = 118, is currently one of the main topics in nuclear physics. An absence of sufficient amounts of target material with atomic numbers heavier than californium (Z = 98) forces the use of projectiles heavier than 48Ca (Z = 20), which has been successfully used for the discoveries of elements with Z = 114 - 118 in complete fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections of 48Ca with actinide targets behave very differently to "cold" and "hot" fusion-evaporation reactions, where doubly-magic lead and deformed actinides are used as targets, respectively. The known cross sections of these reactions have been analysed compared to calculated fission barriers. It has been suggested that observed discrepancies between the cross sections of 48Ca-induced and other fusionevaporation reactions originate from the shell structure of the compound nucleus, which lies in the island of the stability. Besides scarcely known data on other reactions involving heavier projectiles, the most promising projectile for the synthesis of the elements beyond Og seems to be 50Ti. However, detailed studies of 50Ti, 54Cr, 58Fe and 64Ni-induced reactions are necessary to be performed in order to fully understand the complexities of superheavy element formation.

  4. The measurement of cross sections of inelastic and transfer reactions with gamma-particle coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagatto, V.A.B.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Pereira, D.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Rossi Junior, E.S.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L.; Toufen, D.L.; Silveira, M.A.G.; Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B.; Lubian, J.; Linares, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The following work aims to obtain experimental reaction cross sections of inelastic excitation and transfer to excited states reactions (both measured by gamma-particle coincidences) and its comparison with theoretical predictions based in a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential. The measurements were made at the Pelletron accelerator laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo with the Saci-Perere spectrometer, which consists of 4 a GeHP Compton suppressed gamma detectors and a 4 π charged particle ancillary system with 11ΔΕ - Ε plastic phoswich scintillators (further details about the experimental procedure may be found in: J.R.B. Oliveira et al., XVIII International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (2009). Theoretical angular distribution calculations (using code GOSIA) were performed with a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential, specifically developed for the inclusion of dissipative processes like deep-inelastic collisions (DIC) considering the Coulomb plus nuclear potential (with the aid of code FRESCO). The experimental cross sections were obtained such as described in J.R.B. Oliveira et al however, in this work, the particle-gamma angular correlations and the vacuum de-alignment effects (caused by hyperfine interaction) were finally added for the 110 Pd inelastic reaction and for the 112 Pd transfer reaction. For these purposes a new code has been developed to assist in the data analysis. We take into account the particle-gamma angular correlations using the scattering amplitudes given by FRESCO, considering the vacuum de-alignment effects as proposed by A. Abragam and R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 92, 943 (1953). The theoretical predictions still consider 2 different types of Sao Paulo Potential, the first one has a multiplying factor equals to 1.0 in the real part of the potential and the second considers this factor equals to 0.6, as proposed in D. Pereira, J. Lubian, J.R.B. Oliveira, D.P. de Sousa and L

  5. CINDU - catalogue of numerical nuclear data available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.; Schwerer, O.

    1977-04-01

    This supplement to CINDU--11 includes all additions and changes of the numerical nuclear data available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section and related information as of March 1977. A table of contents of both the CINDU-11 main volume and this supplement, indicating valid and superseded pages of CINDU-11 is included

  6. Direct measurement of nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest: Results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Francesca; Prati, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis are interconnected by a wide network of nuclear reactions: the study of such connection is usually known as nuclear astrophysics. The main task of this discipline is the determination of nuclear cross-section and hence of the reaction rate in different scenarios, i.e. from the synthesis of a few very light isotopes just after the Big Bang to the heavy element production in the violent explosive end of massive stars. The experimental determination of reaction cross-section at the astrophysical relevant energies is extremely difficult, sometime impossible, due to the Coulomb repulsion between the interacting nuclei which turns out in cross-section values down to the fbar level. To overcome these obstacles, several experimental approaches have been developed and the adopted techniques can be roughly divided into two categories, i.e. direct and indirect methods. In this review paper, the general problem of nuclear astrophysics is introduced and discussed from the point of view of experimental approach. We focus on direct methods and in particular on the features of low-background experiments performed at underground laboratory facilities. The present knowledge of reactions involved in the Big Bang and stellar hydrogen-burning scenarios is discussed as well as the ongoing projects aiming to investigate mainly the helium- and carbon-burning phases. Worldwide, a new generation of experiment in the MeV range is in the design phase or at the very first steps and decisive progresses are expected to come in the next years.

  7. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine)

  8. Ab Initio Calculations Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-05

    Our ultimate goal is to develop a fundamental theory and efficient computational tools to describe dynamic processes between nuclei and to use such tools toward supporting several DOE milestones by: 1) performing predictive calculations of difficult-to-measure landmark reactions for nuclear astrophysics, such as those driving the neutrino signature of our sun; 2) improving our understanding of the structure of nuclei near the neutron drip line, which will be the focus of the DOE’s Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) being constructed at Michigan State University; but also 3) helping to reveal the true nature of the nuclear force. Furthermore, these theoretical developments will support plasma diagnostic efforts at facilities dedicated to the development of terrestrial fusion energy.

  9. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-01-01

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250% of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10 -22 s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding mainly 4 He

  10. Nuclear reaction models - source term estimation for safety design in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    Accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS) employs proton induced spallation reaction at a few GeV. Safety design of these systems involves source term estimation in two steps - multiple fragmentation of the target and n+γ emission through a fast process followed by statistical decay of the primary fragments. The prompt radiation field is estimated in the framework of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) theory, intra-nuclear cascade or Monte Carlo calculations. A few nuclear reaction model codes used for this purpose are QMD, JQMD, Bertini, INCL4, PHITS, followed by statistical decay codes like ABLA, GEM, GEMINI, etc. In the case of electron accelerators photons and photoneutrons dominate the prompt radiation field. High energy photon yield through Bremsstrahlung is estimated in the framework of Born approximation while photoneutron production is calculated using giant dipole resonance and quasi-deuteron formation cross section. In this talk hybrid and exciton PEQ models and QMD formalism will be discussed briefly

  11. Macroscopic/microscopic simulation of nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-01-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. The model simulates events for reactions close to the fusion barrier (5-10 MeV/A) up to higher energy (100 MeV/A) and it gives access to the phase-space explored during the collision. The development of HIPSE has been largely influenced by experimental observations. We have separated the reaction into 4 steps: contact, fragment formation, chemical freeze-out, and in-flight deexcitation. HIPSE will be useful for a study of various mechanisms such as neck fragmentation or multi-fragmentation

  12. Nuclear reactions and the synthesis of new species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Targets of relatively short-lived, neutron-rich transplutonium isotopes, such as 254 Es, which are produced by the HFIR/TRU, when combined with the capabilities of modern heavy-ion accelerators, offer a unique possibility to expand our knowledge of chemical elements and atomic nuclei toward the limits of nuclear stability. This knowledge should enable us to delineate the forces that eventually terminate the periodic table at its upper end. Specifically, the panel concludes that significant research opportunities exist in several areas, which are highlighted below: Nucleon-transfer reactions between light heavy-ion projectiles (such as 18 O, 22 Ne, or 48 Ca) and 254 Es targets will give access to a completely uncharted region of neutron-rich isotopes. Cold-fusion reactions of 48 Ca projectiles with /sup 254,255/Es targets should yield superheavy nuclei with neutron numbers very close to the predicted closed neutron shell at N = 184

  13. High-energy nuclear reaction mechanisms - fission, fragmentation and spallation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the correlations in kinetic energy, mass, charge, and angle of coincident fragments formed in high-energy nuclear reactions have helped to characterize the processes of fission, fragmentation and spallation. For example, fission or fission-like two-body breakup mechanisms result in a strong angular correlation between two heavy fragments; in addition, the momentum transfer in the reaction can be deduced from the correlation. Another example is the multiplicity of light charged particles associated with a given heavy fragment, which is a measure of the violence of the collision, thus distinguishing between central and peripheral collisions. A summary of what has been learned about these processes from such studies will be given, along with some suggestions for further experiments

  14. Microanalysis of solid surfaces by nuclear reactions and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agius, B.

    1975-01-01

    The principles involved in the use of monokinetic light ions beams, of about 1MeV, to the study of surface phenomena are presented. Two complementary techniques are described: the use of elastic scattering, which allows the analysis of impurity elements heavier than the substrate components and the use of nuclear reactions specific of light elements. Typical sensitivities are of the order of 10 11 at/cm 2 in good cases. The depth resolution varies, according to the cases, from about a hundred angstroems to a few thousand angstroems [fr

  15. Development of IAEA nuclear reaction databases and services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerkin, V.; Trkov, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    From mid-2004 onwards, the major nuclear reaction databases (EXFOR, CINDA and Endf) and services (Web and CD-Roms retrieval systems and specialized applications) have been functioning within a modern computing environment as multi-platform software, working under several operating systems with relational databases. Subsequent work at the IAEA has focused on three areas of development: revision and extension of the contents of the databases; extension and improvement of the functionality and integrity of the retrieval systems; development of software for database maintenance and system deployment. (authors)

  16. Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis with 3 He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

  17. Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy gain of a system is defined as the ratio of its output energy divided by the energy provided to operate the system. Most familiar systems have energy gains less than one due to various inefficiencies. By contrast, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR) offer high energy gains. Theoretical values in excess of 1000 are possible. Energy gains over 100 have already been reported. But, they have not yet been sustained for commercially significant durations. This article summarizes the current status of LENR energy gains. (author)

  18. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, J., E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Ostaszewska, U. [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials & Dyes, Division of Elastomers & Rubber Technology, Harcerska 30, 05-820 Piastow (Poland); Bielinski, D.M. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Polymer & Dye Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Grambole, D. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); Kosinska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  19. MSU SINP CDFE nuclear data activities in the nuclear reaction data centres network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboshin, I.N.; Varlamov, V.V.; Komarov, S.Yu.; Peskov, N.N.; Semin, S.B.; Stepanov, M.E.; Chesnokov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the progress report of the Centre for Photonuclear Experiments Data, Moscow. It is a short review of the works carried out by the CDFE concerning the IAEA nuclear reaction data centers network activities from May 2001 until May 2002. and the description of the main results obtained. (a.n.)

  20. anti p-3He reaction cross section at 200 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Ferrero, L.; Grasso, A.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Barbieri, R.; Bendiscioli, G.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic anti p- 3 He events at 192.8 MeV/c are detected with a self-shunted streamer chamber. The measured reaction cross section is 392±23.8 mb. This result is briefly discussed and compared with other reaction cross sections for low-energy anti p with light nuclei. (orig.)

  1. Reduction methodology for reaction cross sections induced by weakly bound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, N.N.; Mukherjee, S.; Appannababu, S.; Guimaraees, V.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nuclear reactions with weakly bound nuclei has increased considerably along the last decade. Several experiments with stable and unstable projectiles have been performed and a variety of theoretical approaches have been developed. In particular, fusion and breakup reactions induced by such projectiles have been the object of several studies. Owing to the weak binding of the projectile, the breakup cross section may be quite large and coupling with the breakup channel can strongly affect the fusion cross section at near barrier energies. This influence stems from two effects, one of a static and the other of a dynamic nature, which are, however, not easy to be disentangled. The static effect results from the more diffuse density of the weakly bound nuclei, as compared with a strongly bound one. The contribution from weakly bound nucleons to the nuclear density extends further out and this gives rise to a lower and thicker potential barrier. There is general understanding that this static effect enhances the fusion cross section at near barrier energies. On the other hand, there is the dynamic effect corresponding to the coupling with the breakup channel. It is well known that the coupling with a finite number of bound channels enhances the sub-barrier fusion cross section. However, the effect of coupling to channels in the continuum (breakup) is controversial. In first place, one should have in mind that there are different fusion processes in collisions of weakly bound projectiles. One of such processes is the complete fusion, which takes place when the whole mass of the projectile fuses with the target. There may be fusion following breakup. In this case, the compound nucleus may contain the whole mass of the projectile (through sequential fusion of the fragments), or some fragment can escape the interaction region. The former corresponds also to complete fusion (sequential complete fusion) while the latter is known as incomplete fusion. So far

  2. High-spin nuclear target of 178m2Hf: creation and nuclear reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.; Gangrskij, Yu.P.

    1993-01-01

    A long-lived (31 years) four-quasiparticle isomer 178m 2 Hf(I,K π =16,16 + ) was produced in microweight quantities using the nuclear reaction 176 Yb( 4 He, 2n). Methods of precision chemistry and mass-separation for the purification of the produced Hf material have been developed. Thin targets of isomeric hafnium-178 on carbon backings were prepared and used in experiments on a neutron, proton and deuteron beams. First results on nuclear reactions on a high-spin exotic target were obtained. Experiments on electromagnetic interactions of the isomeric hafnium using methods of the collinear laser spectroscopy as well as of the nuclear orientation of hafnium implanted into a crystalline media were started. 11 refs.; 11 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Theory of nuclear structure and reactions. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, M.H.; Serot, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    In the period covered by this report, work focused on five main areas: (1) relativistic effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; (2) the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear physics; (3) quantum hadrodynamics and relativistic nuclear mean-field theory; (4) structure and reaction effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; and (5) weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei. Results and publications in these areas are summarized. Publications are listed

  4. Differential cross section measurement for the 6Li(n,t)4He Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guohui; Tang Guoyou; Chen Jinxiang; Shi Zhaomin

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n) 3 He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the 238 U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data

  5. Differential cross section measurement for the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guohui, Zhang; Guoyou, Tang; Jinxiang, Chen; Zhaomin, Shi [Beijing Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Heavy Ion Physics and MOE Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics; Zemin, Chen [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedysheva, M; Khuukhenkhuu, G [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2002-06-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n){sup 3}He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the {sup 238}U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data.

  6. Simple, empirical approach to predict neutron capture cross sections from nuclear masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, A.; Casten, R. F.; Cakirli, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Background: Neutron capture cross sections are essential to understanding the astrophysical s and r processes, the modeling of nuclear reactor design and performance, and for a wide variety of nuclear forensics applications. Often, cross sections are needed for nuclei where experimental measurements are difficult. Enormous effort, over many decades, has gone into attempting to develop sophisticated statistical reaction models to predict these cross sections. Such work has met with some success but is often unable to reproduce measured cross sections to better than 40 % , and has limited predictive power, with predictions from different models rapidly differing by an order of magnitude a few nucleons from the last measurement. Purpose: To develop a new approach to predicting neutron capture cross sections over broad ranges of nuclei that accounts for their values where known and which has reliable predictive power with small uncertainties for many nuclei where they are unknown. Methods: Experimental neutron capture cross sections were compared to empirical mass observables in regions of similar structure. Results: We present an extremely simple method, based solely on empirical mass observables, that correlates neutron capture cross sections in the critical energy range from a few keV to a couple hundred keV. We show that regional cross sections are compactly correlated in medium and heavy mass nuclei with the two-neutron separation energy. These correlations are easily amenable to predict unknown cross sections, often converting the usual extrapolations to more reliable interpolations. It almost always reproduces existing data to within 25 % and estimated uncertainties are below about 40 % up to 10 nucleons beyond known data. Conclusions: Neutron capture cross sections display a surprisingly strong connection to the two-neutron separation energy, a nuclear structure property. The simple, empirical correlations uncovered provide model-independent predictions of

  7. IAEA Nuclear Data Section: Progress Report, 2011/12 Summary of Nuclear Data Activity by Staff of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, May 2011 - April 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Otsuka, N.; Semkova, V.; Simakov, S.P.; Zerkin, V.

    2012-01-01

    Progress report on nuclear data activity by staff of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section from May 2011 - April 2012: 1) Staff changes 2) Data compilations, EXFOR transmission, EXFOR quality control, EXFOR coverage control, Workshops and meetings in 2011/2012 relevant to EXFOR, CINDA, Evaluated data libraries, files and programs 3) Services, software 4) Visits and Inter-centre cooperation (2011-2012) 5) Nuclear data developments 6) Publications.

  8. The analysis of B, C, N, and O by nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debras, G.; Deconninck, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear reactions induced on light elements by lower energy deuterons are investigated. Differential cross section for 10 B(d,α 0 ) 8 Be, 10 B(d,α 1 ) 8 Be, 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C, 14 N(d,α 1 ) 12 C, 16 O(d,p 0 ) 17 O, 16 O(d,p 1 ) 17 O and 16 O(d,α 0 ) 14 N reactions are measured between 0.5 and 3 MeV at an observation angle of 135 0 with respect to the incident beam. Possible application of these reactions to the measurement of surface concentration is considered. Special emphasis was given on nitrogen determination in order to study nitrogen concentration in industrial glasses. Surface nitrogen repartition on glass, origin of nitrogen, influence of oxidizing and reducing conditions and glass structure are discussed. (author)

  9. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draayer, Jerry P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  10. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, Jerry P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  11. Measurement of hydrogen in BCN films by nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Haruyuki; Hirose, Yukio; Sasaki, Toshihiko [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Inst., of Ishikawa, Kanazawa (Japan); Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is a very common contaminant in carbon films. It can strongly influence on mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the films. The analysis of hydrogen is therefore a crucial problem produce the films with the properties required. Ion beam techniques using nuclear reactions are effective for the quantitative determination of hydrogen concentration. A specially designed spectrometer is employed for the detailed determination of hydrogen concentrations by detecting 4.43MeV {gamma}-rays from the resonant nuclear reactions {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C at the 6.385MeV. In this study, the BCN films were formed on silicon substrate by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), in which boron and carbon were deposited by electron beam heating of B{sub 4}C solid and nitrogen was supplied by ion implantation simultaneously. The concentrations of hydrogen in BCN films were measured using RNRA. The mechanical properties of BCN films were evaluated using an ultra-micro-hardness tester. It was confirmed that the hardness of BCN films increased with increasing the concentration of hydrogen. (author)

  12. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.

  13. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  14. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory; L'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires: theorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C.T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [French] Expose general sur les fondements de l'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires; representation de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee elastique par celle due a un potentiel complexe; developpement de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee inelastique et discussion de la contribution de la premiere approximation de Bohr (sur des distendues) a l'excitation d'etats individuels et collectifs. (auteur)

  15. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  16. Neutral strange particle production and inelastic cross section in p-bar+Ta reaction at 4 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, K.; Noguchi, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The inclusive production of K/sub s//sup 0/, /Lambda/ Lambda-bar, and K/sub s//sup 0//Lambda/in the p-barTa reaction at 4 GeV/c was measured and compared with that in the p-barp reaction. The total inelastic and topological cross sections were also measured. The number of /Lambda/s produced in the p-barTa reaction was 11.3 times larger than that expected from the geometrical cross section, which is defined as A/sup 2/3/ times the cross section for the p-barp reaction. The yield ratio Lambda-bar//Lambda/was found to be 2 x 10/sup -2/. These values cannot be accounted for by a straightforward extension of the p-barN reaction. Besides, a correlation of 2 vees like K/sub s//sup 0/-/Lambda/could not prove their simultaneous production. Nuclear temperatures of 135 and 97 MeV were obtained from the kinetic energy spectra of K/sub s//sup 0/ and /Lambda/ respectively. The kinematical characteristics of the K/sub s//sup 0/ and /Lambda/produced were analyzed in terms of the fireball model

  17. Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)

    1978-10-01

    These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  18. light charged particles induced nuclear reaction on some medium weight nuclei for particles applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsena, B.M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The radioisotopes of indium, cadmium and tin have many practical and medical applications. Their standard routes for production are proton or deuteron induced reactions on natural or enriched cadmium or tin. The production via 3 He induced reactions on natural or enriched cadmium was rarely discussed. In this study 3 He induced reactions on natural cadmium were measured utilizing the stacked-foil technique. The primary incident beam energy was 27 MeV extracted from the MGC- 20E cyclotron, Debrecen, Hungary.the exciatation functions for the reactions n atCd( 3 He,x) 115g,111m Cd, 117m,g,116m,115m,114m,113m,111g,110m,g,109g,108g,107g In and 117m,113,111,110 Sn were evaluated. The data were compared with the available literature data.Different theoretical nuclear reaction models were also used to predict the cross sections for those reactions. The used models were ALICE-IPPE, TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-03. The experimental data were compared also to the theoretical model calculations. The theoretical models did not describe most of the experimental results.The isomeric cross section ratios for the isomeric pairs 117m,g In and 110m,g In were calculated. The isomeric cross section ratio depends on the spins of the states of the interested isomeric pair. The calculated isomeric ratios helped to identify the mechanisms of the reactions involved.The integral yields for some medically relevant isotopes were calculated using the excitation function curves

  19. Investigation of total cross sections for reactions induced by {sup 6}He interaction with silicon nuclei at energies between 5 and 50 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdrakhimova, G. D., E-mail: gaukharkd@gmail.com [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Sobolev, Yu. G.; Kuhtina, I. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kuterbekov, K. A. [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Mendibaev, K. O.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Experimental excitation functions in terms of the total cross sections for {sup 6}He + Si nuclear reactions are analyzed in the energy range between 5 and 50 MeV/A, and a brief survey of the procedures used to obtain experimental data is given. Particular attention is given to describing experiments performed in beams of radioactive nuclei from the accelerators of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). The experimental data in question are analyzed on the basis of a semimicroscopic optical model.

  20. Effect of free-particle collisions in high energy proton and pion-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of free-particle collisions in simple ''knockout'' reactions of the form (a,aN) and in more complex nuclear reactions of the form (a,X) was investigated by using protons and pions. Cross sections for the 48 Ti(p,2p) 47 Sc and the 74 Ge(p,2p) 73 Ga reactions were measured from 0.3 to 4.6 GeV incident energy. The results indicate a rise in (p,2p) cross section for each reaction of about (25 +- 3) percent between the energies 0.3 and 1.0 GeV, and are correlated to a large increase in the total free-particle pp scattering cross sections over the same energy region. Results are compared to previous (p,2p) excitation functions in the GeV energy region and to (p,2p) cross section calculations based on a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation model. Cross section measurements for (π/sup +-/, πN) and other more complex pion-induced spallation reactions were measured for the light target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F from 45 to 550 MeV incident pion energy. These measurements indicate a broad peak in the excitation functions for both (π,πN) and (π,X) reactions near 180 MeV incident energy. This corresponds to the large resonances observed in the free-particle π + p and π - p cross sections at the same energy. Striking differences in (π,πN) cross section magnitudes are observed among the light nuclei targets. The experimental cross section ratio sigma(π - ,π - n)/sigma(π + ,πN) at 180 MeV is 1.7 +- 0.2 for all three targets. The experimental results are compared to previous pion and analogous proton-induced reactions, to Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semi-classical nucleon charge exchange model. (108 references) (auth)