WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear plant operation

  1. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  2. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  3. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  6. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  7. Operation reports of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements aiming to standardize the program of nuclear power plant operation report, required by Brazilian Energy Commission - CNEN - to evaluate the activities related to the nuclear technical safety and to the radiation protection during the units operational phase, are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  9. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  10. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  11. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  12. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  13. Optimum operation cycle of nuclear plant in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Katayama, Noboru

    1989-01-01

    Extension of nuclear power plant operation cycle leads to improvement of its capacity factor and affects to suppress thermal plant generation of which fuel cost is relatively high. On the other hand, the number of nuclear fuel assembly to be exchanged at the time of maintenance increases with the operation cycle extension and this makes the fuel cost of nuclear generation high. For this reason, there exists the optimum operation cycle from the power system operation. This report deals with the optimum operation cycle of nuclear plant as the optimum sharing problem of generated energy between nuclear and thermal plants. The incremental fuel cost is considered to find the optimum value. The effects of the generation mix and high burn-up fuel on optimum operation cycle are examined. (author)

  14. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  15. Professional adaptability of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns in the results of analysis for nuclear power plant (NPP) operator job and analysis for human errors related NPP accidents. Based on the principle of ergonomics a full psychological selection system of the professional adaptability of NPP operators including cognitive ability, personality and psychological health was established. The application way and importance of the professional adaptability research are discussed. (authors)

  16. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  17. Operational safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational safety of nuclear power plants has become an important safety issue since the Chernobyl accident. A description is given of the various aspects of operational safety, including the importance of human factors, responsibility, the role and training of the operator, the operator-machine interface, commissioning and operating procedures, experience feedback, and maintenance. The lessons to be learnt from Chernobyl are considered with respect to operator errors and the management of severe accidents. Training of personnel, operating experience feedback, actions to be taken in case of severe accidents, and international cooperation in the field of operational safety, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Regulatory framework for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1995-01-01

    As the framework of standards and requirements covering each phase of nuclear power plant project and operation developed, plant owners defined their licensing commitments (codes, rules and design requirements) during the project and construction phase before start-up and incorporated regulatory requirements imposed by the regulatory Body during the licensing process prior to operation. This produces a regulatory framework for operating a plant. It includes the Licensing Basis, which is the starting point for analyzing and incorporating new requirements, and for re-evaluation of existing ones. This presentation focuses on the problems of applying this regulatory framework to new operating activities, in particular to new projects, analyzing new requirements, and reconsidering existing ones. Clearly establishing a plant's licensing basis allows all organizations involved in plant operation to apply the requirements in a more rational way. (Author)

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  2. Review of operational aids for nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many approaches are being explored to improve the safety of nuclear plant operations. One approach is to supply high-quality, relevant information by means of computer-based diagnostic systems to assist plant operators in performing their operational and safety-related roles. The evaluation of operational aids to ensure safe plant operations is a necessary function of NRC. This work has two purposes: to collect limited data on a diversity of operational aids, and to provide a method for evaluating the safety implications of the functions of proposed operational aids. After a discussion of the method evaluation now under study, this paper outlines this data collection to date

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  4. Training device for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  5. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  6. Operation Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharno

    2005-01-01

    A review on operation safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is carried out. NPP is established through several phases that are siting, design, fabrication and construction, and after completion of construction the next phase is operation, therefore operating organization is established. The safety of NPP is relied on operation safety. Based on that case the aim of this review is to get impression that operating organization and its activities are very important on determining the achievement of operation safety. Operating organization determines qualification and training of personnel, commissioning programs, plant operation programs, and supporting activities programs. The method used in this review is by explains the operating organization and its activities. The results indicate that the role of operating organization and its activities are very important on determining the achievement of the goals of the operation which are secure, reliable and safe. Operating organization directly responsible to operation safety. Besides that, human factor related to the implementation of safety culture has also important role. (author)

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale

  8. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  9. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  10. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  11. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The general requirements applicable to the quality assurance of the Finnish nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91) and in the guide YVL 1.4. This guide specifies the quality assurance requirements to be applied during the operation of the nuclear power plants as well as of the other nuclear facilities. Quality assurance applies to all the activities and organizations with a bearing on the safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (5 refs.)

  12. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig

  13. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  14. Nuclear plant operation: achieving excellence through quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, L.; Bergeron, J.P.; Coakley, W.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power operation is characterised by a very high level of safety and availability resulting in economically competitive electricity production. This achievement must not only be maintained but must be further developed if nuclear power is to regain momentum in the light of its widely recognized environmental advantages. Therefore this meeting bring together all those, managers and technical staff, responsible for the operation of the nuclear in order to allow them to exchange views, experience and knowledge on fundamental aspects such as: management philosophy, quality assurance, human resources and international co-operation; focusing on training (incident analysis and management), human factors and experience feedback; maintenance philosophy, life extension and upgrading, organisation and administration. (A.L.B.)

  15. Nuclear plant operation: achieving excellence through quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, L. [Barseback Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden); Bergeron, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Coakley, W. [and others

    1992-07-01

    Nuclear power operation is characterised by a very high level of safety and availability resulting in economically competitive electricity production. This achievement must not only be maintained but must be further developed if nuclear power is to regain momentum in the light of its widely recognized environmental advantages. Therefore this meeting bring together all those, managers and technical staff, responsible for the operation of the nuclear in order to allow them to exchange views, experience and knowledge on fundamental aspects such as: management philosophy, quality assurance, human resources and international co-operation; focusing on training (incident analysis and management), human factors and experience feedback; maintenance philosophy, life extension and upgrading, organisation and administration. (A.L.B.)

  16. The operating staff of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, G.; Christ, W.

    1988-01-01

    The training of its staff is one of the pillars of the safe and economical operation of a power plant. This is why power plant owners began to systematically train their staff already in the 50s, and why they created central training facilities. Staff members who have undergone this training make an indispensable contribution to the acceptedly high safety and availability of German power plants. The substantial cost of creating training facilities and of schooling plant staff is considered to be an investment for the future. Low labour turnover permits careful observation and development of staff and leads to a high standard of knowledge and experience. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  18. Operation guide device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsuneyasu

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to maintain the soundness of nuclear fuels and each of equipments by compensating the effect of the xenon density on the reactor core thermal power resulted upon load following operation of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: The device comprises an instrumentation system for measuring the status of the nuclear reactor, a reactor core performance calculator for calculating the reactor core performance based on the output from the instrumentation system, a xenon density calculator for calculating the xenon density based on the output from the performance calculator, a memory unit for storing the output from the reactor core performance calculator and the xenon density calculator and for transferring the stored memory to a nuclear reactor status forecasting device and an alternative load pattern searching device for searching, in cooperation with the memory unit, an alternative load pattern which is within an operation restrictive condition and most closed to a demanded load pattern when a monitor for the deviation from the flowrate distribution detects the deviation from the operation restrictive conditions. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Operator psychological selection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed job analysis of nuclear power plant operator including operation procedures analysis, interview with personnel familiar with operator job, and 9 events happened in the past in the plant involved operator error analysis, several operator work characteristics and performance influence factors are obtained. According to these specific characteristics and factors, referring to the psychological selection research results in the other related critical occupational fields, a full psychological selection system of nuclear power plant operator is forwarded in this paper, including 21 dimensions in 3 facets as general psychological ability, personality and psychological healthy. Practical measurement methods for the proposed selection dimensions are discussed in the end

  20. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request... that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

  1. Statistical operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauzit, Maurice; Wilmart, Yves

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the statistical operating results of nuclear power stations as issued in the literature shows that the values given for availability and the load factor often differ considerably from each other. This may be due to different definitions given to these terms or even to a poor translation from one language into another. A critical analysis of these terms as well as the choice of a parameter from which it is possible to have a quantitative idea of the actual quality of the operation obtained is proposed. The second section gives, on an homogenous basis and from the results supplied by 83 nuclear power stations now in operation, a statistical analysis of their operating results: in particular, the two light water lines, during 1975, as well as the evolution in terms of age, of the units or the starting conditions of the units during their first two operating years. Test values thus obtained are compared also to those taken 'a priori' as hypothesis in some economic studies [fr

  2. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Training center using the simulators, instructor training, training upgrade, deployment of digital control panel and review of training were described with overseas practice. Recently, nuclear power plant on-site simulators were also used for respective operator training. Operator teamwork training, training team performance upgrade, reflection of operating experiences in nuclear power plant accidents, development of training support equipments and management of training records were needed to review and upgrade training and qualification programs. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Quality assurance during operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lecture provides a description of the QA manual as operated in French nuclear power plants. Oral comments will include discussion of some difficulties in actual implementation. Also examples will be given of incidents in nuclear plants, which could have been mitigated or fully prevented by QA attitude. (orig./RW)

  4. Method of operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Tasuku.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of operating a plant in which the inside of a reactor container is filled with inert gases. That is, the pressure at the inside of the pressure vessel is controlled based on the values sent from an absolute pressure gage and a pressure low gage during usual operation. A pressure high alarm and a pressure high scram signal are generated from a pressure high detector and a scram pressure detector. With such a constitution, since the pressure at the inside of the reactor is always kept at a slightly positive level relative to the surrounding atmospheric pressure even when high atmospheric pressure approaches to the plant site, air does not flow into the reactor container. Accordingly, the oxygen concentration is not increased. When a low atmospheric pressure approaches, the control operation for the pressure at the inside of the container is not necessary. The amount of the inert gases consumed and the amount of radioactive materials released to the atmosphere are decreased. The method of the present invention improves the safety and the reliability of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  5. Psychological characteristics of licensed nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The safe production of electricity by nuclear power plants has been the focus of considerable attention. Much of this concern has been focused on equipment and procedural issues, with less attention to the psychological factors that affect the operations staff of the plants, i.e., those individuals who are most directly responsible for a plant's operations. Stress and type A qualities would be significant for these individuals because of their relationships to job performance and health. Of equal significance would be work-related factors, such as job involvement and work pressure. Also of interest would be hostile tendencies because of the need for cooperation and communications among operations staff. Two variables could influence these psychological factors. One is the degree of responsibility for a plant's nuclear reactors. The individuals with the greatest responsibility are licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). There are also individuals with less direct responsibilities who are not licensed. A second variable is the operating status of the plant, whether or not the plant is currently producing electricity. Relative to ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants, these data suggest a positive view of licensed operators. Of interest are the greater stress scores in the licensed staff of the operating plant in contrast with their peers in the nonoperating plant

  6. Performance management for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    Fuel was loaded to Unit 3 of the second power plant in May 2010. The Second Operation Division stepped in the operation stage from production preparation and commissioning and exploration of performance management was started. By means of performance evaluation, a closed loop of performance management was formed, staff enthusiasm improved, and potential capability inspired through evaluation, analysis and improvement. The performance evaluation covers attitude, skill, efficiency, performance, teamwork sense, cooperation, etc. Quantitative appraisal was carried out through 31 objective indicators of the working process and results. According to the evaluation results and personal interviews, indicators were modified. Through the performance evaluation, positive guidance is provided to the employees to promote the development of employees, departments and the enterprise. (authors)

  7. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  8. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  9. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  10. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  11. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  12. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  13. Operational modes of french 900 MW nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rugang

    1991-01-01

    The operational safety criteria of the PWR French 900 MW nuclear power plant and their operational modes: Mode A and Mode G is briefly introduced. The principle of the basic control, the operational performance, the advantages and the shortcomings of two modes are compared

  14. The new operating conditions of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six themes are examined: France's unique position in view of the size of its nuclear operating plant, the role of nuclear power in matching electricity supply to demand, the excellent flexibility provided by PWR facilities in operation, the approaches used in the field of automatic operational control systems, the systematic use of data processing for maintenance and generation and the gains in productivity that can be gained as a result of improving fuel use [fr

  15. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance for activities important to safety during commissioning, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, hereinafter referred to in this Guide as the operation phase or operation. It applies to activities such as: operating, inspecting, testing, commissioning, refuelling, maintaining, repairing, modifying and eventual shut-down and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It applies also to associated activities related to safety, such as environmental monitoring and responses to emergencies

  16. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  17. Internet applications in nuclear power plant operation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the Internet is quickly becoming widespread in practically all areas of business and industry. The nuclear industry should not remain indifferent to this new trend. This paper analyses some of the Internet applications that can be easily adapted to nuclear power plant operation management, including. (Author)

  18. Management for nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. (orig./RW)

  19. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  20. An intelligent tool for the training of nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, B.

    1990-01-01

    A new type of pedagogical tool has been developped for the training of nuclear power plant operation. This tool combines simulation and expert system. The first process developped is about Steam Generator Tube Rupture (S.G.T.R.). All nuclear power plants will be equiped with this system in 1989 and 1990. After this first experiment, others processes will be developped for this tool

  1. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC... the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license provides, among other things, that the... licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published March 27, 2009...

  2. Operator training simulator for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadasu

    1988-01-01

    For the operation management of nuclear power stations with high reliability and safety, the role played by operators is very important. The effort of improving the man-machine interface in the central control rooms of nuclear power stations is energetically advanced, but the importance of the role of operators does not change. For the training of the operators of nuclear power stations, simulators have been used from the early stage. As the simulator facilities for operator training, there are the full scope simulator simulating faithfully the central control room of an actual plant and the small simulator mainly aiming at learning the plant functions. For BWR nuclear power stations, two full scope simulators are installed in the BWR Operator Training Center, and the training has been carried out since 1974. The plant function learning simulators have been installed in respective electric power companies as the education and training facilities in the companies. The role of simulators in operator training, the BTC No.1 simulator of a BWR-4 of 780 MWe and the BTC No.2 simulator of a BWR-5 of 1,100 MWe, plant function learning simulators, and the design of the BTC No.2 simulator and plant function learning simulators are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Remote operation and maintenance support services for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Higuma, Koji; Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakuma, Masatake; Sonoda, Yukio; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Toshiba Corporation constructed e-Toshiba Operating Plant Service (e-TOPS TM ) system and began remote operation and maintenance support service for nuclear power plants. The service put into practice remote operation and maintenance by harmony of information technologies such as internet and mobile, and nuclear power measurement/diagnostic technologies and security techniques. Outline of e-TOPS TM , remote-control service, -inspection system, -diagnostic service and technologies support service are explained. Construction, objects and application effects of e-TOPS TM , remote diagnostic system using image treatment techniques, construction of device record card control system are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  4. Virtual reality technology in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a generic virtual reality comprehensive system focusing on the operation and maintenance in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. Under this layout, some key topics and means of the system are discussed. As example 'Virtual Nuclear Island' comprehensive system and its typical applications in NPP are set up. In the end, it prospects the applications of virtual reality technology in NPP operation, training and maintenance. (author)

  5. U.S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  6. An analysis of nuclear plant operating costs: A 1991 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This report updates a 1988 Energy Information Administration (EIA) report which examined trends in nonfuel operating costs at the Nation's nuclear power plants. Nonfuel operating costs are comprised of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs and capital expenditures incurred after a plant begins operating. Capital expenditures are typically called ''capital additions'' because the costs are added to the utility's rate base and recovered as a depreciation expense over several years, the number of years being regulated by State Public Utility Commissions. These costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep a plant operational as well as those needed to make plant modifications mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or implemented at the utility's discretion. The 1988 report found that from 1974 through 1984, the last year for which data were available, nuclear power plant nonfuel operating costs escalated by 14 percent annually in real terms. The objective of the present study was to determine whether trends in nonfuel operating costs have changed since 1984, if there was any change in the underlying factors influencing these costs, and if so, how these changes affect the basic conclusions of the 1988 report. The general trends are encouraging: Total nonfuel operating costs peaked in 1984 and have been lower since that time; O ampersand M costs have been rising, but at a much lower rate than seen from 1974 through 1984; capital additions costs have actually been declining. 9 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Inspection during operation of a nuclear power plant in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1977-01-01

    The control and surveillance activities, as well as the operating data and results of the three nuclear power plants presently in operation: Jose Cabrera, Santa Maria de Garona and Vandellos, are summarized. The first two are light-water type, with different pressure and boiling characteristics and the third is of the gas-graphite type. The main aspects, from an inspection point of view, of the experience obtained in these three plants are analyzed. (author) [es

  8. Guide for training nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.A.; Cagle, C.D.; Corbett, B.L.; Culbert, W.H.; Hamrick, T.P.; Hurt, S.S.; McCord, R.V.; Poteet, K.H.; Bates, A.E.G.; Casto, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered include basic preparation, radiation safety and control, principles of reactor operation, general operating characteristics, facility design, safety systems, instrumentation, reactor theory, fuel handling and core parameters, radioactive material handling, and administrative procedures

  9. Guide for training nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J. A.; Cagle, C. D.; Corbett, B. L.; Culbert, W. H.; Hamrick, T. P.; Hurt, S. S.; McCord, R. V.; Poteet, K. H.; Bates, A. E.G.; Casto, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered include basic preparation, radiation safety and control, principles of reactor operation, general operating characteristics, facility design, safety systems, instrumentation, reactor theory, fuel handling and core parameters, radioactive material handling, and administrative procedures.

  10. Selection/licensing of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.

    1983-07-01

    An important aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety is the reactor operator in the control room. The operators are the first individuals to deal with an emergency situation, and thus, effective performance on their part is essential for safe plant operations. Important issues pertaining to NPP reactor operators would fall within the personnel subsystem of our safety system analysis. While there are many potential aspects of the personnel subsystem, a key first step in this focus is the selection of individuals - attempting to choose individuals for the job of reactor operator who will safely perform the job. This requires a valid (job-related) selection process. Some background information on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process used for selecting NPP reactor operators is briefly presented and a description of a research endeavor now underway at Battelle for developing a valid reactor operator licensing examination is included

  11. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Based on training experiences of the nuclear power plant operators of pressurized water reactors (PWR) at the Nuclear Power Training Center Ltd. (NTC) in Japan, training programs were reviewed referring to US training programs. A systematic approach is deployed to them, which mainly consist of on-the-job training and the NTC training courses to meet the needs of all operators from beginners to experienced veterans according to their experiences and objectives. The NTC training is conducted using the simulators that simulate the nuclear power plant dynamics through the use of computers. The operators trained at the NTC work in the central control room of every PWR power plant. The NTC also carries out the qualification examinations for the shift managers. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Sato, Hideyuki; Murata, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in 2000, the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take 15.9% of the total energy demand. From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued. In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied. The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. (K.I.)

  13. Independent verification in operations at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donderi, D.C.; Smiley, A.; Ostry, D.J.; Moray, N.P.

    1995-09-01

    A critical review of approaches to independent verification in operations used in nuclear power plant quality assurance programs in other countries, was conducted for this study. This report identifies the uses of independent verification and provides an assessment of the effectiveness of the various approaches. The findings indicate that at Canadian nuclear power plants as much, if not more, independent verification is performed than at power plants in the other countries included in the study. Additional requirements in this area are not proposed for Canadian stations. (author)

  14. Plant designer's view of the operator's role in nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Church, J.F.; Cross, M.T.; Porter, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear plant operator's role supports the design assumptions and equipment with four functional tasks. He must set up th plant for predictable response to disturbances, operate the plant so as to minimize the likelihood and severity of event initiators, assist in accomplishing the safety functions, and feed back operating experiences to reinforce or redefine the safety analyses' assumptions. The latter role enhances the operator effectiveness in the former three roles. The Safety Level Concept offers a different perspective that enables the operator to view his roles in nuclear plant safety. This paper outlines the operator's role in nuclear safety and classifies his tasks using the Safety Level Concept

  15. IAEA Leads Operational Safety Mission to Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts led by the International Atomic Energy Agency today concluded a review of the safety practices at the Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near Bern in Switzerland. The team noted a series of good practices and made recommendations and suggestions to reinforce them. The IAEA assembled the Operational Safety Review Team at the request of the Swiss government. The team, led by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, performed an in-depth operational safety review from 8 to 25 October 2012. The team comprised experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as experts from the IAEA. The team conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the Muehleberg NPP. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, Severe Accident Management and Long-Term Operation. The OSART team made 10 recommendations and 11 suggestions related to areas where operations of Muehleberg NPP could be further improved, for example: - Plant management could improve the operating experience program and methods throughout the plant to ensure corrective actions are taken in a timely manner; - In the area of Long-Term Operation, the ageing management review for some systems and components is not complete and the environmental qualification of originally installed safety cables has not yet been revalidated for long-term operation; and - The plant provisions for the protection of persons on the site during an emergency with radioactive release can be improved to minimize health risks to plant personnel. The team also identified 10 good

  16. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public

  17. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture - presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis. - outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants - quality equipment - operator qualification and training - engineering know how on site - maintenance philosophy and outage planning - information system and feedback of experience - explains the management functions as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability - improvement - a feedback control system - analysis of production losses - optimization in shut-down planning - minimizing disturbances during plant operation - optimizing personnel qualification and efficiency. (orig.)

  18. Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

  19. Trojan Nuclear Plant. 1976 Annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated was 2,102,986 MWH with the generator on line 3144.4 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, tests, corrective maintenance, auxiliary feedwater pump modifications, main generator fault, fuel performance, shutdowns and power outages, radiation exposure of personnel, radioactive and chemical effluents, and environmental surveillance

  20. Quality management for nuclear power plant operation: A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The experience from well operated nuclear power plants shows that achievement of safe, reliable and economic performance is closely related to a strong commitment and involvement by the management personnel. A system of controls is necessary to ensure that satisfactory quality in operation is achieved and maintained over the long term. The key to achieving and assuring quality lies in the ability of management to define performance objectives and to ensure that significant safety and reliability problems are prevented or detected early and resolved. This Manual has been developed by the IAEA to assist plant managers in fulfilling their responsibility with regard to the control and direction of quality and of quality assurance activities in nuclear power plant operation. It emphasizes quality objectives for nuclear power plant operation and indicates the way in which a quality system based on quality assurance principles as established in the IAEA NUSS documents can be used by managers to accomplish these objectives. Since the Manual is mainly directed at management personnel, it is presented in the form of short highlighted practices complemented by typical examples of forms and procedures. Since not all the activities under the heading of quality in operation could be covered in a single document, the activities selected for this Manual comprise those where it was felt that practical advice is generally needed. A pragmatic document useful for direct application by plant managers was the envisaged objective

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  2. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jeferson

    2015-01-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  3. Assessing labour demand of nuclear power plants in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Factors are analysed and classified affecting the number of employees required to ensure operation of nuclear power plants with respect to handling all support and service activities. Methods are listed for assessing work requirements and difficulties in comparing and interpreting data are discussed. Assessing work requirements also represents an exacting task in the research sphere. (author)

  4. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world's most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America

  5. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant in 1987. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  8. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  9. Experience gained in enhancing operational safety at ComEd's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, D.

    1997-01-01

    The following aspects of experience gained in enhancing operational safety at Comed's nuclear power plants are discussed: nuclear safety policy; centralization/decentralization; typical nuclear operating organization; safety review boards; human performance enhancement; elements of effective nuclear oversight

  10. A regulator's view of management control of nuclear plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, J.P.; Martin, R.D.; Long, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Operating reactor experiences in the post-Three Mile Island era are summarized, highlighting various issues from a regulatory viewpoint. The importance of on-site and off-site nuclear plant management is discussed based on experiences in such areas as management control systems in operating nuclear plants, the importance of learning from experience, selection and placement of key personnel, effectiveness of radiation protection programmes and adequacy of emergency planning. Many of the problems experienced at operating nuclear plants have resulted in significant costs, not only in direct expenditures but also in extended shutdowns amounting to millions of dollars per day in expense and significant public concern. Several regulatory/industry initiatives designed to enhance safety of operation and to improve communication between operators and the regulators are realized. The need in certain facilities for more disciplined operating procedures, higher levels of technical competence and realistic implementation of self-auditing programmes is identified. The immediate and long-term benefits should include both increased safety and lower costs. (author)

  11. Stress sources during normal operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Jean, T.

    1986-03-01

    This study points out some concrete aspects of the reality of working conditions during normal operation of a nuclear power plant which create incertitudes in the working situation of operators. Some of these incertitudes are inevitable and are induced by the life of any complex organization, but others are at the origin of a potential stress: incertitudes related to work organization and, incertitudes related to the operation of installations. These results lead to choose actions to prevent these stress situation rather than to correct the operator [fr

  12. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. This lecture - discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization, the support to be provided to plant management, the services and facilities needed and the management system for assuring the safety tasks are performed - describes the responsibilities of plant management and operating organization - outlines the requirements for recruitment, training and retraining as well as qualification and authorization of personnel - describes the programmes for maintenance, testing, examination, inspection, radiological protection, quality assurance, waste management, fuel management, emergency arrangement and security - describes the development of plant operating procedures including procedures to protect the personnel - outlines the requirements for initial and subsequent operation - describes the importance for evaluation and feedback of operating experience - describes the procedures for changes in hardware, procedures and set points - outlines the information flow and the requirements in reference to records and reports. (orig./RW)

  13. Improving nuclear power plant safety through operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    In October 1986, the IAEA convened a one-week Technical Committee Meeting on Improving Nuclear Power Plant Safety Through Operator Aids. The term ''operator aid'' or more formally ''operator support system'' refers to a class of devices designed to be added to a nuclear power plant control station to assist an operator in performing his job and thereby decrease the probability of operator error. The addition of a carefully planned and designed operator aid should result in an increase in nuclear power plant safety and reliability. Operator aids encompass a wide range of devices from the very simple, such as color coding a display to distinguish it out of a group of similar displays, to the very complex, such as a computer-generated video display which concentrates a number of scattered indicator readings located around a control room into a concise display in front of the operator. This report provides guidelines and information to help make a decision as to whether an operator aid is needed, what kinds of operator aids are available and whether it should be purchased or developed by the utility. In addition, a discussion is presented on advanced operator aids to provide information on what may become available in the future. The broad scope of these guidelines makes it most suitable for use by a multi-disciplinary team. The document consists of two parts. The recommendations and results of the meeting discussions are given in the first part. The second part is the annex where the papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are printed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives

  15. Toward autonomous operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.

    1994-01-01

    Issues toward realization of autonomous operation as well as maintenance of nuclear power plants are reviewed in this paper. First, the necessity and significance of the technical program aiming at the establishment of autonomous nuclear plant are discussed through reviewing the history and current status computerized operation of complex artifacts. Then, key technologies currently studied to meet the need within the framework of artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced robotics are described. Among such AI-technologies are distributed multi-agent system, operator thinking model, and advanced man-machine interface design. Advances in robot technology attained include active sensing technique and multi-unit autonomous maintenance robot systems. Techniques for simulation of human action have been pursued as basic issues for understanding mechanisms behind human behavior. In addition to the individual developments, methodological topics relevant to the autonomy of nuclear facilities are briefly addressed. The concepts called methodology diversity and dynamic functionality restoration (realization) are introduced and discussed as the underlining principles to be considered in the development of the autonomous nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Operating procedure automation to enhance safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.; Adams, S.K.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Packer, D.; Holmes, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Use of logic statements and computer assist are explored as means for automation and improvement on design of operating procedures including those employed in abnormal and emergency situations. Operating procedures for downpower and loss of forced circulation are used for demonstration. Human-factors analysis is performed on generic emergency operating procedures for three strategies of control; manual, semi-automatic and automatic, using standard emergency operating procedures. Such preliminary analysis shows that automation of procedures is feasible provided that fault-tolerant software and hardware become available for design of the controllers. Recommendations are provided for tests to substantiate the promise of enhancement of plant safety. Adequate design of operating procedures through automation may alleviate several major operational problems of nuclear power plants. Also, automation of procedures is necessary for partial or overall automatic control of plants. Fully automatic operations are needed for space applications while supervised automation of land-based and offshore plants may become the thrust of new generation of nulcear power plants. (orig.)

  17. Management quality in spanish nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez de Zabalza Ramos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reasons that lead nuclear power plants to require engineering support that is not usual in other types of industrial installations, namely the complexity of the plant and the economic consequences of a possible shutdown. At the time of unit startup, the need to use the services of experienced engineers for the technical support of nuclear power plants induced plant owners to turn to the engineering companies which had participated in the design of the plants. The paper lists the wide range of plant support services which these engineering companies can provide, both from their central offices and on site, especially in the field of change orders and documentation update. The paper also describes the satisfactory development of management parameters in Spanish nuclear power plants both in terms of load factor and comparison of operating and maintenance costs, and how engineering companies have contributed to this achievement, by reducing costs with no loss in the technical quality of their services. Finally, the paper describes how the engineering companies have had to adapt to a shrinking market without losing quality and how they achieved this by diversifying their services. In this context there are two areas of concern. the first area of concern is the competition from certain companies with oversized staff, who attempt to employ them in operation support for nuclear power stations, a field which does not correspond to the training and background of said staff. This could lead to a loss of quality or economic efficiency of nuclear power plants, whose operation up to now has proven satisfactory. The second area of concern is the operator's tendency to use their own resources for engineering support, making more difficult the renewal of human resources and thus leading to a decrease in productivity, and in the transfer of practical and theoretical experience from one plant to another, as well as in the transmission of the latest know

  18. Self-assessment of operational safety for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Self-assessment processes have been continuously developed by nuclear organizations, including nuclear power plants. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way for improving safety performance. Self-assessment involves the use of different types of tools and mechanisms to assist the organizations in assessing their own safety performance against given standards. This helps to enhance the understanding of the need for improvements, the feeling of ownership in achieving them and the safety culture as a whole. Although the primary beneficiaries of the self-assessment process are the plant and operating organization, the results of the self-assessments are also used, for example, to increase the confidence of the regulator in the safe operation of an installation, and could be used to assist in meeting obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Such considerations influence the form of assessment, as well as the type and detail of the results. The concepts developed in this report present the basic approach to self-assessment, taking into consideration experience gained during Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions, from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented parts of a self-assessment programme and from meetings organized to discuss the subject. This report will be used in IAEA sponsored workshops and seminars on operational safety that include the topic of self-assessment

  19. Spent fuel cask handling at an operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of spent fuel handling at operating nuclear power plants cannot be overstated. Because of its highly radioactive nature, however, spent fuel must be handled in thick, lead-lined containers or casks. Thus, all casks for spent fuel handling are heavy loads by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition, and any load-drop must be evaluated for its potential to damage safety-related equipment. Nuclear Regulatory Guide NUREG-0612 prescribes the regulatory requirements of alternative heavy-load-handling methodologies such as (a) by providing cranes that meet the requirements of NUREG-0554, which shall be called the soft path, or (b) by providing protective devices at all postulated load-drop areas to prevent any damage to safety-related equipment, which shall be called the hard path. The work reported in this paper relates to cask handling at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick (JAF) plant

  20. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  1. Operational safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    Since the late 1980s, the IAEA has been actively sponsoring work in the area of indicators to monitor nuclear power plant (NPP) operational safety performance. The early activities were mainly focused on exchanging ideas and good practices in the development and use of these indicators at nuclear power plants. Since 1995 efforts have been directed towards the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator programme. The result of this work, compiled in this publication, is intended to assist NPPs in developing and implementing a monitoring programme, without overlooking the critical aspects related to operational safety performance. The framework proposed in this report was presented at two IAEA workshops on operational safety performance indicators held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 1998 and at the Daya Bay NPP, Szenzhen, China, in December 1998. During these two workshops, the participants discussed and brainstormed on the indicator framework presented. These working sessions provided very useful insights and ideas which where used for the enhancement of the framework proposed. The IAEA is acknowledging the support and contribution of all the participants in these two activities. The programme development was enhanced by pilot plant studies. Four plants from different countries with different designs participated in this study with the objective of testing the applicability, usefulness and viability of this approach

  2. Contributions to economical and safe operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Meyer, K.

    1989-01-01

    Selected results of scientific and technical research works in the Department 'Nuclear Power' of the Zittau Technical University are summarized which have been obtained on behalf of the Kombinat Kernkraftwerke 'Bruno Leuschner' and in conjunction with the education of scientific successors and have been partly adopted in textbooks. Works on improved utilization of nuclear fuel in pressurized water reactors are mentioned which, among other things, are related with the use of stretch-out mode of operation and optimization of nuclear fuel loading sequence. Results of experimental and theoretical investigations on coolant mixing in the reactor core are presented. A complex modelling of the dynamical long-term behaviour of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors due to xenon poisoning are briefly described. Finally, some results on noise diagnostics theory of power reactors are summarized. (author)

  3. The training of operating personnel at Spanish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Antonio Burgos

    2011-01-01

    An essential condition in order to ensure that nuclear power plants are operated reliably and safely is the availability in the Control Room of duly qualified persons capable both of preventing accidents and of responding to them should they occur. Training of the Control Room operating crews is accomplished in two major stages: a lengthy process of initial training in which the knowledge acquired at high school and university is built upon, leading to the specialisation required to appropriately carry out the tasks to be performed in the Control Room, and a continuous training program aimed at maintaining and improving the knowledge and skills required to operate the plant, with feedback of the lessons learned from the industry's operating experience. The use of full-scope simulators replicating the physical conditions and environment of the Control Room allows the period of initial training to be reduced and is the most appropriate method for the continuous training program of the control room personnel, since these simulators increase the realism of the training scenarios, help to better understand the response of the plant and provide an accurate idea of transient response times. Tecnatom is the Training Centre for Spanish Operators; it is the 'Operator Training Factory' and its mission is to train the nuclear power plant operating personnel in both technological fundamentals and the development of diagnostic skills through practical scenarios on the simulator and on-the-job training. Our training programmes are based on a SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) methodology that has been implemented at both Spanish and overseas plants. (author)

  4. Human equation in operating a nuclear-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island has forced the nuclear industry to acknowledge a badly neglected aspect of nuclear-power-plant safety - the human equation. The industry now appears to recognize the importance of operator selection, training, motivation, and licensing, and the need to design a system from the point of view of communication, information retrieval, record keeping, and human factors psychology. As a result, the relatively small initiatives that were begun a few years ago by the EPRI are now being greatly expanded

  5. Effects of delaying the operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Rainey, J.A.; Tepel, R.C.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1983-12-01

    This report documents a study of an actual 24-month nuclear power plant licensing delay. A representative utility was chosen for examination. The research was oriented toward determination of the licensing delay's impact on the utility's operating results, ratepayers, and security issues. The methodology utilized to estimate those impacts involved the recursive interaction of a generation costing program to estimate replacement fuel costs and a financial regulatory model to concomitantly determine the impact on the utility, its ratepayers and security issues. The latter model was executed under six alternate scenarios: (1) no delay in the plant's operation; (2) a 24-month delay; (3) a 24-month delay but further assuming all replacement power was generated by coal-fired plants; (4) a 24-month delay assuming all replacement power from oil-fired plants; (5) no delay but assuming the capital cost of the plant was twice as large; and (6) a 24-month delay with the capital cost of the plant twice as large. Three primary conclusions were made. First, under all scenarios, a 24-month delay in operation of the plant has an adverse impact on the utility's internal generation of funds. Second, although electricity rates are not appreciably affected by the delay, the direction of electricity price changes is contingent on the source of fuel used for replacement power. Finally, a 24-month delay has an adverse impact on the indicators used to evaluate the financial soundness of the utility in all cases under consideration

  6. Computerized operation manual (COM) of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is to be presented at the International Seminar on Diagnoses of and Response to Abnormal Occurrences at Nuclear Power Plants organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The topic of presentation is the Computerized Operational Manual. This system supports the operator at disturbance situations by displaying quickly and unambiguously the operational instructions and the relevant information without mistakes. By the computerized manual the operator can determine the instruction-subsystem which reflects the real state of the power unit. From this point the system guides the operator on how to drive the unit to another determined state by providing the operational instructions at any time. A data bank is also included which contains information concerning rules restricting on maintenance and repair. The system will be realized at Paks NPP. (author)

  7. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis

  8. Reporting nuclear power plant operation to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear safety (STUK) is the authority in Finland responsible for controlling the safety of the use of nuclear energy. The control includes, among other things, inspection of documents, reports and other clarification submitted to the STUK, and also independent safety analyses and inspections at the plant site. The guide presents what reports and notifications of the operation of the nuclear facilities are required and how they shall be submitted to the STUK. The guide does not cover reports to be submitted on nuclear material safeguards addressed in the guide YVL 6.10. Guide YVL 6.11 presents reporting related to the physical protection of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and reporting of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is presented in the guide YVL 7.10 and reporting on radiological control in the environment of nuclear power plants in the guide YVL 7.8

  9. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  10. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Labs., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today`s NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  11. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  12. Maintenance operations and radiation protection in french nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, R.; Stricker, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the field of radiation protection, the Service de la Production thermique (the Thermal and fossil generation division, SPT) at EDF aims at being among the best and at keeping for EDF agents an exposure potential allowing them to act in an emergency case. Doses to EDF or subcontractors' workers must therefore be optimized during maintenance operations. These aims can be reached through special techniques and by a know-how of the actors at several levels: 1) upstream, operating the plant with a clean primary circuit (which limits dose rates) and solubilizing corrosion products during reactor cooling and primary circuit drainage; 2) before the intervention, thorough preparation of the work and operation of protection means suited to each site; 3) during the intervention, the actors' know-how requires suitable training and qualification of the operation leader, awareness of all the actors and, sometimes training on mockup; 4) finally, for special operations on account of their repetitiveness or because they take place in hostile places, special tools are developed. The techniques thus developed, the systematic use of feedback have made it possible to reach a most acceptable result. Radiation protection proceeds from the maintenance operation quality and thus shares in improving the operation safety of the french nuclear power plants. 5 figs.; 3 refs [fr

  13. Operation aid device upon periodical inspection of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusaka, Ryoji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid device upon periodical inspection of a nuclear power plant, capable of controlling a plurality of control rods safely at good operation efficiency while maintaining subcritical state. Namely, a fuel exchange computer controls an operation for exchanging fuel assemblies upon periodical inspection. An operation aiding computer aids the exchanging operation of fuel assemblies. A control rod position monitoring device allows withdrawal of one control rod under the condition of establishment of entire control rod insertion signal upon operation of exchanging fuel assemblies. Whether all of the four fuel assemblies around one control rod have been entirely taken out or not is judged based on information on the fuel assembly exchanging operation. When conditions for the judgement for operation aiding computer are established, the all insertion signals for the entire control rods as the condition for the withdrawal of the control rods are bypassed, and operation enable signals for plurality control rods are outputted to a control rod manual operation device. (I.S.)

  14. Human factors in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaton, E.; Neboyan, V.; Lederman, L.

    1987-01-01

    In large and complex interactive systems, human error can contribute substantially to system failures. At nuclear power plants, operational experience demonstrates that human error accounts for a considerable proportion of safety-related incidents. However, experience also shows that human intervention can be very effective if there is a thorough understanding of the situation in the plant. Thus, an efficient interface of man and machine is important not only to prevent human errors but also to assist the operator in coping with unforeseen events. Human reliability can be understood as a qualitative as well as a quantitative term. Qualitatively it can be described as the aim for successful human performance of activities necessary for system reliability and availability. Quantitatively, it refers to data on failure rates or error probabilities that can be used, for example, for probabilistic safety assessments

  15. Experience from construction and operation of Karachi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Pakistan's first nuclear power plant (KANUPP) is owned and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). It uses a heavy water moderated and cooled natural uranium fuelled reactor. Total installed capacity is 137 MW(e). It was designed, constructed and commissioned by Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd. (CGE) as Prime Contractor. Construction started in mid-1966 and was completed in mid 1970; commissioning started in early 1970 and was completed at the end of 1972. Intensive on-the-job training for 20 engineers and 15 operators was provided by CGE in Canada. Ten engineers also worked in CGE's design offices. With this key group of engineers and technicians PAEC had no difficulty in taking over the plant from CGE after completion. The construction of the plant in a developing country presented special problems to CGE. The relatively small local construction firms had limited experience and equipment. Construction plant, equipment and tools were scarce. Fabrication and workshop facilities of limited scope were available but their quotations were relatively high. A scarcity of engineering, technical and skilled manpower for the construction of the project left as the only alternative on-site training for carefully recruited technicians. The results were most gratifying and compared favourably with CGE's Canadian experience. Welding, pipe fitting, tubing work and electrical connections were excellent. The local staff's productivity and dedication were very good. In the commissioning period, PAEC and CGE engineers and technicians worked as one team, testing and debugging the equipment and systems and demonstrating the contractual performance warranties. This period extended to approximately three years due to many technical problems resulting from equipment failures, environmental problems, system problems, plant loading limitations in view of the relatively small size of the grid system and special requirement of fuel conditioning to avoid premature fuel

  16. Safeguard management for operation security in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Un-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Safeguard modeling is conducted for the successful operations in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The characteristics of the secure operation in NPPs are investigated using the network effect method which is quantified by the Monte-Carlo algorithm. Fundamentally, it is impossible to predict the exact time of a terror incident. So, the random sampling for the event frequency is a reasonable method, including the characteristics of network effect method such as the zero-sum quantification. The performance of operation with safeguard is the major concern of this study. There are three kinds of considerations as the neutronics, thermo-hydraulics, and safeguard properties which are organized as an aspect of safeguard considerations. The result, therefore, can give the stability of the operations when the power is decided. The maximum value of secure operation is 12.0 in the third month and the minimum value is 1.0 in the 18th and 54th months, in a 10 years period. Thus, the stability of the secure power operation increases 12 times higher than the lowest value according to this study. This means that the secure operation is changeable in the designed NPPs and the dynamical situation of the secure operation can be shown to the operator.

  17. Systems with artificial intelligence in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors first summarize some developments made by GRS teams which can be regarded as the precursors of systems with artificial intelligence, and explain the basic characteristics of artificial intelligence, referring in particular to possible applications in nuclear engineering. The systems described are arranged in four groups according to applicability as follows: plant diagnosis and failure analysis, information systems and operating systems, control systems, assessment and decision aids. The working principle of the systems is explained by some examples giving details of the database and the interference processes. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merny, R.

    1986-01-01

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  19. Argentina's operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Palamidessi, H.

    1996-01-01

    The development of operator support systems for nuclear power plants started in Argentina a few years ago. Four systems are at present deployed or under development. The participation of utility personnel in the co-ordinated research program has helped in revising the current experience and in selecting and specifying the systems to be developed and the resources needed for their implementation. Main efforts will be aimed to the selection of those systems that can be more easily implemented, to improve the data retrieval and handling, to develop diverse supplies of software products and to promote the understanding of support systems among the potential end users. (author). 12 refs

  20. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  1. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills

  2. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...

  3. Nuclear safety surveillance and control of National Nuclear Safety Administration of PRC during commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W.; Zhang, C.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the method of nuclear safety surveillance and control of National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) of PRC during commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and fist use for Qinshan and Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power plants (GNPS). It is concluded that the surveillance models set up for Qinshan NPP and for GNPS commissioning were effective and had played an important role by ensuring the quality and safety of the commissioning testing and consequently the nuclear safety of these two power plants. 2 tabs

  4. Higher operational safety of nuclear power plants by evaluating the behaviour of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertins, M.; Glasner, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the GDR power reactors have been operated since 1966. Since that time operational experiences of 73 cumulative reactor years have been collected. The behaviour of operating personnel is an essential factor to guarantee the safety of operation of the nuclear power plant. Therefore a continuous analysis of the behaviour of operating personnel has been introduced at the GDR nuclear power plants. In the paper the overall system of the selection, preparation and control of the behaviour of nuclear power plant operating personnel is presented. The methods concerned are based on recording all errors of operating personnel and on analyzing them in order to find out the reasons. The aim of the analysis of reasons is to reduce the number of errors. By a feedback of experiences the nuclear safety of the nuclear power plant can be increased. All data necessary for the evaluation of errors are recorded and evaluated by a computer program. This method is explained thoroughly in the paper. Selected results of error analysis are presented. It is explained how the activities of the personnel are made safer by means of this analysis. Comparisons with other methods are made. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  5. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

  6. Quality assurance during operation of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knockaert, Andre; Stolz, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarizes the actual process followed by Electricite de France since 1974 in the design and implementation of a formal QA system for its new PWR nuclear plants during operation. It covers the approach to the problem, the main characteristics of the QA system, and the set-up of the organization for the first two large PWR plants to be commissioned. Although the EDF QA system during operation is closely related to corresponding systems in other utilities, it takes into account the proper French and EDF organizational and psychological peculiarities. It may be noted also that EDF decided to cover by QA not only the direct operation activities, as is usually done, but also all other plant or headquarters safety related aspects. It finally appears that even in a utility where many of the QA requirements have already been normal practice for years, if not yet strictly formalized, the design and set-up of such a QA system calls for a huge amount of organization and information work. An important condition for success is to show clearly to the involved personnel the benefits of the system and thus obtain their unstinted participation

  7. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Guide identifies the main objectives and responsibilities of management with respect to safe operation of nuclear power plants. The Guide discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization to meet these objectives, to establish the management programmes that assure the safety tasks are performed, and to see that the services and facilities needed to accomplish the tasks are available. The Guide is primarily addressed to safety matters directly related to the operating phase. It assumes, in other words, that the safety aspects of siting, design, manufacturing and construction have been resolved. However, it also covers the interrelationships between operations and design, construction and commissioning, including the involvement of the operating organization in appropriate reviews of safety issues with reference to the future operating phase. The Guide is mainly restricted to matters of principle in relation to management-level decision making aimed at establishing safety policies. It is therefore not suitable for implementing such policies at the operational level. The IAEA Codes of Practice and Safety Guides provide detailed guidance for the latter purpose in those areas considered appropriate

  8. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  9. Preliminary study on psychosomatic status of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Jinling; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Bian Huahui; Sun Yiling; Qiu Mengyue; Liu Chunfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the operators' psychosomatic health status in nuclear power plant; and provide the scientific basis of measures for preventing and reducing mental disorders in operators. Methods: The Psychosomatic Health Battery (PSHB) was used to assess the psychosomatic health status in 109 operators who were random selected from Qinshan nuclear power plant, etc. They were tested from lie, emotional stability, liveliness, tension, apprehension, mental health, such as psychopathic deviatesuch 7 personality traits. Results: Lie < 8, all inspected groups were normal. Psychopathic deviate: 98.2% for normal group 0.9% for both of groups occurred possible mental health problems and confirmed mental health problems; Mental health: 80.7% (88/109) for fine mental health ones, 29.4% (32/109) for those with excellent mental health, 51.4% (56/109) for good mental health ones, 13.8% (15/109) for general mental health ones, 5.5% (6/109) for poor mental health ones. Age factor could influence the mean values of the factors of apprehension, tension, mental health and psychopathic deviate. Correlation analysis showed that there was a correlation between tension and psychopathic deviate (r=0.664, P<0.01), and the other correlation coefficient was between apprehension and mental health (r=-0.789, P<0.01). Conclusions: There is an excellent condition of psychosomatic health in most of the operators, however, there are still a very small percentage of psychosomatic disorders among these operators, to improve the quality of their psychosomatic health, psychological counseling should be particularly strengthened to those with problems of psychosomatic health. (authors)

  10. Modelling operator cognitive interactions in nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senders, J.W.; Moray, N.; Smiley, A.; Sellen, A.

    1985-08-01

    The overall objectives of the study were to review methods which are applicable to the analysis of control room operator cognitive interactions in nuclear plant safety evaluations and to indicate where future research effort in this area should be directed. This report is based on an exhaustive search and review of the literature on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operator error, human error, human cognitive function, and on human performance. A number of methods which have been proposed for the estimation of data for probabilistic risk analysis have been examined and have been found wanting. None addresses the problem of diagnosis error per se. Virtually all are concerned with the more easily detected and identified errors of action. None addresses underlying cause and mechanism. It is these mechanisms which must be understood if diagnosis errors and other cognitive errors are to be controlled and predicted. We have attempted to overcome the deficiencies of earlier work and have constructed a model/taxonomy, EXHUME, which we consider to be exhaustive. This construct has proved to be fruitful in organizing our thinking about the kinds of error that can occur and the nature of self-correcting mechanisms, and has guided our thinking in suggesting a research program which can provide the data needed for quantification of cognitive error rates and of the effects of mitigating efforts. In addition a preliminary outline of EMBED, a causal model of error, is given based on general behavioural research into perception, attention, memory, and decision making. 184 refs

  11. Computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In the framework of the Agency's programme on nuclear safety a survey was carried out based on a questionnaire to collect information on computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants in Member States. The intention was to put together a state-of-the-art report where different systems under development or already implemented would be described. This activity was also supported by an INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) recommendation. Two consultant's meetings were convened and their work is reflected in the two sections of the technical document. The first section, produced during the first meeting, is devoted to provide some general background material on the overall usability of Computerized Operator Decision Aids (CODAs), their advantages and shortcomings. During this first meeting, the first draft of the questionnaire was also produced. The second section presents the evaluation of the 40 questionnaires received from 11 Member States and comprises a short description of each system and some statistical and comparative observations. The ultimate goal of this activity was to inform Member States, particularly those who are considering implementation of a CODA, on the status of related developments elsewhere. 8 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Reliability research to nuclear power plant operators based on several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; Li Fu; Zhao Bingquan

    2009-01-01

    The paper utilizes many kinds of international reliability research methods, and summarizes the review of reliability research of Chinese nuclear power plant operators in past over ten years based on the simulator platform of nuclear power plant. The paper shows the necessity and feasibility of the research to nuclear power plant operators from many angles including human cognition reliability, fuzzy mathematics model and psychological research model, etc. It will be good to the safe operation of nuclear power plant based on many kinds of research methods to the reliability research of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  13. A fault diagnosis system for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga, Yukiharu; Hayashi, Yoshiharu; Yuchi, Hiroyuki; Utena, Shunsuke; Maeda, Akihiko

    2002-01-01

    A fault diagnosis system has been developed to support operators in nuclear power plants. In the system various methods are combined to get a diagnosis result which provides better detection sensitivity and result reliability. The system is composed of an anomaly detection part with diagnosis modules, an integration part which obtains the diagnosis result by combining results from each diagnosis module, and a prediction part with state prediction and estimation modules. For the anomaly detection part, three kinds of modules are prepared: plant signal processing, early fault detection and event identification modules. The plant signal processing module uses wavelet transform and chaos technologies as well as fast Fourier transform (FFT) to analyze vibration sensor signals and to detect signal anomaly. The early fault detection module uses the neural network model of a plant subprocess to estimate the process variable values assuming normal conditions, and to detect an anomaly by comparing the measured and estimated values. The event identification module identifies the kind of occurring event by using the neural network and knowledge processing. In the integration part the diagnosis is performed by using knowledge processing. The knowledge for diagnosis is structured based on the means-ends abstraction hierarchy to simplify knowledge input and maintenance. In the prediction part, the prediction module predicts the future changes of process variables and plant interlock statuses and the estimation module estimates the values of unmeasurable variables. A prototype system has been developed and the system performance was evaluated. The evaluation results show that the developed technologies are effective to improve the human-machine system for plant operation. (author)

  14. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis, outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants and explains the management function as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability. (orig./RW)

  15. Computerized aids and human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1988-01-01

    When guiding a complex process and associated intermeshed systems in a nuclear power plant, a primary issue consists of the call for excellent information. Technically speaking, today's centralized control rooms are at the end of a development phase which has been governed by the introduction of remote information and remote control systems. But by centralization, an information overload problem arose, and it has been solved by dividing panels according to systems, operational phases and specific tasks. In addition, the overview and relationship of systems have been visualized by mimic diagrams. It is attempted to make transparent the technical back-ground of the processes and systems to be controlled, thus to provide the necessary basis for understanding the problems of operators. Practical examples are used for the purpose. The information dilemma, the systems for high level information, automation and information, plant safety and information, and the problem of where to go from here are described. Computerized operator aids must be discussed along assistance in information and assistance in automatic control. (Kako, I.)

  16. The control of operational risk in nuclear power plant operations - Some cross-cultural perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchard, A.; Rochlin, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants requires the management of a complex technology under exacting performance and safety criteria. Organizations operating nuclear power plants are faced with the challenge of simultaneously meeting technical, organizational, and social demands, striving toward perfection in a situation where learning by trial and error can be too costly. In this process, they interact with regulatory bodies who seek to help minimize operational risk by imposing and upholding safety standards. The character of this interaction differs in various countries, as does the larger cultural setting. The study generally pursued the question of how organizations operating complex and demanding technologies adapt to such requirements and circumstances, and how they can succeed in delivering nearly error-free performance. One aspect of this study includes the comparison of organizational and cultural environments for nuclear power plant operations in the US, France, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. The research involved in-depth, continuous observations on location and interviews with plant personnel, especially control operators, at one plant in each country.

  17. Development of operator thinking model and its application to nuclear reactor plant operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi; Endou, Akira; Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    At first, this paper presents the developing method of an operator thinking model and the outline of the developed model. In next, it describes the nuclear reactor plant operation system which has been developed based on this model. Finally, it has been confirmed that the method described in this paper is very effective in order to construct expert systems which replace the reactor operator's role with AI (artificial intelligence) systems. (author)

  18. Research on operation support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are the typical, complex, large scale engineering system, and at the time of accidents, there is the possibility to extend disasters to wide range beyond borders, therefore, it is the feature that the requirement for their reliability and safety is much severe as compared with other engineering systems. The fact that human errors become the major cause of large accidents is in common in large scale engineering systems, and the development of the operation support system for preventing it has become an important research subject. Also the research on design support system and maintenance support system is in progress to prevent human errors. Operation support system is composed of diagnostic system, operation guide system, man-machine interface and knowledge data base, and throughout these, the research on the human errors arising in the process of human decision making becomes the basis. Rasmussen's model for decision making, the classification of human errors and the reliability analysis for men, the factors affecting human errors, the acquisition of knowledge, the compilation and management of knowledge data base, the diagnostic system, operation guide system and man-machine interface are described. (K.I.)

  19. Managing the early termination of operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory mandate to seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. However, it has become more and more apparent that many States are facing the decision of closing nuclear power plants (NPPs) before expiration of their operating licences. Some NPPs have already closed and the owners are evaluating the effects on their staffs, the local economies and safety at the sites. It is evident that safety aspects and management strategies are important factors to be reviewed and monitored throughout the process of early termination and closure.The owners and employees of the NPPs are realizing that they are entering into very difficult phases of the plant life cycle with significant safety concerns. Although a great deal of work has been done to review and process information on technical aspects of early termination prior to decommissioning, far less attention has been given to the management and organizational issues involved in maintaining the required safety level in such nuclear installations. It is important that when decisions are made to terminate operation early, the same safety measures are applied to management concerns for strategic planning as are applied to technical reviews. These management and organizational issues are fundamental to any future decommissioning process. Managers at sites that decided to close early may be working to cope with management of change issues arising during the transition from operation to decommissioning as they monitor resource and competence needs, as well as staff morale and technical issues. If these issues are not treated satisfactorily they can have significant safety consequences. The organization often must address all these challenges with little guidance or experience and with reduced resources. This Safety Report has been developed with the support of experts from regulatory, operating and

  20. Study on risk management for operation of nuclear generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Reputation loss is regarded as a management issue because it impacts to business and industries significantly. Reputation management is one of the approach both business and public organizations. Application of reputation management for nuclear plant management is discussed. (author)

  1. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  2. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  3. 75 FR 73135 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... operation of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP), located in Houston County, Alabama. In... Identification of the Proposed Action The proposed action would exempt the FNP from the required implementation date of March 31, 2010, for several new requirements of 10 CFR Part 73. Specifically, FNP would be...

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-03-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. (4 figs., 4 tabs.)

  5. Provision of operational radiation protection services at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on establishing and maintaining a radiation protection programme for a nuclear power plant that is consistent with the optimization process recommended in the Basic Safety Standards. This publication is written with a view to providing guidance to every person associated with the radiation protection programme for a nuclear power plant and develops the theme that radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. 12 refs, 2 figs

  6. The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricite de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality, EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the ''Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs'' (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste). (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  7. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    of the process plant, its function and its structural elements. The paper explains how the means-end concepts of MFM can be used to provide formalized definitions of plant operation modes. The paper will introduce the mode types defined by MFM and show how selected operation modes can be represented...

  8. Operation experience feedback and analysis of nuclear air cleaning system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liantao; Lin Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    High-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA Filter) and Charcoal Adsorber are the most important components affecting the performance of nuclear air cleaning system (NACS) in Nuclear Power Plant. Based on the configuration of HEPA Filter and Charcoal Adsorber, firstly, discussing the factors affecting the components performance and the potential aging parts, and then analyzing the effectiveness of In-place testing for performance surveillance. At last, analyzing the operation experience, and coming to the conclusion that the stable operation of NACS should consider design, initial acceptance testing, period in-place testing, proper maintenance, strict replace schedule, and so on. (authors)

  9. Verifying competence of operations personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    To ensure that only competent people are authorized to fill positions in a nuclear power plant, both the initial competence of personnel and the continuous maintenance of competence have to be verified. Two main methods are normally used for verifying competence, namely evaluation of a person's performance over a period of time, and evaluation of his knowledge and skills at a particular time by means of an examination. Both methods have limitations, and in practice they are often used together to give different and to some extent complementary evaluations of a person's competence. Verification of competence itself is a problem area, because objective judging of human competence is extremely difficult. Formal verification methods, such as tests and examinations, are particularly or exclusively applied for the direct operating personnel in the control room (very rarely for management personnel). Out of the many elements contributing to a person's competence, the knowledge which is needed and the intellectual skills are the main subjects of the formal verification methods. Therefore the presentation will concentrate on the proof of the technical qualification of operators by means of examinations. The examination process in the Federal Republic of Germany for the proof of knowledge and skills will serve as an example to describe and analyze the important aspects. From that recommendations are derived regarding standardization of the procedure as well as validation. (orig./GL)

  10. Computerization of operation and maintenance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a resource for computerization of activities in plant operation and maintenance. Experience gained from design and implementation of various computer systems around the world is described. The material may be useful as a guide to modification and upgrading of existing plants as well as design and engineering of new plants. It should be particularly of interest to managers and engineers who are engaged in planning, bidding, specifying or designing computer systems for operation and maintenance applications. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Automation system for operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Kato, Kanji

    1991-01-01

    The automation system comprises a general monitor control device incorporating a plurality of emergency operation plannings concerning an automatic processing, and judging whether the operation is to be conducted or not depending on the plannings based on the data planed by a plant, a control device for controlling the plant in accordance with the planning when monitor control device judges that the operation should be done due to the emergency operation plannings and an operation planning device aiding the formation of the operation plannings. When the state of the power plant exceeds a normal control region, the reactor power is lowered automatically by so much as a predetermined value or to a predetermined level, to automatically return the plant state to the normal control region. In this way, the plant operation efficiency can be improved. Further, after automatic operation, since operation plannings for recovering original operation plannings are prepared efficiently and recovered operation plannings are started in a short period of time, the operators' burden can be mitigated and power saving can be attained. (N.H.)

  12. Nuclear power plants: recent developments in Brazil relating to the legal aspect of installation - erection - operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1981-10-01

    A Federal statutory system governs the setting up and operation of nuclear power plants in Brazil. This paper describes the general regulatory framework for electric utilities and in particular analyses the licensing procedure for nuclear installations. (NEA) [fr

  13. The licensing procedure for construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, J.E.L.

    1980-03-01

    The licensing procedure for the construction and operation of the nuclear power plants in Brazil is analysed, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency orientation. The risks related to the nuclear energy is also emphasized. (A.L.) [pt

  14. The function of people in a nuclear power plant in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.

    1986-01-01

    Based mainly on the operating experience of Obrigheim nuclear power plant - a two-loop pressurized water reactor with about 120,000 operating hours - the function of people in the very complex technical field of operation including supervision, maintenance and repair of a nuclear power plant is presented with special attention to safety related activities. The boundaries are indicated where automatic actions for safety and economic reasons are necessary and where manually operated systems are possible or even desirable. Typical examples and figures will show, how the operating people influenced the operation and availability of Obrigheim nuclear power plant. (orig./GL)

  15. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  16. Intelligent engineering and technology for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.P.; Gu, X.

    1996-01-01

    The Three-Mile-Island accident has drawn considerable attention by the engineering, scientific, management, financial, and political communities as well as society at large. This paper surveys possible causes of the accident studied by various groups. Research continues in this area with many projects aimed at specifically improving the performance and operation of a nuclear power plant using the contemporary technologies available. In addition to the known cause of the accident and suggest a strategy for coping with these problems in the future. With the increased use of intelligent methodologies called computational intelligence or soft-computing, a substantially larger collection of powerful tools are now available for our designers to use in order to tackle these sensitive and difficult issues. These intelligent methodologies consists of fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, artificial intelligence and expert systems, pattern recognition, machine intelligence, and fuzzy constraint networks. Using the Three-Mile-Island experience, this paper offers a set of specific recommendations for future designers to take advantage of the powerful tools of intelligent technologies that we are now able to master and encourages the adoption of a novel methodology called fuzzy constraint network

  17. Independent verification in operations at nuclear power plants: Summaries of site visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donderi, D.C.; Smiley, A.; Ostry, D.J.; Moray, N.P.

    1995-09-01

    A critical review of approaches to independent verification in operations used in nuclear power plant quality assurance programs in other countries was conducted and are detailed in volume 1. This paper is a compilation of the visits to nuclear power plant sites to study independent verification in operations at sites in Canada, USA, Japan, United Kingdom, France and Germany. 3 tabs., 22 figs

  18. Simulation of nuclear plant operation into a stochastic energy production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    A simulation model of nuclear plant operation is developed to fit into a stochastic energy production model. In order to improve the stochastic model used, and also reduce its computational time burdened by the aggregation of the model of nuclear plant operation, a study of tail truncation of the unsupplied demand distribution function has been performed. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Improvement of nuclear power plant operation and maintenance in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazushige Hamazaki

    1987-01-01

    Following the inauguration of commercial nuclear power generation in Japan in 1966, capacity factors were held in the relatively low level until around 1975 due to initial-period troubles. With subsequent improvement, however, capacity factors have climbed steadily and recently been sustaining more than 70%. To obtain this successful result, a various kind of improvement have been made not only for the operation management area but also for the maintenance management area in conjunction with the successive effort to reflect the operating experiences to the early stage design. Nowadays nuclear generation has assumed increasing importance for Japan's electrical power needs, and is making a great contribution to stabilizing power supply costs. (author)

  20. Analysis of Pending Problems for a Technology Demand of Domestic Operational Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Park, Won Seok; Wi, Myung Hwan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2008-01-15

    Eleven technology fields were chosen, which have a relation with the solution of the pending problems of domestic operational nuclear power plants to manage an efficient operation and safe regulation for domestic nuclear power plants. The progressive background, requirements, and performance on the pending problems, 34, of an operation and regulation for domestic nuclear power plants were analyzed with regard to a risk information application, severe accident, PSR of structural materials, underwater monitoring, operation inspection and a fire protection, an instrument aging, metal integrity and steam generator, human technology and a digital I and C, quality assurance, secondary system and a user reliance and mass communications. KAERI's role is to provide a solution to these pending problems of domestic nuclear power plants. KAERI's technology is to be applicable to the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants to raise an operational efficiency and an application frequency of nuclear power plants. In the future, a technology treaty between KAERI and KHNP is to be established to solve the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants. Operation rate of nuclear power plants will also be raised and contribute to the supply of national energy due to this technology treaty.

  1. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velde Van de, A.; Burtak, F.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased liberalisation of the power markets, nuclear power generation is being exposed to high cost reduction pressure. In this paper we highlight the role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies to reduce the fuel cycle costs and therefore increase the efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. The key factor is a more efficient utilisation of the fuel and present developments at Siemens are consequently directed at (i) further increase of batch average burnup, (ii) improvement of fuel reliability, (iii) enlargement of fuel operation margins and (iv) improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. As a result, the nuclear fuel cycle costs for a typical LWR have been reduced during the past decades by about US$ 35 million per year. The estimated impact of further burnup increases on the fuel cycle costs is expected to be an additional saving of US$10 - 15 million per year. Due to the fact that the fuel will operate closer to design limits, a careful approach is required when introducing advanced fuel features in reload quantities. Trust and co-operation between the fuel vendors and the utilities is a prerequisite for the common success. (authors)

  2. Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Laboratory; Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    A novel software tool is proposed to aid reactor operators in respond- ing to upset plant conditions. The purpose of the Dynamic Operations Wayfind- ing System (DOWS) is to diagnose faults, prioritize those faults, identify paths to resolve those faults, and deconflict the optimal path for the operator to fol- low. The objective of DOWS is to take the guesswork out of the best way to combine procedures to resolve compound faults, mitigate low threshold events, or respond to severe accidents. DOWS represents a uniquely flexible and dy- namic computer-based procedure system for operators.

  3. Research on professional adaptability psychological selection indices of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Li Zhe; Li Maoyou

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the work characteristics of nuclear power plant operators and the comparison of professional psychological selection indices for different occupations, the indices of psychological selection system which is applicable to nuclear power plant operators are proposed in this paper, using the method named 'taking classes,cross-comparison'. The index results of the suggested psychological selection system reflects all the professional requirements on the nuclear power plant operators, which can also be used for the recruitment, training and the retraining programs for operators. (authors)

  4. The optimization of nuclear power plants operation modes in emergency situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebayev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.; Ramazanov, R. N.

    2018-01-01

    An emergency situations resulting in the necessity for temporary reactor trip may occur at the nuclear power plant while normal operating mode. The paper deals with some of the operation c aspects of nuclear power plant operation in emergency situations and during threatened period. The xenon poisoning causes limitations on the variety of statements of the problem of calculating characteristics of a set of optimal reactor power off controls. The article show a possibility and feasibility of new sets of optimization tasks for the operation of nuclear power plants under conditions of xenon poisoning in emergency circumstances.

  5. Discussion on anti-flood renovation of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Chen Haiqiao; Zhang Lihan; Wang Sen; Liu Shifeng

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plants on anti-flood performance was only based on design basis condition in China. The Fukushima nuclear accident revealed the possibility of suffering flood under beyond design basis condition, which caused the continuously deterioration of Fukushima nuclear accident. After the accident, China national nuclear safety regulators proposed new requirements on performance of anti-flood of nuclear power plants. Then, Qinshan Phase II carried out research of anti-flood technology. This paper introduced the background, research and development of anti-flood renovation technology for important safety buildings of Qinshan Phase II, and discussed the necessary for improvement of anti-flood capacity of nuclear power plants and relative measures in China, which is helpful to improve anti-flood performance of operational nuclear power plants and nuclear power plants under construction. (authors)

  6. Application of digital solutions to help the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega P, F.; Fernandez F, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the search for excellence, the emergence of solutions to digitize nuclear power plants is an opportunity to optimize the operation and safety of them. The new technologies available today in the market, applied under a global vision of the operation, can contribute to the excellent operation of nuclear power plants in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Tecnatom has a long experience in various areas related to the operation of the plants, giving the aforementioned global vision, essential to develop global solutions that pursue the safe and efficient operation of the operation. (Author)

  7. Designing for nuclear power plant maintainability and operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Experience has shown that maintenance and operability aspects must be addressed in the design work. ABB Atom has since long an ambition of achieving optimised, overall plant designs, and efficient feedback of growing operating experience has stepwise eliminated shortcomings, and yielded better and better plant operating performances. The records of the plants of the latest design versions are very good; four units in Sweden have operated at an energy availability of 90.1%, and the two Olkiluoto units in Finland at a load factor of 92.7%, over the last decade. The occupational radiation exposures have also been at a low level. The possibilities for implementing 'lessons learned' in existing plants are obviously limited by practical constraints. In Finland and Sweden, significant modernisations are still underway, however, involving replacement of mechanical equipment, and upgrading and backfitting of I and C systems on a large scale, in most of the plants. The BWR 90 design focuses on meeting requirements from utilities as well as new regulatory requirements, with a particular emphasis on the consequences of severe accidents; there shall be no large releases to the environment. Other design improvements involve: all-digital I and C systems and enhanced human factors engineering to improve work environment for operators, optimisation of buildings and containment to decrease construction time and costs, and selection of materials as well as maintenance of operating procedures to reduce radiation exposures even further. The BWR 90 design was offered to Finland in the early 1990s, but development work continues. It has been selected by a number of European utilities for assessing its conformance with the European Utility Requirements (EUR), aiming at a specific EUR Volume 3 for the BWR 90. Some characteristics of the ABB BWRs, with emphasis on features of importance for achieving improved economy and enhanced safety, are described below. (author)

  8. Trojan Nuclear Plant. Annual operating report: January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojan generated 28,791,044 MW hours of electricity, an output greater than any other commercial U.S. plant. Availability factor was 92.6 percent and the capacity factor was 68.6 percent. Data are presented concerning operations, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, specifications, and modifications. Also reported are effluents, waste disposal, meteorology data, radiation doses, chemical uses, and environmental surveillance

  9. Concept of system safety on operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Takata, Takashi; Arai, Shigeki; Sugiyama, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The total system design on Nuclear Plant ensures 'Nuclear safety' with making practically achievable efforts to prevent and mitigate nuclear and radiological accidents. The performance based system design with 'Defence in depth (D-I-D)' has been laid out as the key means in 'preventing accidents', 'controlling escalation to serious consequences', and 'preventing harmful consequences to the public'. D-I-D is extended to the management of severe accidents, and is an approach intended to provide protection against the development of a wide variety of events by means of redundant, diverse and independent protective barriers. It is crucial to maintain plant integrity with mass quantity of radioactive material present in reactor core, against potential consequences (risk) on people and the environment caused by external hazards, particularly, earthquake and tsunami. The fundamental approach on D-I-D is to address uncertainties by means of successive measures, so that if one measure fails, other, or subsequent measure will be available to ensure safety. Risk analysis should be conducted to validate and enhance reliability of the defence barriers against consequences on people and the environment. (author)

  10. Monitoring and operational support on nuclear power plants using an artificial intelligence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Paulo H.; Baptista Filho, Benedito D., E-mail: phbianchi@gmail.co, E-mail: bdbfilho@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The monitoring task in nuclear power plants is of crucial importance with respect to safety and efficient operation. The operators have a wide range of variables to observe and analyze; the quantity of variables and their behavior determine the time they have to take correct decisions. The complexity of such aspects in a nuclear power plant influences both, the plant operational efficiency and the general safety issues. This paper describes an experimental system developed by the authors which aims to assist the operators of nuclear power plants to take quick and safe decisions. The system maps the status of plant and helps the operators to make quick judgments by using artificial intelligence methods. The method makes use of a small set of monitored variables and presents a map of the plant status in a friendly manner. This system uses an architecture that has multiple self-organizing maps to perform these tasks. (author)

  11. Monitoring and operational support on nuclear power plants using an artificial intelligence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Paulo H.; Baptista Filho, Benedito D.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring task in nuclear power plants is of crucial importance with respect to safety and efficient operation. The operators have a wide range of variables to observe and analyze; the quantity of variables and their behavior determine the time they have to take correct decisions. The complexity of such aspects in a nuclear power plant influences both, the plant operational efficiency and the general safety issues. This paper describes an experimental system developed by the authors which aims to assist the operators of nuclear power plants to take quick and safe decisions. The system maps the status of plant and helps the operators to make quick judgments by using artificial intelligence methods. The method makes use of a small set of monitored variables and presents a map of the plant status in a friendly manner. This system uses an architecture that has multiple self-organizing maps to perform these tasks. (author)

  12. On operational safety of nuclear power plants in Balkans and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic, D.; Jovic, V.; Milivojevic, S.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of nuclear power plants operational safety in Balkan Peninsula and surrounding in this paper is presented. The nuclear power plants: Kozloduy (Bulgaria), Bohunice (Slovak Republic), Krsko (Slovenia), PAKS (Hungary) and Cernavoda (Romania) in this analysis are considered. The approaches, methods and criteria used in operational safety analyses are quite different from that which are used by nuclear power plant proprietors. As the input data for the analysis presented in this paper, the originally developed computer program BOGRAP and the nuclear power plants operating experience published by International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) were used. The results show that considered nuclear power experienced outages, failures, and operator errors, but none of them ever released significantly increased quantities of radioactive effluents into the environment.(author)

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 1st quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-09-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the first quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for a brief break in production due to a reactor scram at TVO II. The load factor average of all plant units was 100.5 %. Events in the first quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  14. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

  15. Costs of construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants - determinant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da

    1981-01-01

    A study about the construction costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant, including direct costs, equipment costs, installation and indirect costs such as: engineering, job-training and administration is presented. The operation and maintenance costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant and costs of energy generation are still studied. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Utilization of a full-scope simulation for training the operating personel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A full-scope simulator of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant has been installed at the NUCLEBRAS Training Center in Mambucaba - close to the site where that Plant is being built -, the goal of providing training for the operating personnel of the KWU-design nuclear power plants to be installed in Brazil. Due to the delays which occurred in the construction of Angra-2, NUCLEBRAS has established an extensive program for the utilization of the simulator for the training of operators for German nuclear power plants and for Spain's Trillo Plant. Besides yielding profits to NUCLEBRAS, that program is resulting in considerable experience in the area of nuclear power plant operators' training generating international recognition to the NUCLEBRAS Training Center. (Author) [pt

  17. Five years of partnership programme between German and East European nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In a jointly adopted communique in August 1992 the regulations governing the partnerships were laid down. The following principles are given priority: bilateral exchange of operating experience on the basis of equal partnership; the knowledge gained from the exchange of experience is used to improve the operation and safety of the respective partner plant; the partnership programme is free from commercial interests and does not include transfer of funds. Since the establishment of the first partnership relations (Biblis) with an east european nuclear power plant (Balakowo) late in April 1990, a total of 126 reciprocal visits was paid, 82 of which to German nuclear power plants. The balance of the efforts made by German nuclear power plant operators to integrate east european nuclear plant operators can be considered positive. (orig./HP) [de

  18. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0010] Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power... comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2104, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors...

  19. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0272] Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized-Water Reactors AGENCY: United States Nuclear Regulatory...) is issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities...

  20. Operating experience feedback on lose of offsite power supply for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Feng; Hou Qinmai; Che Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    The function of the service power system of a nuclear power plant is to provide safe and reliable power supply for the nuclear power plant facilities. The safety of nuclear power plant power supply is essential for nuclear safety. The serious accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred due to loss of service power and the ultimate heat sink. The service power system has two independent offsite power supplies as working power and auxiliary power. This article collected events of loss of offsite power supply in operating nuclear power plants at home and abroad, and analyzed the plant status and cause of loss of offsite power supply events, and proposed improvement measures for dealing with loss of offsite power supply. (authors)

  1. Analysis of operating experience of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volta, G.; Amesz, J.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The power reactors operating experience has been matter for studies at the Joint Research Centre of the C.E.C. with the aim of validating probabilistic analysis models and of setting up data banks concerning reliability, availability of components and systems and safety related events. The report shows problems encountered and solutions given to attain the goal. For what concerns validation, the need of more satisfactory models that could handle both the technical and the organizational aspects of an operating plant is shown. For what concerns the data banks the possibilities opened by a coherent international system of classification are underlined. (author)

  2. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The first half of this period was a continuation of Outage 74-4. Retubing of the main condenser was completed and additional Eddy Current Testing in the steam generators was accomplished. On April 2, 1975 the unit returned to service to conduct the Steam Generator Flushing Program. From April 2 through June 20, 1975 the plant operated at power levels up to 90 percent, with two brief outage interruptions. On April 6, the turbine was tripped because of a leak in the flow instrument tap in the drain line from a feedwater heater to the moisture separator drain tank and on April 22, the turbine tripped due to low oil pressure in the electrohydraulic control system caused by a cracked fitting in the piping to a governor valve. In both instances, the plant was returned to service in a matter of a few hours. The plant was removed from service from June 20 until June 30, 1975 for control rod drive seal repair. The plant resumed operation on June 30, 1975. After a few hours' operation, an erratic feedwater control system tripped the unit from service; however, the unit returned to service the same day. An all volatile treatment program for secondary water has achieved reasonable water chemistry stability and continuous blowdown has removed small quantities of phosphate from the steam generators. Operation continued with two low pressure feedwater heaters and drain cooler bypassed in each train, pending retubing of the feedwater heaters. Two rows of blading of a low pressure turbine were replaced. (U.S.)

  3. Integrated Robust and Resilient Control of Nuclear Power Plants for Operational Safety and High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Ray, Asok; Edwards, Robert M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an integrated robust and resilient control strategy to enhance the operational safety and performance of nuclear power plants. The objective of robust control is to minimize the sensitivity of plant operations to exogenous disturbances and internal faults while achieving a guaranteed level of performance with a priori specified bounds of uncertainties. On the other hand, the role of resilient control is to enhance plant recovery from unanticipated adverse conditions and faults as well as from emergency situations by altering its operational envelope in real time. In this paper, the issues of real-time resilient control of nuclear power plants are addressed for fast response during emergency operations while the features of the existing robust control technology are retained during normal operations under both steady-state and transient conditions. The proposed control methodology has been validated on the International Reactor Innovative & Secure (IRIS) simulator of nuclear power plants.

  4. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi...

  5. Simulation in training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, R.B.

    1979-08-01

    The need for simulation in nuclear operator training is reviewed, and the use of simulators is justified on a number of criteria. The role of simulators is discussed against the background of training media that are or could be used. The question of the degree of realism or fidelity of simulation is tackled, with comparisons being made between views from the industry and views from the area of instructional technology. Training research in the general area of process control is outlined and emphasis is placed on the importance of instructional control. Finally, some future directions for study are sketched. (author)

  6. Psychosocial aspect of safe operation in Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1988-01-01

    It is not easy to reveal the reasons of safe operation of N.P.P. because many complicated factors are interrelated. However, to clarify the effective factors of the recent safe operation of Japanese N.P.P. is the important thema of research to continue this condition and the more improved level. At present, the follwing factors can be pointed out; 1) Influential safety policy of regulatory structures. 2) Enthusiastic and careful company policy on N.P.P. safety. 3) Close and stable relationship of the industries with companies on research, training and maintenance. 4) Collaborated safety research among scientific facilities, companies and manufacturers. 5) Good organization and management for N.P.P. personnel. 6) Well organized training program in company and training facilities. 7) Highly motivated N.P.P. personnel with high educational background. 8) Company atmosphere on N.P.P. safety. 9) Public opinion on nuclear power safety. (author)

  7. Plant life management for long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The world's fleet of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is approximately 20 years old on average, and most plants are believed to be able to operate for 60 years or more. The design life of a NPP is typically 30 to 40 years. This may be extended by 10 to 20 years, or more, provided that the plant can demonstrate by analysis, trending, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing, ageing management, and other means that license renewal presents no threat to public health and safety. The basic goal of Plant Life Management (PLiM) is to satisfy requirements for safe long-term supplies of electricity in an economically competitive way. The basic goal of the operating company and the owners to operate as long as economically reasonable and possible from safety point of view. PLiM is a management tool for doing that. PLiM is a system of programmes and procedures to satisfy safety requirements for safe operation and for power production in a competitive way and for time which is rational from technical and economical point of view. PLiM is not only a technical system, it is also an attitude of the operational company to keep the plant in operation as long as possible from safety and business point of view. The common objectives of PLiM assessment is to help and review the pre-conditions for PLiM and long-term operation approaches. PLiM should not be associated with extension of operational life-time of the NPP only. It is an owner's attitude and rational approach of the operating company to run the business economically and safely. The effectiveness of PLiM Programme can be assessed by three complementary kinds of assessment: self-assessment, peer review and comprehensive programme review by the plant owner/ operator. IAEA will provide the assessment service for peer review of PLiM. Preparation for a PLiM Assessment service will be initiated only after the IAEA has been formally approached by a MS and funding (e.g. an existing Technical cooperation project) has

  8. Self-assessment on nuclear power plants operational experience feedback process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongtao; Ding Ying

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the purpose and function of self-assessment conducted by the responsible organizations of nuclear power plants, and describes the methods and requirements of self-assessment on operational experience feedback process to give a example. (authors)

  9. PEGASO - simulation model for the operation of nuclear power plants for planning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1979-07-01

    The utilization manual for PEGASO is presented, consisting of a set of programs whose objective is to simulate the monthly operation of nuclear power plants (up to 10 NPP), determining the principal physical parameters and criticality. (Author) [pt

  10. Measures of radiation protection in the operation of nuclear power plants in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Schreiter, W.

    1975-11-01

    A survey is given on the provisions concerning (a) radiation protection at nuclear power plants in the GDR including the instructions applying within the plant, (b) the organization of radiation protection services, and (c) the measures of radiation protection surveillance inside and outside the plant during operation. (author)

  11. Simulation study of a system for diagnosis of nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, J.; Fukumoto, A.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic system of the nuclear power plant operation is proposed and the applicability of this system to the actual plant has been verified by computer simulation. A typical pressurized water reactor plant simulator was made by an analog computer and the diagnostic system was made by a digital computer. The observed signals obtained from the actual plant are simulated by superposing the equivalent observation noises generated by the digital computer on the sampled signals obtained from the plant simulator. 8 refs

  12. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-04-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units which lasted well over a month in all. There was also a brief interruption in electricity generation at Olkiluoto 1 for repairs and at Olkiluoto 2 due to a disturbance at the turbine plant. All plant units were in long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level approved by STUK. The load factor average of all plant units was 87.6 %. One event in the third quarter was classified level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It was noted at Loviisa 2 that one of four pressurized water tanks in the plant unit's emergency cooling system had been inoperable for a year. Other events in this quarter were INES level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of the safety of the operating nuclear power plants built to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide practical assistance on judging the safety of a nuclear power plant, on the basis of a comparison with current safety standards and operational practices. For nuclear power plants built to earlier standards for which there are questions about the adequacy of the maintenance of the plant design and operational practices, a safety review against current standards and practices can be considered a high priority. The objective of reviewing nuclear power plants built to earlier standards against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The safety significance of the issues identified should be judged according to their implications for plant design and operation in terms of basic safety concepts such as defence in depth and safety culture. In addition, this paper provides assistance on the prioritization of corrective measures and their implementation so as to approach an acceptable level of safety

  15. Hypertext-based integration for nuclear plant maintenance and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.H.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented that uses fuzzy graphs in the emerging paradigm of hypertext for the purpose of integrating data, information and multifaceted knowledge resources abounding in power plant operations and maintenance. A hypertext system is viewed as a set of nodes and links where with each link we associate membership functions embodying context-dependent criteria for navigating large information spaces. A general framework for navigation is outlined and graph-theory navigational tools are developed. A numerical example and a HyperCard-based prototype for monitoring special material in the MHTGR-NPR are included. 10 refs., 12 figs

  16. Is it possible long-tern operation of Spanish nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regano, M.

    2004-01-01

    The long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond 40 years is a reality. Worlswide accumulated operating experience, national and international R and D projects related with the ageing of materials and the specific studies presented to the NRC by more than thirty American plant guarantee that the operation of nuclear power plants beyond 40 years will be carried out with the same or greater safety and reliability factors. The advantages of the long term operation of Spain nuclear power plants are obvious. The implementation of this option will play an important role in complying with the Kyoto compromises, avoiding the emission of 50 million tons of CO2 will contribute to guaranteeing the supply of electricity by generating an additional 600,000 GWh and will contribute to keeping electricity prices down. The total generating cost for the long term operation of nuclear power plants is approximately half that of a new coal or combined cycle plant. Spain is hugely dependent on energy. In this situation, all energies are necessary and the long term operation of nuclear power plants can of course play an important role in covering the gap between offer and demand, guaranteeing supply in the most economic way possible and with the greatest respect for the environment. (Author)

  17. Applications of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (1) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants, (2) detection of the change of mode of operation of the plant, (3) validating signals coming from detectors, (4) review of ''noise'' data from TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, and (5) examination of the NRC's database of ''Letter Event Reports'' for correlation of sequences of events in the reported incidents. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this paper. This broad based program has as its objective the definition of the state-of-the-art in using neural networks to enhance the performance of commercial nuclear power plants

  18. Study of operating procedures in nuclear power plants: Practices and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, M.H.; Barnes, V.E.; McGuire, M.V.; Radford, L.R.; Wheeler, W.A.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the project activities, findings, and recommendations of a project entitled ''Program Plan for Assessing and Upgrading Operating Procedures for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The project was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers for the Division of Human Factors Technology, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The project team analyzed and evaluated samples of normal and abnormal operating procedures from 31 commercial nuclear power plant sites operating in the United States. The project team also visited nine nuclear power plants in the United States to obtain information on the development, use, and control of operating procedures. A peer review group was convened to advise the project team on the conduct of the project and to review and comment on the project report. The report contains findings on the usability of operating procedures and on practices concerning the development, use, an control of operating procedures in nuclear power plants. The report includes recommendations to the NRC on the need to upgrade the quality of operating procedures. The report also discusses an approach to a program plan to assess and upgrade operating procedures

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-12-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the second quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Olkiluoto plant units and the Midsummer outage at Olkiluoto 2 due to reduced demand for electricity. There were also brief interruptions in power operation at the Olkiluoto plant units due to three reactor scrams. All plant units are undergoing long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level which has been approved by STUK The load factor average of all plant units was 88.7 %. One event in the second quarter of 1997 was classified level 1 on the INES. The event in question was a scram at Olkiluoto 1 which was caused by erroneous opening of switches. Other events in this quarter were level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  20. Life Limiting Issues for Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Gaertner, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which identified and characterized life limiting issues for consideration by nuclear plant owners in their decision to extend plant life or seek subsequent license renewal. As nuclear plants operate for longer periods, the risk that a condition in the plant or an event that occurs, at the plant or elsewhere, will cause a plant owner not to extend plant life increases. The Fukushima accident has made this concept concrete. This paper defines 'Life Limiting' concepts for nuclear plants. It identifies the highest risk conditions and events that may limit duration of continued operation in nuclear plants and employs a survey to prioritize these concerns. Methods for evaluating these risks and changing the capability of systems, structures, and components (SSC) to reduce and manage this risk in long term operation are presented. Integrated obsolescence -the existence of an accumulation of events or condition that can threaten long term operation- is discussed. Many of the life limiting conditions or events may be controllable by early identification, recognition, and mitigation of the potential threat. The recognition of conditions may allow measures to be taken to mitigate the condition. Recognition of the potential for events that may be life limiting may allow actions to be taken that will minimize the likelihood or consequences of the event. These actions may include enhanced research on the expected behavior of the SSC, risk assessment and management, and enhanced monitoring and aging management at the plant. (author)

  1. Operational safety performance and economical efficiency evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The economical efficiency of nuclear power includes a series of environmental parameters, for example, cleanliness. Nuclear security is the precondition and guarantee for its economy, and both are the direct embodiment of the social benefits of nuclear power. Through analyzing the supervision and management system on the effective operation of nuclear power plants, which has been put forward by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations, a set of indexs on the safety performance and economical efficiency of nuclear power are explored and established; Based on data envelopment analysis, a DEA approach is employed to evaluate the efficiency of the operation performance of several nuclear power plants, Some primary conclusion are achieved on the basis of analyzing the threshold parameter's sensitivity and relativity which affected operational performance. To address the conflicts between certain security and economical indicators, a multi-objective programming model is established, where top priority is given to nuclear safety, and the investment behavior of nuclear power plant is thereby optimized. (authors)

  2. The economics of long-term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Huerta, Alejandro; Dufresne, Luc; Giraud, Anne; Osouf, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce base-load power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews. This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants' equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country's energy policy. The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources

  3. Nuclear power plant operating experiences from the IAEA / Nea incident reporting system 2002-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an essential element of the international operating experience feedback system for nuclear power plants. The IRS is jointly operated and managed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), a semi-autonomous body within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a specialized agency within the United Nations System. (author)

  4. Potential impacts of nuclear power plant operation on the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotulan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Findings from the examination of the health status of population living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities abroad (England, France, Germany ...) are summarized. Where a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia in children and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were observed, these are not attributed to radioactivity; rather, the virus theory seems to account best for this phenomenon. Author's findings in the area of the Dukovany NPP in the Czech Republic (which have been published) are summarized as follows: (i) Total mortality 1986-1994 in the vicinity of the plant is the same as or lower than in reference regions; (ii) This also applies to premature deaths and to the 'lost years' indicator; (iii) Death rate due to tumors is significantly lower than in reference regions; (iv) This also applies to the majority of the individual types of tumors; (v) Leukemia seems to be an exception, its incidence being higher than in reference regions. The absolute figures, however, are low (11 + 17 in the exposed region) and the differences are not statistically significant. This also applies to lymphatic tissue tumors. (7) Mental well-being was no different from the reference region; in some respects, surprisingly enough, it even appeared to be more favourable. (P.A.)

  5. A logic flowgraph-based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The architecture of an automated decision support system for nuclear plant operators is presented and discussed. The system is based on the use of 'logic flowgraph' process models and is designed in a hierarchical fashion. Its functionality spans from 'function oriented' plant status and alternative success path information displayed to the plant operators at its higher access levels to 'process oriented' diagnostic and recovery information deduced and displayed at its lowest. The design basis for this architecture is the 'defense in depth' plant safety concept. The decision support system goal is to provide plant operators, in the presence of an unforeseen transient, with the best and safest alternative between plant stabilization after shutdown and recovery of normal operation based on early diagnosis. Examples of the system capability to interpret and diagnose abnormal plant conditions and of the information that it can supply to the operators at its three access levels are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Evaluation of emergency operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Final report Feb 80-Mar 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, F.; Engelschall, J.; Imlay, G.

    1981-04-01

    The report documents the first of two tasks performed for the NRC relative to emergency operating procedures for nuclear power plants with special emphasis on LOCA procedures. Emergency procedures from nine plants have been evaluated. The recommendations regarding each plant's emergency procedures were made in separate reports. In this report, an analysis is made of problems common to emergency procedures in all nine plants. Recommendations are advanced for improvement in presentation style, level of detail, and administrative control

  7. Internet applications in nuclear power plant operation management; Aplicaciones de internet en la gestion de la explotacion de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, M. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The use of the Internet is quickly becoming widespread in practically all areas of business and industry. The nuclear industry should not remain indifferent to this new trend. This paper analyses some of the Internet applications that can be easily adapted to nuclear power plant operation management, including. (Author)

  8. Study on the Operating Strategy of HVAC Systems for Nuclear Decommissioning Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-hwan; Han, Sung-heum; Lee, Jae-gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    According as Kori nuclear power plant unit 1 was determined to be defueled in 2017, various studies on nuclear plant decommissioning have been performed. In nuclear decommissioning plant, HVAC systems with large fan and electric coil have to be operated for long periods of time to support various types of work from defueled phase to final dismantling phase. So, in view of safety and utility costs, their overall operating strategy need to be established prior to defueled phase. This study presents HVAC system operating strategy at each decommissioning phase, that is, defueled plant operating phase, SSCs(systems, structures, components) decontamination and dismantling phases. In defueled plant operating phase, all fuel assemblies in reactor vessel are transferred to spent fuel pool(SFP) permanently. In defueled plant operation phase, reduction of the operating system trains is more practicable than the introduction of new HVAC components with reduced capacity. And, based on the result of the accident analyses for this phase, HVAC design bases such as MCR habitability requirement can be mitigated. According to these results, associated SSCs also can be downgraded. In similar approach, at each phase of plant decommissioning, proper inside design conditions and operating strategies should be re-established.

  9. Operational experience of human-friendly control and instrumentation systems for BWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, M.; Watanabe, T.; Suto, O.; Asahi, R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent BWR nuclear power plants in Japan, an advanced centralized monitoring and control system PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation), which incorporates many operator aid functions, has been in operation since 1985. Main functions of the PODIA system as a computerized operator aid system are as follows. CRT displays for plant monitoring. Automatic controls and operation guides for plant operation. Stand-by status monitoring for engineered safety features during normal operation. Surveillance test procedure guides for engineered safety features. Integrated alarm display. The effectiveness of these functions have been proved through test and commercial operation. It has been obtained that operators have preferred PODIA much more than conventional monitoring and control systems

  10. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  11. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Van Wonterghem, Frederik; Khouaja, Hatem; Vilpas, Martti; Osouf, Nicolas; Harikumar, S.; Ishigaki, Hiroki; Osaki, Toru; Yamada, Tomoho; Carlsson, Lennart; Shepherd, David; Galloway, Melanie; Liszka, Ervin; Svab, Miroslav; Pereira, Ken; Huerta, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  12. Are nuclear power plants a risk for population and workers during usual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive material is formed in nuclear power plants during normal operation but adequate shielding insulate them from the outside. Population receive very low radiation doses from nuclear plants releases, insignificant in comparison with natural radiation. Epidemiological studies which were conducted in populations living near nuclear power plants have shown excess leukaemia in children in the United Kingdom but were negative in other countries. The hypothesis of a genetic effect of radiation on the leukaemic children's fathers who were working in nuclear plants has been rejected. Nuclear workers receive higher doses than population, but much lower than the regular standards. At the moment, it is not possible to take into account any increase of diseases, especially of specific cancers, in the workers, even if a few isolated increases have been noted. A slight increase in leukemia is possible in workers who have received the highest dose but the margin of uncertainties is large. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Development of robot arm for automatic analytical operation in nuclear reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibayama, S.; Ohnishi, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Hayashibara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago Research and Development Center, Takasago-shi, Hyogo-Ken (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The analytical work in the nuclear reprocessing plant is very important role to operate the plant in normal and safety. The new compact robot arm has been developed for the automatic analytical system installed in the analytical box with the heavy shielding and confirmed the availability for this system by results of several validation tests. (author)

  14. Impact of instruction IS-30 in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto Amieva, J.

    2011-01-01

    Within the process of maintaining and updating the risk analysis of the NPP Asco, results from the review of the vulnerability study of the plant against severe accidents caused by external events (Individual Plant Examination of External Events, IPEEE).

  15. Deterministic analysis of operational events in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Computer codes are being used to analyse operational events in nuclear power plants but until now no special attention has been given to the dissemination of the benefits from these analyses. The IAEA's Incident Reporting System contains more than 3000 reported operational events. Even though deterministic analyses were certainly performed for some of them, only a few reports are supplemented by the results of the computer code analysis. From 23-26 May 2005 a Technical Meeting on Deterministic Analysis of Operational Events in Nuclear Power Plants was organized by the IAEA and held at the International Centre of Croatian Universities in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum for presentations and discussions on how deterministic analysis can be utilized for the evaluation of operational events at nuclear power plants in addition to the traditional root cause evaluation methods

  16. Applicability of Operational Research Techniques in CANDU Nuclear Plant Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, and ICONE 9 in Niece, 2001, the use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. Innovative practices included greatly reducing Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is being put in place. Further cost refinement of the station preventive maintenance strategy whereby decisions are based on statistical analysis of historical failure data is being evaluated. A wide range of Operational Research (OR) literature was reviewed for implementation issues and several encouraging areas were found that will assist in the current effort of evaluating maintenance optimization techniques for nuclear power production. The road ahead is expected to consist first of resolving 25 years of data issues and preserving the data via appropriate knowledge system techniques while post war demographics permit experts to input into the system. Subsequent analytical techniques will emphasize total simplicity to obtain the requisite buy in from Corporate Executives who possibly are not trained in Operational Research. Case studies of containment airlock seal failures are used to illustrate the direct applicability of stochastic processes. Airlocks and transfer chambers were chosen as they have long been known as high maintenance items. Also, the very significant financial consequences of this type of failure will help to focus the attention of Senior Management on the effort. Despite substantial investment in research, improvement in the design of the seal material or configuration has not been achieved beyond the designs completed in the 1980's. Overall, the study showed excellent agreement of the relatively quick stochastic methods with the maintenance programs produced at

  17. Use of simulators for the continuation training of nuclear propulsion plant operators in the Royal Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbridge, A.J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Royal Navy now operates 17 submarines which are powered by Pressurised Water Reactors. In the training of the operators of these Nuclear Propulsion Plants, computer simulation is used widely, and ranges from simple analogue devices which present the dynamic response of single plant parameters, through more complex hybrid computers which allow some operator interaction, to the real-time full simulation Manoeuvring Room Trainers. This paper provides information on the use of this latter equipment for the Continuation Training of the Manoeuvring Room Watchkeepers of the Royal Navy's nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  18. Nuclear power plant operator - a safety barrier - regulatory requirements in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The great extent to which the operating personnel can influence the safety of nuclear power plant operation has been demonstrated by the incidents at the Brunsbuettel and at the TMI 2 nuclear power plants in 1978 and 1979. The results of the German Risk Study show that the large contribution (about 72%) of a small break LOCA to the overall probability of a core melt accident is mainly caused by human error events. Information is presented concerning personnel regulations and guidelines; requisite competence of shift personnel; qualifications of personnel; examination of shift supervisors and control room operators; retraining; reliability; and schedule of shift work

  19. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengry, P.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant [fr

  20. Use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in expert systems to advise nuclear plant operators and managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the source term and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of the PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other

  1. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on a Nuclear Power Plant operator advisor based on artificial Intelligence Technology; Workstation conversion; Software Conversion; V ampersand V Program Development Development; Simulator Interface Development; Knowledge Base Expansion; Dynamic Testing; Database Conversion; Installation at the Perry Simulator; Evaluation of Operator Interaction; Design of Man-Machine Interface; and Design of Maintenance Facility

  2. Reinforcement course 2013. Challenges at the operation end of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The reinforcement course 2013 of the Nuclear Forum in Switzerland dedicated itself to the question, of which challenges are implicated by decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. The course has been divided into 4 blocks, discussing concepts regarding decommissioning, special points such as organisational or psychological aspects as well as juridical and practical questions. Around 140 persons accepted the invitation of the committee for educational questions under the patronage of Urs Weidmann, head of the nuclear power plant Beznau. Altogether 17 presentations dealt with the following topics: 'Strategies and Steps of Decommissioning' by Roger Lundmark, 'Decommissioning from the Perspective of the Swiss Regulatory Authority' by Hannes Haenggi, 'Operating Period Management Using the Example of the Nuclear Power Plant Leibstadt' by Johannis Noeggerath, 'Questions and Concepts from the Perspective of a Nuclear Power Plant Operator' by Roland Schmidiger, 'Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK' by Andrew Munro, 'Practical experiences of transferring nuclear power plants from operating to out of operation' by Gerd Reinstrom, 'Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities: From the Pilot Scheme to Industrialized Disassembling' by Anke Traichel and Thomas Seipolt, 'Organisational challenges: From Decommissioning Strategy to Decommissioning Targets' by Michael Kruse, Anton von Gunten, Julia Heizinger, Joerg Sokoll, 'Knowing That and Knowing How - Motivational Aspects of Safety-Related Knowledge Management for the Post-Operational phase and dismantling' by Frank Ritz, 'The Juridical Frame of Decommissioning' by Peter Koch, 'The Path to the Decommissioning Order and its Guidelines Ensi-G17' by Torsten Krietsch, 'Requirements for a Safe and Economical Decommissioning From the Perspective of the Operator' by Anton Von Gunten, Michael Kruse, Thomas Herren, Erwin Neukaeter, Mario Radke and Anton Schegg, 'Evaluation of Activation Distribution in a Nuclear Power Plant

  3. Installation and commissioning of operation nuclear power plant reactor protection system modernization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiwei

    2010-01-01

    Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is the first nuclear power plant in mainland China; it is also the first one which realizes the modernization of analog technology based Reactor Protection System in the operation nuclear power plant of China. The implementation schedule is the shortest one which use same digital technology platform (TELEPERM XS of AREVA NP) to modifying the safety class I and C system in the world, the whole project spent 28 months from equipment contract signed to putting system into operation. It open up a era for operation nuclear power plant using mature digital technology to make safety class I and C system modernization in China. The important practical significance of this successful project is very obvious. This article focus on two important project stage--equipment installation and system commissioning, it is based on a large number of engineering implementation fact, it covers the problems and solutions happened during the installation and commission. The purpose of the article is to share the experience and lessons of safety I and C system modernization for other operation nuclear power plant. (authors)

  4. U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, RL

    2003-01-01

    The ''U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries'' (NUREG/CR-6577, Supp. 2) report has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants during 2000-2001. Costs incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, which represent fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications, which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operations summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from operating reports submitted by the licensees, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) database for enforcement actions, and outage reports

  5. Staffing of nuclear power plants and the recruitment, training and authorization of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Guide is a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS (Nuclear Safety Standards) programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It outlines the various factors to be considered in order to ensure that the Operating Organization has a sufficient number of qualified site personnel who are clearly aware of their duties and responsibilities. The Guide covers the organization for a nuclear power plant, the educational qualifications and experience of the persons who are recruited for plant operation, the recruitment and training schedule, the training of operating personnel, the authorizations for persons whose duties have an immediate bearing on safety, and re-training of personnel. The provisional list of NUSS programme titles is attached

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear power plants: a paired comparison of operating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, M.A.; Cowan, J.T.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1979-07-01

    This study compares the social, economic, and political effects of constructing and operating two nuclear power plants in the rural Southeast: Brunswick 1 and 2 in Brunswick County, North Carolina, and Hatch 1 and 2 in Appling County, Georgia. It is a comparative, post-licensing case study designed to analyze variations in the range and magnitude of impacts experienced by the areas in which the plants were constructed. The study is intended to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the preparation of socioeconomic impact sections of environmental impact statements for proposed nuclear power stations

  7. Development strategies on an integrated operator decision aid support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki Sig Kang; Han Gon Kim; Soon Heung Chang; Jeong, Hee Kyo; Park, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    The development strategies on an integrated operator decision aid support (IODAS) system are discussed by focusing attention on the importance of the operator's role for nuclear power plants. The IODAS is under development to support the operator's decision making process and to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing the plant operators with timely and proper guideline during abnormal and emergency conditions. The IODAS has capabilities for the signal validation/management, the alarm processing, the failure diagnosis using abnormal operating procedures, and the dynamic tracking of emergency operating procedures using function restoration guidelines and optimal recovery guidelines with a series of complex logic steps covering a broad spectrum of event sequences. The proposed system is being implemented on a SUN-4/75 Workstation using C and Quintus TM prolog language. For verification studies a full-scope real-time simulator is being used. Test results show that the IODAS is capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and of providing an operator guideline with fast response time. After verification, the IODAS will be installed in the main control room of the unit one nuclear power plant at Yeoung Gwang

  8. Staffing of nuclear power plants and the recruitment, training and authorization of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPP). It supplements Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) ''Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation''. The present version of this Guide is a revision which takes into account the developments, particularly in training practices, which have taken place since the first edition appeared in 1979. The objective of this Safety Guide is to outline various factors to be considered in order to ensure that the operating organization has a sufficient number of qualified and motivated personnel for the operation of NPP. The Guide covers the organization for a NPP, the requirements in terms of education and experience for the various members of the operating personnel to be recruited, the recruitment, the training and continuing training programmes, as well as the authorizations for persons whose duties have an immediate bearing on safety

  9. Online condition monitoring to enable extended operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ryan Michael; Bond, Leonard John; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption of online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components. (author)

  10. American Nuclear Society executive conference nuclear market needs: Domestic and international future changes in operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissy, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author says the utility industry will be facing many new challenges and there will be many opportunities to develop innovative techniques to run the plants. He concentrates on four areas, where he believes there is the greatest opportunity for improvement. First, the utility organization will be in transition to provide complete support and commitment to site activities. Second, plant operating activities will be changing to improve plant operating characteristics and availability. Third, the area of plant maintenance will prove to have a significant impact on utilities. And fourth, the industry must promote an attitude where its people are striving to achieve quality in their daily work

  11. Strategy for improving instrumentation and control in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad Bassols, L.; Nino Perote, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are three basic reasons why nuclear power plants need to systematically upgrade their instrumentation and control equipment: Obsolete instrumentation and lack spares Little capacity of flexibility for extension Possibility of attaining better systems integration and improving systems-operations interface This article shows how to approach these issues using the following strategies: Use of distributed control systems and PLCs for control, signalling, command, communications, etc, in both nuclear and conventional applications Upgrading of process instrumentation equipment, sensors, transmitters, etc Upgrading of alarm-signalling systems In each group of equipment items consideration should be given to: Aspects regarding manufacturers-suppliers Effects on design, adaptation and documentation of operating plants Effects on the training and handling skills of operation and maintenance staff Strategy for incorporating the new system into the Plant with minimum impact on operation (Author)

  12. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant Operator Advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Group in the Nuclear Engineering Program has designed and built an Operator Advisor (OA), an AI system to monitor nuclear power plant parameters, detect component and system malfunctions, dispose their causes, and provide the plant operators with the correct procedures for mitigating the consequences of the malfunctions. It then monitors performance of the procedures, and provides backup steps when specific operator actions fail. The OA has been implemented on Sun 4 workstations in Common Lisp, and has been interfaced to run in real time on the Perry Nuclear Power Plant full-function simulator in the plant training department. The eventual goal for a fully functioning Operator Advisor would be to have reactor operators receive direction for all plant operations. Such a goal requires considerable testing of the system within limited malfunction boundaries, an extensive Verification ampersand Validation (V ampersand V) effort, a large knowledge base development effort, and development of tools as part of the system to automate its maintenance. Clearly, these efforts are beyond the scope of the feasibility effort expended during this project period. However, as a result of this project, we have an AI based platform upon which a complete system can be built

  13. Review of decision aids for nuclear-plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to various computer-based operational aids varied widely in detail, thus forcing distillation of the salient features of many operational aids from information sources other than the initial questionnaire. These sources included technical and management presentations, technical papers and reports, personal discussions, taped responses, sales brochures, system specifications and schematics, and other documents. The data base is dynamic, not static, owing to the nature of current trends in operational aid development. The information contained in it is subject to review and revision by the developing organizations. More systems are pending review and entry into the data base; hence the list is incomplete

  14. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  15. BARC-risk monitor- a tool for operational safety assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Babar, A.K.; Hadap, Nikhil

    2000-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand nuclear power plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear power plant. Operation of risk monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimise the operation of nuclear power plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of risk monitor, its application areas and also gives the status of such tools in international scenarios. The software is based on the PSA model of Kaiga generating station and would be applicable to similar design configuration. (author)

  16. Implementation of an operator model with error mechanisms for nuclear power plant control room operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Taek

    1996-01-01

    SACOM(Simulation Analyser with Cognitive Operator Model) is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to simulate human operator's cognitive characteristics during the emergency situations of nuclear power plans. An operator model with error mechanisms has been developed and combined into SACOM to simulate human operator's cognitive information process based on the Rasmussen's decision ladder model. The operational logic for five different cognitive activities (Agents), operator's attentional control (Controller), short-term memory (Blackboard), and long-term memory (Knowledge Base) have been developed and implemented on blackboard architecture. A trial simulation with a scenario for emergency operation has been performed to verify the operational logic. It was found that the operator model with error mechanisms is suitable for the simulation of operator's cognitive behavior in emergency situation

  17. Development of on-line operator aid system (OASYSTM) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig; Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Hee Kyo; Yi, Chul Un

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the development of On - line operator Aid SYStem (OASYS TM ) are discussed by focusing attention on the importance of the operator's role for nuclear power plants. The OASYS TM is under development to support the operator's decision making process and to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing the plant operators with timely and proper guideline during abnormal and emergency conditions. The OASYS TM has capabilities for the signal validation/management, the alarm processing, the failure diagnosis using abnormal operating procedures, and the dynamic tracking of emergency operating procedures using function restoration guidelines and optimal recovery guidelines with a series of complex logic steps covering a broad spectrum of event sequences. The proposed system is being implemented on a SUN-4/75 Workstation using C and Quintus TM prolog language. For verification studies a full-scope real-time simulator is being used. Test results show that the OASYS TM is capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and providing an operator guideline with fast response time. After verification the OASYS TM will be installed in the simulator II of Kori nuclear training center

  18. Expected radiation and radioecological consequences of nuclear heating plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, A.A.; Vysotskij, V.L.; Bilashenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the radiation and the radioecological consequences of the operation of the floating NPPs (FNP) constructed to ensure power supply of the remote not easily accessible Far North and Far East regions is a very acute issue. The issue was studied on the basis of the evaluation results of the FNP effect on the personnel, the population and the environment derived by means of the calculation at the stage of the designing efforts, and on the basis of the generalization and the analysis of the records of the naval reactor operation in the northern and the Far East areas [ru

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 1st quarter 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-11-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole first quarter of 1998. All the units were in long-term test operation at uprated power level authorised by STUK. The load factor average of the plant units was 100.8%. An oil leak at Olkiluoto NPP Unit 2 caused an ignition that was promptly extinguished. A subsequent appraisal of the event disclosed deficiencies in the functioning of the plant unit's operating organization and the event was classified INES level 1. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  20. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,847,033 MWH with the reactor on line 4,850.4 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, corrective maintenance, eddy current steam generator testing, inservice inspection, containment leak testing, fuel sipping, power generation, shutdowns, and occupational radiation exposures

  1. Computer visualization for enhanced operator performance for advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, B.H.; Raghavan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The operators of nuclear power plants are presented with an often uncoordinated and arbitrary array of displays and controls. Information is presented in different formats and on physically dissimilar instruments. In an accident situation, an operator must be very alert to quickly diagnose and respond to the state of the plant as represented by the control room displays. Improvements in display technology and increased automation have helped reduce operator burden; however, too much automation may lead to operator apathy and decreased efficiency. A proposed approach to the human-system interface uses modern graphics technology and advances in computational power to provide a visualization or ''virtual reality'' framework for the operator. This virtual reality comprises a simulated perception of another existence, complete with three-dimensional structures, backgrounds, and objects. By placing the operator in an environment that presents an integrated, graphical, and dynamic view of the plant, his attention is directly engaged. Through computer simulation, the operator can view plant equipment, read local displays, and manipulate controls as if he were in the local area. This process not only keeps an operator involved in plant operation and testing procedures, but also reduces personnel exposure. In addition, operator stress is reduced because, with realistic views of plant areas and equipment, the status of the plant can be accurately grasped without interpreting a large number of displays. Since a single operator can quickly ''visit'' many different plant areas without physically moving from the control room, these techniques are useful in reducing labor requirements for surveillance and maintenance activities. This concept requires a plant dynamic model continuously updated via real-time process monitoring. This model interacts with a three-dimensional, solid-model architectural configuration of the physical plant

  2. OSART mission highlights 1989-1990: Operational safety practices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States in enhancing the operational safety of nuclear power plants. OSART reviews are available to all countries with nuclear power plants in operation or approaching operation. Most of these countries have participated in the programme, by hosting one or more OSART missions or by making experts available to participate in missions. Careful design and high quality of construction are prerequisites for a safe nuclear power plant. However, a plant's safety depends ultimately on the ability and conscientiousness of the operating personnel and on their tools and work methods. OSART missions assess a facility's operational practices in comparison with those used successfully in other countries, and exchange, at the working level, ideas for promoting safety. Both the plants reviewed and the organizations providing experts have benefited from the programme. The observations of the OSART members are documented in technical notes which are then used as source material for the official OSART Report submitted to the government of the host country. The technical notes contain recommendations for improvements and descriptions of recommendable good practices. The same notes have been used to compile the present summary report which is intended for wide distribution to all organizations constructing, operating or regulating nuclear power plants. This report is the fourth in a series following IAEA-TECDOC-458, IAEA-TECDOC-497 and IAEA-TECDOC-570 and covers the period June 1989 to December 1990. Reference is also made to a summary report of Pre-OSART missions, which is in preparation. In addition, a report presenting OSART Good Practices has been published (IAEA-TECDOC-605)

  3. Water chemistry technology. One of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry should be simultaneously satisfied: (1) better reliability of reactor structures and fuel rods; (2) lower occupational exposure and (3) fewer radwaste sources. Various groups in academia have carried out basic research to support the technical bases of water chemistry in plants. The Research Committee on Water Chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), which has now been reorganized as the Division of Water Chemistry (DWC) of AESJ, has played important roles to promote improvements in water chemistry control, to share knowledge about and experiences with water chemistry control among plant operators and manufacturers and to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation of plant workers engaged in water chemistry. Furthermore, the DWC has tried and succeeded arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through roadmap planning. In the paper, major achievements in plant technologies and in basic research studies of water chemistry in Japan are reviewed. The contributions of the DWC to the long-term safe management of the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant until their decommissioning are introduced. (author)

  4. Quality control for chemical operating agents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, E.

    1991-01-01

    There is no unanimous opinion about the required scope for the selection of chemicals to be examined and methods of examination to be used for the quality assurance for the supply of chemicals. Criteria have been indicated to evaluate the essential operating and utilization materials for the required scope of tests, test parameters and methods of tests. The draft of a VGB document for high level quality assurance has been introduced. (orig.) [de

  5. Water chemistry - one of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Otoha, K.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry, a) better reliability of reactor structures and fuels, b) lower occupational exposure, and c) fewer radwaste sources, should be simultaneously satisfied. The research committee related to water chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has played important roles to enhance improvement in water chemistry control, to share knowledge and experience with water chemistry among plant operators and manufacturers, to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation related to water chemistry. Furthermore, the committee has tried to contribute to arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through road map planning

  6. Recommended Electromagnetic Operating Envelopes for Safety-Related I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, little was known about the prevailing ambient electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), and power surge environment in nuclear power plants. This lack of information made it difficult to establish electromagnetic operating envelopes for safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems

  7. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  8. Standpoint of the EDF operator of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, B.; Carre, M.; Pot, J.

    1996-01-01

    Safety and competitiveness are the sine qua non conditions to the durability of the nuclear industry in France, as in the other countries involved in electronuclear programs. Improving safety, increasing availability and mastering the costs are inseparable and interactive aims, and the cooperating actions are to be managed simultaneously. Another aim is the undivided attention given to radiation protection. The average annual collective dose per unit has slightly decreased since 1993 despite an increase in the circuit activity and the volume of the works. This result is not thoroughly satisfactory if compared to the performances carried out abroad on similar reactors. EDF has therefore decided to revise the establishments of contracts with the contractor companies on the following bases: - a lasting partnership bases on common aims, mutual obligations, and shared benefits; - complete and better integrated services, giving the companies a greater responsibility on the means to be implemented to achieve those aims; - pluriannual contacts. enabling the companies an improved insight of the future load, and thus giving them the opportunity to invest (in personnel training, in tools or in innovation processes, etc.); -permanent research in the field of the best technologies available in France and abroad, through supplier diversification and international experience feedback. (AUTHOR)

  9. The relaxation of the operation restrictions at typhoon period for Taipower's nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.C.; Chou, L.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the station blackout event for Taipower's nuclear power plant and proposes a plan whereby the availability of the plant at typhoon period can be increased through a systematic approach to improvements in the old operating restrictions. The conclusions have shown that the old operating restrictions were too strict and can be relaxed without increasing the likelihood of core damage or core melt for the accident sequence. After a detailed review of this analysis report, Republic of China Atomic Energy Commission (ROCAEC) has approved the relaxation of the operating restrictions as proposed by Taiwan Power Company. (author)

  10. A technical system to improve the operational monitoring of the Zaporozh'ye nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Weiss, F.-P.; Zschau, J.; Nowak, K.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a programme of cooperation with Central and Eastern European states, a technical system has been established for the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant, which complements existing operational checking and monitoring facilities with modern means of information technology. It makes it possible to continuously monitor the state of the units in normal operation and in cases of anomalies or incidents. The parameters selected for monitoring are listed, and the system of automatic evaluation at the power plant site is described in detail. Test operation of the technical system started in late 1995 and the industrial testing phase in mid-1996. (A.K.)

  11. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. Code of Practice and Technical Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This book is in two parts. The first is a Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the second part is a compilation of technical appendices. Its object is to give information and illustrative examples that would be helpful in implementing the Code of Practice. This second part, although published under the same cover, is not part of the Code. Safe operation of a nuclear power plant postulates suitable siting and proper design, construction and management of the plant. Under the present Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, those intending to operate the plant are recommended to prepare documentation which would deal with its operation and include safety analyses. The documentation in question would be reviewed by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization; operation would be authorized on the understanding that it would comply with limits and conditions designed to ensure safety. The Code may be subject to revision in the light of experience. The Appendices provide additional information together with some examples relating to certain topics dealt with in the Code; it must be emphasized that they are included as examples for information only and are not part of any recommendation. Purpose and scope: The recommendations in the Code are designed to protect the general public and the operating personnel from radiation hazards, and the Code forms part of the Agency's Safety Standards. The Code, which should be used in conjunction with the Agency's other Safety Standards, provides guidance and information to persons and authorities responsible for the operation of stationary nuclear power plants whose main function is the generation of thermal, mechanical or electrical power; it is not intended to apply to reactors used solely for experimental or research purposes. It sets forth minimum requirements which, it is believed, in the light of experience, must be met in order to achieve safe operation of a

  12. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT trademark Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS

  13. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  14. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, M.C. (Duke Power Co. (US)); Jones, C.R. (S. Levy Inc. (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software.

  15. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velde, AA. de; Burtak, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with nuclear fuel cycle and their economic aspects. At Siemens, the developments focusing on the reduction of fuel cycle costs are currently directed on .further batch average burnup increase, .improvement of fuel reliability, .enlargement of fuel operation margins, .improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. These items will be presented in detail in the full paper and illustrated by the global operating experience of Siemens fuel for both PWRs and BWRs. (authors)

  16. Digitized operator evaluation system for main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Yan Shengyuan; Chen Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human-machine system matching relation of main control room in nuclear power plant accurately and efficiently, the expression and parameters of operator human body model were analyzed, and the evaluation required function of digital operator was determined. Based on the secondary development technology, the digital operator evaluation body model was developed. It could choose generation, gender, operation posture, single/eyes horizon, and left/right hand up to the domain according to the needs of specific evaluation, it was used to evaluate whether display information can be visible and equipment can be touch, and it also has key evaluation functions such as workspace and character visibility at the same time. The examples show that this method can complete the evaluation work of human-machine matching relation for main control room of nuclear power plant accurately, efficiently and quickly, and achieve the most optimal human-machine coordination relationship. (authors)

  17. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  18. Assessment of risks of accidents and normal operation at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, Ilkka; Vuori, Seppo.

    1977-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment model for the analysis of risks involved in the operation of nuclear power plants is described. With the computer code ARANO it is possible to estimate the health and economic consequences of reactor accidents both in probabilistic and deterministic sense. In addition the code is applicable to the calculation of individual and collective doses caused by the releases during normal operation. The estimation of release probabilities and magnitudes is not included in the model. (author)

  19. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Song-Hae; Kim, Young-Sik; Lyou, Ho-Sun; Kim, Min-Suk; Lyou, Joon

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency respons...

  20. Task network modeling of human operators in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughery, K.R.; Plott, C.

    1990-01-01

    Studying nuclear power plant operators is expensive and often impossible. There are a limited number of operators whose time is in great demand and a limited number of simulators or plants in which experimentation could be conducted. Yet, we often need to make predictions about operator behavior in the control room. Whenever the control room changes (e.g., panel or system modifications) or the plant procedures change, there is an essential need to predict how these changes will impact operator performance and, ultimately, plant performance. The question is, if we can't study real operators, what are the alternatives? The human engineering community within the nuclear industry needs to develop predictive methods. The approaches proposes in this paper, task network modeling and Micro SAINT, present promising opportunities. First, they represent a logical outgrowth of current technologies such as task analysis and probabilistic risk analysis. Second, there are data from which these models can be constructed. However, before any extended investment is made in this technology, it should be proven. A modest study could be run to directly address the issues defining the utility of this technology to determine whether we can collect the required data to build the models and the models can be used to accurately predict changes in operator performance. From the answers to these questions and the lessons learned in addressing them, future control room operator modeling research and development can be better directed

  1. Competence of nuclear power plant operations personnel: the regulatory assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishack, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of the competence of nuclear power plant operations personnel constitutes an essential element in the overall regulatory process of ensuring that the use of nuclear energy does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This paper presents a review of the activities of the Operator Certification Division of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board, reports on its experience with simulator-based examinations and with training programme evaluation techniques and outlines and Division's future plans. 3 refs., 1 fig

  2. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, 1992. Operations Services/Technical Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. Exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment.

  3. Study on the operational safety performance indicator of nuclear power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shirong

    2005-01-01

    The operational Safety Performance Indicator system (SPI) has been more and more regarded recently for their clear and effective characteristic in safety assessment for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). A large developing plan for NPPs construction is being discussed and considered in P.R. China. As one of important nuclear country, China expects to ensure the normal operation of NPPs and improve the safety level. National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA), National Nuclear Regulatory Agency of China, has put high attention on safety and SPI area, and many endeavours and attempts have been done or being carried out for an establishment of SPI system in China. NNSA intends to build an integrated SPI system to monitor all of the NPPs operation in China, based on the SPI system currently used in the world. NNSA believes that the SPI system will help to more effectively enforce the function of surveillance and management. The paper will introduces the status of study on the operational safety performance indicator of Nuclear Power Plants in China. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  5. Development of graphic display program of reactor operating parameters for emergency exercise at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Yasunori; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Gotou, Kazuko

    2001-01-01

    A scenario of nuclear emergency exercise based on the result of accident progress analysis is expected to ensure effective training. Thereupon a new graphic display program for reactor operating parameters has been developed to present real-time of plant process values (parameters), released radioactivities from the plant, and dose rate data around the site calculated by using the accident analysis code MAAP4 and other codes. This system has a trend graph screen displaying reactor operating parameters, an environmental dose rate summary screen indicating dose rate distribution around the site on the map, and a plant parameters summary screen showing important plant parameters on a simplified plant system diagram. One screen can be switched to another any time. It also has a jump-function easily accessing any stage during the exercise scenario in accordance with progress of the exercise. As a result of the application of this system to a real nuclear emergency exercise, it has been verified that this system is quite useful for confirming the parameters when the nuclear emergency exercise starts and the licensee reports the plant conditions to related bodied. (author)

  6. Operating trends and performance of nuclear power plants in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galori, F.

    1984-01-01

    The present status and short-term development of nuclear power programmes in IAEA member states is reviewed. A description of the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) is given and the objectives for data collection and treatment are discussed. As indicated by the reports at the IAEA International Conference on Nuclear Power experience in 1982, there are considerable differences in the performances of nuclear power plants even within classes of plants which technically should be very similar and thus perform equally well. PRIS permist at least some preliminary conclusions about the reasons for differences to be drawn. It is becoming clear that reasons for good or bad performance must be sought in a number of factors including: type of plant (on-load/off-load refuelling, GCR, PHWR, LWR); age and vintage of plant; manufacturer of the main plant system; degree of standardization in plant and construction; competence of operating organization; regulatory climate. Analysis of the reported outages shows that major problems are: stress corrosion cracking in primary piping, also denting and wall thinning in tubes of steam generators; thermal fatigue cracking in the feedwater system and excessive errosion/corrosion problems in turbines. It is emphasized that international cooperation is important for creating an effective system for learning from operating experience

  7. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  8. Impact of digital information and control system platform selection on nuclear power generating plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, T.; Radomski, S.; Sterdis, B.; Marta, H.; Bond, V.; Richardson, J.; Ramon, G.; Edvinsson, H.

    1998-01-01

    Information is presented on the benefits of a well-planned information and control systems (I and CS) replacement approach for aging nuclear power generating plants' I and CS. Replacement of an aging I and CS is accompanied by increases in plant profitability. Implementing a structured I and CS replacement with current technology allows improved plant electrical production in parallel with reduced I and CS operations and maintenance cost. Qualitative, quantitative, and enterprise management methods for cost benefit justification are shown to justify a comprehensive approach to I and CS replacement. In addition to the advantages of standard I and CS technologies, examples of new I and CS technologies are shown to add substantial cost benefit justification for I and CS replacements. Focus is upon I and CS replacements at nuclear power plants, however the information is applicable to other types of power generating facilities. (author)

  9. The human factor in operating nuclear power plants during crisis situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnauder, H.; Smidt, D.

    1981-10-01

    Human factors in nuclear power plant operation are a main part of safety analyses. A considerable reduction in the influence of human factors has been obtained through ergonomic control room design, automation, clearly formulated operating manuals, and appropriate personnel education and training. These precautions are directed primarily at skill- and rule-based behaviour and are intended for normal operation and design accidents. In addition, one can construct an area of uncommon and very rare events where a partial failure of the safety systems is assumed. This is an area of knowledge-based behaviour. This report describes and assesses the present situation in German nuclear power plants. Recommendations for further research activity are made and, as a main result, for improvements in knowledge-based behaviour. (orig.) [de

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of quality management for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The development of a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of quality management for nuclear power plant operation has been under way by the IAEA for some time. The preparation of this document was based on understandings developed at a series of advisory group and consultant meetings which used the experience accumulated at operating plants in Member States. The information collected from the use of this document will help to prepare a revision as soon as the proposed methodology, or a revised methodology, can be agreed as generally appropriate by Member States. 16 refs, figs

  11. Ageing degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plants: lessons learned from operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.; Zerger, B.; Duchac, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents main results of a comprehensive study performed by the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) with the support of IRSN (Institut de Surete Nucleaire et de Radioprotection) and GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH). Physical ageing mechanisms of Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) that eventually lead to ageing related systems and components failures at nuclear power plants were the main focus of this study. The analysis of ageing related events involved operating experience reported by NPP operators in France, Germany, USA and to the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System on operating experience for the past 20 years. A list of relevant ageing related events was populated. Each ageing related event contained in the list was analyzed and results of analysis were summarized for each ageing degradation mechanism which appeared to be the dominant contributor or direct cause. This paper provides insights into ageing related operating experience as well as recommendations to deal with the physical ageing of nuclear power plant SSC important to safety. (authors)

  12. YKAe - Research programme on nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1992-01-01

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organised as five-year nationally coordinated research programs. The research programme on Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety is under way during 1990-1994. Its annual volume has been about 35 person-years and its annual expenditure about FIM 18 million. Studies in the field on safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core concentrate on fuel high burn-up behaviour, VVER fuel experiments, and reactor core behaviour in complex reactivity transients such as 3-D phenomena and ATWS events. The PACTEL facility is used for the thermal hydraulic studies of the Loviisa type reactors (scaled 1:305). Validation of accident analysis codes is carried out by participation in international standard problems. Advanced foreign computer codes for severe reactor accidents are implemented, modified as needed and applied to level-2 PSAs and the improvement of accident management procedures. Fire simulation methods are tested using data from experiments in the German HDR facility. A nuclear plant analyzer for efficient safety analyses is being developed using the APROS process simulation environment. Computerized operator support systems are being studied in cooperation with the OECD Halden Project. The basic factors affecting plant operator activities and the development of their competence are being investigated. A comprehensive system for the control of plant operational safety is being developed by combining living PSA and safety indicators

  13. A technical system to improve the operational monitoring of the Zaporozhye nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Nowak, K. [Technischer Ueberwachungsverein Rheinland, Koeln (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Protection; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Weiss, F.P.; Zschau, J.

    1998-10-01

    As part of the programme implemented by the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety to cooperate with the Central and Eastern European States (CEES) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in the area of nuclear safety, a technical system to improve operational monitoring has been designed, specified and established since 1992 as a pilot project in the Zaporozhye/Ukraine nuclear power plant by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf and Technischer Ueberwachungsverein Rheinland with a significant contribution from the State Scientific and Technical Centre of the Ukrainian supervisory authority. The technical system complements existing operational checking and monitoring facilities by including modern means of information technology. It enables a continuous monitoring of the state of unit 5 in normal operation and in cases of anomalies or incidents so that when recognisable deviations from the regular plant operation occur, the Ukrainian supervisory authority can immediately inquire and if necessary impose conditions on the operator. The radiological and meteorological parameters at the nuclear power plant location are monitored to the extent necessary to assess the current radiation situation and to implement efficient emergency management measures. (orig.)

  14. A knowledge based operator support system for emergency conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh Babu, C.; Subramanium, K.

    1992-01-01

    The control centres of the operating Indian nuclear power plants contain a large number of indicators and controls spread over many panels. In the event of onset of an emergency condition, there results a profusion of information, both numeric and symbolic. The operator may succumb to an information and cognitive overload that may be compounded by a lack of knowledge. The failure to apply knowledge and reasoning to solve an operational problem can lead to human error, which has been a major contributing factor in nuclear accidents. From the viewpoint of Artificial Intelligence, human error occurs if the operational problem requires computing resources that exceed human capabilities. The application of Artificial Intelligence, particularly expert systems, to nuclear power plant control room activities has considerable potential to reduce operator error and improve safety and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to discuss an investigative study of the feasibility of developing an operator support system incorporating Artificial Intelligence techniques. An information processing model of such a system, herein designated as Knowledge Based Operator Support System - KBOSS, employing expert systems technology, has been developed. The features of this system are described, and issues involved in its development are discussed. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Discussion of the effects of AP1000 first core loading pattern design on nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    Core loading pattern design has great influence on nuclear power plant operation. An excellent core loading pattern can not only enhance operation factor, reduce operation cost, but also increase operation safety. Under the premise of nuclear safety, AP1000 first core loading pattern achieves the goal of low leakage loading by simulating the reactivity distribution of the 18-month Equilibrium Cycle design. Deals with the characteristics of core loading pattern design and its influence on the operation factors, and analyses the impact brought about by multi-enrichment on the nuclear power plant to improve operation capacity and bring down operation cost. (authors)

  16. Assessment of job-related educational qualifications for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.; Melber, B.D.; White, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    This report identifies job-related educational qualifications for the nuclear power plant licensed operator positions of reactor operator (RO), senior reactor operator (SRO), and shift supervisor (SS). The extent to which college engineering curriculum covers job-related academic knowledge was assessed. The approach used was to have subject matter experts in the field of general and nuclear engineering curriculum systematically compare college engineering program content to specific academic knowledge identified by a job analysis as necessary for licensed operators. In addition, these experts made judgments concerning levels of formal engineering education necessary for application of knowledge on the job, based on job samples from a job analysis of activities under selected normal and emergency operating sequences

  17. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This document catalogs roughly 5300 knowledges and abilities of reactor operators and senior reactor operators. It results from a reanalysis of much larger job-task analysis data base compiled by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Knowledges and abilities are cataloged for 45 major power plant systems and 38 emergency evolutions, grouped according to 11 fundamental safety functions (e.g., reactivity control and reactor coolant system inventory control). With appropriate sampling from this catalog, operator licensing examinations having content validity can be developed. A structured sampling procedure for this catalog is under development by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and will be published as a companion document, ''Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations'' (NUREG-1121). The examinations developed by using the catalog and handbook will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55

  18. Evaluation of personality features of nuclear power plant operators: investigation with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yiling; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Bian Huahui; Bi Jinling; Qiu Mengyue; Liu Chunfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the personality features of nuclear power plant operators and the influencing factors thereof. Methods: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used to examine the personality features of 136 nuclear power plant operators randomly selected from 2 cooperative units, all males. The results were compared with the nationwide norms and subsequently an inter-block contrast analysis was carried out. Results: Obvious difference was observed in the final scores between the nuclear power plant operators and nationwide norms. The former got higher scores on hysteria (t=3.05, P<0.05), and lower scores on hypochondriasis, depression, morbid personality, masculinity-femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomania, and social introversion(t=7.47, 7.47, 7.31, 2.23, 15.09, 16.15, 19.28, 7.88, 11.10, P<0.05). The scores on hypochondriasis, depression, schizophrenia, and social introversion of those with the length of services over 3 years were all significantly higher than those of with the length of services less than 3 years (t=3.25, 2.51, 2.76, 3.00, P<0.05). The scores on hypochondriasis, depression, psychopathicdeviate, and social introversion of the operators aged over 30 were all significantly higher than those of the operators aged below 30 (t=2.36, 2.35, 2.01, 2.54, P<0.05). Conclusions: The psychological quality of the nuclear power plant operators is superior to that of the general population. (authors)

  19. Correlation of anti-stress ability of nuclear power plant operators with physiological and psychological indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Haihong; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Dai Tingting; Qiu Mengyue; Bian Huahui; Chen Weibo; Liu Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation of the anti-stress ability of nuclear power plant operators with their heart rate, blood pressure and mental health. Methods: A total of 136 male nuclear power plant operators received the continuous performance test (CPT) and mental health test (MHT), while 37 male senior students were used as the control group. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after the test. The nuclear power plant operators were divided to high score group and low score group by CPT scores. The correlation of the anti-stress ability and blood pressure,heart rate and their mental health was analyzed. Results: The scores of CPT and MHT test with the operators were significantly higher than those of the control group (t=-1.25, 6.25, P<0.05). After the test, the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of the operators were all significantly lower than those of the control group (t=-2.07, 3.28, 2.74, P<0.05). The CPT score of the high score group was lower in the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure than the low score group (t=-3.15, -2.78, -2.54, P<0.05), while the scores of CPT and MHT were better (t=0.63, 6.90, P<0.05). CPT scores were negatively correlated with the increasing range of the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure (r=- 0.69, -0.94, and -0.62, P<0.05), and positively correlated with the MHT scores (r=0.54, P<0.05). Conclusions: To a certain extent, CPT and MHT test can reflect the anti-stress ability and be used as one of the bases to select nuclear power plant operators and to assess their competence. (authors)

  20. Maintaining the safe operation of U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skavdahl, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The more than one hundred nuclear power plants in the U.S. are a vital resource that provides about 20% of the electrical power production. Although about half the plants are more than 15 years old, there is no evidence of age-related deterioration in any of the key indicators of industry performance; indeed, the continuing improvement in all these indicators shows the industry is maturing, not growing old. The Institute for Nuclear Power Operations's performance assessment and training programs have spurred a heavy industry-wide commitment to improved training. These efforts are the key to excellence in the performance of operations and maintenance personnel. The interface between the reactor and the operator has been improved through control room design reviews, the implementation of a Safety Parameter Display System, and emergency procedure guidelines. These improvements ensure that the operators will be able to perform their functions under any circumstances they may encounter. Led by NUMARC, the industry initiative to improve plant maintenance programs incorporates such elements as the INPO performance standards, enhanced monitoring through the use of the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Reliability Centered Maintenance, and improvements in plant technical specifications. These elements bring the latest available technology to plant maintenance programs. Equipment replacements are frequently made to take advantage of improvements in technology. Aside from the performance enhancements they offer, such replacements also serve to keep the plants young. By leveraging their resources through the owners groups, utilities are able to quickly and efficiently solve problems together that they could not afford to attack individually. Even the highly unlikely hypothetical severe accidents are addressed in a systematic fashion through the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessments. 15 figs

  1. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  2. Quantitative evaluation for training results of nuclear plant operator on BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Sato, Tatsuaki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Miyakita, Kohji; Mizuno, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the reliability of neclear power plants has largely risen, and the abnormal phenomena in the actual plants are rarely encountered. Therefore, the training using simulators becomes more and more important. In BWR Operator Training Center Corp., the training of the operators of BWR power plants has been continued for about ten years using a simulator having the nearly same function as the actual plants. The recent high capacity ratio of nuclear power plants has been mostly supported by excellent operators trained in this way. Taking the opportunity of the start of operation of No.2 simulator, effort has been exerted to quantitatively grasp the effect of training and to heighten the quality of training. The outline of seven training courses is shown. The technical ability required for operators, the items of quantifying the effect of training, that is, operational errors and the time required for operation, the method of quantifying, the method of collecting the data and the results of the application to the actual training are described. It was found that this method is suitable to quantify the effect of training. (Kako, I.)

  3. Risks in the operation of hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison between the utilization of electrical energy generated by hydroelectric power plant and nuclear power plant is made. The risks from nuclear installations and the environmental effects of hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power plants are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Development of a Leading Performance Indicator from Operational Experience and Resilience in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F. Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of operational performance indicators is of utmost importance for nuclear power plants, since they measure, track, and trend plant operation. Leading indicators are ideal for reducing the likelihood of consequential events. This paper describes the operational data analysis of the information contained in the Corrective Action Program. The methodology considers human error and organizational factors because of their large contribution to consequential events. The results include a tool developed from the data to be used for the identification, prediction, and reduction of the likelihood of significant consequential events. This tool is based on the resilience curve that was built from the plant's operational data. The stress is described by the number of unresolved condition reports. The strain is represented by the number of preventive maintenance tasks and other periodic work activities (i.e., baseline activities, as well as, closing open corrective actions assigned to different departments to resolve the condition reports (i.e., corrective action workload. Beyond the identified resilience threshold, the stress exceeds the station's ability to operate successfully and there is an increased likelihood that a consequential event will occur. A performance indicator is proposed to reduce the likelihood of consequential events at nuclear power plants.

  5. Consideration of early closure or continued operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This publication provides information to management and executives of electrical utilities responsible for the operation of nuclear power plants who are tasked with decision making related to early closures or continued operation. This information is based on the experiences of a number of countries in addressing a spectrum of issues broader than only the economics of the operation of the plant itself. Any major decision involving changes in direction for a major investment such as a nuclear power plant has the potential to incur considerable additional costs for stakeholders. Major economic risks can be unexpectedly encountered when decisions based on a simplified economic understanding of energy options are successfully challenged on the grounds that choices and decisions have been made without accounting for some environmental, social or economic issues which are considered of prime significance to important stakeholders. Such risks include not only changes in project scope and delays in project implementation due to re-evaluations necessitated by such challenges, but risks related to the effectiveness, efficiency and safety of ongoing operations or shutdown maintenance of the nuclear power plant. Additional risks encountered at this stage are the adequacy of the decommissioning fund and the need to establish a process whereby the availability of adequate funds will be assured at the time of the final plant shutdown. This publication provides information on several of these additional issues important to key stakeholders, and on methods that allow for their assessment and consideration when developing recommendations related to early closures or continued operations of a NPP. This publication consists of two parts: Part I: Includes a discussion of the main issues for consideration, with emphasis on issues important to stakeholders in addition to plant owners. Part II: Provides an example of a basic analytical approach to the assessment of plant life cycle

  6. Analyses of operating license renewal for nuclear power plants in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Goro

    2007-01-01

    Although the originally-approved operating period for nuclear power plants in the U.S. is 40 years, the operating periods of many plants have been extended by license renewal for another 20 years. On the other hand, in Japan, plant life management is carried out assuming long-term operation of the plant, and the electric power company submits reports, such as aging technology assessment, and receives evaluation by the authorities. In this paper, the situation regarding plant life management was investigated and a Japan-U.S. comparison was made. As a result, differences were found in the procedure, the background, the manpower, the review period, etc. in Japan and the U.S. but there is no difference between Japan and the U.S. in aiming for a check of the integrity of components, assuming long-term operation for 60 years. Moreover, trend analysis using the overseas fault database of INSS examined the effect on the preservation activities of a license renewal. As a result, there is a tendency for license renewal not to be applied for in units in which the number of aging faults increases with the increase in elapsed years. The U.S. license renewal system was considered to be effective in plant life management, and suggested the validity of plant life management in Japan which is employing the equivalent system to the U.S. (author)

  7. Study on system integration of robots operated in nuclear fusion facility and nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi

    2004-07-01

    A present robot is required to apply to many fields such as amusement, welfare and protection against disasters. The are however only limited numbers of the robots, which can work under the actual conditions as a robot system. It is caused by the following reasons: (1) the robot system cannot be realized by the only collection of the elemental technologies, (2) the performance of the robot is determined by that of the integrated system composed of the complicated elements with many functions, and (3) the respective elements have to be optimized in the integrated robot system with a well balance among them, through their examination, adjustment and improvement. Therefore, the system integration of the robot composed of a large number of elements is the most critical issue to realize the robot system for actual use. In the present paper, I describe the necessary approaches and elemental technologies to solve the issues on the system integration of the typical robot systems for maintenance in the nuclear fusion facility and rescue in the accident of the nuclear power plant facilities. These robots work under the intense radiation condition and restricted space in place of human. In particular, I propose a new approach to realize the system integration of the robot for actual use from the viewpoints of not only the environment and working conditions but also the restructure and optimization of the required elemental technologies with a well balance in the robot system. Based on the above approach, I have a contribution to realize the robot systems working under the actual conditions for maintenance in the nuclear fusion facility and rescue in the accident of the nuclear power plant facilities. (author)

  8. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  9. The human factors and job task analysis in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre; Mihailescu, Nicolae; Dragusin, Octavian

    1999-01-01

    After a long period of time, during the development of the NPP technology, where the plant hardware has been considered to be the main factor for a safe, reliable and economic operation, the industry is now changing to an adequate responsibility of plant hardware and operation. Since the human factors has been not discussed methodically so far, there is still a lack of improved classification systems for human errors as well as a lack of methods for the systematic approach in designing the operator's working system, as for instance by using the job task analysis (J.T.A.). The J.T.A. appears to be an adequate method to study the human factor in the nuclear power plant operation, enabling an easy conversion to operational improvements. While the results of the analysis of human errors tell 'what' is to be improved, the J.T.A. shows 'how' to improve, for increasing the quality of the work and the safety of the operator's working system. The paper analyses the issue of setting the task and displays four criteria used to select aspects in NPP operation which require special consideration as personal training, design of control room, content and layout of the procedure manual, or organizing the operating personnel. The results are given as three tables giving: 1- Evaluation of deficiencies in the Working System; 2- Evaluation of the Deficiencies of Operator's Disposition; 3- Evaluation of the Mental Structure of Operation

  10. Behavioral simulation of a nuclear power plant operator crew for human-machine system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, K.; Shimada, T.; Kondo, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article proposes an architecture of behavioral simulation of an operator crew in a nuclear power plant including group processes and interactions between the operators and their working environment. An operator model was constructed based on the conceptual human information processor and then substantiated as a knowledge-based system with multiple sets of knowledge base and blackboard, each of which represents an individual operator. From a trade-off between reality and practicality, we adopted an architecture of simulation that consists of the operator, plant and environment models in order to consider operator-environment interactions. The simulation system developed on this framework and called OCCS was tested using a scenario of BWR plant operation. The case study showed that operator-environment interactions have significant effects on operator crew performance and that they should be considered properly for simulating behavior of human-machine systems. The proposed architecture contributed to more realistic simulation in comparison with an experimental result, and a good prospect has been obtained that computer simulation of an operator crew is feasible and useful for human-machine system design. (orig.)

  11. Start up and commercial operation of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Ramirez, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Prior to start up of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant preoperational tests and start tests were performed and they are described in its more eminent aspects. In relation to commercial operation of nuclear station a series of indicator were set to which allow the measurement of performance in unit 1, in areas of plant efficiency and personal safety. Antecedents. Laguna Verde station is located in Alto Lucero municipality in Veracruz state, 70 kilometers north-northeast from port of Veracruz and a 290 kilometers east-northeast from Mexico city. The station consist of two units manufactured by General Electric, with a nuclear system of vapor supply also called boiling water (BWR/5), and with a system turbine-generator manufactured by Mitsubishi. Each unit has a nominal power of 1931 MWt and a level design power of 675 Mwe and a net power of 654 Electric Megawatts

  12. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  13. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [fr

  14. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on ''Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies'' in the period August 27-August 31, 2001. The Summer School was intended for scientists, engineers and technicians working for nuclear installations, engineering companies, industry and members of universities and research institutes, who wanted to broaden their nuclear background by getting acquainted with Man-Technology-Organisation-related subjects and issues. The Summer School should also serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the nuclear field. The following presentations were given: (1) Overview of the Nuclear Community and Current issues, (2) The Elements of Safety Culture; Evaluation of Events, (3) Quality Management (QM), (4) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA), (5) Human Behaviour from the Viewpoint of Industrial Psychology, (6) Technical tour of the Halden Project Experimental Facilities, (7) Human Factors in Control Room Design, (8) Computerised Operator Support Systems (COSSs) and (9) Artificial Intelligence; a new Approach. Most of the contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  15. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on ''Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Impacts of Human and Organisational Factors and Emerging Technologies'' in the period August 27-August 31, 2001. The Summer School was intended for scientists, engineers and technicians working for nuclear installations, engineering companies, industry and members of universities and research institutes, who wanted to broaden their nuclear background by getting acquainted with Man-Technology-Organisation-related subjects and issues. The Summer School should also serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the nuclear field. The following presentations were given: (1) Overview of the Nuclear Community and Current issues, (2) The Elements of Safety Culture; Evaluation of Events, (3) Quality Management (QM), (4) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA), (5) Human Behaviour from the Viewpoint of Industrial Psychology, (6) Technical tour of the Halden Project Experimental Facilities, (7) Human Factors in Control Room Design, (8) Computerised Operator Support Systems (COSSs) and (9) Artificial Intelligence; a new Approach. Most of the contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  16. U.S.-NPAR approach to managing aging in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnak, R.; Vagins, M.; Vora, J.

    1991-01-01

    Aging degradation in operating nuclear power plants must be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the levels provided in plant design bases. The NPAR program and other aging-related programs conducted under the auspices of the US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research are developing needed technical bases and guidance for understanding and managing aging in operating nuclear power plants (NPP) of all ages. Results from these programs, together with relevant information developed by industry are implemented through various ongoing NRC and industry programs. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key element: 1) selection and prioritization of components, systems, and structures (CSS) in which aging must be managed, 2) understanding of the relevant aging mechanisms and rates of degradation processes in these CSS, and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, preventive and corrective maintenance, and mitigation. This paper provides a historical perspective on the aging related research programs sponsored by the Office of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Research. Also, briefly described are the major element of the NPAR program and its status and results or accomplishments. In the process the authors emphasize the need for total industry commitment and participation in implementing programs for understanding and managing aging in operating nuclear power plants. 'Aging' is universal in nature. No industrial complex including NPP should be considered immune from its effects. For NPP aging is manageable its ti symptoms are recognized and predicted, if it is monitored and appropriate steps are taken for timely mitigation of age-related degradation. (author)

  17. Use of operational experience in fire safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant's operational risk and the international nuclear power industry has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazard. Considerable progress in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, in fire protection technology and in related analytical techniques has been made in the past two decades. Substantial efforts have been undertaken worldwide to implement these advances in the interest of improving fire safety both at new and existing nuclear power plants. To assist in these efforts, the IAEA initiated a programme on fire safety that was intended to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. In order to achieve this general objective, the IAEA programme aimed at the development of guidelines and good practices, the promotion of advanced fire safety assessment techniques, the exchange of state of the art information between practitioners and the provision of engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. During the period 1993-1994, the IAEA activities related to fire safety concentrated on the development of guidelines and good practice documents related to fire safety and fire protection of operating plants. One of the first tasks was the development of a Safety Guide that formulates specific requirements with regard to the fire safety of operating nuclear power plants. Several documents, which provide advice on fire safety inspection, were developed to assist in its implementation. In the period 1995-1996, the programme focused on the preparation of guidelines for the systematic analysis of fire safety at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The IAEA programme on fire safety for 1997-1998 includes tasks aimed at promoting systematic assessment of fire safety related occurrences and dissemination of essential insights from this assessment. One of the topics addressed is the

  18. Comparing cultural profiles of MCR operators with those of non-MCR operators working in domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2015-01-01

    Operation experience of complex socio-technical systems such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) shows that most significant events are attributable to human error. Thus, various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques were used to manage human error for safety-critical tasks. However, a lack of available HRA data is a critical issue in conducting an HRA. For this reason, many researchers have tried to provide HRA data extracted from simulated emergency conditions. Unfortunately, it is still doubtful to directly use these HRA data because different operational cultures may result in different human performances even under a similar task context. From this concern, previous studies claimed that Main Control Room (MCR) operators working in different NPPs share very similar cultural profile. In order to confirm this claim, the culture profiles of operating personnel (i.e., non-MCR and MCR operators) working in domestic NPPs are compared. As a result, although some discrepancies are observed, it is positive to say that operating personnel of NPPs share similar cultural profiles to some extent. This result can be regarded as the first step to provide technical underpinnings that are helpful for understanding human performance data collected from different countries. - Highlights: • National and organizational culture of MCR and non-MCR operators are compared. • Organizational culture profiles are almost identical. • National culture profiles are not quite different overall. • Operating personnel in Nuclear Power Plants seems to share similar cultural profiles

  19. A study of air-operated valves in U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, O.; Khericha, S.; Watkins, J.; Holbrook, M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of air-operated valves in nuclear power plant applications was conducted for the NRC Office of Research (the project was initiated by NRC/AEOD). The results of the study were based on visits to seven nuclear power plant sites, literature studies, and examinations of event records in databases available to the NRC. The purpose is to provide information to the NRC staff concerning capabilities and performance of air-operated valves (AOVs). Descriptions of air systems and AOVs were studied along with the support systems and equipment. Systems and equipment that contain AOVs and SOVs were studied to determine their dependencies. Applications of AOVs and SOVs were listed along with current NRC requirements.

  20. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1993-01-01

    According to the summary report of the Co-ordinated Research Meeting on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'', 13-16 October 1992, the national reports shall cover the following topics: General summary of the national activity; description of the results in the framework of the CRP; overview of the OSS related recent national activity. Accordingly, in the first section we give an overview of the operator support systems developed in Hungary. The second section summarizes the data collected in order to comply with the Tasks 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 of the CRP. In the third section we summarize the most recent works pertaining to the development and application of OSS at nuclear power plants

  1. A study of air-operated valves in U.S. nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, O. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Khericha, S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watkins, J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holbrook, M. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A study of air-operated valves in nuclear power plant applications was conducted for the NRC Office of Research (the project was initiated by NRC/AEOD). The results of the study were based on visits to seven nuclear power plant sites, literature studies, and examinations of event records in databases available to the NRC. The purpose is to provide information to the NRC staff concerning capabilities and performance of air-operated valves (AOVs). Descriptions of air systems and AOVs were studied along with the support systems and equipment. Systems and equipment that contain AOVs and SOVs were studied to determine their dependencies. Applications of AOVs and SOVs were listed along with current NRC requirements.

  2. The German simulator center for the training of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    Simulator training for nuclear power plant operators in Germany is conducted in The Simulator Center in Essen. The companies operating The Center are KSG/GfS. KSG provides simulators, GfS performs the training. The German Simulator Center is equipped with five simulators in training, nine simulators are under construction and will be ready for training until the beginning of 1997. This institution serves 22 nuclear power plants units in Germany, Switzerland (NPP Goesgen-Daeniken) and the Netherlands (NPP Borssele) and trains 1,800 persons every year. As a common enterprise the company is owned by 12 utilities, which leads to the necessity to prepare common rules and guidelines for simulator specification, training of instructors, assessment of trainees, training material and preparation and methodical running of simulator courses

  3. Methodology for risk-based configuration control of nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Antonio Torres; Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero

    2012-01-01

    The hazardous configurations control in Nuclear Power Plants is an application of a previous Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). A more complete option would be the risk monitoring for the online detection of these configurations but expert personnel would be required to deal with the complexities of PSA and risk monitor. The paper presents a simpler but effective approach: a method of configuration control, based on dependencies matrixes. The algorithm is included in a computer code called SECURE A-Z. The configuration control is carried out in a qualitative way, without previous PSA results and not using a Risk Monitor. The simplicity of the method warrants its application to facilities where these tools have not been developed, allowing the detection of hazardous configurations during operation and increasing plant safety. This configuration control system was implemented in the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Argentina. The paper shows the application of the algorithm to the analysis of a simplified safety system. (author)

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demick, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  6. Exploitation continuation of Fessenheim nuclear plant nr 1 reactor after thirty years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having recalled the regulatory framework, this report indicates how the Fukushima accident has been taken into account by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) for the decision of keeping on operating the Fessenheim nuclear plant. Then, after a general presentation of nuclear installations, the report describes some peculiarities of the Fessenheim power plant with respect to the other French nuclear plants. It comments and discusses various issues: reactor exploitation, fuel management, vessel exploitation, exploitation of the main secondary circuits, of the confinement enclosure, and of other equipment. It recalls significant events, exploitation rules, and modifications brought to the reactor. It gives a global assessment. The authors report the safety re-examination (approach, compliance examination, security re-assessment), controls performed during decennial inspection (main controls and tests, implementation of modifications foreseen by safety re-examination, significant events, monitoring by the ASN, reactor restarting after the third decennial inspection). Perspectives are then discussed for the ten following years in terms of maintenance policy, ageing management, reactor vessel serviceability, and additional actions within the frame of ageing management. The operation continuation is then discussed

  7. Neuro-fuzzy models for systems identification applied to the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    2000-09-01

    A nuclear power plant has a myriad of complex system and sub-systems that, working cooperatively, make the control of the whole plant. Nevertheless their operation be automatic most of the time, the integral understanding of their internal- logic can be away of the comprehension of even experienced operators because of the poor interpretability those controls offer. This difficulty does not happens only in nuclear power plants but in almost every a little more complex control system. Neuro-fuzzy models have been used for the last years in a attempt of suppress these difficulties because of their ability of modelling in linguist form even a system which behavior is extremely complex. This is a very intuitive human form of interpretation and neuro-fuzzy model are gathering increasing acceptance. Unfortunately, neuro-fuzzy models can grow up to become of hard interpretation because of the complexity of the systems under modelling. In general, that growing occurs in function of redundant rules or rules that cover a very little domain of the problem. This work presents an identification method for neuro-fuzzy models that not only allows models grow in function of the existent complexity but that beforehand they try to self-adapt to avoid the inclusion of new rules. This form of construction allowed to arrive to highly interpretative neuro-fuzzy models even of very complex systems. The use of this kind of technique in modelling the control of the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant allowed verify its validity and how neuro-fuzzy models so built can be useful in understanding the automatic operation of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  8. Does the extension of the nuclear power plant operation require the agreement of the Federal Council?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, Siegfried de

    2010-01-01

    It is violently disputed whether an extension of the nuclear power plant operation related to energy policy is meaningful, impedes or accelerates the reconstruction of the power supply. Depending upon the situation of political interest also the constitutional question is exploited whether a law for the increase of the residual power generation of the Supplement 3 of the Atomic Energy Act requires the agreement of the Federal Council. The answer to this question should not be determined from the personal opinion on the nuclear power. The answer should be examined and decided on the basis of constitutional requirements. This is done in this contribution under consideration of expertises and statements.

  9. An estimation of population doses from a nuclear power plant during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, K.

    1975-07-01

    A model is presented for estimation of the potential submersion and inhalation radiation doses to people located within a distance of 1000 km from a nuclear power plant during normal operation. The model was used to calculate doses for people living 200-1000 km from hypothetical nuclear power facility sited near the geographical centre of Denmark. Two kinds of sources are considered for this situation: - unit release of 15 isotopes of noble gases and iodines, - effluent releases from two types of 1000 MWe Light Water Power Reactors: PWR and BWR. Parameter variations were made and analyzed in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the model. (author)

  10. Nuclear power plant safety and reliability improvements derived from operational experience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Rosen, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of significant events at operating nuclear power plants can be used as one of several indices to obtain a preliminary indication of unit and/or utility performance in the development and implementation of improvements aimed at reducing the probability or consequences of troublesome events. Initial data of this type are presented along with qualifications on the validity of such indicators. Planned further steps to improve this as a performance indicator are noted

  11. Operational safety review programmes for nuclear power plants. Guidelines for assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has been offering the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme to provide advice and assistance to Member States in enhancing the operational safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Simultaneously, the IAEA has encouraged self-assessment and review by Member States of their own nuclear power plants to continuously improve nuclear safety. Currently, some utilities have been implementing safety review programmes to independently review their own plants. Corporate or national operational safety review programmes may be compliance or performance based. Successful utilities have found that both techniques are necessary to provide assurance that (i) as a minimum the NPP meets specific corporate and legal requirements and (ii) management at the NPP is encouraged to pursue continuous improvement principles. These programmes can bring nuclear safety benefits to the plants and utilities. The IAEA has conducted two pilot missions to assess the effectiveness of the operational review programme. Based on these missions and on the experience gained during OSART missions, this document has been developed to provide guidance on and broaden national/corporate safety review programmes in Member States, and to assist in maximizing their benefits. These guidelines are intended primarily for the IAEA team to conduct assessment of a national/corporate safety review programme. However, this report may also be used by a country or utility to establish its own national/corporate safety review programme. The guidelines may likewise be used for self-assessment or for establishing a baseline when benchmarking other safety review programmes. This report consists of four parts. Section 2 addresses the planning and preparation of an IAEA assessment mission and Sections 3 and 4 deal with specific guidelines for conducting the assessment mission itself

  12. Use of a remotely operated vehicle (submarine) for nuclear plant inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duink, S.S.; Adam, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a specialized remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to perform visual underwater inspections in nuclear power plants. An underwater ROV, or minisubmarine, for visual inspections has several advantages over the more traditional camera-on-a-pole techniques and can perform some inspections easily that in the past were considered too difficult to conduct remotely. Other advantages include radiation does savings, outage critical path savings, and reduced manpower and expenses

  13. A Study on UAE Cultural Effects on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2012-01-01

    Several initiatives have recently been taken to provide international cooperation in technology transfer and supplying human factors resources to the nuclear industry worldwide. The aim of promoting international cooperation is for the safe operation of the nuclear power industry. In terms of international cooperation of the nuclear industry, nuclear power plants are now under construction in Braka, UAE. However, with technology transfer and international cooperation, there needs to consider several potential problems due to the differences between two culture of the countries such as language, technical culture and expectation. Also, there is an evidence of remarkably wide effects of cultural interpretation of human-system interface even between what have been thought of as relatively homogeneous. Hence, the purpose of this research is to draw attention to the degree to which culture, organizational, and even ergonomic differences have to overcome, if such transfer of knowledge and behavioral technology is to be successful. Of particular interest is the UAE's cultural effect on operating nuclear power plants

  14. Low-flow operation and testing of pumps in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-flow operation of centrifugal pumps introduces hydraulic instability and other factors that can cause damage to these machines. The resulting degradation has been studied and recorded for pumps in electric power plants. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the damage-producing phenomena, including their sources and consequences; (2) relate these observations to expectations for damage caused by low-flow operation of pumps in nuclear power plants; and (3) assess the utility of low-flow testing. Hydraulic behavior during low-flow operation is reviewed for a typical centrifugal pump stage, and the damage-producing mechanisms are described. Pump monitoring practices, in conjunction with pump performance characteristics, are considered; experience data are reviewed; and the effectiveness of low-flow surveillance monitoring is examined. Degradation caused by low-flow operation is shown to be an important factor, and low-flow surveillance testing is shown to be inadequate. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  16. Total-system expertise in economically efficient operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH can look back on well over 40 years of experience in developing and constructing nuclear power plants. 23 Power plant units of Siemens design are in operation in five countries, and in autumn this year, another one will start commercial operation, while yet another one is under construction. In comparative international power plant surveys, the Siemens-design systems usually rank in top positions when it comes to comparing systems availability and electric power generation, and Siemens have build a reputation in manufacturing power plants up to the highest safety standards worldwide. Our experience as a manufacturer of turnkey PWR and BWR type reactors, as well as our profound knowledge of international nuclear standardisation, engineering codes and safety guides, has been used and processed to the benefit of the services offered by Siemens, resulting in well-devised service packages, and enhancements and optimisation of our machinery and equipment. Siemens has of course obtained the relevant licenses and certification for all its services and products according to DIN ISO 9001, KTA and ASME standards [de

  17. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Ulke, A.; Marino, B.; Thomas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors) [es

  18. A method for analysis of nuclear power plant operators' decision making in simulated disturbance situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    An analysis method has been developed for analysis of nuclear power plant operators' decision making in simulated disturbance situations. The aim of the analysis is to investigate operators' orientation which is expected to manifest itself as collective strategies in utilization of resources of decision making. Resources analyzed here are different information sources and, in addition, collaborative resources like communication and participation. The cognitive approach on the basis of the method considers decision making as collective construction of common interpretation of available information. Utilization of information is evaluated with respect to operative context. This is made with help of conceptualization of the disturbance situation from the decision making point of view and by construction of operative reference for activity. The latter means conceptualization of the situation from the safety point of view and also consideration of other boundary constraints of decision making, i.e. economical and technical aspects. The analysis method is intended to be used in routine simulator training in nuclear power plants. By virtue of its contextual and dynamical approach it makes the developing nature of activity visible. Cumulation and distribution of knowledge of decision making as developing activity, controlled by orientation and boundary constraints of process control, is expected to improve operational culture of a plant organization. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  19. Best practices in identifying, reporting and screening operating experience at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1 entitled Fundamental Safety Principles: Safety Fundamentals states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations, and corrective actions are effectively implemented. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installations, and related institutions including contractors and support organizations to strengthen and enhance their own feedback process through the implementation of best practices in identifying, reporting and screening processes and to assess the effectiveness of the above areas. To support a proactive safety management approach the nuclear installations are enhancing the operating experience feedback (OEF) processes. For this purpose, the nuclear industry is striving to collect more information on occurrences that are useful to address the early signs of declining performance and improve operational safety performance. In this environment a strong reporting culture that motivates people to identify and report issues is an important attribute. As a consequence, the number and diversity of issues identified increases, and there is a need to set thresholds of screening for further treatment. Thus, the establishment of an effective identification, reporting and screening process is very beneficial to streamline the efforts, and ensure that major incidents and latent weaknesses are being addressed and that operating experience is treated according to its significance. This leads to improved safety and production. This publication was written to complement the publication IAEA Services Series No. 10 - PROSPER Guidelines - Guidelines for Peer Review and for

  20. Best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1 entitled Fundamental Safety Principles: Safety Fundamentals states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations, operating experience is utilized and corrective actions are effectively implemented. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installations and related institutions, including contractors and support organizations, to strengthen and enhance their own feedback process through the implementation of best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience and to assess their effectiveness. Dissemination and utilization of internal and external operating experience is essential in supporting a proactive safety management approach of preventing events from occurring. Few new events reveal a completely new cause or failure mechanism. Although not recognized prior to the event, most subsequent investigations identify internal or external industry operating experience that, if applied effectively, would have prevented the event. Therefore, the establishment of an effective utilization and dissemination process is very beneficial in raising awareness of the organization and individuals of available operating experience, and focussing effort in the implementation of the lessons learnt. This leads to improved safety and reliability. The present publication is the outcome of a coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It was written to complement the publication IAEA Services Series No. 10 entitled PROSPER Guidelines - Guidelines for Peer Review and for Plant Self-assessment of

  1. Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants

  2. Role of the operator in nuclear power plants as determined from a survey of the North American nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an empirical survey, one of the first to deal with the Role of the Operator in nuclear power plants in North America, are presented. The survey showed that the theoretical match between operators' responsibility and control (written definition of ''role'') is not supported by the numerical evaluations of these two concepts. Across a dimension from existing to advanced reactors, there is increasingly a shift from hands-on manipulation and readout-by-readout information integration by the operators to a role in which the operator is a passive monitor whose primary task is to give permissives to the automated control system. There is a decreasing degree of control for operators, while responsibility remains high. Decreased control coupled with high responsibility may create shift operating staff problems

  3. A modular real time Operator Advisor expert system for installation on a full function nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.; Bhatnagar, R.; Maresh, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based expert system that uses the Generic Task approach is being developed to serve as an operator Advisor in the control room of a commercial nuclear power plant. Having identified the broad scope tasks performed by an operator in responding to abnormal plant conditions, our research team has modularized the Operator Advisor according to the tasks of (1) monitoring plant parameters, (2) classifying or diagnosing the abnormality, and (3) planning for execution of the procedures for recovery. The operator Advisor uses the Perry Nuclear Power Plant full-scope simulator as the reference system, and is currently being prepared for direct connection to the simulator

  4. Feedback from recent operating experience in nuclear power plants regarding fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forell, Burkhard [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The paper provides insights from the operating experience in German nuclear power plants with reportable fire safety related events. The three reportable events outlined in more detail resulted in German Information Notices prepared by GRS and distributed on behalf of the Federal German regulatory body. The events concerned deficiencies at pipe penetration seals, which were not filled with mineral wool. Also at fire doors deficiencies of the insulation inside the door wings occurred. One event concerned a smouldering fire of rubber material in a waste drum which was placed in a plant internal drying facility for radioactive waste.

  5. Discussion on several issues of the accidents management of nuclear power plants in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xuewu; Wang Zhe; Zhang Yingzhen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses several issues of the accident management of nuclear power plants in operation, for example: the necessity, implementation principle of accident management and accident management program etc. For conducting accident management for beyond design basis accidents, this article thinks that the accident management program should be developed and implemented to ensure that the plant and its personnel with responsibilities for accident management are adequately prepared to take effective on-site actions to prevent or mitigate the consequences of severe accident. (authors)

  6. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  7. Recruitment training and licensing of operating personnel for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    This article covers the step-by-step and most rigid recruitment, training, and licensing procedures undertaken in the selection for personnel involved in nuclear power plant operations. These procedures are true to all countries. However, for developing countries such as the Philippines, a bachelor's degree may be required as compared with the U.S. wherein a high school diploma is the minimum requirement. Because of the complexity of a nuclear facility, the work will require highly capable individuals with mature judgement who can render correct decisions even under highly stressed conditions. Thus during the selection and recruitment of applicants for the operator position, they are not only given aptitude tests but are also subjected to a series of psychological examintions. Once they are accepted, they are made to undergo a comprehensive and in-depth training to ensure that they will be capable of operating the nuclear power plant safely and effectively. Finally, those prospective operators have to pass licensing examinations in order to prove their competence and skills. Retraining programs follow after their training to maintain their skills. (RTD)

  8. OSART mission highlights 2001-2003. Operational safety practices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States in enhancing the operational safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Careful design and high quality of construction are prerequisites for a safe nuclear power plant. However, a plant's safety depends ultimately on the ability and conscientiousness of the operating personnel and on the plant programmes, processes and working methods. An OSART mission compares a facility's operational performance with IAEA Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The OSART reviews are available to all countries with nuclear power plants in operation, but also approaching operation, commissioning or in earlier stages of construction (Pre-OSART). Most countries have participated in the programme by hosting one or more OSART missions or by making experts available to participate in missions. Operational safety missions can also be part of the design review missions of nuclear power plants and are known as Safety Review Missions (SRMs). Teams that review only a few specific areas or a specific issue are called Expert missions. Follow-up visits are a standard part of the OSART programme and are conducted between 12 to 18 months following the OSART mission. This report continues the practice of summarizing mission results so that all the aspects of OSART missions, Pre-OSART missions and OSART good practices are to be found in one document. It also includes the results of follow-up visits. Attempts have been made in this report to highlight the most significant findings while retaining as much of the vital background information as possible. This report is in three parts: Part I summarizes the most significant observations made during the missions and follow-up visits between 2001 and 2003; Part II, in chronological order, reviews the major strengths and opportunities for improvement identified during each OSART mission and summarizes the follow-up visits performed

  9. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-20

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

  10. Trend analysis of nuclear reactor automatic trip events subjected to operator's human error at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Trends in nuclear reactor automatic trip events due to human errors during plant operating mode have been analyzed by extracting 20 events which took place in the United States during the period of seven years from 2002 to 2008, cited in the LERs (Licensee Event Reports) submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It was shown that the yearly number of events was relatively large before 2005, and thereafter the number decreased. A period of stable operation, in which the yearly number was kept very small, continued for about three years, and then the yearly number turned to increase again. Before 2005, automatic trip events occurred more frequently during periodic inspections or start-up/shut-down operations. The recent trends, however, indicate that trip events became more frequent due to human errors during daily operations. Human errors were mostly caused by the self-conceit and carelessness of operators through the whole period. The before mentioned trends in the yearly number of events might be explained as follows. The decrease in the automatic trip events is attributed to sharing trouble information, leading as a consequence to improvement of the manual and training for the operations which have a higher potential risk of automatic trip. Then, while the period of stable operation continued, some operators came to pay less attention to preventing human errors and not interest in the training, leading to automatic trip events in reality due to miss-operation. From these analyses on trouble experiences in the US, we learnt the followings to prevent the occurrence similar troubles in Japan: Operators should be thoroughly skilled in basic actions to prevent human errors as persons concerned. And it should be further emphasized that they should elaborate by imaging actual plant operations even though the simulator training gives them successful experiences. (author)

  11. Knowledge-enhanced network simulation modeling of the nuclear power plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryver, J.C.; Palko, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Simulation models of the human operator of advanced control systems must provide an adequate account of the cognitive processes required to control these systems. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) prototype model was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically integrating a cognitive operator model and a continuous plant process model (ARIES-P) to provide predictions of the total response of a nuclear power plant during upset/emergency conditions. The model consists of a SAINT network of cognitive tasks enhanced with expertise provided by a knowledge-based fault diagnosis model. The INTEROPS prototype has been implemented in both closed and open loop modes. The prototype model is shown to be cognitively relevant by accounting for cognitive tunneling, confirmation bias, evidence chunking, intentional error, and forgetting

  12. A preliminary study on related factors of mental health in nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Tingting; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Liao Haihong; Qiu Mengyue; Bian Huahui; Chen Weibo; Liu Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the status of nuclear power plant operators in mental health and its correlation with emotional stability, liveliness, anxiety and urgency. Methods: 255 male operators were randomly selected from three nuclear power bases, meanwhile 61 undergraduates were used as control group. The mental health and neurobehavioral evaluation system of Chinese nuclear power plant operators was developed by Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, which was used to assess mental health of the subjects. The scores of mental health personality factors were recorded, together with four main personality factors including emotional stability, liveliness, anxiety and urgency. Results: The score of lie was lower than 8 which showed all inspected groups were normal. 1.57% (4/255) operators had psychological disorders, 3.92% (10/255) had poor mental health, 27.84% (71/255) had general mental health, 66.7% (170/255) had excellent mental health, whereas 9.84% (6/61) for control group had psychological disorders. Obvious difference was observed in the final scores between the nuclear power plant operators and control group. The former gained higher scores on mental health,emotional stability,and lower scores on anxiety and urgency (t=3.437, 4.423, -2.493, -2.093, P<0.05). Both groups aged over 27 years and with length of service over 5 years were awarded higher scores on mental health, emotional stability (t=2.585, 2.349; t=2.606, 2.947, P<0.05), lower scores on anxiety and urgency (t=-3.407, -2.138; t=- 2.941, -2.256, P<0.05). The mental health was positively correlated with emotional stability and liveliness (r=0.721, 0.650, P<0.05), but negatively correlated with anxiety and urgency (r=-0.809, -0.693, P<0.05). Conclusions: The majority of nuclear power plant operators had excellent psychological quality, but some factors should be paid more attention, such as different ages and length of service time. (authors)

  13. Evaluation issues on real-time operating system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Koh, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    In the recent few years, using the hard real-time operating system (RTOS) of safety-critical applications has gained increased acceptance in the nuclear safety system. Failure of this software could cause catastrophic consequences for human life. The digital I and C systems of nuclear power plants also have used hard RTOSs which are executing a required mission completely within its deadline. Because the nuclear power plants have to maintain a very high level of safety, the hard RTOS software should be reliable and safe. The RTOS used in safety-critical I and C systems is the base software used for the purpose of satisfying the real-time constraints, So, careful evaluation of its safety and functionality is very important, So far, the nuclear power plants of Korea have adopted commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) RTOS software. But, these days the RTOS embedded in safety grade PLC has been developed by KNICS project controlled by Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy of Korea. Whether COTS RTOS or newly developed RTOS, it must be evaluated its safety and reliability. (authors)

  14. A survey on the task analysis methods and techniques for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Heui; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon

    1994-04-01

    We have surveyed techniques and methods of task analysis from very traditional ones to recently developed ones that are being applicated to various industrial fields. We compare each other and analyse their fundamental characteristics and methodological specification in order to find a proper one enough to apply to nuclear power plant operators tasks. Generally, the fundamental process of task analyses has well been understandable, but its process of application in practice has not been so simple due to the wide and varying range of applications according to specific domain. Operators' tasks in NPPs are supposed to be performed strictly according to operational procedures written in a text and well trained, so the method of task analysis for operators' tasks in NPPs can be established to have its unique characteristics of task analysis based on the operational procedures. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  15. A survey on the task analysis methods and techniques for nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Heui; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-01

    We have surveyed techniques and methods of task analysis from very traditional ones to recently developed ones that are being applicated to various industrial fields. We compare each other and analyse their fundamental characteristics and methodological specification in order to find a proper one enough to apply to nuclear power plant operators tasks. Generally, the fundamental process of task analyses has well been understandable, but its process of application in practice has not been so simple due to the wide and varying range of applications according to specific domain. Operators` tasks in NPPs are supposed to be performed strictly according to operational procedures written in a text and well trained, so the method of task analysis for operators` tasks in NPPs can be established to have its unique characteristics of task analysis based on the operational procedures. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 18 refs. (Author).

  16. Experimental studies of computerized procedures and team size in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-H.; Hwang, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a nuclear power plant is so complex that it requires teamwork. To support team performance, a system need to provide all team members integrated information displays as well as decision aids (e.g., computerized procedures). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of computerized procedures and team size on operating performance. Forty-five participants were involved in the experiments. Each participant executed decision and action tasks to deal with alarm signals, while detecting occasional system errors in the interface. Results showed that effects of computerized procedures were significant on various performance indicators, such as operation time, operation errors, and learning effect, and that two operators would be a satisfactory size in the teamwork system providing computerized procedures

  17. Recent Operating Experience involving Power Electronics Failure in Korea Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaedo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, modern power electronics devices for electrical component were steadily increased in electrical systems which used for main power control and protection. To upgrade the system reliability we recommended the redundancy for electrical equipment trip system. The past several years, Korean Nuclear power plants have changed the electrical control and protection systems (Auto Voltage Regulator, Power Protection Relay) for main generator and main power protection relay systems. In this paper we deal with operating experience involving modern solid state power electronics failure in Korean nuclear power plants. One of the failures we will discuss the degraded phenomenon of power electronics device for CEDMCS(Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System). As the result of the failure we concerned about the modification for trip source of main generator excitation systems and others. We present an interesting issue for modern solid state devices (IGBT, Thyristors). (authors)

  18. Nuclear power plant operating experiences from the IAEA/NEA Incident Reporting System 1999-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Incident reporting has become an increasingly important aspect of the operation and regulation of all public health and safety-related industries. Diverse industries such as aeronautics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and explosives all depend on operating experience feedback to provide lessons learned about safety. The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an essential element of the system for feeding back international operating experience for nuclear power plants. IRS reports contain information on events of Safety significance with important lessons learned. These experiences assist in reducing or eliminating recurrence of events at other plants. The IRS is jointly operated and managed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), a semi-autonomous body within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It is important that sufficient national resources be allocated to enable timely and high quality reporting of events important to safety, and to share these events in the IRS database. The first report, which covered the period July 1996 - June 1999, was widely acclaimed and encouraged both agencies to prepare this second report in order to highlight important lessons learned from around 300 events reported to the IRS for the period July 1999 - December 2002. Several areas were selected in this report to show the range of important topics available in the IRS. These include different types of failure in a variety of plant systems, as well as human performance considerations. This report is primarily aimed at senior officials in industry and government who have decision-making roles in the nuclear power industry

  19. Cognitive task analysis of nuclear power plant operators for man-machine interface design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, J.I.; Yoshimura, S.; Ohtsuka, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper aims to ascertain and further develop design guidelines for a man-machine interface compatible with plant operators' problem solving strategies. As the framework for this study, operator's information processing activities were modeled, based on J. Rasmussen's framework for cognitive task analysis. Two experiments were carried out. One was an experiment aimed at gaining an understanding of internal mechanisms involved in mistakes and slips which occurred in operators' responses to incidents and accidents. As a result of fifteen cases of operator performance analysis, sixty one human errors were identified. Further analysis of the errors showed that frequently occurring error mechanisms were absent-mindedness, lack of recognition of patterns in diagnosis and failed procedure formulation due to memory lapses. The other kind of experiment was carried out to identify the envelope of trajectories for the operator's search in the problem space consisting of the two dimensions of means-ends and whole-part relations while dealing with transients. Two cases of experimental sessions were conducted with the thinking-aloud method. From analyses based on verbal protocols, trajectories of operator's search were derived, covering from the whole plant level through the component level in the whole-part dimension and covering from the functional purpose level through the physical form level in the means-ends dimension. The findings obtained from these analyses serve as a basis for developing design guidelines for man-machine interfaces in control rooms of nuclear power plants

  20. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for...

  1. Management of radioactive wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawickhorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A prerequisite for the acceptance of the nuclear energy system is the effective management of the rad-wastes. Among the wastes to be considered, there are the wastes from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as those from the nuclear fuel cycle. For the management of operating wastes, processes and facilities optimized in the course of several decades, are available, with which the raw solid and liquid wastes can be reduced in volume and turned into products which are physically and chemically stable and thus suitable for final disposal. The management of spent fuel can be done either by direct final disposal or reprocessing. The required interim storage facilities are ready for operation. The methods and a facility for packaging spent fuel for direct final disposal are in an advanced stage of development and construction. If fuel assemblies are to be reprocessed abroad, the wastes generated from the process must be taken back. Decommissioning wastes have technical properties which correspond essentially to the various groups of operating wastes and can thus be processed with similar methods; however since large quantities of them are generated in relatively short times, they present particular logistic problems. All waste types end up in final disposal sites to be built under the responsibility of the federal government. A final disposal site for low level wastes is in operation. In addition, two final disposal projects for accommodating higher level wastes including spent fuel for direct disposal and vitrified wastes from reprocessing, are being pursued. (orig.)

  2. Strategy for establishing integrated l and c reliability of operating nuclear power plants in korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. T.; Chung, H. Y.; Lee, Y. H.

    2008-01-01

    Korea hydro and nuclear power co. (KHNP) are in progress of developing a integrated I and C reliability establishing strategy for managing l and C obsolescence and phasing in new technology that both meets the needs of the fleet and captures the benefits of applying proven solutions to multiple plants, with reduced incremental costs. In view of this, we are developing I and C component management which covers major failure mode, symptom of performance degradation, condition-based or time-based preventive management (PM), monitoring, and failure finding and correction based on equipment reliability (ER). Furthermore, for the l and C system replacement management, we are in progress of 3-year-long I and C systems upgrade fundamental designing in developing the long-term major l and C systems implementation plan to improve plant operations, eliminate operator challenges, reduce maintenance costs, and cope with the challenges of component obsolescence. For accomplishing I and C digital upgrade in near future, we chose demonstration plant, Younggwang (YGN) unit 3 and 4 which are Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP). In this paper, we established the long term reliability strategy of I and C system based on ER in component replacement and furthermore I and C systems digital upgrade in system replacement. (authors)

  3. Implications of competitive markets for operation and funds flow at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, R.N.; Leigh, R.W.; Mubayi, V.

    1997-01-01

    The authors employ a detailed electric utility production costing and capacity planning model to examine the use of nuclear power plants under the current (utility-owned) arrangements and under situations which may arise in a competitive market for electric service. The modeling is carried out for a synthetic but realistic power pool based on components of actual utilities in the northeast United States. Under the current arrangements, the costs of nuclear power plant operation are subsumed under capital costs and entered into the open-quotes raw base,close quotes the totality of which determines customer charges. A future competitive environment may be characterized by the absence of a open-quotes rate base,close quotes at least for generation. In this environment, all generation units are in effect independently owned. The authors examine this possibility by estimating the revenue which would flow to nuclear plants at competitive market prices and compare that revenue, to anticipated expenses for fuel, O ampersand M and amortization of capital (where appropriate), and for potential additional expenses such as safety requirements and payments to decommissioning funds. They also incorporate financial relief for the portion of these costs which can be considered open-quotes stranded investmentsclose quotes based on FERC and prospective state regulatory policies. In this competitive environment some nuclear plants may not remain economically viable. Their replacement by newly constructed fossil-fueled units will require substantial capital and lead to increased emissions and fuel use, which are calculated. The authors calculations show that while it may be clearly economically advantageous for individual owners to shut down unviable nuclear capacity, such early retirements may result in significant economic losses to the power pool as a whole

  4. Application of integrated logistic techniques to operation, maintenance and re engineering processes in Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago Diez, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the advisability of adapting and applying management and Integrated Logistic engineering techniques to nuclear power plants instead of using more traditional maintenance management methods. It establishes a historical framework showing the origins of integrated approaches based on traditional logistic support concepts, their phases and the real results obtained in the aeronautic world where they originated. It reviews the application of integrated management philosophy, and logistic support and engineering analysis techniques regarding Availability, Reliability and Maintainability (ARM) and shows their inter dependencies in different phases of the system's life (Design, Development and Operation). It describes how these techniques are applied to nuclear power plant operation, their impact on plant availability and the optimisation of maintenance and replacement plans. The paper analyses the need for data (type and volume), which will have to be collected, and the different tools to manage such data. It examines the different CALS tools developed by EA for engineering and for logistic management. It also explains the possibility of using these tools for process and data operations through the INTERNET. It also focuses on the qualities of some simple examples of possible applications, and how they would be used in the framework of Integrated Logistic Support (ILS). (Author)

  5. The Research on Operation Strategy of Nuclear Power Plant with Multi-reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Maoyao; Peng, Minjun; Cheng Shouyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the operation characteristics and control strategy of nuclear power plant (NPP) with multi-modular pressurized water reactors (PWR) were researched through simulation. The main objective of this research was to ensure the coordinated operation and satisfy the convenience of turbine-generator and reactor's load adjustment in NPP with multi-reactors (MR). According to the operation characteristics of MR-NPP, the operation and control strategy was proposed, which was 'he average allocation of load for each reactor and maintaining average temperature of coolant at a constant? The control system was designed based the operation and control strategy. In order to research the operation characteristics and control strategy of MR-NPP, the paper established the transient analysis model which included the reactors and thermal hydraulic models, turbine model, could simulate and analyze on different operating conditions such as load reducing, load rising. Based on the proposed operation and control strategy and simulation models, the paper verified and validated the operation strategy and control system through load reducing, load rising. The results of research simulation showed that the operation strategy was feasible and can make the MR-NPP running safely as well as steadily on different operating conditions

  6. The state of disposal of wastes from nuclear power plants in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Takeshi; Aoki, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We process gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in operation by exclusive facilities safely and appropriately, and make effects to reduce them reasonably. Some Low-level radioactive wastes generated from the NPPs have been disposed into the shallow land disposal site. We adapt safety and reasonable process to reduce the volume of them in the NPPs. For example, concentrated wastewater is reduced by pelletizing and making to the fine particle, and is packaged by solidifying to the drums. The produced waste packages are confirmed to the compatibility with the technological standard by voluntary inspection according to the law, and then are confirmed by JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). Then waste packages are transported to the low-level Radioactive Waste Burial Center. We believe that it is important for decommissioning age in future to process and disposed steady of the radioactive wastes in NPPs in operation now. (author)

  7. The Swedish concept for disposal of waste arising from the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power programme consists of 12 reactors producing 50% of the electricity in Sweden. It is stated by law that a waste producer has to make sure a safe handling and disposal of his radioactive waste. SKB is performing necessary activities on behalf of the waste producers. A system is in operation today that will manage all the radioactive waste produced in the country. The system consists of a transportation system, a final repository for operational waste and an interim storage facility for spent fuel. What remains to be built is an encapsulation plant for the spent fuel and a deep repository for final disposal of spent fuel and other long lived waste. All costs for managing and disposal of radioactive waste is paid by the owners of the nuclear power utilities. (author) 9 figs

  8. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Doster, J.M.; Kim, K.D.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Khedro, T.; Sues, R.H.; Yacout, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  9. Decommissioning of nuclear reprocessing plants French past experience and approach to future large scale operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean Jacques, M.; Maurel, J.J.; Maillet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the years, France has built up significant experience in dismantling nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or various types of units representative of a modern reprocessing plant. However, only small or medium scale operations have been carried out so far. To prepare the future decommissioning of large size industrial facilities such as UP1 (Marcoule) and UP2 (La Hague), new technologies must be developed to maximize waste recycling and optimize direct operations by operators, taking the integrated dose and cost aspects into account. The decommissioning and dismantling methodology comprises: a preparation phase for inventory, choice and installation of tools and arrangement of working areas, a dismantling phase with decontamination, and a final contamination control phase. Detailed description of dismantling operations of the MA Pu finishing facility (La Hague) and of the RM2 radio metallurgical laboratory (CEA-Fontenay-aux-Roses) are given as examples. (J.S.). 3 tabs

  10. Influence of the environmental pollution in the electrical power systems and the safe operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Borrego, German

    1996-01-01

    The present work shows the results of the Cuban researches on the influence of the environmental pollution on the power systems and the recommendations that in this regard are made when the Juragua Nuclear power Plants is in operation

  11. Design of test and emergency procedures to improve operator behaviour in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon-Fouco, M.; Gomolinski, M.

    1982-09-01

    The incident analyses performed in French nuclear power plants high-lighted that deficiencies in the design of procedures are frequent causes of human errors. The process for developing new guidelines for the writing of test and emergency procedures is presented: this process is based on operators interviews and observations at the plants or at simulators. The main principles for the writing of procedures are developed. For example: - the elaboration of a procedure for action and of a separate educational procedure, - the coordination of crew responses, - the choice of vocabulary, graphs, flow charts and so on as regards the format. Other complementary actions, such as the training of operators in the use of procedures, are described

  12. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Turek, M.G.; Eubanks, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  13. Technological evaluation for the extension of the operation license to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C. R.; Medina A, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    At the present time one of the tendencies in the nuclear industry is the renovation of operation licenses of the nuclear power plants, with the purpose of prolonging their operation 20 years more than the time settled down in their original license, which is of 30 years for the case of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This allows the electric power generation for a major period of time and to a relatively low price, giving this way a bigger competitiveness to the power stations of nuclear power. However, to request the license extension of the nuclear power plant requires to get ready the documentation and necessary studies for: to maintain a high level of security, to optimize the operation, maintenance and service life of the structures, systems and components, to maintain an acceptable level of performance, to maximize the recovery of the investment about the service of the nuclear power plant and to preserve the sure conditions for a major operation period at the license time. This paper describes the studies conducted by the Materials Technology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) to substantiate the required documentation for obtaining the extension of operating license of the nuclear power plant. These studies are focused mainly in the reactor pressure vessels of both units, as well as in the deposit of noble metals and the influence of the sludges (crud s) in this deposit. (Author)

  14. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  15. Recent developments in the IAEA safety standards: design and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing a wide variety of safety standards for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities since 1978. In 1996, a more rigorously structured approach for the preparation and review of its safety standards was introduced. Currently, based on the approach, revision of most of the standards is in completion or near completion. The latest versions of the Safety Requirements for ''Design'' and ''Operation'' of nuclear power plants were respectively published in 2000. Currently, along with this revision of the Safety Requirements, many Safety Guides have been revised. In order to clarify the complicated revision procedure, an example of the entire revision process for a Safety Guide is provided. Through actual example of the revision process, enormous amount of work involved in the revision work is clearly indicated. The current status of all of the Safety Standards for Design and that for Operation of nuclear power plants are summarized. Summary of other IAEA safety standards currently revised and available related IAEA publications, together with information on the IAEA Web Site from where these documents can be downloaded, is also provided. The standards are reviewed to determine whether revision (or new issue) is necessary in five years following publication. The IAEA safety standards will continue to be updated through comprehensive and structured approach, collaboration of many experts of the world, and reflecting good practices of the world. The IAEA safety standards will serve to provide high level of safety assurance. (author)

  16. Best Practices in the Management of an Operating Experience Programme at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1) state the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the feedback and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to the relevant national and international organizations and corrective actions are effectively implemented. In IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) and Peer Review of the effectiveness of the Operational Safety Performance Experience Review (PROSPER) missions, weaknesses in the management of operating experience (OE) programmes have been identified as one of the root causes of the recurrence of events. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installation managers and related institutions, including contractors and support organizations, to strengthen and enhance the management of their OE processes. In this publication, a number of barriers to the successful management of an OE programme have been identified. Managers are encouraged to review and evaluate these barriers with a view to identifying and eliminating them within their own organizations

  17. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (China)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  18. Importance of safety review to the safe operation of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkerhoff, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Widely differing standards of construction of nuclear reactors are employed in different countries. Although the reactor vendors, including designers and construction contractors, have a vested interest in safety, the ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the reactor facility operator. Even though governmental agencies, either directly or indirectly, must take a strong lead in developing policies and practices of safe operation, the reactor facility operator must recognize and accept the full responsibility for safe operation of the facility. The policies and practices of safe operation imposed by governmental agencies must help assure the prudent operation and the adequate maintenance of those structures, systems, and components of importance to safety. Since each country has a slightly different philosophy for achieving safety and each vendor utilizes different structures, systems, and components to fulfil this philosophy, it is imperative that the facility operator adequately maintain those engineered safety features and those plant protective systems which have been engineered into achieving the desired levels of safety. An additional method of helping to assure that those structures, systems, and components of importance to safety are prudently operated and adequately maintained is to assign the full safety responsibility for the overall operations of the reactor facility to the operating organization, i.e. assigning a 'line of responsibility' within the reactor facility operator. This assurance can be further strengthened by requiring that the facility operator establish a safety review body that overviews the operation and assures that the operating organization complies with those policies and practices of safe operation which have been imposed on the reactor facility. (author)

  19. Safety indicators as a tool for operational safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e; Schirru, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Performance indicators have found a wide use in the conventional and nuclear industries. For the conventional industry, the goal is to optimize production, reducing loss of time with accidents, human error and equipment downtimes. In the nuclear industry, nuclear safety is an additional goal. This paper presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The use of performance indicators is not new. The NRC has its own methodology and the IAEA presents methodology suggestions, but there is no detailed documentation about indicators selection, criteria and bases used. Additionally, only the NRC methodology performs a limited integrated evaluation. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. On the establishment of the intervals and boundaries, a probabilistic safety study, operational experience, international and national standards and technical specifications were used. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This evaluation uses well-defined and clear rules and weights for each indicator to be considered. These rules were implemented by means of a computational language, on a friendly interface, so that it is possible to obtain a quick response about operational safety. This methodology can be used to identify situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can

  20. Collaborative machining solution extends the operating life of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Geoff; Becker, Andrew; Vandenberg, James

    2007-01-01

    Examination of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant's steam generators during a scheduled maintenance outage revealed that the manway ports, part of the ASME Section III, Class 1 pressure boundary, needed repair. The port's inner cover gasket was not seating properly. Integrity was at risk. It was determined that this operation would required a specialized machine to successfully repair the manway port. The solution included the modification of a standard portable boring machine with a custom mounting option to enlarge the counterbore in the primary head shell from a round shape to an obround shape (76 mm of shell thickness, 16 mm radially). The shape change was needed to accommodate the new obround cover and gasket seal design. Once the new major shape was machined, the repair was finished with a Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machine developed by the service team to achieve the necessary gasket face location and sizing. The final result met all of the plant's expectations and was completed well within the time allotted during the maintenance shut down. This success was due to the positive partnership and collaboration of the service team and the machine tool manufacture working together to successfully extend the operating life of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  1. Investigating a homogeneous culture for operating personnel working in domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that a cultural difference (or variability) is one of the determinants affecting the performance of human operators. This means that, from the point of human reliability analysis (HRA), the effect of the cultural variability on the performance of human operators should be carefully scrutinized. In this regard, the cultural profile of operating personnel working in two domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) were collected and compared based on the Hofstede's 11 cultural dimensions. However, as the coverage of this comparison is not sufficient to manifest the existence of a homogenous culture, cultural data were additionally collected from 52 operating personnel working in domestic NPPs, of which the working environments were distinctive from those of previous NPPs. As a result, it was observed that the cultural profiles of operating personnel working in different NPPs closely resemble each other except in a few cultural dimensions. This result suggests that, operating personnel at least working in domestic NPPs, largely share a homogeneous culture. Accordingly, although more extensive analyses are required to validate the results of this study, it is promising that the cultural variability of operating personnel could be soundly characterized if they share a homogeneous culture. - Highlights: • Cultural variability is critical for understanding human performance. • Hofstede's national and organizational culture model is used. • Cultural profiles for six groups of domestic operating personnel are compared. • Domestic operating personnel seem to share a homogenous culture.

  2. Evaluation of Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. A. Harvego

    2006-04-01

    This report summarizes results of a preliminary evaluation to determine the operating conditions for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) that will transfer heat from the reactor primary system to the demonstration hydrogen production plant(s). The Department of Energy is currently investigating two primary options for the production of hydrogen using a high temperature reactor as the power source. These options are the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) and Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen production processes. However, since the SI process relies entirely on process heat from the reactor, while the HTE process relies primarily on electrical energy with only a small amount of process heat required, the design of the IHX is dictated by the SI process heat requirements. Therefore, the IHX operating conditions were defined assuming 50 MWt is available for the production of hydrogen using the SI process. Three configurations for the intermediate loop were evaluated, including configurations for both direct and indirect power conversion systems. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to perform sensitivity studies to determine the influence of reactor outlet temperatures, intermediate loop working fluids (helium and molten salt), intermediate loop pressures, and intermediate loop piping lengths on NGNP performance and IHX operating conditions. The evaluation of NGNP performance included assessments of overall electric power conversion efficiency and estimated hydrogen production efficiency. Based on these evaluations, recommended IHX operating conditions are defined.

  3. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SALTO peer review service is designed for reviewing of ageing management and NPPs’ preparedness LTO. • It has been established as an effective tool to review the compliance with IAEA safety standards. • The important issues for safe LTO are being identified by SALTO missions. • Analysis of those issues is provided in the paper. • This peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper presents main IAEA activities for safe long term operation (LTO) which includes establishment of IAEA Safety Standards and other LTO related documents, fostering information exchange and establishing databases and provision of SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) peer review service. This paper provides insights into IAEA SALTO peer review service objectives, scope and methodology. The SALTO peer review service was designed to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in adopting a proper approach to LTO of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. Issues derived from 19 SALTO missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions conducted during the period of 2005 to March 2014 are also analyzed in this paper

  4. Water feeding/condensating device and operation method in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention overcomes a problem in reactor water level control occurring upon operation of a water feeding/condensating system in a nuclear power plant. That is, the water feed system to a nuclear reactor is constituted with parallel circuit comprising a reactor feedwater pump driven by a steam turbine and a serial circuit composed of a reactor feedwater pump driven by an electrical motor and a pump adjusting valve for controlling the amount of feedwater at the exit of the motor driven feedwater pump. Further, a reactor feedwater control valve having a function of controlling the feedwater to the reactor is disposed to the bypass pipeway for bypassing the parallel circuit of feedwater pumps. In this constitution, water can be fed to the nuclear reactor by way of the reactor feedwater pump bypass control valve upon starting and stopping of a nuclear feedwater pump driven by electric motor upon starting and shutdown of the nuclear reactor. Accordingly, stable water level control can be conducted for the reactor core with no effect of rapid pressure fluctuation due to the starting and the stopping of the reactor feedwater pump driven by electric motor. (I.S.)

  5. Operational successes in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents several positive indicators that demonstrate the growing success of the nuclear power program in the United States. Nuclear power plant performance data such as availability and capacity factor will be discussed along with several examples of outstanding performance that demonstrate the viability of the nuclear option. Since operational nuclear safety is the number one objective of every nuclear power plant, the NRC Licensing Event Report (LER) analysis program performed by a division of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) will be discussed along with the analysis and evaluation of event significance over the past few years. The impact of INPO on nuclear power plant operations and their programs that have contributed to the growing success of nuclear power operations such as operating plant evaluations, construction evaluations, corporate evaluations, assistance visits and training program accreditation are discussed

  6. Development of dose assessment code for release of tritium during normal operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.; Malatova, I.

    2009-01-01

    A computer code PTM H TO has been developed to assess tritium doses to the general public. The code enables to simulate the behavior of tritium in the environment released into the atmosphere under normal operation of nuclear power plants. Code can calculate the doses for the three chemical and physical forms: tritium gas (HT), tritiated water vapor and water drops (HTO). The models in this code consist of the tritium transfer model including oxidation of HT to HTO and reemission of HTO from soil to the atmosphere, and the dose calculation model

  7. Initial experiencies with the geodetic operations at the construction of the Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsay, F.; Specziar, A.

    1983-01-01

    The extensive geodetic contribution amounting to 1-2% of the total construction expenses of the Paks nuclear power plant required great effort from the geodetic companies involved. In 1982, as much as 60 persons were applied at the site of the construction, most of them educated professionals. In the course of the works, several technical developments were achieved. The preparatory period of the first stage involved basic map preparations, the next stage consisted of photogrammetric and management operations, the final period was dominated by inspections. Despite the strict requirements the work was accomplished without obstructing the construction and free from accidents. (Sz.J.)

  8. Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload. The study compared seven measures for evaluating the mental workload with emergency operation procedure in nuclear power plants. An experiment with simulated procedures was carried out, and the results show that eye response measures are useful for assessing temporal changes of workload whereas cardiac measures are useful for evaluating the overall workload.

  9. OSART programme highlights 1995-1996. Operational safety practices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States in enhancing the operational safety of nuclear power plants. This report continues the practice of summarizing mission results so that all the aspects of OSART missions, Pre-OSART missions and good practices are to be found in one volume. It also includes results of follow-up visits. Attempts have been made in this report to highlight the most significant findings whilst retaining as much of the vital background information as possible. This report is in four parts: Part I summarizes the most significant observations made during the missions and follow-up visits during 1995-1996; Part II, in chronological order, is an overview of the major strengths and opportunities for improvement identified during each OSART mission and summaries of follow-up visits performed during the period; Part III lists good practices that were identified during 1995 and 1996; and Part IV presents the OSART mission results (OSMIR) database. Each part of the report is intended for different levels in operating and regulatory organizations but not exclusively so. Part I is primarily to the executive management level; Part II to middle managers; and Parts III and IV to those involved in operational experience feedback. Because of widely different plant designs, operating and management styles, cultural practices, and other factors affecting plant operations, no OSART findings were applicable to all of the plants visited in 1995 and 1996. Individual findings varied considerably in scope and significance. However, the findings do reflect some common strengths and opportunities for improvement

  10. Qualification of control room operators for nuclear power plants. A review of practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.; Hurley, F.I.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing complexity of nuclear power plants has increased the demands on operators and several countries have made a break with their traditional practice and made professional engineers available on operating shifts. Engineers are incorporated in differing organizational arrangements which require differing competence of all the members of the shift team. Analysis of the elements of competence shows that all the organizational arrangements can be made to work satisfactorily, provided attention is given to ensuring certain requirements. Analysis also enables some general requirements for the shift operating team to be defined. However, these requirements are ideal, since conditions in some countries prevent their attainment in the short term; the main difficulties stem from the attitudes of professional engineers to shift work and career development. (author)

  11. Methods of projecting operations and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Operations and maintenance cost (OMC) had increased its relative importance to the total generation cost for future nuclear power stations, according to the latest update of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) study on Projected Costs of Generating Electricity (EGC studies). OMC is some 20 to 30% of total generation cost for future nuclear power stations in most NEA member countries. However, nuclear OMC that countries projected in the latest EGC study are spread over a wide range, from 5 to 16 US mills/kWh. In order to understand better the reasons for this wide diversity in nuclear OMC projections, the NEA set up an Expert Group. The focus of this study was on projected OMC that were reported in the past EGC studies, but the Group studied actual OMC experienced from existing units, because knowledge or experience concerning actual OMC certainly influences the choice of assumptions or calculation procedure for estimating OMC for future plants. Cost informations from 14 NEA countries have been analysed on the basis of a standardized framework of detailed components of OMC costs. The rationale for different OMC cost projections reported in previous NEA studies on generation cost is discussed and suggestions are made for future studies on both generation cost and OMC cost. Despite the methodological approach and the reduced extent of differences when excluding exceptional figures, it was not possible fully to clarify the origins and to understand the remaining differences in OMC figures. Several countries which have a long and a good experience of operating nuclear units did not provide sufficient detailed data or did not provide any quantitative data at all. (J.S.). 14 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs., 4 annexes

  12. A survey on the technologies and cases for the cognitive models of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Chun, Se Woo; Seo, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1993-04-01

    To enhance the safety and availability of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to develop the methodologies which can systematically analyze the interrelationships between plant operators and main process systems. Operator congnitive models enable to provide an explicit method to analyze how operator's congitive behavior reacts to the behavior of system changes. However, because no adequate model has been developed up to now, it is difficult to take an effective approach for the review, assessment and improvement of human factors. In this study, we have surveyed the techniques and the cases of operator model development, aiming to develop an operator's model as one of human engineering application methodologies. We have analyzed the cognitive characteristics of decision-making, which is one of the principal factors for modeling, and reviewed the methodologies and implementation thechniques used in the cases of the model development. We investigated the tendencies of the model developments by reviewing ten cases and especially CES, INTEROPS and COSIMO models which have been developed or are under development in nuclear fields. Also, we summarized the cognitive characteristics to be considered in the modeling for the purpose of modeling operator's decision-making. For modeling methodologies, we found a trend of the modeling that is software simulations based on the artificial intelligence technologies, especially focused in knowledge representation methods. Based on the results of our survey, we proposed a development approach and several urgent research subjects. We suggested the development simulation tools which can be applicable to the review, assessment and improvement of human factors, by implementing them as softwares using expert system development tools. The results of this study have been applied to our long-term project named 'The Development of Human Engineering Technologies.' (Author)

  13. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Influence of operators` emotion on their cognition and behavior in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Naoko; Yoshimura, Seiichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group (SYBORG) has been developed to simulate and analyze the cognitive process of operators and the behavior of operating teams. Although fundamental mechanisms of the SYBORG have been constructed, it cannot simulate the influence of human emotion. Emotion may be considered to be one of important factors causing human errors. This is why an emotional function is introduced into the SYBORG. As the first step to develop a simulation model of operator`s emotion, a basic mechanism of simulation function was suggested. According to the suggestion, the composition of each emotion with basic emotions was investigated for expressing each emotion by numerical values. In addition, the relationship among situations which activate emotion, kinds of emotion and kinds of expected actions was investigated. This report shows the results of two investigations which were conducted to develop a simulation model for the SYBORG. In the first investigation, 51 emotions were classified into five basic emotions according to the criterion proposed by Johnson-Laird (1988), and then, were ranked by their intensities. Another investigation was also conducted to determine the emotions with which operators predicted behavior that they would respond when a trouble occurs in a plant. Subjects were 53 men who have had experience in operating nuclear power plants. The results are as follows: (1) `Fear` is the most frequently activated emotion during plant off-normal conditions. (2) `Cannot decide what should be done` which is one of errors in thinking process is the most frequently expected behavior accompanying any emotion except `Happiness`. (author)

  15. Influence of operators' emotion on their cognition and behavior in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Naoko; Yoshimura, Seiichi

    1997-01-01

    The Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group (SYBORG) has been developed to simulate and analyze the cognitive process of operators and the behavior of operating teams. Although fundamental mechanisms of the SYBORG have been constructed, it cannot simulate the influence of human emotion. Emotion may be considered to be one of important factors causing human errors. This is why an emotional function is introduced into the SYBORG. As the first step to develop a simulation model of operator''s emotion, a basic mechanism of simulation function was suggested. According to the suggestion, the composition of each emotion with basic emotions was investigated for expressing each emotion by numerical values. In addition, the relationship among situations which activate emotion, kinds of emotion and kinds of expected actions was investigated. This report shows the results of two investigations which were conducted to develop a simulation model for the SYBORG. In the first investigation, 51 emotions were classified into five basic emotions according to the criterion proposed by Johnson-Laird (1988), and then, were ranked by their intensities. Another investigation was also conducted to determine the emotions with which operators predicted behavior that they would respond when a trouble occurs in a plant. Subjects were 53 men who have had experience in operating nuclear power plants. The results are as follows: (1) ''Fear'' is the most frequently activated emotion during plant off-normal conditions. (2) ''Cannot decide what should be done'' which is one of errors in thinking process is the most frequently expected behavior accompanying any emotion except ''Happiness''. (author)

  16. Integration of computerized operation support systems on a nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2015-01-01

    Automation of certain tasks in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room is expected to result in reduced operators' mental workload, which may induce other benefits such as enhanced situation awareness and improved system performance. The final goal should be higher level of operational safety. Thus, recent works are increasingly assessing automation. The LABIHS compact NPP simulator, though, still operates under strictly manual printed hard-copy procedures, despite of the fact that the simulator incorporates several advancements in design of digitalized Human-Interfaces (HSIs). This work presents the development, implementation and integration of selected components to achieve increased level of computerized/automated operation of the LABIHS compact NPP simulator. Specifically, we discuss three components: (I) Automatic Plant Mode Detection, (II) Automatic Alarm Filtering, and (III) Computerized Procedures. Each one of these components has to be carefully designed/integrated so that one can avoid the undesired effects of some known implementations of automated systems on NPP, such as the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills, which could lead to automation-induced system failures. (author)

  17. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta power ratio is

  18. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical results

  19. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical

  20. 75 FR 16869 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, LLC; Palisades Nuclear Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ..., regulations, and orders of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in..., or the Commission's regulations. Therefore, the exemption is authorized by law. In the draft final..., to M. S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is therefore...

  1. Process improvement of the emergency operating procedures for Embalse Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, A.D.; Pomerantz, M.; Moreno, C., E-mail: dmariotti@na-sa.com.ar, E-mail: mpomerantz@na-sa.com.ar, E-mail: cmoreno@na-sa.com.ar [Embalse Nuclear Power Plant, Nuclear Safety Dept., Embalse (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) package of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant (CNE) were made entirely by the plant staff since the beginning of its operation. With the emergence of Severe Accidents Guidelines (SAMG) and the latest events related to Fukushima, the EOP philosophy should include a new concept. It should consider that the EOP may be unsuccessful and an exit to the SAMG must be necessary. However, due to abnormal event mitigation using EOP is the way to prevent the beginning of a severe accident, EOP always had significant relevance in the plant documentation. For this reason, added to the overall requirement of an exit to the SAMG, it emerges a general review of the use efficiency of the EOP during an abnormal event. For this reason, a comprehensive process improvement has emerged using the operating experience, full-scope simulator training of the control room staff, advances in technology and the arrival of new generations. In this work, fundamental changes, new document format and ergonomic redesign for validation at full-scope simulator and use at main control room of new EOP for CNE are presented. (author)

  2. Considerations about the implementation of alternative source terms: nuclear safety and plant operational benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez H, A.; Barcenas R, M.; Ortiz V, J.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, several aspects are discussed about the implementation of an alternative source term for the analysis of the radiological consequences of design basis accidents in nuclear power plants. First, the rationale for implementation of an alternative source term is discussed. Then, the topics studied start by considering the current methodology and regulation applied to determine the original source term. Next, to determine a different source term, the basis of a new methodology is discussed, as, for example the elimination of excessive conservative assumptions. As a consequence of the adoption of an alternative source term, operational benefits are expected from relaxation of regulatory requirements established in the plant technical specifications. Other key issues considered in this work are the use of engineered safety features to minimize the iodine release during an accident, and technical requirements regarding the safe operation of the emergency filtering system for the main control room, in order to protect the reactor operation personnel. Finally, a discussion is presented about the impact on risk assessment, when using an alternative source term, and remarking that the adoption of a new source term by itself do not have and impact on plant risk, but it does have an effect on radiological consequences. Nevertheless, a detailed review of technical specification changes that could induce some risk should be considered. As conclusions of this work, recommendations are presented for the licensing process of an alternative source term. (Author)

  3. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-01

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)

  4. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  5. The protection of operating personnel in nuclear power plants against the risk of nuclear incidents and ionizing radiation arising from normal operation of the plant. Rules and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, F.; Scalera, D.

    1980-03-01

    After an analysis of the nuclear third party liability insurance policy to be taken out in Italy in implementation of Act no. 1860 of 31 December 1962 and Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1979, the collective policy against radiation injuries taken out for operating personnel in nuclear installations is described. The author is in favour of further harmonization of the legal system presently in force in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  6. Computerized heat balance models to predict performance of operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, C.L.; Carter, J.C.; Schaefer, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of computerized heat balance models has greatly enhanced the decision making ability of TVA's Division of Nuclear Power. These models are utilized to predict the effects of various operating modes and to analyze changes in plant performance resulting from turbine cycle equipment modifications with greater speed and accuracy than was possible before. Computer models have been successfully used to optimize plant output by predicting the effects of abnormal condenser circulating water conditions. They were utilized to predict the degradation in performance resulting from installation of a baffle plate assembly to replace damaged low-pressure blading, thereby providing timely information allowing an optimal economic judgement as to when to replace the blading. Future use will be for routine performance test analysis. This paper presents the benefits of utility use of computerized heat balance models

  7. A computer based I and C to improve nuclear power plant operation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appell, Bernard; Beltranda, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Chooz B1 is the head of 1400 MW N4 series (up to now, a programme of 4 identical units have been ordered) will be put on the French national grid this year (1995). Hot tests were performed last autumn. Loading fuel is scheduled in June 95. Chooz B2 will follow 6 months later. This nuclear power plant series is fully French designed. It comprises, compared to the former 1300 MW series, evolution concerning mainly the turbine, the steam generators, the primary pumps, the I and C and the man machine interface. A major improvement for the plant operation and safety is the computerised I and C which comprises the protection system (specific controllers), the process automation system (off the shelf equipment), the computer based and conventional man machine interfaces associated. These systems were put in service last year. This paper is focused on them. (author)

  8. Relevant aspects of a quality assurance program applied to a nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to enumerate the most relevant subjects to be taken into account for the elaboration of a Quality Assurance Program aimed to regulate a nuclear power plant operation. At first, it was necessary to point out the relevance that implies the presence of a group of personnel, experienced in quality assurance with enough knowledge on the technical and organizing aspects of the plant. Other aspect to be taken into account was the contemplation of the international requirements, through the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the national requirements that each country had set up by the corresponding regulating agencies. These organizations pointed out the minimum rules that must be followed for the adequate and efficient execution of a program. The Quality Assurance Manual and the program and work procedures constituted the Quality Assurance Program which must be checked as regards its fulfillment by auditors and quality assurance supervisions. (Author)

  9. Effects of soft control in the nuclear power plants emergency operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Shirouzu, Shigenori; Katayama, Sotetsu; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of touch screen, known as ESCM, which is a soft control, on emergency operation of nuclear plants. ► Experiments clearly show the occurrence of more human errors in ESCM task groups. ► Physiological measures (ECG, EEG, nose temperature) were analyzed. ► Higher stress levels were consistently observed in ESCM task groups. - Abstract: In addition to the evolution from buttons and switches to the computer-based consoles, the operator may interact with the plant via soft controls. Soft controls are input interfaces connected with control and display systems that are mediated by software, rather than by direct physical connections. However use of soft control may cause unknown difficulties of operation and provide new opportunities of human errors. This study is to investigate the effect of the new interface to human errors in the emergency operation. Based on the emergency operation procedure, the human error modes were identified by using systematic human error reduction and prediction approach. Experiments with 21 graduate students in main control room mockup in the nuclear engineering departments of universities in UAE and Korea were conducted to observe the operators’ behavior resulted from the use of new input interface (Emergency safety feature-component control system Soft Control Module, ESCM). Physiological parameters such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and skin temperature were measured to assess the stress level of the subjects. The experimental results showed more human errors during ESCM tasks than non-ESCM tasks. The analysis of the physiological measurements also demonstrated that subjects were in high stress level during the ESCM tasks in comparison with non-ESCM tasks. It is notable that this study was performed with graduate students without consideration of their expertise levels. Different behaviors of the novice and the expert groups were also discussed

  10. Preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge towards Indonesia's plan to operate first nuclear power plant by 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power is needed to sustain economic development in the world's fourth most populous country. More than half of Indonesia's 220 million people live on the island of Java. The problem is not that Indonesia lacks resources, but that they are far from Java - much of the coal, oil, natural gas and other assets are hundreds of miles away in the northern part of the island of Sumatra. Indonesia will need a nuclear power plant (NPP) to overcome the lack of power supply due to increasing consumption of electricity while the traditional power supply, including crude oil, has been decreasing. The National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) has advocated the introduction of nuclear power in Indonesia as a part of a long-term national energy system. According to the landmark of Batan, the first Indonesian nuclear power plant construction would start by 2010 and the plant would be operational by 2016. Since the decision to build nuclear power plant, according to the law number 10 year 1997, has to be consulted to the Parliament, it is indeed necessary to have always excellent communication with members of Parliament, to be understood by them and has to be supported by the society at large. In the past, efforts to launch nuclear power programs based mainly on economic justification have failed for various reasons; ones of the most important reasons were due to the lack of public support. Indonesia is pushing ahead with nuclear power at a time when the commercial use of nuclear power is in decline after 40 years of expansion. It is being rejected because of escalating costs, faulty technology and continuing public concern about accidents and radioactive waste disposal. Again this mean strong, effective and credible public information, public education and public relation organization have to be established to win the heart and the mind of the public. The problem is the majority of the people in Indonesia is low educated that makes them easy to be manipulated by the

  11. Operational improvements of nuclear power plants in Belgium by optimized tuned control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, R.

    1989-01-01

    Belgium has installed seven nuclear power plants. They are all of the PWR type, five of them are of the 900 to 1000 MW e , three loop plants, the two others are 400 MW e , two loop plants. The introduction of these units in the power system is not evident and required an evaluation of the capability the unit to cope with the power system requirements. This evaluation led to many improvements in the design of the control systems as well on protection and the BOP systems. These improvements were not all implemented during the design phase, since some problems were discovered during operation. This paper will describe the problems that were identified and their solutions as they were implemented in Belgium. Most of the identified problems were discovered at the start-up period during which many transient tests were performed. As this is a quite exceptional period in the life of the plant, it was decided to built a digital data acquisition system, collecting about 240 critical parameters in the power plant at a fast rate. For each NPP a collection of about 200 transients were recorded and kept for further analysis and review. This data bank was also very valuable for code validation. The data acquisition system and the data bank will also be described in this paper

  12. Manpower development for safe operation of nuclear power plant. China. Simulator software development. UNDP-Activity: 2.1.8-IAEA-Task-01. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the frameworks of the project ''manpower development for safe operation of nuclear power plant'' the development of reactor simulator software is described. Qinshan nuclear power plant was chosen as a reference one

  13. Application of reliability centred maintenance to optimize operation and maintenance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    In order to increase Member States capabilities in utilizing good engineering and management practices the Agency has developed a series of Technical Documents (TECDOCs) to describe best practices and members experience in the application of them. This TECDOC describes the concept of Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) which is the term used to describe a systematic approach to the evaluation, design and development of cost effective maintenance programmes for plant and equipment. The concept has been in existence for over 25 years originating in the civil aviation sector. This TECDOC supplements previous IAEA publications on the subject and seeks to reflect members experience in the application of the principles involved. The process focuses on the functionality of the plant and equipment and the critical failure mechanisms that could result in the loss of functionality. When employed effectively the process can result in the elimination of unnecessary maintenance activities and the identification and introduction of measures to address deficiencies in the maintenance programme. Overall the process can result in higher levels of reliability for the plant and equipment at reduced cost and demands on finite maintenance resources. The application of the process requires interaction between the operators and the maintenance practitioners which is often lacking in traditional maintenance programmes. The imposition of this discipline produces the added benefit of improved information flows between the key players in plant and equipment management with the result that maintenance activities and operational practices are better informed. This publication was produced within IAEA programme on nuclear power plants operating performance and life cycle management

  14. Administrative procedures for regulating construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochaud, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This article first explains that nuclear power plants in France are governed by a complex system of regulations within the framework of different laws concerning, in particular, protection of the environment, public health and workers. It then examines the administrative procedures and the licensing regime for nuclear power plants. (NEA) [fr

  15. Fuzzy inference system for evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Antonio Cesar F.; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy inference system (FIS) as an approach to estimate Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) performance indicators. The performance indicators for this study are the energy availability factor (EAF) and the planned (PUF) and unplanned unavailability factor (UUF). These indicators are obtained from a non analytical combination among the same operational parameters. Such parameters are, for example, environment impacts, industrial safety, radiological protection, safety indicators, scram rate, thermal efficiency, and fuel reliability. This approach uses the concept of a pure fuzzy logic system where the fuzzy rule base consists of a collection of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The fuzzy inference engine uses these fuzzy IF-THEN rules to determine a mapping from fuzzy sets in the input universe of discourse to fuzzy sets in the output universe of discourse based on fuzzy logic principles. The results demonstrated the potential of the fuzzy inference to generate a knowledge basis that correlate operations occurrences and NPP performance. The inference system became possible the development of the sensitivity studies, future operational condition previsions and may support the eventual corrections on operation of the plant

  16. Analysis of failure and maintenance experiences of motor operated valves in a Finnish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Laakso, K.

    1992-01-01

    Operating experiences from 1981 up to 1989 of totally 104 motor operated closing valves (MOV) in different safety systems at TVO I and II nuclear power units were analysed in a systematic way. The qualitative methods used were failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and maintenance effects and criticality analysis (MECA). The failure descriptions were obtained from power plant's computerized failure reporting system. The reported 181 failure events were reanalysed and sorted according to specific classifications developed for the MOV function. Filled FMEA and MECA sheets on individual valves were stored in a microcomputer data base for further analyses. Analyses were performed for the failed mechanical and electrical valve parts, ways of detection of failure modes, failure effects, and repair and unavailability times

  17. A Review of Quantitative Situation Assessment Models for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Situation assessment is the process of developing situation awareness and situation awareness is defined as 'the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.' Situation awareness is an important element influencing human actions because human decision making is based on the result of situation assessment or situation awareness. There are many models for situation awareness and those models can be categorized into qualitative or quantitative. As the effects of some input factors on situation awareness can be investigated through the quantitative models, the quantitative models are more useful for the design of operator interfaces, automation strategies, training program, and so on, than the qualitative models. This study presents the review of two quantitative models of situation assessment (SA) for nuclear power plant operators

  18. Measuring Situation Awareness of Operating Team in Different Main Control Room Environments of Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Woo Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs are changing as the design of instrumentation and control systems for NPPs is rapidly moving toward fully digital instrumentation and control, and modern computer techniques are gradually introduced into main control rooms (MCRs. Within the context of these environmental changes, the level of performance of operators in a digital MCR is a major concern. Situation awareness (SA, which is used within human factors research to explain to what extent operators of safety-critical systems know what is transpiring in the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. However, the safe operation of NPPs can be guaranteed through a team effort. In this regard, the operating team's SA in a conventional and digital MCR should be measured in order to assess whether the new design features implemented in a digital MCR affect this parameter. This paper explains the team SA measurement method used in this study and the results of applying this measurement method to operating teams in different MCR environments. The paper also discusses several empirical lessons learned from the results.

  19. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  20. Cidem approach for improving availability and operating costs of future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, R.; Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    1996-01-01

    EDF decided to implement an analytical and systematic process for study of the new projects to optimize the design by integration of the maintenance (duration, costs), availability and radiation exposure goals from the related operating experience. This approach, called CIDEM (French acronym for Design Integrating Availability, operating Experience and Maintenance) aims at a single goal: to optimize the operating and maintenance costs. The first CIDEM application is centred on the future French nuclear unit construction program, known as the REP 2000 program and in the REP 2000/EPR project. This approach is conducted with the co-operation of the German at least for the EPR design. The studies results have shown that the availability aims are reached for a running campaign of 12 months and this availability can even reach 90% for cycles of 18 months. The stopping duration for fuel reloading is estimated at 19 days and is widely inferior to the initial aim (25 days). The studies have been completed by the analysis of the back end experiment as well as of the establishment of policies and maintenance methodologies. At last, the definition of an integration methodology of the maintenance logistics to the design, aiming more particularly to define the structure of a logistic data base has been carried out. This CIDEM process is a new approach of nuclear power plants design studies for EDF. In the design studies, the of the maintenance and of its associated logistic support must allow a best mastership of the running expenses. The nuclear energy competitiveness depends on the result of such an approach. (O.M.)

  1. Development of the job concept of a nuclear power plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpeev, A.S.; Bukrinskii, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    An important conclusion drawn in the aftermath of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island 2 in the USA, in particular, in discussions, held in Stockholm in 1980 at the International Conference on Safety Problems, of the causes of this accident, was that the plant-operator concept employed at the time in western countries had to be changed. The concept presupposed that the operator's actions must be strictly limited by instructions which supposedly encompass all possible situations associated with the accidents. The principal problem facing the operator in this concept is to identify the situation in which the appropriate instruction can be selected for immediate execution. An error in identifying the situation could influence decisively the evolution of further events in the power block of the nuclear plant, and this is precisely what happened at Three Mile Island 2. For this reason, operator training was based mainly on identifying the initial events, which corresponded to a definite sequence of the further developments owing to the technical scheme and laws of thermophysical processes. Such operator training is based on an event tree which gives a graphical representation of the probable consequences of the development of events in an accident with a given initial event. It is believed that approximately 20 initial events (tree roots) form the basic collection of events, each of which has three to seven branches, i.e., an accident can evolve in several possible directions. Every branch point on each tree is identified by a definite collection of technological parameters, according to which the operator must be able to identify the situation. Under the present concept, when the situation is identified correctly, the search for the required control instruction and its execution is a secondary process

  2. A decision support system for identifying abnormal operating procedures in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Han; Hwang, Sheue-Ling; Liu, Kang-Hong; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Chuang, Chang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A decision support system has been constructed and verified. ► The operator's decision-making time was decreased by about 25%. ► The accuracy was increased by about 18%. ► The system prevents overlooking important information. ► Fewer erroneous solutions were implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. - Abstract: In order to prevent safety hazards that can result from inappropriate decisions made by the operators of a nuclear power plant (NPP), this study was undertaken to develop a decision support system to reduce the complexity of the decision-making process by aiding operators’ cognitive activities, integrating unusual symptoms, and identifying the most suitable abnormal operating procedure (AOP) for operators. The study was conducted from the perspective of human factors engineering in order to compare the process that operators originally used to select an AOP with a process that included a support system for AOP identification. The results of the study indicated that the existence of a support system reduces errors by quickly suggesting likely AOPs. With such a support system in place, there were clear improvements in human performance, i.e., decision-making time decreased by about 25%, and the accuracy of the operators’ decisions, judged by the successful resolution of specific problems, increased by about 18%. In addition, there were fewer erroneous solutions implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. Hence, the decision support system is proposed as a training tool in identifying AOPs in the main control room (MCR).

  3. Development of automated operating procedure system using fuzzy colored petri nets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In this work, AuTomated Operating Procedure System (ATOPS) is developed. ATOPS is an automation system for emergency operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and it can monitor signals, diagnose statuses, and generate control actions according to corresponding operating procedures without any human operator's help. Main functions of ATOPS are an anomaly detection function and a procedure execution function but only the procedure execution function is implemented in this work because this work is just the first step. In the procedure execution function, operating procedures of NPPs are analyzed and modeled using Fuzzy Colored Petri Nets (FCPN) and executed depending on decision making of the inference engine. In this work, ATOPS prototype is developed to demonstrate its feasibility and it is also validated using the FISA-2/WS simulator. The validation is performed for the cases of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). The simulation results show that ATOPS works correctly in the emergency situations

  4. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985). Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992). Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993). Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), and Supplement No. 15 (June 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos, 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  5. Development of nuclear power plant operator simulator for man-machine interface evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Nakatani, Yoshio; Sasaki, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Furuta, Tomihiko; Hasegawa, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The operational safety in nuclear power plants depends strongly on man machine interfaces (MMI), such as assignment of equipment on control boards and operation procedures in emergency situations. Therefore, the evaluation and analysis methods for the MMI are important. In order for the methods to be practical, the methods should be executed in each step of design and be easy for designers to use. We aim to develop SEAMAID system: a computer supported system for evaluating and analyzing the MMI by simulating the interaction between the operator and the machine. In this paper, we discuss problems of the conventional methods and the required functions of the operator simulator for the SEAMAID. The operator simulator executes not human errors but correct behavior which follows the operational procedure. The SEAMAID evaluates the MMI by finding potential human errors which could occur in the simulated interactions and points out the problematic interaction parts which could induce human errors. We construct the operator simulator by combining the human model which was proposed by Prof. Reason, and the knowledge base model based on the Petri net model. This simulator can treat frequency parameter which represents the degree of frequency of using a certain knowledge. We conduct two sample simulations in different frequency parameters in the same scenario. These simulation results show that even if the operator behaves correctly following the procedure, there are alternative task sequences. We verify that the simulated interactions are in good agreement with the actual one. Also, we propose the method to point out the problematic parts in the interactions based on the working memory consumption. (author)

  6. Aging and service wear of solenoid-operated valves used in safety systems of nuclear power plants: Volume 1, Operating experience and failure identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacanskas, V.P.; Roberts, G.C.; Toman, G.J.

    1987-03-01

    An assessment of the types and uses of solenoid-operated valves (SOVs) in nuclear power plant safety-related service is provided. Through a description of each SOV's operation, combined with knowledge of nuclear power plant applications and operational occurrences, the significant stressors responsible for degradation of SOV performance are identified. A review of actual operating experience (failure data) leads to identification of potential nondestructive in-situ testing which, if properly developed, could provide the methodology for degradation monitoring of SOVs. Recommendations are provided for continuation of the study into the test methodology development phase.

  7. Trend and pattern analyses of operational data from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amesz, J.

    1990-01-01

    One step towards maximizing the benefits gained from plant operating experience is the establishment of a rigorous scheme of classification and storage of operational data related to equipment failures and/or human errors. The analysis of data thus collected can fall into one of the following two categories: in-depth analysis of individual incidents which are considered to be of major significance from the safety point of view; and trend and pattern analyses of the stored data with the aim of identifying situations that warrant further studies or that require particular attention. In order to perform the second type of analyses, various approaches/systems are being used by organizations with interests in the nuclear power domain. Similar methodologies may be used in general industrial safety as well. For the purpose of facilitating a comparison between the different methods, the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) decided to organize a specialist meeting jointly with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) for a systematic and comprehensive review of the matter

  8. Causal reasoning and models of cognitive tasks for naval nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Ferrer, P.

    1995-06-01

    In complex industrial process control, causal reasoning appears as a major component in operators' cognitive tasks. It is tightly linked to diagnosis, prediction of normal and failure states, and explanation. This work provides a detailed review of literature in causal reasoning. A synthesis is proposed as a model of causal reasoning in process control. This model integrates distinct approaches in Cognitive Science: especially qualitative physics, Bayesian networks, knowledge-based systems, and cognitive psychology. Our model defines a framework for the analysis of causal human errors in simulated naval nuclear power plant fault management. Through the methodological framework of critical incident analysis we define a classification of errors and difficulties linked to causal reasoning. This classification is based on shallow characteristics of causal reasoning. As an origin of these errors, more elementary component activities in causal reasoning are identified. The applications cover the field of functional specification for man-machine interfaces, operators support systems design as well as nuclear safety. In addition of this study, we integrate the model of causal reasoning in a model of cognitive task in process control. (authors). 106 refs., 49 figs., 8 tabs

  9. On-line acoustic monitoring of EDF nuclear plants in operation and loose-part diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.L.; Puyal, C.

    1991-05-01

    In order to detect incipient failures in nuclear power plant components, EDF has now put into operation more than 50 loose-part monitoring systems, on its 900 MW and 1 300 MW units. This paper first reviews the experience gained on the 900 MW reactors in recent years. It then focuses on the 1 300 MW loose part monitoring system (IDEAL) and to the tools developed for the diagnosis off site within a specific Expertise Laboratory at the Research and Development Division. New studies have been undertaken within the Monitoring and Aid to Diagnosis Station (PSAD) in order to extend the capabilities of loose part diagnosis on site. The new tools here presented integrate the recent progress in acquisition technology (SMART system) and in artificial intelligence (MIGRE expert system)

  10. Application of a procedure oriented crew model to modelling nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, S.

    1986-01-01

    PROCRU (PROCEDURE-ORIENTED CREW MODEL) is a model developed to analyze flight crew procedures in a commercial ILS approach-to-landing. The model builds on earlier, validated control-theoretic models for human estimation and control behavior, but incorporates features appropriate to analyzing supervisory control in multi-task environments. In this paper, the basic ideas underlying the PROCRU model, and the generalization of these ideas to provide a supervisory control model of wider applicability are discussed. The potential application of this supervisory control model to nuclear power plant operations is considered. The range of problems that can be addressed, the kinds of data that will be needed and the nature of the results that might be expected from such an application are indicated

  11. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use

  12. The human factor in the design and operation of french light water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomolinski, M.

    1986-10-01

    The accident which occurred at Three Mile Island (TMI 2) on March 28, 1979 is considered rightfully as the outset of the approach taking the human factor explicitly into account in nuclear safety, both in the design of the plants and in their operational use. In this paper, we shall endeavour to explain how this human factor has been taken into account in France. For this purpose, in the first part, we shall define the requirements, i.e. describe the sectors in which improvements were deemed necessary. In the second part, we shall describe the structures set up both at EDF and at the CEA to handle these problems. Lastly, in the third part, we shall describe the principal actions taken or in progress [fr

  13. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hae Ye

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smartphones (Wi-Fi standard, Internet Protocol (IP phones, personal digital assistant (PDA for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  14. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk; Lyou, Joon

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs

  15. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP), Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lyou, Joon [Dept. of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  16. Nuclear plant analyzer: An efficient tool for training and operational analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsoen, L.; Mandy, C.; Stubbe, E.

    1999-01-01

    The advanced computer technology available now at low cost, combined with the maturity of the best-estimate engineering codes are the fundamentals of the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). At Tractebel Energy Engineering (TEE), the RELAP5 advanced thermal-hydraulics code is used as basis for the NPA that is mainly used for the training of simulator instructors and plant personnel. Using the special graphical features of the NPA, a set of six course modules has been prepared to provide an in-depth physical understanding of the main thermal-hydraulic phenomena that dominate nuclear power plant behavior in normal and accidental plant conditions. (author)

  17. Recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes for safety-related I and C systems in nuclear power plants: Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for electromagnetic operating envelopes to augment test criteria and test methods addressing electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), and power surges that are applicable to safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to assist in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMI/RFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research has provided recommendations on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design and installation practices, endorsement of EMI/RFI immunity and SWC test criteria and test methods, and determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants. The present research involves development of recommended electromagnetic envelopes that are applicable to nuclear power plant locations where safety-related I and C systems either are or may be installed. These recommended envelopes establish both emissions criteria and the levels of radiated and conducted interference that I and C systems should be able to withstand without upset or malfunction. The EMI/RFI operating envelopes are derived from conditions in comparable military environments and are confirmed by comparison with the nuclear power plant electromagnetic environment based on measured plant emissions profiles. Detailed information on specific power surge conditions in nuclear power plants is not available, so industrial guidance on representative surge characteristics for susceptibility testing is adopted. An engineering assessment of the power surge environment in nuclear power plants leads to the recommendation of operating envelopes based on location categories and exposure levels defined in IEEE Std C62.41-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

  18. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-01-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  19. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung [Department of Nuclear and Energy System, Dongguk University, Gyeongju Campus, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  20. Principle evaluation on the aspects of requirements for senior operator tasks in nuclear power plants (short study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Mansfeld, G.

    1981-11-01

    The 'Guideline Relating to the Proof of the Technical Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel' specifies the general requirements for the responsible personnel at nuclear power plants. In the revised edition of this guide, issued May 1979, an engineer degree is required as a prerequisite for the senior operator qualification. The present study tries to give an objective evaluation of the requirements concerning the education and the capability level of senior operators, to cope with normal and abnormal operation conditions, with special plant conditions as well as with malfunctions or accidents. The essential arguments in the discussion on the qualification of senior operators and several alternatives how to appoint a non-engineer to the post of a senior operator are dealt with and evaluated. In doing so, psychologic, sociologic and economic aspects are taken into consideration. (orig.) [de

  1. Study on the utilization of the cognitive architecture EPIC to the task analysis of a nuclear power plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Herculano Vieira

    2003-02-01

    This work presents a study of the use of the integrative cognitive architecture EPIC - Executive-Process - Interactive-Control, designed to evaluate the performance of a person performing tasks in parallel in a man-machine interface, as a methodology for Cognitive Task Analysis of a nuclear power plant operator. A comparison of the results obtained by the simulation by EPIC and the results obtained by application of the MHP model to the tasks performed by a shift operator during the execution of the procedure PO-E-3 - Steam Generator Tube Rupture of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant is done. To subsidize that comparison, an experiment was performed at the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant Full Scope Simulator in which three operator tasks were executed, its completion time measured and compared with the results of MHP and EPIC modeling. (author)

  2. IAEA/NEA incident reporting system (IRS). Reporting guidelines. Feedback from safety related operating experience for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. These guidelines have been jointly developed and approved by the NEA/IAEA

  3. Nuclear plant operations, maintenance, and configuration management using three-dimensional computer graphics and databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutos, N.C.; Reinschmidt, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation has developed the Plant Digital Model concept as a new approach to Configuration Mnagement of nuclear power plants. The Plant Digital Model development is a step-by-step process, based on existing manual procedures and computer applications, and is fully controllable by the plant managers and engineers. The Plant Digital Model is based on IBM computer graphics and relational database management systems, and therefore can be easily integrated with existing plant databases and corporate management-information systems

  4. Nuclear power plant safe operation principles and some topics concerning systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsky, M.; Kreim, R.; Stanicek, J.

    1997-01-01

    General safety criteria are specified, and nuclear power plant equipment is classified into systems either important or unimportant for nuclear safety. The former class is subdivided into safety systems and safety related systems. The safety requirements concern earthquakes, storms, fires, floods, man-induced events, and equipment failures. The actual state of systems important for safety is described. (M.D.)

  5. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (18)Islanding Operation of the First Japanese-Made Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiaki

    Shimane Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (Shimane-1) of Chugoku Electric known as the first Japanese-made nuclear power plant scrammed automatically before dawn 12th September 1985 due to a power transmission grid trip result from thunderstroke. Until then, Shimane-1 was believed to be able to continue operation regardless of such power transmission grid trouble because the turbine bypass system had sufficient capacity to process total rated steam flow generated in the reactor. This paper describes the concerted efforts to achieving islanding operation of Shimane-1 by plant fabricator Hitachi, CRIEPI and Chugoku Electric with this incident as a start.

  6. A multivariate statistical methodology for detection of degradation and failure trends using nuclear power plant operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Teichmann, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a multivariate statistical method is presented and demonstrated as a means for analyzing nuclear power plant transients (or events) and safety system performance for detection of malfunctions and degradations within the course of the event based on operational data. The study provides the methodology and illustrative examples based on data gathered from simulation of nuclear power plant transients (due to lack of easily accessible operational data). Such an approach, once fully developed, can be used to detect failure trends and patterns and so can lead to prevention of conditions with serious safety implications

  7. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Hauth, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Team interaction skills are an essential aspect of safe nuclear power plant control room operations. Previous research has shown that, when a group works together, rather than as individuals, more effective operations are possible. However, little research has addressed how such team interaction skills can be measured. In this study rating scales were developed specifically for such a measurement purpose. Dimensions of team skill performance were identified from previous research and experience in the area, incorporating the input of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contract operator licensing examiners. Rating scales were developed on the basis of these dimensions, incorporating a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) as well as Behavioral Frequency formats. After a pilot-testing/revision process, rating data were collected using 11 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a boiling water and a pressurized water reactor. Statistical analyses of the resulting data revealed moderate inter-rater reliability using the Behavioral Frequency scales, relatively low inter-rater reliability using the BARS, and moderate support for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. It was concluded that the scales show promise psychometrically and in terms of user acceptability, but that additional scale revision is needed before field implementation. Recommendations for scale revision and directions for future research were presented

  8. Framework for modeling supervisory control behavior of operators of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, S.; Feehrer, C.; Muralidharan, R.; Pew, R.; Horwitz, P.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of modeling the human-machine system has long been recognized, and many attempts have been made to estimate the operator's effect on system performance and reliability. The development of reliability models has been aimed at providing the means for exploring the physical consequences of specific classes of human error. However, the total impact of human performance on system operation and the adequacy of existing design and operating standards cannot be adequatly captured or assessed by simple error probabilities, or even by the combination of such probabilities. The behaviors of relevance are supervisory in nature, with a substantial cognitive component. The broad requirements for a model of human supervisory control are extensive and suggest that a highly sophisticated computer model will be needed. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the approach employed in developing such supervisory control models; of some proposed specializations and extensions to adapt them for the nuclear power plant case; and of the potential utility of such a model

  9. Experience in performing trends and patterns analysis of nuclear power plant operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, T.M.; Williams, M.H.; Dennig, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has conducted a formal trends and patterns program since 1982. Since that time, the methods and end products of the program have evolved through experience and changes in the environment for trends and patterns analysis, i.e., increasing regulatory emphasis on operations and balance of plant performance, emergence of performance indicators, the availability of personal computer hardware and software to perform analysis, and changes in the information reported to the USNRC. This paper discusses the technical milestones of the AEOD trends and patterns program in terms of: 1) Sources of operational data, e.g., pre- and post- 1984 Licensee Event Reports, NPRDS, 2) Data storage and retrieval, e.g., Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS), 3) Statistical methods, e.g., contingency table analysis, 4) Types of results. The paper summarizes the major lessons learned in the process of implementing a trends and patterns program and outlines future direction

  10. A study of the operational logistics in the disposal plant for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvaenne, O.; Kaskinen, T.; Kuussaari, P.

    2003-02-01

    The final disposal plant for spent nuclear fuel comprises an encapsulation facility that will be built on the surface, other support activities above ground, and a repository that will be constructed deep in the bedrock. This report analyses the final repository operational logistics. The desktop research report is compiled of data taken from several existing planning reports covering the planning periods 1997-2002. The logistics specialised description of the final repository considers most areas in the daily operation of the facility. Among these are: Disposal tunnel excavation; construction and transports; Tunnel preparation for canisters; Reception of spent nuclear fuel transport casks; Encapsulation process; Preparation of bentonite blocks for canister holes, block laying; Final disposal of canisters; and Preparation of backfilling material and backfilling. The transport and handling volumes have certain cycles. Rock will be excavated during one contiguous period in 3 years, backfilling takes two weeks in a month and the deposition of canisters also two weeks. Thus the material flows vary greatly due to their cyclical nature. The transport and handling volumes are considerable, by far largest single item being excavated rock with about 5000 annual truck loads during the active excavation period, backfilling is about 1300 loads yearly at a steady pace. The report covers and summarises material flows, handling methods and equipment, buffering, storage and transports. It suggests some changes to operational procedures. Proposals have been made as to the location of the encapsulation facility and the methods of material transport. The logistical 'hot' issues, entry of the main transport ramp, rock field, rock crushing process, bentonite storage, bentonite brick production and backfiller production are all proposed to be located close to each other to minimise driving distance. It has also been proposed that the bentonite block buffer should rather be located at

  11. Practical experience and problems in the inspection work during test and routine operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backstroem, T.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SNPI) and its working methods in the field of licensing procedures and inspection activities. SNPI has introduced a system to be kept continuously informed about the operation of the nuclear power plants. This information is used in the preparation work preceding the inspections. Experience obtained from the inspection activities show that inspection frequency has been lower than planned. Documentation can be improved and that good relations between the authority and the utilities, including the operating personnel, is to the benefit of the nuclear safety. (author)

  12. Special points of health physics in connection with the operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper covers the origin of the radioactivity in nuclear power plants, the type of sources (open or sealed) encountered, and their methods of measurement. It covers the problem of personnel dosimetry, including contamination and incorporation, and the administrative methods used to avoid these. It outlines a general work philosophy, as developed in an actual power plant. (orig./RW)

  13. New classification of operators' human errors at overseas nuclear power plants and preparation of easy-to-use case sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    At nuclear power plants, plant operators examine other human error cases, including those that occurred at other plants, so that they can learn from such experiences and avoid making similar errors again. Although there is little data available on errors made at domestic plants, nuclear operators in foreign countries are reporting even minor irregularities and signs of faults, and a large amount of data on human errors at overseas plants could be collected and examined. However, these overseas data have not been used effectively because most of them are poorly organized or not properly classified and are often hard to understand. Accordingly, we carried out a study on the cases of human errors at overseas power plants in order to help plant personnel clearly understand overseas experiences and avoid repeating similar errors, The study produced the following results, which were put to use at nuclear power plants and other facilities. (1) ''One-Point-Advice'' refers to a practice where a leader gives pieces of advice to his team of operators in order to prevent human errors before starting work. Based on this practice and those used in the aviation industry, we have developed a new method of classifying human errors that consists of four basic actions and three applied actions. (2) We used this new classification method to classify human errors made by operators at overseas nuclear power plants. The results show that the most frequent errors caused not by operators themselves but due to insufficient team monitoring, for which superiors and/or their colleagues were responsible. We therefore analyzed and classified possible factors contributing to insufficient team monitoring, and demonstrated that the frequent errors have also occurred at domestic power plants. (3) Using the new classification formula, we prepared a human error case sheets that is easy for plant personnel to understand. The sheets are designed to make data more understandable and easier to remember

  14. Use of neural networks to identify transient operating conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.; Guo, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings, which can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault or problem. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. The online operator manual as a tool for efficient process organization during compilation and publication of operator handbooks for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattberg, Guenter; Erfle, Robert; Diercks, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The paper is demonstrating the use of the online operator manual as a tool for adaptation und support of the operator handbooks in nuclear power plants. The adaptation process is performed using advanced tools (XML editor). The printed version (PDF format) and the browser version for the intranet (HTML format) are published by fully automated techniques.

  16. Effect of communication on the reliability of nuclear power plant control room operations - pre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, Jari; Pyy, Pekka

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate communication practices and their impact on human reliability and plant safety in a nuclear power plant environment. The study aims at developing a general systems approach towards the issue. The ultimate goal of the study is to contribute to the development of probabilistic safety assessment methodologies in the area of communications and crew co-operation. This paper outlines the results of the pre-study. The study is based on the use and further development of different modelling techniques and the application of generic systems engineering as well as crew resource management (CRM) principles. The results so far include a concise literature review on communication and crew performance, a presentation of some potential theoretical concepts and approaches for studying communication in relation to organisational reliability, causal failure sequences and human failures mechanisms, and an introduction of a General Communications Model (GCM) that is presented as a promising approach for studying the reliability and adequacy of communication transactions. Finally, some observations and recommendation concerning next phases of the study are made (author) (ml)

  17. The role of pressure vessel embrittlement in the long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Ahlstrand, R.; Bruynooghe, C.; Estorff, U. von; Debarberis, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Relevant open scientific issues for the long term operation of RPVs are discussed (flux effect, late blooming phases, etc.). ► Several European and American research programmes dealing with these open issues are reviewed. ► A method for consolidation and preservation of knowledge in this field is presented. - Abstract: The lack of new build of plants over the last twenty years has resulted in a switch within the industry from design, construction and development of new systems to the strengthening of safety systems and to the life extension, or long term operation (LTO), of existing reactors. The most relevant component of any nuclear power plan (NPP) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). This is because currently the RPV is still considered irreplaceable or prohibitively expensive to replace. This means, that if it degrades sufficiently, it could be the operational life limiting feature of the NPP. A RPV operational life of 60 years is being considered frequently by many utilities in their plant life management programmes. Areas of improvement facing long term operation are the reduction of uncertainties in the embrittlement parameters of irradiated vessels, and the development of embrittlement trend curves at high fluence levels, where surveillance data are scarce. Different techniques can be used to upgrade the surveillance programmes, as the use of miniature or reconstituted specimens and the application of best estimate assessment tools (e.g. Master Curve). Several relevant international research projects are on-going or have been proposed to clarify the material condition of long operated vessels. Knowledge management is a complementary tool, but not for it less important. The general context for LTO of RPVs is presented in this paper. Starting with a review of relevant embrittlement issues still open, followed by presenting the different techniques and tools that can be used to support LTO, and summarising the scopes of relevant European

  18. Human factors engineering measures taken by nuclear power plant owners/operators for optimisation of the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.

    1996-01-01

    Both operating results and human factors studies show that man is able to meet the requirements in this working environment. Hence the degree of human reliability required by the design basis of nuclear power plants is ensured. This means: - Nuclear technology for electricity generation is justifiable from the human factors point of view. - The chief opponent is not right in saying that man is not able to cope with the risks and challenges brought about by nuclear technology applications. The human factors concept for optimisation or configuration of the man-machine systems represents an additional endeavor on the part of nuclear power plant operators within the framework of their responsibilities. Human factors analyses meet with good response by the personnel, as analysis results and clarification of causes of accident scenarios contribute to relieve the personnel (exoneration) and find ways for remedial action. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Approaches to assessment of socio-demographic and economic aspects of nuclear power plant construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    The paper informs of solving the task of economic evaluation of transient and permanent social consequences of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants. The solution takes place in three stages: 1. drafting of methodology, 2. trial of methodology in localities of current nuclear power plant construction, 3. analysis of results and finalizing of methodology. The task is aimed at studying the questions of the return and profitability of investments, the evaluation of optimal economic lifetime, and the effective restoration of basic funds. Its model solution shows the national economy relations of nuclear power. Also discussed is the question of the use of non-balance heat from nuclear power plants. (E.S.)

  20. Manpower development for safe operation of nuclear power plant. China. Steam generator maintenance, cleaning and repair. Activity: 3.1.8-Task-04. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this mission was to present detailed state-of-the-art information on steam generator design, operations and maintenance, to the management, engineers and operators of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plants. In addition, some limited operation was presented by the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant representatives in order to aid in focussing the presentations and promoting a high level of discussion

  1. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  2. Safety culture and organisational issues specific to the transitional phase from operation to decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    2005-01-01

    The PHARE project Support to State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate for safety culture and organisational issues specific to the pre-shutdown phase of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was aimed at providing assistance to VATESI in their task to oversee that the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's management and staff are able to provide an acceptable level of reactor safety taking into account possible safety culture related problems that may occur due to the decision of an early closure of both units. Safety culture is used as a concept to characterise the attitudes, behaviour and perceptions of people that are important in ensuring the safety of nuclear power facility. Since the Chernobyl accident, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in creating guidance for ensuring that an adequate safety culture can be created and maintained. The transition from operation to decommissioning introduces uncertainty for both the organisation and individuals. This creates new challenges that need to be dealt with. Although safety culture and organisational issues have to be addressed during the entire life cycle of a nuclear power plant, owing to these special challenges, it should be especially highlighted during the transitional period from operation to decommissioning. Nuclear safety experts from Sweden, Finland, Italy, the UK and Germany, as well as Lithuanian specialists, participated in the project, and it proved to be a most effective way to share experience. The aim of this brochure is to provide information about: the importance of safety culture issues during the transitional phase from operation to decommissioning of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant; the purpose, activities and results of this PHARE project; recommendations that are provided by western experts concerning the management of safety culture issues specific to the pre-decommissioning phase of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  3. Nuclear reactor operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which was amended in 1974 by the Energy Reorganization Act, established the requirement that individuals who had the responsibility of operating the reactors in nuclear power plants must be licensed. Section 107 of the act states ''the Commission shall (1) prescribe uniform conditions for licensing individuals; (2) determine the qualifications of such individuals; and (3) issue licenses to such individuals in such form as the Commission may prescribe.'' The article discusses the types of licenses, the selection and training of individuals, and the administration of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing examinations

  4. Co-ordinated research programme on operator support systems in nuclear power plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In September 1991 the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems (OSSs) in Nuclear Power Plants'' was approved in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of the programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer in the development and implementation of OSSs. This includes the experience with man-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as control and instrumentation, the use of computers, and operator qualification. The first Co-ordinated Research Meeting held in Vienna, 13-16 October 1992, prepared a summary report which defined the tasks and the responsibilities of the CRP participants. A time schedule and future actions were also agreed upon at this meeting. The second meeting was held in Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 8 October 1993 and was sponsored by the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute. The meeting reviewed the progress of the tasks defined by the first meeting, considered reports on national activities in the subject area, and agreed on time schedule and future actions. The present volume contains: (1) report prepared by the CRP meeting, (2) reports presented by the national delegates, and (3) CRP background and working plan. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Cardiac measures of nuclear power plant operator stress during simulated incident and accident scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Satu; Korpela, Jussi; Torniainen, Jari; Laarni, Jari; Karvonen, Hannu

    2018-03-01

    Maintaining optimal performance in demanding situations is challenged by stress-induced alterations in performance. Here, we quantified the stress of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators (N = 20) during a full-scale simulator training for incident and accident scenarios. We compared the ambulatory electrocardiography measurements of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), and self-reported stress during baselines and simulated scenarios. Perceived (scale 0-10) and physiologically measured stress were low during baseline after the scenarios and normal NPP operation (means 1.8-2.2, mean HR 75-80 bpm). During a cognitively challenging scenario simulating a sensor malfunction, the operators' stress was mild to moderate (mean 3.4; HR + 12% from baseline). During simulations of severe accidents of fire and radioactive steam leakage, the experienced stress and cardiac activity were on a moderate to high level (means 4.2 and 4.6; HR + 23% and + 14% from baseline, respectively). Cardiac activity paralleled the self-reported stress: correlation of self-reported stress to HR was 0.61 (p < .001) and to HRV features RMSSD, HF, LF/HF, SD1, and SD1/SD2 were -0.26, -0.28, 0.35, -0.40, and -0.39 (p < .01), respectively. The low shared variance (22%) between HR and physical activity further support the interpretation that the cardiac activity was strongly linked to the experience of stress and not accountable by operators' movement within the simulator. Cardiac measurements in naturalistic settings can thus reveal relevant information on acute stress with the benefit of not interrupting the primary task. © 2018 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Structure of conceptual models in the senior operating staff of nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboznov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationships between conceptual model structures and an operator’s professional efficiency are of direct practical importance, particularly in the case of large-scale industrial complexes combining several human-machine systems. A typical example is the power unit of a nuclear power plant (NPP. Objective and methods. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual models of senior reactor operators (SROs of NPPs. The study involved 64 men working as SRO at five NPPs in Russia. The methods included: structured interviews, expert estimations, multidimensional scaling (ALSCAL, the K-means clustering algorithm, and frequency analysis. The procedure was as follows: 32 key characteristics of the power unit were defined, including shift operators’ jobs and duties, technical subsystems, types of equipment, and the crucial power unit parameters. The participants were offered a 32×32 matrix for pair-wise estimation of the strength of the links between these key characteristics on a seven-point scale (496 links in total. Results. A general scheme of key characteristics in the conceptual models was defined. is scheme was displayed in the operators regardless of their employment history. Within the scheme, however, two types of conceptual models were identified, which could be distinguished by the relative number of strong links between the key characteristics. With respect to intersystem links including key characteristics of the reactor and turbine NPP departments, this number was significantly higher in models of Type 1 than in those of Type 2. A positive correlation between the number of these links and the professional efficiency indicators was also established. Operators with Type 1 models were able to more predictably represent the power unit operation. Conclusion. The main role in creating predictable and efficient conceptual models was played by strong intersystem links in mental representations of workflow.

  7. Guidebook on training to establish and maintain the qualification and competence of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    Since the IAEA published its Guidebook on the Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Operations Personnel in 1984 (Technical Reports Series 242) there have been important developments in the approach to training adopted by many operating organizations in different countries. It is now accepted that developing training programmes based solely on experience is inappropriate for the nuclear power industry, and that a systematic approach to training is necessary. It has been recognized that inadequate knowledge and skills may lead to human errors, and it is therefore necessary to review and improve the development and implementation of initial and continuing training programmes. The present Guidebook proposes an approach which is comprehensive and systematic in its methodology and also cost effective in its implementation. This Guidebook is mainly intended for management and training staff of nuclear power plant operating organizations. Relevant examples of current training practices are presented in the Appendices, which constitute an integral part of the Guidebook. Ref, figs and tabs

  8. Guidebook on training to establish and maintain the qualification and competence of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    Since the IAEA published its Guidebook on the Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Operations Personnel in 1984 (Technical Reports Series 242) there have been important developments in the approach to training adopted by many operating organizations in different countries. It is now accepted that developing training programmes based solely on experience is inappropriate for the nuclear power industry, and that a systematic approach to training is necessary. It has been recognized that inadequate knowledge and skills may lead to human errors, and it is therefore necessary to review and improve the development and implementation of initial and continuing training programmes. The present Guidebook proposes an approach which is comprehensive and systematic in its methodology and also cost effective in its implementation. This Guidebook is mainly intended for management and training staff of nuclear power plant operating organizations. Relevant examples of current training practices are presented in the Appendices, which constitute an integral part of the Guidebook. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  10. Research on characteristics of communication content of operation crew in digital main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Ye Haifeng; Qing Tao; Li Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Communication content, communication mode and timeliness of communication are the main three factors that influence the effectiveness of the communication between team members. Based on the work domain analysis to execution of state-oriented procedures (SOP), the assumptions for operation crews' characteristics of the communication content in executing SOP were proposed, which supposed that the power plant status and parameters, power plant system functions and equipment, and SOP as well were the main communication contents. On a full-scope simulator of nuclear power plant, three operation crews performed experiments simulating accident scenarios. The results show that the assumptions of characteristics of the communication content are valid. (authors)

  11. An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H.; Wood, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis

  12. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA.

  13. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee

    2004-02-01

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA

  14. Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) on Planting and Curing of Stevia in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norellia Bahari; Norazlina Noordin; Peng, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutation breeding on stevia study was conducted at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency began in 2012 through the projects under auspices of Science Funs and MOSTI. This research involves the irradiation og gamma rays for acute and chronic tissue culture of stevia. The resulting plant from this tissue cultures process should be planted in a nursery fro the propagation of seedlings for the work of mutant screening potential. For this purpose, the SOP for planting, care and management of stevia has ben developed to ensure that this plant can grow in abundance, disease free and quality. This paper will discuss the SOP including acclimatization techniques of tissue culture plant lets, seedlings and planting in Bio Design Facility, fertilization using fertilizers and planting of trees in the plot for the purpose of potentially screening mutant breeding. (author)

  15. Operational control of material release and discharges from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, I. C.; Ranga, T.; Daroczi, L.; Deme, S.; Kerekes, A.

    2003-01-01

    The operational control of radioactive materials during atmospheric release and aquatic discharge from nuclear power plant is a licensing criterion for NPPs. Originally at the Paks NPP the release control was based on activity limits for four groups of elements. These groups were noble gases, long living radio-aerosols, radioiodine and radiostrontium for atmospheric release and specified activity limit for beta emitters, strontium and tritium for aquatic discharge into Danube. These groups were controlled with proper sampling and/or measuring instrumentation. The limit for atmospheric release was given as a 30-day moving average, for liquid discharges the annual limit was stipulated. The new release and discharge limitation system is based on the environmental dose limitation. The dose constraint for Paks NPP is 90 Sv/year of the critical group for all release pathways and the investigation dose limit is equal to 27 Sv/year. The regulation did not subdivide the dose limit for atmospheric and liquid components but for operational control subdivision of dose limits for atmospheric release and aquatic discharge and shorter time period (one day-one month) seems to be useful. The subdivision can be based on past release data and/or previous activity limits. To satisfy dose below the investigation dose limit there should be a proper operation control level for each separately measured component and pathway belonging to reasonable time interval significantly shorter than one year. The main task of the NPP staff is elaboration of reasonable control levels and reference time intervals for different radionuclide and element groups to be used in operational control. Operational control levels are based on measured daily or monthly release rates. In case of noble gases, aerosols and iodine the daily release rates have several sharp peaks per year. Operational control levels give opportunity to detect these peaks for internal investigation purposes. Investigation release limits

  16. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  17. Effect of operating conditions and environment on properties of materials of PWR type nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, M.

    1987-01-01

    Operating reliability and service life of PWR type nuclear power plants are discussed with respect to the material properties of the plant components. The effects of the operating environment on the material properties and the methods of their determination are characterized. Discussed are core materials, such as fuel, its cladding and regulating rod materials, and the materials of pipes, steam generators and condensers. The advances in the production of pressure vessel materials and their degradation during operation are treated in great detail. (Z.M.)

  18. Influence of nuclear power plants shutdown period in operation of hydrothermic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, J.; Pacheco, R.L.; Zuern, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the outage need of nuclear power plants for refuelling and maintenance during a critical hydrological period is analysed. The feature of lengthening the useful life of the reactor core charge with resulting reduction in usable power allows certain flexibility in postponing the refuelling and maintenance outage to less critical periods, which reflects on the system reliability performance indices. Simulations with a stochastic energy production model have been made by computing the loss of load probability of a hypothetical power system containing a nuclear power plant under the conditions described above. (Author) [pt

  19. Application of integrated computer-aided engineering for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyung-shick Min; Byung-hun Lee

    1987-01-01

    Computer-aided-engineering (CAE) is an essential tool for modern nuclear power plant engineering. It greatly varies in definition, application, and technology from project to project and company to company. Despite the fast growing technologies and applications of CAE, its complexty and variety have thrown aonther puzzle to management of a nuclear project. Without due consideration of an integrated CAE system in early planning stage, the overall efficiency of a nuclear project would slow down due to the inefficiency in data flow. In this paper, practices and perspectives of CAE appliation are discussed under the Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) philosophy in CAE approach. (author)

  20. Experience gained during commissioning and trial operation of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaL, P.; Adamica, T.; Marosik, V.; Rehak, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper authors describe the experience gained during commissioning and trial operation of Mochovce NPP (EMO). The first year of EMO operation from the point of view of safety and reliability was successful. Evidently we were challenged with certain problems characteristic to this stage of operation which resulted in automatic reactor shutdown. There were 11 automatic shutdowns in 1998 by action of the quick emergency protection AO-1 and two manual shutdowns by the AO-1 key. In 1999, there were 6 automatic shutdowns by action of the quick emergency protection AO-1. Three of them was connected to the falsely activated binary signal of MCP switch of, in two cases the reason came out from the turbo-generator (TG) cooling water system. Very positive trend in the operation of both units shows the fact that during all commissioning period of the second unit there were only three automatic reactor shutdowns by the signal AO-1. All these actions were done in frame of commissioning tests. All causes which activated the automatic unit shutdowns were found out and rectified, the overall tuning of the cooling water system is on the process now. The solution of this problem is possible only power commissioning, and in the stage of the trial operation had no direct impacts on the nuclear, radiation, or technical safety respectively. In 1998 two events according to the INES scale after second unit commissioning because of two unit links of the cooling water system. The operational events during the commissioning tests, start-up tests, physical commissioning, were ranked the category 1 ('Action of SIS U040 p po <8,34 MPa at the system 2 and 3' and 'Breaching the L and C'). In 1999 only events occurred that were ranked in the category safety insignificant events and lower (category 0, or off the scale respectively). In the frame of the safety culture principles adopted, such as critical attitude, exact and careful approach, and communication, these problems were given the

  1. Potential human factors deficiencies in the design of local control stations and operator interfaces in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, C.S.; Levy, I.S.; Fecht, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a project to identify human factors deficiencies in safety-significant control stations outside the control room of a nuclear power plant and to determine whether NUREG-0700, Guidelines for Control Room Design Reviews, would be sufficient for reviewing those local control stations (LCSs). The project accomplished this task by first, reviewing existing data pertaining to human factors deficiencies in LCSs involved in significant safety actions; second, surveying LCSs environments and design features at several operating nuclear power plants; and third, assessing the results of that survey relative to the contents of NUREG-0700

  2. Socio-demographic and economic aspects of nuclear power plant construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 have been inputted in INIS. The papers deal with the economic, social and ecological consequences of the construction of nuclear power plants. Various approaches are listed to the economic evaluation of the said consequences. The question is discussed of the efficiency of investments for the construction of nucliear power plants as are the probiems of sitting large projects. (E.S.)

  3. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO missions observations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, Robert; Havel, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • During the period 2005–mid 2015, 22 SALTO peer review missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART missions were conducted. • Analysis of these mission results and main trends observed are gathered in this paper. • The main task of the assessment performed was to evaluate and give a weight to the evaluation. • Results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions with LTO module are summarized. • The SALTO peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper builds on paper “Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results”, NED8070, presented in Nuclear Engineering and Design in September 2014. This paper presents the analysis of SALTO mission results and main trends observed so that all the most important results of SALTO missions are gathered in one paper. The paper also includes the results of LTO module reviews performed in the frame of OSART missions where applicable as well as follow-up missions. This paper is divided in three main Sections. Section 1 provides brief introduction to SALTO peer review service. Section 2 provides overview of performed SALTO missions and LTO modules of OSART missions performed between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 3 summarizes the most significant observations and trends resulting from the missions between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 4 summarizes the results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions.

  4. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  5. Behaviors and Conditions that Challenge Teamwork: An Assessment of Operating Events at U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaulniers, David R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of its regulatory activities, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews events and routine activities at commercial nuclear power facilities throughout the United States. Frequently, these reviews have highlighted team performance as an important factor in either the initiation or mitigation of significant events and conditions at these facilities. This paper summarizes operating experience relevant to the understanding of teamwork at U.S. nuclear power plants during recent years, describes the specific behaviors that were considered detrimental to team performance, and discusses the conditions that were identified as contributing to these behaviors. (author)

  6. Force-feedback tele operation of industrial robots a cost effective solution for decontamination of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbats, P.; Andriot, C.; Gicquel, P.; Viallesoubranne, J.P.; Souche, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination and maintenance in hot cells are some new emerging applications of industrial robots in the nuclear fuel cycle plants. Industrial robots are low cost, accurate and reliable manipulator arms which are used in manufacturing industries usually. Thanks to the recent evolution of robotics technologies, some industrial robots may be adapted to nuclear environment. These robots are transportable, sealed and can be decontaminated, and they may be 'hardened' up to a level of irradiation dose sufficient for operation in low and medium irradiating/contaminating environments. Although industrial robots are usually programmed to perform specific and repetitive tasks, they may be remotely tele-operated by human operators as well. This allows industrial robots to perform usual tele-manipulation tasks encountered in the nuclear plants and more. The paper presents the computer based tele-operation control system TAO2000 TM , developed by the Tele-operation and Robotics Service of CEA, which has been applied to the RX90 TM industrial robot from ST-UBLI company. This robot has been selected in order to perform various maintenance and decontamination tasks in COGEMA plants. TAO2000 provides the overall tele-robotic and robotic functions necessary to perform any remote tele-operation application in hostile environment: force-feedback master-slave control; computer- assisted tele-operation of mechanical processes; trajectory programming as well as various robotics functions; graphical modelling of working environment and simulation; automatic path planning with obstacle avoidance; man-machine interface for tasks programming and mission execution. Experimental results reported in the paper demonstrate the feasibility of force-feedback master-slave control of standard industrial robots. Finally, the design of new, cost effective. tele-operation systems based on industrial robots may be intended for nuclear plants maintenance. (author)

  7. Developing a virtual reality application for training Nuclear Power Plant operators: Setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Zarza, I.; Burgos, M. C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed. (authors)

  8. Work responsability evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator during an emergency event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nilo Garcia da

    2002-01-01

    In this work, a method to evaluate the Man - Machine Interface, using the Model of Human Process utilized by the Combustion Engineer-CE was used in the Licensing Process of a Nuclear Power Plant, applying methodology in the emergency procedure of a SGTR for Angra 1 NPP. The time needed for the operators to perform the tasks step by step in this procedure was calculated. This time was compared to that found in the GOMS model, by which it is possible to perform an evaluation of workload for this accident. The criteria of the Standard ANSI/58.8-1994 was used to establish the reaction and execution times for these tasks. Practical measures in a Angra 2 NPP full scope simulator were done some steps of the SGTR emergency procedure. The time evaluation in the GOMS model has identified that three was a concentration of tasks, with the execution time near the limits regulated in the Standard above as compared with the times from the CE methodology. Finally, after a comparison of the results from Angra 1 and Angra 2, recommendations were done to the Angra 1 NPP utility in order to improve these identified points. (author)

  9. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perales, J. J.; Burgos Gallego, J.; Alvarez Mir, F.; Luis de Diego, J.; Adrada Garcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  10. ''Meteor 2'' programme for calculation of environment irradiation under nuclear power plant normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, R.; Kryuger, F.V.; Prior, Kh.

    1976-01-01

    A ''Meteor 2'' program developed for the BESM-6 electronic computer is described. The program permits to estimate radiation effect under nuclear power plant normal operation conditions. The calculations are carried out depending on the quantity and composition of the release activity, a ventilating pipe height, meteorological conditions as well as taking into account radioactive substance decay. The program permits to calculate the following values in the vicinity of radioactive product release point: a local distribution of a mean dose spread factor; a local distribution of a mean dose of inhalation irradiation for various human organs (the whole body, thyroid gland, bones, alimentary canal, lungs) and separate population groups; a local distribution of a mean dose of external beta radiation; a local distribution of a mean dose of external gamma radiation. The program includes the main ''Meteor'' program and 3 subprograms of DOBER, DABER and DABOR and is written in the FORTRAN language. The ''Meteor'' program organizes the data input and output of some separate subprograms. The DOBER subprogram determines the spread factor, the inhalation irradiation dose for separate organs and the external beta radiation dose. The DABER subprogram determines the external gamma radiation dose in the approximation of homogeneous distribution of a source in the vicinity of the calculation point. The DABOR subprogram is the second program for the calculating the external irradiation dose. The examples of using the ''Meteor'' program are given [ru

  11. Expert system applied at the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant to assist in the resolution of limiting conditions for operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, André D.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schechterandre@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Expert Systems (ES) are widely used to help a common user act as an expert on a particular subject, the information is saved in the program database and the user introduces facts to be interpreted in real time. The inference engine will take these facts and return the answer of the expert. This tool is widely used, for example, in medicine to diagnose patients, game development, the mining industry, and the operation of nuclear power plants. In this article, a model of ES, of the real time, is development in order to treat the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant. In this PWR plant, all information from the LCO comes from failure trees and the ES was adapted to be able to handle the facts with the values True, False, None and Null of the tree. The simulations results of this article and experiments with ES applied in LCOs show that it is an efficient computational tool to deal with this type of problem. The use of this type of technology in the operation of nuclear power plants can reduce the risk of an accident caused by human error, which is one of the most common causes in the history of the nuclear industry. (author)

  12. Expert system applied at the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant to assist in the resolution of limiting conditions for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, André D.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Expert Systems (ES) are widely used to help a common user act as an expert on a particular subject, the information is saved in the program database and the user introduces facts to be interpreted in real time. The inference engine will take these facts and return the answer of the expert. This tool is widely used, for example, in medicine to diagnose patients, game development, the mining industry, and the operation of nuclear power plants. In this article, a model of ES, of the real time, is development in order to treat the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant. In this PWR plant, all information from the LCO comes from failure trees and the ES was adapted to be able to handle the facts with the values True, False, None and Null of the tree. The simulations results of this article and experiments with ES applied in LCOs show that it is an efficient computational tool to deal with this type of problem. The use of this type of technology in the operation of nuclear power plants can reduce the risk of an accident caused by human error, which is one of the most common causes in the history of the nuclear industry. (author)

  13. Safety analysis on CANDU-6 nuclear power plant: changes in thermal hydraulic operational conditions concerning regional over power trip setpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Jong Hyun; Son, Hyung Min

    2009-01-01

    A CANDU-6 nuclear power plant has the variable of regional overpower trip (ROPT) to prevent regional overpower within the reactor core. ROPT setpoints are calculated on the basis of channel power where dryout starts to take place in each nuclear fuel channel (i.e. critical channel power; CCP), which is determined based on various core-physical configurations and thermal hydraulic boundary conditions that may be generated throughout the entire life of a nuclear reactor. Variables included in the thermal hydraulic boundary condition (i.e. temperature of the inlet header, pressure on the outlet header, and differential pressure between inlet and outlet headers) change gradually as the number of operational years increases. As for these three operational variables, their operational constraints in consideration of reactor safety are suggested in the operational technical specifications for nuclear power plants. This paper first uses NUCIRC, a code for analyzing thermal hydraulic power at the core of heavy water nuclear reactor, to examine the impacts of changes in these thermal hydraulic boundary condition variables on CCP. To analyze the impacts of changes in the variables for thermal hydraulic boundary conditions on the safety of nuclear reactors, safety analysis is then performed on three representative types of design basis accidents in heavy water reactors-small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA), loss of regulations (LOR), and loss of forced circulation-using CATHENA, a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code. By performing two types of thermal hydraulic analysis, the following additional operational margins are ensured against the current operating limits: +2.1 .deg. C for the temperature of the reactor inlet header; -60kPa for differential pressure between inlet and outlet headers; and -40kPa for pressure on the reactor outlet header. By revising the operating limits on this basis, it will be possible to prevent possible reactor power cutbacks caused by

  14. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

  15. Operational safety of turbine-generators at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, T.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the operational safety of the turbine-generators at the Loviisa NPP. The lay-out, operation, control, monitoring and testing of turbine-generators have been studied. Taking these findings into consideration and by using operational data of Loviisa and other power plants, the most significant safety issues of the turbine-generator system have been identified. The frequencies for initiating events and possible consequences have been determined based on plant operational experience and related literature. (58 refs.)

  16. Presentation of Fukushima Analyses to U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Operators and Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinich, Donald A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This document provides Sandia National Laboratories’ meeting notes and presentations at the Society for Modeling and Simulation Power Plant Simulator conference in Jacksonville, FL. The conference was held January 26-28, 2015, and SNL was invited by the U.S. nuclear industry to present Fukushima modeling insights and lessons learned.

  17. Quality assurance requirements for the operation of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    An adaption of NRC's 10 CFR 50, Appendis B (Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power and Fuel Reprocessing Plants) to Swedish conditions is presented. No references are given to regulations standards etc that influence the requirements and their adaption to local conditions. (Aa)

  18. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... determination to retire CR-3 due to economic disadvantages to fix the containment delamination that occurred.... Siva P. Lingam, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch II-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing...

  19. Application of an expert system for real time diagnosis of the limiting conditions for operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Gustavo Varanda; Schirru, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In the history of nuclear power plants operation safety is an important factor to be considered and for this, the use of resistant materials and the application of redundant systems are used to make a plant with high reliability. Through the acquisition of experience with time and accidents that happened in the area, it was observed that the importance of creating methods that simplify the operator work in making decisions in accidents scenarios is an important factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This work aims to create a program made with the Python language, which with the use of an expert systems be able to apply, in real time, the rules contained in the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and tell to the operator the occurrence of any limiting conditions and the occurrence of failure to perform the require actions in the time to completion. The generic structure used to represent the knowledge of the expert system was a fault tree where the events of this tree are objects in program. To test the accuracy of the program a simplified model of a fault tree was used that represents the LCO of the nuclear power station named Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto 1. With the results obtained in the analysis of the simplified model it was observed a significant reduction in the time to identify the LCO, showing that the implementation of this program to more complex models of fault tree would be viable.(author)

  20. Application of an expert system for real time diagnosis of the limiting conditions for operation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Gustavo Varanda; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: gustavopaiva@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the history of nuclear power plants operation safety is an important factor to be considered and for this, the use of resistant materials and the application of redundant systems are used to make a plant with high reliability. Through the acquisition of experience with time and accidents that happened in the area, it was observed that the importance of creating methods that simplify the operator work in making decisions in accidents scenarios is an important factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This work aims to create a program made with the Python language, which with the use of an expert systems be able to apply, in real time, the rules contained in the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and tell to the operator the occurrence of any limiting conditions and the occurrence of failure to perform the require actions in the time to completion. The generic structure used to represent the knowledge of the expert system was a fault tree where the events of this tree are objects in program. To test the accuracy of the program a simplified model of a fault tree was used that represents the LCO of the nuclear power station named Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto 1. With the results obtained in the analysis of the simplified model it was observed a significant reduction in the time to identify the LCO, showing that the implementation of this program to more complex models of fault tree would be viable.(author)

  1. Role of expert systems in the operation and control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenholc, M.

    1985-09-01

    This paper summarizes the past improvements and remaining limitations of plant control systems, defines knowledge engineering and proposes some prospects for future uses of expert systems in plant operation, discusses the present involvement in expert systems and the status of the first applications and, finally, draws some simple conclusions

  2. Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patti, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today's world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal

  3. Overview of IAEA guidelines for fire safety inspection and operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrer, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency began an ambitious project on fire safety in nuclear power plants. The purpose of this ongoing project is to provide specific guidance on compliance with the requirements set forth through the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards program established in 1974. The scope of the Fire Safety project encompasses several tasks, including the development of new standards and guidelines to assist Member States in assessing the level of fire safety in existing plants. Five new Safety Practices, one new Safety Guide and a Technical Document have been developed for use by the fire safety community. The primary intent of these new documents is to provide detailed guidance and a consistent format for the assessment of the overall level of fire safety being provided in existing nuclear power plants around the world and especially in developing countries. Sufficient detail is provided in the Safety Guide and Safety Practices to allow technically knowledgeable plant personnel, outside consultants or other technical experts to assess the adequacy of fire safety within the plant facilities. This paper describes topics addressed by each of the IAEA Fire Safety documents and discussed the relationship of each document to others in the series. (author)

  4. Load following operation of nuclear power plants for meeting power system requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, Hachiro

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a calculating program on the availability factors of nuclear, thermal and pumed storage hydro power stations and some calculated results for typical three load factors, 55 %, 60 % and 71 %, are provided when the share of the nuclea power station in the generation facilities is increased. The load following requirement of the nuclear power station is also provided. Load following requirement: If there is a 10 % pumped storage hydro power station, the nuclear power station enables to be operated with its rated output up to 30 % - 35 % of its share. Its daily load following operation for 40 % and 50 % nuclear power station needs every weekend and every day respectively. Availability factor: The availability factor of the nuclear power station manages to get 80 % (maximum availability factor of the nuclear power station in this study) up to 30 % share of it with 10 % pumpued storage hydro power station. When the nuclear power station shares 40 % and 50 %, its availability factor decreases down 1 % and 5 % respectively. (author)

  5. Enabling benchmarking and improving operational efficiency at nuclear power plants through adoption of a common process model: SNPM (standard nuclear performance model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pete Karns

    2006-01-01

    To support the projected increase in base-load electricity demand, nuclear operating companies must maintain or improve upon current generation rates, all while their assets continue to age. Certainly new plants are and will be built, however the bulk of the world's nuclear generation comes from plants constructed in the 1970's and 1980's. The nuclear energy industry in the United States has dramatically increased its electricity production over the past decade; from 75.1% in 1994 to 91.9% by 2002 (source NEI US Nuclear Industry Net Capacity Factors - 1980 to 2003). This increase, coupled with lowered production costs; $2.43 in 1994 to $1.71 in 2002 (factored for inflation source NEI US Nuclear Industry net Production Costs 1980 to 2002) is due in large part to a focus on operational excellence that is driven by an industry effort to develop and share best practices for the purposes of benchmarking and improving overall performance. These best-practice processes, known as the standard nuclear performance model (SNPM), present an opportunity for European nuclear power generators who are looking to improve current production rates. In essence the SNPM is a model for the safe, reliable, and economically competitive nuclear power generation. The SNPM has been a joint effort of several industry bodies: Nuclear Energy Institute, Electric Cost Utility Group, and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). The standard nuclear performance model (see figure 1) is comprised of eight primary processes, supported by forty four sub-processes and a number of company specific activities and tasks. The processes were originally envisioned by INPO in 1994 and evolved into the SNPM that was originally launched in 1998. Since that time communities of practice (CoPs) have emerged via workshops to further improve the processes and their inter-operability, CoP representatives include people from: nuclear power operating companies, policy bodies, industry suppliers and consultants, and

  6. The knowledge-based framework for a nuclear power plant operator advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    An important facet in the design, development, and evaluation of aids for complex systems is the identification of the tasks performed by the operator. Operator aids utilizing artificial intelligence, or more specifically knowledge-based systems, require identification of these tasks in the context of a knowledge-based framework. In this context, the operator responses to the plant behavior are to monitor and comprehend the state of the plant, identify normal and abnormal plant conditions, diagnose abnormal plant conditions, predict plant response to specific control actions, and select the best available control action, implement a feasible control action, monitor system response to the control action, and correct for any inappropriate responses. These tasks have been identified to formulate a knowledge-based framework for an operator advisor under development at Ohio State University that utilizes the generic task methodology proposed by Chandrasekaran. The paper lays the foundation to identify the responses as a knowledge-based set of tasks in accordance with the expected human operator responses during an event. Initial evaluation of the expert system indicates the potential for an operator aid that will improve the operator's ability to respond to both anticipated and unanticipated events

  7. NET IBK Computer code package for the needs of planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Kocic, A.; Marinkovic, N.; Milosevic, M.; Stancic, V.

    1978-01-01

    Within the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences (NET IBK) a systematic work has been performed on collecting nuclear data for reactor calculation needs, on developing own methods and computing programs for reactor calculations, as well as on adapting and applying the foreign methods and codes. In this way a complete library of computer programs was formed for precise prediction of nuclear fuel burnup and depletion, for evaluation of the Power distribution variations with irradiation, for computing the amount of produced plutonium and its number densities etc. Programs for evaluation of location of different types of safety and economic analysis have been developed as well. The aim of this paper is to present our abilities to perform complex computations needed for planning, constructing and operating the nuclear power plants, by describing the NET IBK computer programs package. (author)

  8. ND online software development for data acquisition of replacement operations of fuel assemblies of Atucha I Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Maria Dolores; Wentzeis, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The ND Online software was developed in order to acquire data on a real-time basis of the refueling operations at the Atucha I nuclear power plant. The fuel elements containing slightly enriched uranium dioxide are located in the nuclear reactor core inside the cooling channels. The refueling